Automated Measurement of Sural Nerve Conduction is a Useful Screening Tool for Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Authors: Papanas N, Pafili K, Demetriou M, Chatzikosma G, Papachristou S, Papazoglou D PMID: 31509155 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Impact of Physical Exercise on Gut Microbiome, Inflammation, and the Pathobiology of Metabolic Disorders.
CONCLUSIONS: Exercise-induced changes in microbial diversity are able to improve tissue metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, and insulin resistance. PMID: 31380886 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Healthcare Providers' Perception of Healthcare System Factors Associated with Poor Glycemic Control among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Fiji.
CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare system factors influence glycemic control among T2D patients. Understanding these factors is important in order for healthcare providers to deliver an effective and efficient service for diabetes patients in Fiji. PMID: 31380887 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Effects of Resistance and Combined training on Vascular Function in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.
CONCLUSIONS: The results show that resistance training is a useful means for primary treatment of vascular diseases and maintenance of vascular function in T2D patients. However, more studies are necessary to gain full knowledge of the beneficial effects and to identify tailored exercise plans to optimize these benefits. The information provided in this review may help to improve current treatment of vascular diseases in T2D patients and to design future studies. PMID: 31132077 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - May 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease in Fiji in 2018: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of T2D patients with CKD had a high level of knowledge, but weaknesses were observed in the self-management of CKD and clinic attendance. This information should be considered by clinicians and policy-makers to improve management and treatment of CKD in T2D. PMID: 31132078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - May 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Diabetes and Lung Disease: A Neglected Relationship.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the diabetes-lung association is epidemiologically and clinically well-established, especially in asthma, the underlying mechanism and pathophysiology are not been fully understood. Several mechanisms have been suggested, mainly associated with the pro-inflammatory and proliferative properties of diabetes, but also in relation to micro- and macrovascular effects of diabetes on the pulmonary vasculature. Also, hypoglycemic drugs may influence lung diseases in different ways. For example, metformin was considered a potential therapeutic agent in lung diseases, while insulin was shown to exacerbate lung ...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Polymeric Scaffolds for Pancreatic Tissue Engineering: A Review.
Authors: Kumar N, Joisher H, Ganguly A Abstract In recent years, there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of diabetes, with one in every eleven individuals worldwide suffering from this debilitating disease. As the available treatment options fail to reduce disease progression, novel avenues such as the bioartificial pancreas are being given serious consideration. In the past decade, the research focus has shifted towards the field of tissue engineering, which helps to design biological substitutes for repair and replacement of non-functional or damaged organs. Scaffolds constitute an integral part of t...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid and Incident Hypertension in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: High initial SUA levels are not a predictor of incident hypertension in an Iranian T2D population. PMID: 29590228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Association of Oxytocin with Glucose Intolerance and Inflammation Biomarkers in Metabolic Syndrome Patients with and without Prediabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: OXT may be a substantial surrogate predictive/prognostic tool and putative pharmacotherapeutic target in metabolic anomalies and related disorders. PMID: 29590229 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Duration of Type 2 Diabetes is a Predictor of Elevated Plantar Foot Pressure.
CONCLUSIONS: As the duration of diabetes increased, peak plantar pressure increased significantly under the 2nd - 4th MPJ ROIs. These findings suggest that clinicians should make more use of pressure mapping technology as part of their clinical management plan in patients with diabetes>10 yr, even if they have no complications or deformities, to preserve functional limbs in this high-risk population. PMID: 29590230 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Association of Socio-Environmental Determinants with Diabetes Prevalence in the Athens Metropolitan Area, Greece: A Spatial Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that socio-environmental status in residential areas, especially educational and economic levels, is correlated with diabetes prevalence at the aggregate level. These correlations may reflect socio-economic segregation patterns at the district level, and different prevalence rates of diabetes among individuals with higher income and educational levels. PMID: 29590231 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Atypical Microbial Isolates from Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A Case Series from Greece.
Authors: Demetriou M, Papanas N, Panagopoulos P, Panopoulou M, Maltezos E PMID: 29145535 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation in Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Patients: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation in the form of alphacalcidole and cholecalciferol appears to be beneficial in the treatment of T1D patients by attenuating the natural history of the disease. PMID: 29145536 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

The Role of Iron in Type 1 Diabetes Etiology: A Systematic Review of New Evidence on a Long-Standing Mystery.
CONCLUSIONS: The limited number of studies included found dietary iron, but not iron in drinking water, to be associated with risk of T1D. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between iron and risk of T1D, especially studies including measurements of body iron status. PMID: 29145537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Association Between Socioeconomic Determinants and the Metabolic Syndrome in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) - A Mediation Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Healthrelated behavior (smoking, physical activity) and physiological and psychosocial factors mediate the association between socioeconomic characteristics and metabolic syndrome prevalence. However, metabolic syndrome components were much less frequent among individuals with a higher educational level, higher income and occupational status, and those having a life partner. PMID: 29145538 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Deprivation, Household Education, and Employment are Associated With Increased Hospital Admissions and Poor Glycemic Control in Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Early intervention and education from primary care and specialist diabetes teams within the community in deprived areas may be effective in reducing hospital admissions for diabetes-related problems and improving glycemic control. PMID: 29145539 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Inverse Association of Peripheral Orexin-A with Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
This study was designed as a randomized, open-label, clinical trial. Before allocation, sixty medication-naïve, newly-diagnosed, type 2 diabetes patients underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Afterwards, using a randomized trial design (IRCT201102275917N1) patients were allocated to either the metformin (1000 mg daily) or pioglitazone (30 mg daily) arm, and were reexamined after three months. Serum insulin, plasma glucose, and orexin concentrations were measured at baseline, during OGTT, and after three months. RESULTS: Orexin concentrations significantly decreased after OGTT (0 vs. 120 min: 0.63 &p...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Variations in ADIPOR1 But Not ADIPOR2 are Associated With Hypertriglyceridemia and Diabetes in an Admixed Latin American Population.
Authors: Mora-García GG, Ruiz-Díaz MS, Espitia-Almeida F, Gómez-Camargo D Abstract BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It regulates glycolysis and lipolysis and is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and related disorders. Its activity is mainly mediated by the transmembrane receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are encoded by ADIPOR1 (1q32.1) and ADIPOR2 (12p13.33) genes, respectively. In genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near these genes have been associated with metabolic alterations. However, these relationships are...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - November 19, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Benefits of Islet Transplantation as an Alternative to Pancreas Transplantation: Retrospective Study of More Than 10 Ten Years of Experience in a Single Center.
CONCLUSION: This report proves the successful initiation of pancreatic islet transplantation in a center with a well-established PTx program. ITx has been shown to be the method of choice for hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome, and may be considered for application in clinical practice if conservative options are exhausted. PMID: 28632818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - June 22, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Enzyme Development for Human Islet Isolation: Five Decades of Progress or Stagnation?
Authors: Brandhorst D, Brandhorst H, Johnson PRV Abstract In comparison to procedures used for the separation of individual cell types from other organs, the process of human pancreatic islet isolation aims to digest the pancreatic exocrine matrix completely without dispersing the individual cells within the endocrine cell cluster. This objective is unique within the field of tissue separation, and outlines the challenge of islet isolation to balance two opposing priorities. Although significant progress has been made in the characterization and production of enzyme blends for islet isolation, there are still numer...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - June 22, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

The Nexus of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-Cells and Genome Engineering.
Authors: Sackett SD, Rodriguez A, Odorico JS Abstract Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeuti...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - June 22, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Encapsulated Islet Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?
Authors: Vaithilingam V, Bal S, Tuch BE Abstract Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is of...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - June 22, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Dietary Patterns and 10-year (2002-2012) Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the ATTICA Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the potentially protective effect of a plant-based dietary pattern in the primary prevention of diabetes, in particular among middle-aged people. Carbohydrate content may be a specific factor in this relationship; other micronutrients found in plant-based food groups may also play a role. PMID: 28394951 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 13, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Benefits of Rosuvastatin in Cardiovascular Protection Remain Unclear After HOPE-3.
Authors: Chang YH, Hwu DW, Kao WP, Lee YJ PMID: 28278306 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Neck Circumference as a Simple Tool for Assessing Central Obesity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Greece - A Descriptive Study.
Authors: Papazafiropoulou A, Anagnostopoulou K, Papanas N, Petropoulou K, Melidonis A PMID: 28278307 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Blood Ketones: Measurement, Interpretation, Limitations, and Utility in the Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Authors: Dhatariya K Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remains a common medical emergency. Over the last few years, new national guidelines have changed the focus in managing the condition from being glucose-centered to ketone-centered. With the advent of advancing technology and the increasing use of hand-held, point-of-care ketone meters, greater emphasis is placed on making treatment decisions based on these readings. Furthermore, recent warnings about euglycemic DKA occurring in people with diabetes using sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors urge clinicians to inform their patients of this con...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Mediterranean Diet and 10-year (2002-2012) Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Participants with Prediabetes: The ATTICA study.
Authors: Filippatos TD, Panagiotakos DB, Georgousopoulou EN, Pitaraki E, Kouli GM, Chrysohoou C, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C, Pitsavos C, ATTICA Study Group Abstract BACKGROUND: Prediabetes has been related to an increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes and CVD risk in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG, i.e. fasting plasma glucose 100-125 mg/dl). METHODS: During 2001-2002, 3042 men and women (>18y) were enrolled for the study. The participants showed no clinical evidenc...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

First-Trimester Maternal Serum Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Are Significant Predictors of Gestational Diabetes.
Authors: Nevalainen J, Sairanen M, Appelblom H, Gissler M, Timonen S, Ryynänen M Abstract BACKGROUND: Current screening methods for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are insufficient in detecting the risk of GDM in the first trimester of the pregnancy. Recent metabolomic studies have detected altered amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Because of the similarities between T2D and GDM, the determination of these metabolites may be useful in early screening for GDM. AIM: To evaluate the association between GDM and first-trimester maternal serum concentrations of ten amino a...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 12, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Chemical and Biological Aspects of Extracts from Medicinal Plants with Antidiabetic Effects.
Authors: Gushiken LF, Beserra FP, Rozza AL, Bérgamo PL, Bérgamo DA, Pellizzon CH Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and a leading cause of death in western countries. Despite advancements in the clinical management of the disease, it is not possible to control the late complications of diabetes. The main characteristic feature of diabetes is hyperglycemia, which reflects the deterioration in the use of glucose due to a faulty or poor response to insulin secretion. Alloxan and streptozotocin (STZ) are the chemical tools that are most commonly used to study the disease in rodents. Many plan...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes.
Authors: Wirngo FE, Lambert MN, Jeppesen PB Abstract The tremendous rise in the economic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted a search for alternative and less expensive medicines. Dandelion offers a compelling profile of bioactive components with potential anti-diabetic properties. The Taraxacum genus from the Asteraceae family is found in the temperate zone of the Northern hemisphere. It is available in several areas around the world. In many countries, it is used as food and in some countries as therapeutics for the control and treatment of T2D. The anti-diabetic properties of dandelion are attributed to...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Pancreas Volume and Fat Deposition in Diabetes and Normal Physiology: Consideration of the Interplay Between Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreas.
Authors: Saisho Y Abstract The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine components. Despite the fact that they are derived from a common origin in utero, these two compartments are often studied individually because of the different roles and functions of the exocrine and endocrine pancreas. Recent studies have shown that not only type 1 diabetes (T1D), but also type 2 diabetes (T2D), is characterized by a deficit in beta-cell mass, suggesting that pathological changes in the pancreas are critical events in the natural history of diabetes. In both patients with T1D and those with T2D, pancreas mass and exocr...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.
CONCLUSION: Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in abdominally obese subjects, except for an increase in circulating adiponectin in response to high MC-SFA in abdominally obese women. PMID: 28012280 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

A Critical Evaluation of Existing Diabetic Foot Screening Guidelines.
CONCLUSIONS: Limitations of currently available guidelines and lack of evidence on which the guidelines are based are responsible for the current gaps between guidelines, standard clinical practice, and development of complications. For the development of standard recommendations and everyday clinical practice, it will be necessary to pay more attention to both the limitations of guidelines and the underlying evidence. PMID: 28012281 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Do Not Predict the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in an Iranian High-Risk Population: The Isfahan Diabetes Prevention Study.
CONCLUSIONS: HDLC level was a weak predictor of T2D in an Iranian high-risk population, independent of age and gender. PMID: 28012282 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Effect of Exercise Training on Signaling of Interleukin-6 in Skeletal Muscles of Type 2 Diabetic Rats.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-6 signaling pathway mediating muscle response to endurance training was conserved in type 2 diabetes. There was no link between training-induced IL-6 downstream targets in skeletal muscles and IL-6-induced type 2 diabetes. PMID: 28012283 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - December 26, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Macronutrient Composition and Management of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): A New Paradigm for Individualized Nutritional Therapy in Diabetes Patients.
Authors: Koloverou E, Panagiotakos DB Abstract Medical nutrition therapy constitutes an important lifestyle intervention in diabetes management. Several nutrition patterns have been effective in improving diabetes control, but there has been a debate about the optimal macronutrient composition in diabetes meal planning. For many years, the recommended diets for persons with and without diabetes were similar, i.e. heart-healthy and low in fat. For almost three decades, carbohydrates have been lauded, lipids demonized, and proteins considered of little importance. However, in the past few years, this concept has been...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Understanding Genetic Heterogeneity in Type 2 Diabetes by Delineating Physiological Phenotypes: SIRT1 and its Gene Network in Impaired Insulin Secretion.
Authors: Ali S, Nafis S, Kalaiarasan P, Rai E, Sharma S, Bamezai RN Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease which shows an exponential increase in all parts of the world. However, the disease is controllable by early detection and modified lifestyle. A series of factors have been associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, and genes are considered to play a critical role. The individual risk of developing T2D is determined by an altered genetic background of the en-zymes involved in several metabolism-related biological mechanisms, including glucose homeostasis, insulin metab-olism, the gluc...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Chronic Exposure to Proline Causes Aminoacidotoxicity and Impaired Beta-Cell Function: Studies In Vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that proline-induced insulin transcription and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation impairment may contribute to the β-cell dysfunction observed in type 2 diabetes. Caution should be applied in interpreting the pathophysiological role of proline since very high proline concentrations were used in the experiments. PMID: 27563695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Esophageal and Gastric Dysmotilities are Associated with Altered Glucose Homeostasis and Plasma Levels of Incretins and Leptin.
CONCLUSIONS: Gastric and esophageal dysmotility are associated with both lesser increases in postprandial glucose elevations and decreased postprandial changes in GLP-1 and leptin. PMID: 27563696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - August 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: It Matters From Which Parent We Inherit the Risk.
Authors: Lyssenko V, Groop L, Prasad RB Abstract Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a co-occurrence of genes and environmental factors. There are more than 120 genetic loci suggested to be associated with T2D, or with glucose and insulin levels in European and multi-ethnic populations. Risk of T2D is higher in the offspring if the mother rather than the father has T2D. Genetically, this can be associated with a unique parent-of-origin (PoO) transmission of risk alleles, and it relates to genetic programming during the intrauterine period, resulting in the inability to increase insulin secretion in response to incre...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Complex Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes and Effect Size: What have We Learned from Isolated Populations?
Authors: Nair AK, Baier LJ Abstract Genetic studies in large outbred populations have documented a complex, highly polygenic basis for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most of the variants currently known to be associated with T2D risk have been identified in large studies that included tens of thousands of individuals who are representative of a single major ethnic group such as European, Asian, or African. However, most of these variants have only modest effects on the risk for T2D; identification of definitive 'causal variant' or 'causative loci' is typically lacking. Studies in isolated populations offer several advantag...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Diabetes in Population Isolates: Lessons from Greenland.
In this study, we identified a common nonsense variant in TBC1D4, which has a population-wide impact on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value of performing medical genetic studies in genetically isolated populations. In this review, we describe some of the advantages of performing genetic studies of T2D and related cardio-metabolic traits in a population isolate like t...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

When is it MODY? Challenges in the Interpretation of Sequence Variants in MODY Genes.
Authors: Althari S, Gloyn AL Abstract The genomics revolution has raised more questions than it has provided answers. Big data from large population-scale resequencing studies are increasingly deconstructing classic notions of Mendelian disease genetics, which support a simplistic correlation between mutational severity and phenotypic outcome. The boundaries are being blurred as the body of evidence showing monogenic disease-causing alleles in healthy genomes, and in the genomes of individu-als with increased common complex disease risk, continues to grow. In this review, we focus on the newly emerging challenges w...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: Implications of Hemoglobin A1c Genetics.
Authors: Leong A, Meigs JB Abstract Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is a biomarker used for population-level screening of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and risk stratification. Large-scale, genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci influencing HbA1c. We discuss the challenges of classifying these genomic loci as influencing HbA1c through glycemic or nonglycemic pathways, based on their probable biology and pleiotropic associations with erythrocyte traits. We show that putative nonglycemic genetic variants have a measurable, albeit small, impact on the classification of T2D status by HbA1c in white and As...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics: Implications for Modern Type 2 Diabetes Therapy.
We report drug interactions with candidate genes involved in the pharmacokinetics (e.g., drug transporters) and pharmacodynamics (drug targets and downstream signaling steps) of the drugs, with known type 2 diabetes risk genes and previously unknown genes derived from hypothesis-free approaches such as genome-wide association studies. Moreover, some new and promising candidate genes for future pharmacogenetic assessment are highlighted. Finally, we critically appraise the current state of type 2 diabetes pharmacogenetics in the light of its impact on therapeutic decisions, and we refer to major problems, and make suggestio...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - April 27, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.
CONCLUSION: Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in abdominally obese subjects, except for an increase in circulating adiponectin in response to high MC-SFA in abdominally obese women. PMID: 26982344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 18, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Pancreas Transplantation of US and Non-US Cases from 2005 to 2014 as Reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR).
This report is an update of pancreas and kidney transplant activities in the US and non-US region in two periods, 2005-09 and 2010-14. The aim of the report was to analyze transplant progress and success in the US compared to non-US countries, and to compare trends between the two periods. Between 2005-09 and 2010-14, the number of US pancreas transplants declined by over 20%, while the overall number of pancreas transplants performed outside the US has increased. The decline in US numbers is predominantly due to the decline in primary and secondary pancreas after kidney transplants (PAK). During the time period studied, t...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - March 18, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Beyond the Protein-Coding Sequence: Noncoding RNAs in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes.
This article provides an overview of the studies conducted to date in this field, focusing on lncRNAs that are dysregulated in human pancreatic islets. PMID: 26859655 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Review of Diabetic Studies)
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - February 10, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Novel Genetic Actors of Diabetes-Associated Microvascular Complications: Retinopathy, Kidney Disease and Neuropathy.
Authors: Davoudi S, Sobrin L Abstract Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus can lead to the common microvascular complications of diabetic retinopathy, kidney disease, and neuropathy. Diabetic patients do not universally develop these complications. Long duration of diabetes and poor glycemic control explain a lot of the variability in the development of microvascular complications, but not all. Genetic factors account for some of the remaining variability because of the heritability and familial clustering of these complications. There have been a large number of investigations, including linkage studies, candi...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - February 10, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research

Genetic Determination of Serum Levels of Diabetes-Associated Adipokines.
Authors: Schleinitz D Abstract Adipose tissue secretes an abundance of proteins. Some of these proteins are known as adipokines and adipose-derived hormones which have been linked with metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes, and even with cancer. Variance in serum adipokine concentration is often closely associated with an increase (obesity) or decrease (lipodystrophy) in fat tissue mass, and it is affected by age, gender, and localization of the adipose tissue. However, there may be genetic variants which, in consequence, influence the serum concentration of a certain adipokine, and thereby promote metabol...
Source: Review of Diabetic Studies - February 10, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Rev Diabet Stud Source Type: research