Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Results confirm the need to implement interventions that increases the sense of vulnerability among heterosexuals, as well as skills and use of male condoms. This study contributes additional data on sexual practices and attitudes to encourage the identification of new or current changes in HIV protective or risk factors, specifically for an understudied population of Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.PMID:33876915 | PMC:PMC8087157 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David P érez-Jiménez Edna Acosta-P érez Jes ús M Ortega-Guzmán Jos é A Maldonado-Martínez Source Type: research

The Significance of Asymptomatic Kidney Stones as a Predictive Factor for Sepsis in Critically Ill Older Adults
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of kidney stones (KSs) on critically ill older adults (CIOA) staying longer than 24 hours in the ICU. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality for ICU patients. KS disease is a well-known risk factor for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.METHODS: A total of 256 CIOA were initially evaluated from April 2017 through February 2019. Patients who had urinary ultrasonography and computed tomography within 12 months prior to ICU admission were included. Patients with an additional urological pathology, under the age of 65 years, and with ICU stays of 24 hours...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gurhan Taskin Cagri Akin Sekerci Yiloren Tanidir Kamil Cam Source Type: research

Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome among Medical Students of Puerto Rico
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IBS and associated risk factors in medical students in Puerto Rico (PR).METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in a sample of medical students from first to fourth year currently enrolled at the University of PR School of Medicine. Participants completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire that contained questions about general socio-demographic data, lifestyle habits, degree of subjective psychological stress and the Rome III criteria: IBS Module.RESULTS: 314 medical students were included for analysis. The mean age was 24.8±3.25; 48.1% were females...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Reinaldo Ram írez-Amill Esther A Torres Source Type: research

Obesity and Hypertension in School Children of Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: About 1 of every 4 children in the sample was obese; about 1 of 10 was hypertensive. Obese children were at a significantly higher risk for hypertension than non-obese children were. The study indicates the need for public health strategies that promote prevention and parental education to reduce the prevalence of obesity and the sequelae of hypertension.PMID:33876918 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H éctor Santiago Damaris Pag án Ariette Acevedo Source Type: research

Vitamin D Content in Milk of the Rhesus Monkey
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):50-52.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Milk is the first and continued source of ingested Vitamin D. Extensive studies have been carried out in humans measuring Vitamin D in lactating mothers but to date few values have been obtained for milk of non-human primates and none for rhesus monkeys. Consequently. we have determined Vitamin D and antirachitic activity (ARA) in milk samples obtained from 21 rhesus monkeys.METHODS: Lactating dams were sampled by hand-stripping. 25(OH)D2, Vitamin D2, 25(OH)D3, Vitamin D3 and ARA were assessed in foremilk using LC-MS/MS techniques.RESULTS: 25(OH)D2 and Vitamin D2 we...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan M Preston Andrew J Makowski Melween I Martinez Source Type: research

First Trimester Cystic Hygroma: Herald to Early Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):53-55.ABSTRACTThe early diagnosis of in utero congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) allows a thorough evaluation for other morbidities that may be associated with CDH. Our patient was referred to us with a fetus at 13 weeks gestational age with a thick nuchal translucency. Our team performed a transvaginal ultrasound that revealed a large ystic hygroma, a heart displaced to the right, and a heterogeneous mass with peristalsis in the left chest. The fetus was diagnosed with CDH. The patient received genetic counseling after which she requested and underwent chorionic villus sampling. The ear...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dibe Marie Di Gregorio Dibe Martin Luis Mansilla Source Type: research

Challenging Diagnosis and Endoscopic Management of Dieulafoy's Lesion-Induced Small-Bowel Bleeding: A Case Report
We describe herein the case of an elderly female patient with Dieulafoy's lesion-induced small-bowel bleeding presenting with recurrent melena. In this article, we describe how the cause of her bleeding was found and how the bleeding was stopped endoscopically. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of a small-bowel Dieulafoy's lesion and its endoscopic treatment.PMID:33876921 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liang Zhu Zhen-Wen Wang Zhi-Quan Huang Yang Hu Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of Dry Figs on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptoms, perceived Stress Levels and the Quality of Life previously published in P R Health Sci J 2020;39:319-326
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):59.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33876922 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Keziban Amanak Source Type: research

The Historic Elimination of Mother-to-Child HIV and Syphilis Transmission in Puerto Rico
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):3-5.ABSTRACTThe elimination of HIV and syphilis from Puerto Rico as per metrics of the World Health Organization has been achieved despite continued HIV risk and high background prevalence. Excellence in antenatal services and screening, deployment of antiretroviral and penicillin syphilis therapies, and proper follow-through with mothers and infants has yielded success even as control of infection overall remains elusive. We highlight the context of this achievement in our editorial to accompany the article: "Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sten H Vermund Irma Febo Source Type: research

Association of Radiotherapy-Related Intestinal Injury and Cancer-related Fatigue: A Brief Review and Commentary
The objective of this brief review was to explore the available evidence of the relationship between intestinal injury and self-reported fatigue, especially among cancer patients. The scientific evidence-including our own-linking gut mucosal barrier dysfunction and gut microbial perturbation/dysbiosis induced by cancer treatment with worsening of cancer related fatigue (perhaps through the gut-brain axis) is limited but promising. Emerging data suggest that lifestyle interventions and the administration of specific probiotics may favorably modulate the gut microbiota and potentially mediate beneficial effects leading to im...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Velda J Gonzalez-Mercado Sara Marrero Josu é Pérez-Santiago Maribel Tirado-G ómez Miguel A Marrero-Falc ón Elsa Pedro Leorey N Saligan Source Type: research

Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico and Sustained Success since 2007: Convergence of Science, Women-Centered Care, and Policy
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):12-18.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There have been significant successes in the fight against HIV/AIDS due to the access to rapid HIV testing, interventions to reduce the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk, potent and effective antiviral medications, and other biomedical prevention strategies. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that Puerto Rico eliminated Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) following the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for validating the elimination of MTCT and Syphilis.METHODS: Existing epidemiological data from Puerto Rico was used to document the...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carmen D Zorrilla Linnette Rodr íguez-Figueroa Sandra Miranda-De Le ón Bernardita L ópez-Alvarado Eileen P érez Silvia E Rabionet Source Type: research

Appropriateness of Acetaminophen Dosing by Caregivers of Pediatric Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department at the University Pediatric Hospital in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Nearly half of all the caregivers administered an incorrect acetaminophen dose, suggesting that there is a need for better caregiver education. Due to their accessibility at the point of sale of OTC medications and pharmacotherapy knowledge, pharmacists could have an active role in promoting the safe and effective use of acetaminophen.PMID:33876914 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Suzette M V élez-Rivera Nashicel J Rodr íguez-Rodríguez Yakelin A Ortiz-Vera Ashley Parambil Jos é J Hernández-Muñoz Source Type: research

Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Results confirm the need to implement interventions that increases the sense of vulnerability among heterosexuals, as well as skills and use of male condoms. This study contributes additional data on sexual practices and attitudes to encourage the identification of new or current changes in HIV protective or risk factors, specifically for an understudied population of Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.PMID:33876915 | PMC:PMC8087157 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David P érez-Jiménez Edna Acosta-P érez Jes ús M Ortega-Guzmán Jos é A Maldonado-Martínez Source Type: research

The Significance of Asymptomatic Kidney Stones as a Predictive Factor for Sepsis in Critically Ill Older Adults
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of kidney stones (KSs) on critically ill older adults (CIOA) staying longer than 24 hours in the ICU. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality for ICU patients. KS disease is a well-known risk factor for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.METHODS: A total of 256 CIOA were initially evaluated from April 2017 through February 2019. Patients who had urinary ultrasonography and computed tomography within 12 months prior to ICU admission were included. Patients with an additional urological pathology, under the age of 65 years, and with ICU stays of 24 hours...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gurhan Taskin Cagri Akin Sekerci Yiloren Tanidir Kamil Cam Source Type: research

Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome among Medical Students of Puerto Rico
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IBS and associated risk factors in medical students in Puerto Rico (PR).METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in a sample of medical students from first to fourth year currently enrolled at the University of PR School of Medicine. Participants completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire that contained questions about general socio-demographic data, lifestyle habits, degree of subjective psychological stress and the Rome III criteria: IBS Module.RESULTS: 314 medical students were included for analysis. The mean age was 24.8±3.25; 48.1% were females...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Reinaldo Ram írez-Amill Esther A Torres Source Type: research

Obesity and Hypertension in School Children of Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: About 1 of every 4 children in the sample was obese; about 1 of 10 was hypertensive. Obese children were at a significantly higher risk for hypertension than non-obese children were. The study indicates the need for public health strategies that promote prevention and parental education to reduce the prevalence of obesity and the sequelae of hypertension.PMID:33876918 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H éctor Santiago Damaris Pag án Ariette Acevedo Source Type: research

Vitamin D Content in Milk of the Rhesus Monkey
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):50-52.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Milk is the first and continued source of ingested Vitamin D. Extensive studies have been carried out in humans measuring Vitamin D in lactating mothers but to date few values have been obtained for milk of non-human primates and none for rhesus monkeys. Consequently. we have determined Vitamin D and antirachitic activity (ARA) in milk samples obtained from 21 rhesus monkeys.METHODS: Lactating dams were sampled by hand-stripping. 25(OH)D2, Vitamin D2, 25(OH)D3, Vitamin D3 and ARA were assessed in foremilk using LC-MS/MS techniques.RESULTS: 25(OH)D2 and Vitamin D2 we...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan M Preston Andrew J Makowski Melween I Martinez Source Type: research

First Trimester Cystic Hygroma: Herald to Early Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):53-55.ABSTRACTThe early diagnosis of in utero congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) allows a thorough evaluation for other morbidities that may be associated with CDH. Our patient was referred to us with a fetus at 13 weeks gestational age with a thick nuchal translucency. Our team performed a transvaginal ultrasound that revealed a large ystic hygroma, a heart displaced to the right, and a heterogeneous mass with peristalsis in the left chest. The fetus was diagnosed with CDH. The patient received genetic counseling after which she requested and underwent chorionic villus sampling. The ear...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dibe Marie Di Gregorio Dibe Martin Luis Mansilla Source Type: research

Challenging Diagnosis and Endoscopic Management of Dieulafoy's Lesion-Induced Small-Bowel Bleeding: A Case Report
We describe herein the case of an elderly female patient with Dieulafoy's lesion-induced small-bowel bleeding presenting with recurrent melena. In this article, we describe how the cause of her bleeding was found and how the bleeding was stopped endoscopically. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of a small-bowel Dieulafoy's lesion and its endoscopic treatment.PMID:33876921 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liang Zhu Zhen-Wen Wang Zhi-Quan Huang Yang Hu Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of Dry Figs on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptoms, perceived Stress Levels and the Quality of Life previously published in P R Health Sci J 2020;39:319-326
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):59.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33876922 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Keziban Amanak Source Type: research

The Historic Elimination of Mother-to-Child HIV and Syphilis Transmission in Puerto Rico
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):3-5.ABSTRACTThe elimination of HIV and syphilis from Puerto Rico as per metrics of the World Health Organization has been achieved despite continued HIV risk and high background prevalence. Excellence in antenatal services and screening, deployment of antiretroviral and penicillin syphilis therapies, and proper follow-through with mothers and infants has yielded success even as control of infection overall remains elusive. We highlight the context of this achievement in our editorial to accompany the article: "Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sten H Vermund Irma Febo Source Type: research

Association of Radiotherapy-Related Intestinal Injury and Cancer-related Fatigue: A Brief Review and Commentary
The objective of this brief review was to explore the available evidence of the relationship between intestinal injury and self-reported fatigue, especially among cancer patients. The scientific evidence-including our own-linking gut mucosal barrier dysfunction and gut microbial perturbation/dysbiosis induced by cancer treatment with worsening of cancer related fatigue (perhaps through the gut-brain axis) is limited but promising. Emerging data suggest that lifestyle interventions and the administration of specific probiotics may favorably modulate the gut microbiota and potentially mediate beneficial effects leading to im...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Velda J Gonzalez-Mercado Sara Marrero Josu é Pérez-Santiago Maribel Tirado-G ómez Miguel A Marrero-Falc ón Elsa Pedro Leorey N Saligan Source Type: research

Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico and Sustained Success since 2007: Convergence of Science, Women-Centered Care, and Policy
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):12-18.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There have been significant successes in the fight against HIV/AIDS due to the access to rapid HIV testing, interventions to reduce the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk, potent and effective antiviral medications, and other biomedical prevention strategies. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that Puerto Rico eliminated Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) following the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for validating the elimination of MTCT and Syphilis.METHODS: Existing epidemiological data from Puerto Rico was used to document the...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carmen D Zorrilla Linnette Rodr íguez-Figueroa Sandra Miranda-De Le ón Bernardita L ópez-Alvarado Eileen P érez Silvia E Rabionet Source Type: research

Appropriateness of Acetaminophen Dosing by Caregivers of Pediatric Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department at the University Pediatric Hospital in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Nearly half of all the caregivers administered an incorrect acetaminophen dose, suggesting that there is a need for better caregiver education. Due to their accessibility at the point of sale of OTC medications and pharmacotherapy knowledge, pharmacists could have an active role in promoting the safe and effective use of acetaminophen.PMID:33876914 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Suzette M V élez-Rivera Nashicel J Rodr íguez-Rodríguez Yakelin A Ortiz-Vera Ashley Parambil Jos é J Hernández-Muñoz Source Type: research

Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Results confirm the need to implement interventions that increases the sense of vulnerability among heterosexuals, as well as skills and use of male condoms. This study contributes additional data on sexual practices and attitudes to encourage the identification of new or current changes in HIV protective or risk factors, specifically for an understudied population of Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.PMID:33876915 | PMC:PMC8087157 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David P érez-Jiménez Edna Acosta-P érez Jes ús M Ortega-Guzmán Jos é A Maldonado-Martínez Source Type: research

The Significance of Asymptomatic Kidney Stones as a Predictive Factor for Sepsis in Critically Ill Older Adults
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of kidney stones (KSs) on critically ill older adults (CIOA) staying longer than 24 hours in the ICU. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality for ICU patients. KS disease is a well-known risk factor for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.METHODS: A total of 256 CIOA were initially evaluated from April 2017 through February 2019. Patients who had urinary ultrasonography and computed tomography within 12 months prior to ICU admission were included. Patients with an additional urological pathology, under the age of 65 years, and with ICU stays of 24 hours...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gurhan Taskin Cagri Akin Sekerci Yiloren Tanidir Kamil Cam Source Type: research

Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome among Medical Students of Puerto Rico
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IBS and associated risk factors in medical students in Puerto Rico (PR).METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in a sample of medical students from first to fourth year currently enrolled at the University of PR School of Medicine. Participants completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire that contained questions about general socio-demographic data, lifestyle habits, degree of subjective psychological stress and the Rome III criteria: IBS Module.RESULTS: 314 medical students were included for analysis. The mean age was 24.8±3.25; 48.1% were females...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Reinaldo Ram írez-Amill Esther A Torres Source Type: research

Obesity and Hypertension in School Children of Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: About 1 of every 4 children in the sample was obese; about 1 of 10 was hypertensive. Obese children were at a significantly higher risk for hypertension than non-obese children were. The study indicates the need for public health strategies that promote prevention and parental education to reduce the prevalence of obesity and the sequelae of hypertension.PMID:33876918 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H éctor Santiago Damaris Pag án Ariette Acevedo Source Type: research

Vitamin D Content in Milk of the Rhesus Monkey
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):50-52.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Milk is the first and continued source of ingested Vitamin D. Extensive studies have been carried out in humans measuring Vitamin D in lactating mothers but to date few values have been obtained for milk of non-human primates and none for rhesus monkeys. Consequently. we have determined Vitamin D and antirachitic activity (ARA) in milk samples obtained from 21 rhesus monkeys.METHODS: Lactating dams were sampled by hand-stripping. 25(OH)D2, Vitamin D2, 25(OH)D3, Vitamin D3 and ARA were assessed in foremilk using LC-MS/MS techniques.RESULTS: 25(OH)D2 and Vitamin D2 we...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan M Preston Andrew J Makowski Melween I Martinez Source Type: research

First Trimester Cystic Hygroma: Herald to Early Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):53-55.ABSTRACTThe early diagnosis of in utero congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) allows a thorough evaluation for other morbidities that may be associated with CDH. Our patient was referred to us with a fetus at 13 weeks gestational age with a thick nuchal translucency. Our team performed a transvaginal ultrasound that revealed a large ystic hygroma, a heart displaced to the right, and a heterogeneous mass with peristalsis in the left chest. The fetus was diagnosed with CDH. The patient received genetic counseling after which she requested and underwent chorionic villus sampling. The ear...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dibe Marie Di Gregorio Dibe Martin Luis Mansilla Source Type: research

Challenging Diagnosis and Endoscopic Management of Dieulafoy's Lesion-Induced Small-Bowel Bleeding: A Case Report
We describe herein the case of an elderly female patient with Dieulafoy's lesion-induced small-bowel bleeding presenting with recurrent melena. In this article, we describe how the cause of her bleeding was found and how the bleeding was stopped endoscopically. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of a small-bowel Dieulafoy's lesion and its endoscopic treatment.PMID:33876921 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liang Zhu Zhen-Wen Wang Zhi-Quan Huang Yang Hu Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of Dry Figs on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptoms, perceived Stress Levels and the Quality of Life previously published in P R Health Sci J 2020;39:319-326
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):59.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33876922 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Keziban Amanak Source Type: research

The Historic Elimination of Mother-to-Child HIV and Syphilis Transmission in Puerto Rico
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):3-5.ABSTRACTThe elimination of HIV and syphilis from Puerto Rico as per metrics of the World Health Organization has been achieved despite continued HIV risk and high background prevalence. Excellence in antenatal services and screening, deployment of antiretroviral and penicillin syphilis therapies, and proper follow-through with mothers and infants has yielded success even as control of infection overall remains elusive. We highlight the context of this achievement in our editorial to accompany the article: "Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sten H Vermund Irma Febo Source Type: research

Association of Radiotherapy-Related Intestinal Injury and Cancer-related Fatigue: A Brief Review and Commentary
The objective of this brief review was to explore the available evidence of the relationship between intestinal injury and self-reported fatigue, especially among cancer patients. The scientific evidence-including our own-linking gut mucosal barrier dysfunction and gut microbial perturbation/dysbiosis induced by cancer treatment with worsening of cancer related fatigue (perhaps through the gut-brain axis) is limited but promising. Emerging data suggest that lifestyle interventions and the administration of specific probiotics may favorably modulate the gut microbiota and potentially mediate beneficial effects leading to im...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Velda J Gonzalez-Mercado Sara Marrero Josu é Pérez-Santiago Maribel Tirado-G ómez Miguel A Marrero-Falc ón Elsa Pedro Leorey N Saligan Source Type: research

Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico and Sustained Success since 2007: Convergence of Science, Women-Centered Care, and Policy
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):12-18.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There have been significant successes in the fight against HIV/AIDS due to the access to rapid HIV testing, interventions to reduce the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk, potent and effective antiviral medications, and other biomedical prevention strategies. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that Puerto Rico eliminated Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) following the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for validating the elimination of MTCT and Syphilis.METHODS: Existing epidemiological data from Puerto Rico was used to document the...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carmen D Zorrilla Linnette Rodr íguez-Figueroa Sandra Miranda-De Le ón Bernardita L ópez-Alvarado Eileen P érez Silvia E Rabionet Source Type: research

Appropriateness of Acetaminophen Dosing by Caregivers of Pediatric Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department at the University Pediatric Hospital in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Nearly half of all the caregivers administered an incorrect acetaminophen dose, suggesting that there is a need for better caregiver education. Due to their accessibility at the point of sale of OTC medications and pharmacotherapy knowledge, pharmacists could have an active role in promoting the safe and effective use of acetaminophen.PMID:33876914 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Suzette M V élez-Rivera Nashicel J Rodr íguez-Rodríguez Yakelin A Ortiz-Vera Ashley Parambil Jos é J Hernández-Muñoz Source Type: research

Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Results confirm the need to implement interventions that increases the sense of vulnerability among heterosexuals, as well as skills and use of male condoms. This study contributes additional data on sexual practices and attitudes to encourage the identification of new or current changes in HIV protective or risk factors, specifically for an understudied population of Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.PMID:33876915 | PMC:PMC8087157 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David P érez-Jiménez Edna Acosta-P érez Jes ús M Ortega-Guzmán Jos é A Maldonado-Martínez Source Type: research

The Significance of Asymptomatic Kidney Stones as a Predictive Factor for Sepsis in Critically Ill Older Adults
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of kidney stones (KSs) on critically ill older adults (CIOA) staying longer than 24 hours in the ICU. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality for ICU patients. KS disease is a well-known risk factor for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.METHODS: A total of 256 CIOA were initially evaluated from April 2017 through February 2019. Patients who had urinary ultrasonography and computed tomography within 12 months prior to ICU admission were included. Patients with an additional urological pathology, under the age of 65 years, and with ICU stays of 24 hours...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gurhan Taskin Cagri Akin Sekerci Yiloren Tanidir Kamil Cam Source Type: research

Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome among Medical Students of Puerto Rico
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IBS and associated risk factors in medical students in Puerto Rico (PR).METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in a sample of medical students from first to fourth year currently enrolled at the University of PR School of Medicine. Participants completed a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire that contained questions about general socio-demographic data, lifestyle habits, degree of subjective psychological stress and the Rome III criteria: IBS Module.RESULTS: 314 medical students were included for analysis. The mean age was 24.8±3.25; 48.1% were females...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Reinaldo Ram írez-Amill Esther A Torres Source Type: research

Obesity and Hypertension in School Children of Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: About 1 of every 4 children in the sample was obese; about 1 of 10 was hypertensive. Obese children were at a significantly higher risk for hypertension than non-obese children were. The study indicates the need for public health strategies that promote prevention and parental education to reduce the prevalence of obesity and the sequelae of hypertension.PMID:33876918 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: H éctor Santiago Damaris Pag án Ariette Acevedo Source Type: research

Vitamin D Content in Milk of the Rhesus Monkey
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):50-52.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: Milk is the first and continued source of ingested Vitamin D. Extensive studies have been carried out in humans measuring Vitamin D in lactating mothers but to date few values have been obtained for milk of non-human primates and none for rhesus monkeys. Consequently. we have determined Vitamin D and antirachitic activity (ARA) in milk samples obtained from 21 rhesus monkeys.METHODS: Lactating dams were sampled by hand-stripping. 25(OH)D2, Vitamin D2, 25(OH)D3, Vitamin D3 and ARA were assessed in foremilk using LC-MS/MS techniques.RESULTS: 25(OH)D2 and Vitamin D2 we...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Alan M Preston Andrew J Makowski Melween I Martinez Source Type: research

First Trimester Cystic Hygroma: Herald to Early Diagnosis of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):53-55.ABSTRACTThe early diagnosis of in utero congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) allows a thorough evaluation for other morbidities that may be associated with CDH. Our patient was referred to us with a fetus at 13 weeks gestational age with a thick nuchal translucency. Our team performed a transvaginal ultrasound that revealed a large ystic hygroma, a heart displaced to the right, and a heterogeneous mass with peristalsis in the left chest. The fetus was diagnosed with CDH. The patient received genetic counseling after which she requested and underwent chorionic villus sampling. The ear...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Dibe Marie Di Gregorio Dibe Martin Luis Mansilla Source Type: research

Challenging Diagnosis and Endoscopic Management of Dieulafoy's Lesion-Induced Small-Bowel Bleeding: A Case Report
We describe herein the case of an elderly female patient with Dieulafoy's lesion-induced small-bowel bleeding presenting with recurrent melena. In this article, we describe how the cause of her bleeding was found and how the bleeding was stopped endoscopically. Finally, we discuss the characteristics of a small-bowel Dieulafoy's lesion and its endoscopic treatment.PMID:33876921 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Liang Zhu Zhen-Wen Wang Zhi-Quan Huang Yang Hu Source Type: research

Erratum: Effects of Dry Figs on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptoms, perceived Stress Levels and the Quality of Life previously published in P R Health Sci J 2020;39:319-326
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):59.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33876922 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Keziban Amanak Source Type: research

The Historic Elimination of Mother-to-Child HIV and Syphilis Transmission in Puerto Rico
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):3-5.ABSTRACTThe elimination of HIV and syphilis from Puerto Rico as per metrics of the World Health Organization has been achieved despite continued HIV risk and high background prevalence. Excellence in antenatal services and screening, deployment of antiretroviral and penicillin syphilis therapies, and proper follow-through with mothers and infants has yielded success even as control of infection overall remains elusive. We highlight the context of this achievement in our editorial to accompany the article: "Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Sten H Vermund Irma Febo Source Type: research

Association of Radiotherapy-Related Intestinal Injury and Cancer-related Fatigue: A Brief Review and Commentary
The objective of this brief review was to explore the available evidence of the relationship between intestinal injury and self-reported fatigue, especially among cancer patients. The scientific evidence-including our own-linking gut mucosal barrier dysfunction and gut microbial perturbation/dysbiosis induced by cancer treatment with worsening of cancer related fatigue (perhaps through the gut-brain axis) is limited but promising. Emerging data suggest that lifestyle interventions and the administration of specific probiotics may favorably modulate the gut microbiota and potentially mediate beneficial effects leading to im...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Velda J Gonzalez-Mercado Sara Marrero Josu é Pérez-Santiago Maribel Tirado-G ómez Miguel A Marrero-Falc ón Elsa Pedro Leorey N Saligan Source Type: research

Elimination of the Perinatal Transmission of HIV and Syphilis in Puerto Rico and Sustained Success since 2007: Convergence of Science, Women-Centered Care, and Policy
P R Health Sci J. 2021 Mar;40(1):12-18.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There have been significant successes in the fight against HIV/AIDS due to the access to rapid HIV testing, interventions to reduce the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) risk, potent and effective antiviral medications, and other biomedical prevention strategies. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that Puerto Rico eliminated Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (MTCT) following the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for validating the elimination of MTCT and Syphilis.METHODS: Existing epidemiological data from Puerto Rico was used to document the...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Carmen D Zorrilla Linnette Rodr íguez-Figueroa Sandra Miranda-De Le ón Bernardita L ópez-Alvarado Eileen P érez Silvia E Rabionet Source Type: research

Appropriateness of Acetaminophen Dosing by Caregivers of Pediatric Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department at the University Pediatric Hospital in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Nearly half of all the caregivers administered an incorrect acetaminophen dose, suggesting that there is a need for better caregiver education. Due to their accessibility at the point of sale of OTC medications and pharmacotherapy knowledge, pharmacists could have an active role in promoting the safe and effective use of acetaminophen.PMID:33876914 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Suzette M V élez-Rivera Nashicel J Rodr íguez-Rodríguez Yakelin A Ortiz-Vera Ashley Parambil Jos é J Hernández-Muñoz Source Type: research

Internet Study about Risk Factors Associated with HIV among Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico
CONCLUSION: Results confirm the need to implement interventions that increases the sense of vulnerability among heterosexuals, as well as skills and use of male condoms. This study contributes additional data on sexual practices and attitudes to encourage the identification of new or current changes in HIV protective or risk factors, specifically for an understudied population of Heterosexuals in Puerto Rico.PMID:33876915 | PMC:PMC8087157 (Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal)
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: David P érez-Jiménez Edna Acosta-P érez Jes ús M Ortega-Guzmán Jos é A Maldonado-Martínez Source Type: research

The Significance of Asymptomatic Kidney Stones as a Predictive Factor for Sepsis in Critically Ill Older Adults
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of kidney stones (KSs) on critically ill older adults (CIOA) staying longer than 24 hours in the ICU. Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality for ICU patients. KS disease is a well-known risk factor for bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.METHODS: A total of 256 CIOA were initially evaluated from April 2017 through February 2019. Patients who had urinary ultrasonography and computed tomography within 12 months prior to ICU admission were included. Patients with an additional urological pathology, under the age of 65 years, and with ICU stays of 24 hours...
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Gurhan Taskin Cagri Akin Sekerci Yiloren Tanidir Kamil Cam Source Type: research