Putting Stakeholder Engagement at the Center of Health Economic Modeling for Health Technology Assessment in the United States
AbstractWhile evidence generated from health economic (HE) models is being used more commonly in health technology assessment (HTA) in the US, it is not consistently adopted by different stakeholder groups or across therapeutic areas. We hypothesize that actively engaging with multiple stakeholder groups throughout the model development process may result in models more widely considered by decision makers. To test this hypothesis, the Innovation and Value Initiative has launched a modeling effort to build an open-source HE model focusing on the disease state ‘major depressive disorder’. A 20-member advisory gr...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 13, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue of PharmacoEconomics on Major Depressive Disorders
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 13, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-of-Illness Progression Before and After Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis: A Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study in Sweden of People Newly Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis and a Population-Based Matched Reference Group
ConclusionsExcess healthcare costs and productivity losses occur already before the diagnosis of MS and increase with time. The excess costs findings before diagnosis could suggest that an earlier diagnosis might lead to reduced excess costs of MS over time. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 10, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

What are the Economic Costs to Society Attributable to Alcohol Use? A Systematic Review and Modelling Study
DiscussionThe identified cost studies were mainly conducted in high-income settings, with high heterogeneity in the employed methodology. Accounting for some methodological variations, our findings demonstrate that alcohol use continues to incur a high level of cost to many societies.RegistrationPROSPERO #CRD42020139594. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 10, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health Economists on Involving Patients in Modeling: Potential Benefits, Harms, and Variables of Interest
AbstractBackgroundPatient involvement in health economics modeling has been advocated on numerous grounds, including as a way to better manage social and ethical value judgments in the modeling process. However, some have pointed to potential risks and variables that could influence the overall benefit of involvement. To inform future research, there is a need to generate knowledge on potential benefits, harms, and variables relevant to patient involvement in health economics modeling.MethodsThis analysis used data from a qualitative study in which 22 health economists were asked their views on the possibility of involving...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 7, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Burden of Multiple Sclerosis in Low- and Middle ‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review
ConclusionMS places a huge economic burden on healthcare systems and societies in LMICs. Methodological differences and substantial variations in terms of absolute costs were found between studies, which made comparison of studies challenging. However, the cost ratios across different levels of MS severity were similar, making comparisons between studies by disease severity feasible. Cost drivers were mainly DMTs and relapse treatments, and this was consistent across studies. Yet, the distribution of cost components varied with disease severity. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 6, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Economic Burden of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder in the United States (2010 and 2018)
ConclusionWorkplace costs accounted for the largest portion of the growing economic burden of MDD as this population trended younger and was increasingly likely to be employed. Although the total number of adults with MDD increased from 2010 to 2018, the incremental direct cost per individual declined. At the same time, the proportion of adults with MDD who received treatment remained stable over the past decade, suggesting that substantial unmet treatment needs remain in this population. Further research is warranted into the availability, composition, and quality of MDD treatment services. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - May 5, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Increasing Economic Burden with Additional Steps of Pharmacotherapy in Major Depressive Disorder
AbstractObjectivesMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and serious disorder with significant impact on patients and families. The goal of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the economic burden among patients with MDD stratified by number of treatment lines needed for episode resolution.MethodsTruven Health Analytics MarketScan® claims data were used to identify US patients ( ≥ 18 years) who were diagnosed with MDD and started on an antidepressant between 2013 and 2017. A generalized linear model estimated direct and employment-related costs for the first 12 months following initiation of tr...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 28, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Economic Burden of Treatment-Resistant Depression among Adults with Chronic Non-Cancer Pain Conditions and Major Depressive Disorder in the US
This study examined the impact of TRD on direct total and MDD-related healthcare resource utilization (HRU) and costs among commercially insured patients with CNPC and MDD in the US.MethodsThe retrospective longitudinal cohort study employed a claims-based algorithm to identify adults with TRD from a US claims database (January 2007 to June 2017). Costs (2018 US$) and HRU were compared between patients with and without TRD over a 12-month period after TRD/non-TRD index date. Counterfactual recycled predictions from generalized linear models were used to examine associations between TRD and annual HRU and costs. Post-regres...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 27, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost Effectiveness of Ranibizumab vs Aflibercept vs Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Macular Oedema Due to Central Retinal Vein Occlusion: The LEAVO Study
ConclusionsWider adoption of bevacizumab for the treatment of macular oedema due to central retinal vein occlusion could result in substantial savings to healthcare systems and deliver similar health-related quality of life. However, patients, funders and ophthalmologists should be fully aware that LEAVO could not demonstrate that bevacizumab is non-inferior to the licensed agents. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 26, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Hispa-NICE: A Pipe Dream or a Realistic and Necessary Initiative?
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 23, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Guidance for the Harmonisation and Improvement of Economic Evaluations of Personalised Medicine
ConclusionsThis study provides a comprehensive list of recommendations to modellers of PM and to evaluators and reviewers of PM models. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 16, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Healthcare Funding Decisions and Real-World Benefits: Reducing Bias by Matching Untreated Patients
AbstractGovernments and health insurers often make funding decisions based on health gains from randomised controlled trials. These decisions are inherently uncertain because health gains in trials may not translate to practice owing to differences in the population, treatment use and setting. Post-market analysis of real-world data can provide additional evidence but estimates from standard matching methods may be biased when unobserved characteristics explain whether a patient is treated and their outcomes. We propose a new untreated matching approach that can reduce this bias. Our approach utilises the outcomes of conte...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 9, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Investigating the Association Between Self-Reported Comorbid Anxiety and Depression and Health Service Use in Cancer Survivors
AbstractBackgroundAnxiety and depression have a higher prevalence in cancer survivors than in the general population and are associated with lower quality of life, poorer survival and an increased risk of suicide. Anxiety and depression are also highly comorbid among cancer survivors and associated with increased health service use. As such, it is important to consider both anxiety and depression and health service use in cancer survivors.ObjectiveOur objective was to explore the association between anxiety and depression and health service utilisation, both cancer-specific and general doctor visits, in cancer survivors.Me...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 5, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Using a Modified Delphi Approach to Gain Consensus on Relevant Comparators in a Cost-Effectiveness Model: Application to Prostate Cancer Screening
AbstractObjectiveChallenges can exist when framing the decision question in a cost-effectiveness analysis, particularly when there is disagreement among experts on relevant comparators. Using prostate cancer screening and recent developments in risk stratification, early-detection biomarkers, and diagnostic technologies as a case study, we report a modified Delphi approach to handle decision-question uncertainty.MethodsThe study involved two rounds of anonymous online questionnaires to identify the prostate cancer screening strategies that international researchers, clinicians and decision makers felt important to consider...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 2, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost Effectiveness and Budget Impact of Siponimod Compared to Interferon Beta-1a in the Treatment of Adult Patients with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis with Active Disease in Switzerland
ConclusionsIn the base-case analysis, we found that siponimod may be cost effective for treating Swiss adult patients with SPMS with active disease. The results of the cost-effectiveness analyses are valid under the assumption that the efficacy of siponimod and the comparators on disability progression for the overall SPMS population would be the same in the active SPMS population.Clinical Trial IdentifierNCT01665144. This economic evaluation was based on the EXPAND trial. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - April 1, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Afatinib, Erlotinib, and Gefitinib as First-Line Treatments for EGFR Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Ontario, Canada
ConclusionsContrary to previously published studies, our study established head-to-head comparisons of effectiveness and treatment-related costs of first-line EGFR-TKIs. Our findings suggest afatinib was the most cost-effective option among the three EGFR-TKIs. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 31, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Direct Medical Costs, Productivity Loss Costs and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Women with Breast Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review
ConclusionThis review provides the first synthesis of BC costs in LAC. Our findings show few high-quality costing studies in BC and a gap in the literature measuring costs to patients and their relatives. The high costs associated with the advanced stages of BC call into question the affordability of treatments and their accessibility for patients.Registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018106835). (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 30, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Toward Modified Impact Inventory Tables to Facilitate Patient-Centered Value Assessment
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 24, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Resource Utilization of Patients with Parkinson ’s Disease in the Late Stages of the Disease in Germany: Data from the CLaSP Study
DiscussionCosts in the late stage of the disease are considerably higher than those found in earlier stages. Compared to the latter, the mean number of days in hospital and the need for care is increasing. Informal caregivers provide most of the care.Clinical Trial RegistrationThe protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02333175 on 7 January, 2015. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 19, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Real-World Treatment Costs and Care Utilization in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder With and Without Psychiatric Comorbidities in Specialist Mental Healthcare
AbstractBackgroundThe majority of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have comorbid mental conditions.ObjectivesSince most cost-of-illness studies correct for comorbidity, this study focuses on mental healthcare utilization and treatment costs in patients with MDD including psychiatric comorbidities in specialist mental healthcare, particularly patients with a comorbid personality disorder (PD).MethodsThe Psychiatric Case Register North Netherlands contains administrative data of specialist mental healthcare providers. Treatment episodes were identified from uninterrupted healthcare use. Costs were calculated by ...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 16, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The EQ-5D-5L Valuation Study in Egypt
ConclusionThis is the first value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on social preferences obtained from a nationally representative sample in Egypt or any Arabic-speaking country. The value set can be used as a scoring system for economic evaluations and to improve the quality of health technology assessment in the Egyptian healthcare system. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 12, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Replication of Published Health Economic Obesity Models: Assessment of Facilitators, Hurdles and Reproduction Success
ConclusionsThis study confirms the feasibility of rebuilding health economic obesity models, but minor to major assumptions were needed to fill reporting gaps. Model replications can help to assess the quality of health economic model documentation and can be used to validate current model reporting practices. Simple changes to actual CHEERS reporting criteria may solve identified replication hurdles. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 10, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Postnatal Major Depressive Disorder in Australia: Inequalities and Costs of Healthcare to Individuals, Governments and Insurers
ConclusionMDD is costly to all funders of healthcare. Amongst women with MDD, there are large differences in the types of services accessed and costs to different funders based on socioeconomic status. There may be significant financial and structural barriers preventing equal access to care for women with postnatal MDD. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 8, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Authors ’ Reply to Comment on “Cost-Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Adjunct Therapy Versus Usual Care for the Treatment of Seizures in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome”
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 6, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Comment on “Cost-Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Adjunct Therapy Versus Usual Care for the Treatment of Seizures in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome”
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 6, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Continued Need for Transparent Evidence on the Cost Effectiveness of Drugs for Rare Diseases
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - March 6, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Utility Decrements Associated with Adult Overweight and Obesity in Australia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that elevated weight status is associated with small but statistically significant reductions in utility compared with healthy weight, which will result in reduced quality-adjusted life years when extrapolated across time and used in economic evaluations. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 22, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Methodological Challenges in the Economic Evaluation of a Gene Therapy for RPE65-Mediated Inherited Retinal Disease: The Value of Vision
This study underlines the findings from Drummond et al. that standard methods can be used to evaluate gene therapies. However, given uncertainty about (particularly long-term) out comes of gene therapies, guidance is required on the acceptable extrapolation of treatment effect of gene therapies and on how to handle the uncertainty around this extrapolation in scenario and sensitivity analyses to aid health technology assessment research and align submissions of future gene th erapies. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 19, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Valuation of SF-6Dv2 Health States in China Using Time Trade-off and Discrete-Choice Experiment with a Duration Dimension
ConclusionsThe Chinese value set for the SF-6Dv2 was established based on the TTO approach, but the DCETTO also performed well. Minor issues of non ­monotonicity did present for DCETTO. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 18, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Macrovascular Risk Equations Based on the CANVAS Program
ConclusionThese risk equations address some of the limitations of widely used risk equations, such as the UKPDS-OM2, for modeling cardioprotective treatments for individuals with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk, including derivation from overly healthy patients treated with agents that lack cardioprotection and have been described as reflecting a different therapeutic era. Future work is needed to examine external validity. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 13, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

EQ-5D-Y Value Set for Slovenia
ConclusionsThe study addresses an important research gap and presents the EQ-5D-Y value set for Slovenia. At the time of writing, no published value sets are available for the EQ-5D-Y-3L appropriate for use in QALY calculations, making this value set the first EQ-5D-Y value set in the world. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 10, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Global Economic Burden of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsDespite the wide variation in methodologies in studies reviewed, the literature suggests that ADHD imposes a substantial economic burden on society. There is a dire need for cost-of-illness research in low- and middle-income countries to better inform the treatment and management of ADHD in these countries. In addition, guidelines on the conduct and reporting of economic burden studies are needed as they may improve standardisation of cost-of-illness studies. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 8, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Cost-Effectiveness and Budget Impact of Ibalizumab-uiyk for Adults with Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Infection in the United States
ConclusionsIbalizumab may represent a cost-effective and affordable option to improve health outcomes for individuals with MDR HIV-1 infection. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 3, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Excess Costs of Depression and the Influence of Sociodemographic and Socioeconomic Factors: Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS)
ConclusionsDepression was associated with high excess costs that varied by social determinants. Considerable differences between the socioeconomic and sociodemographic subgroups need further clarification as they point to specific treatment barriers as well as varying treatment needs. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - February 1, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Multiple Myeloma in Portugal: Burden of Disease and Cost of Illness
ConclusionsThe mortality rate in MM means that most DALYs are due to years of life lost rather than years lost due to disability. This study generates comprehensive data on the burden and cost of MM in Portugal and provides updated insights into the costs associated with the management of MM. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 31, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Modifying NICE ’s Approach to Equity Weighting
AbstractThe UK ’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently launched a consultation on the methods it uses to evaluate new health technologies, and has highlighted the issue of how ‘modifiers’, including equity weights, should be incorporated into its processes. The practice of applyi ng equity weights to specific population subgroups, as a means for increasing the effective cost-effectiveness threshold for some new health technologies, is well established in health technology assessment. It is also the subject of extensive discussion in the academic literature. In this paper, we d...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 31, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Erenumab for the Preventive Treatment of Migraine in Patients with Prior Treatment Failures in Sweden
ConclusionsOur analysis suggests that erenumab is a cost-effective treatment for migraine with a willingness-to-pay threshold of SEK300,000 per QALY. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 25, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Assessment of the Effects of Active Immunisation against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) using Decision-Analytic Models: A Systematic Review with a Focus on Vaccination Strategies, Modelling Methods and Input Data
AbstractBackgroundSeveral vaccine and antibody candidates are currently in development for the prevention of lower respiratory tract infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, Embase, and SCOPUS and included model-based evaluations of RSV vaccinations. Two reviewers performed the selection, data extraction, and quality evaluation with EVIDEM. Cost-effectiveness (CE) estimates were converted to $US purchasing power parity (PPP), year 2018 values. Potential economic and epidemiological outcomes were summarised for maternal, infant, children, and elderly vaccinations. The PROSPERO i...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 19, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

NICE ’s Discounting Review: Clear Thinking on Rational Revision Meets Obstacle of Industrial Interests
AbstractThe National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently published a review of discounting practice and theory as part of a consultation on its current methods guidelines. The review examines the case for revision or retention of current methods. The changes considered include eliminating favourable rates in certain special cases and the reduction of the base-case rate for costs and health effects from 3.5 to 1.5%. The review also notes the potential need to reduce the cost-effectiveness threshold to accommodate a discount rate reduction, explaining that an agreement between the UK government and the ph...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 19, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Early-Phase Clinical Trials and Reimbursement Submissions to the Pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 19, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

What Did Time Tell Us? A Comparison and Retrospective Validation of Different Survival Extrapolation Methods for Immuno-Oncologic Therapy in Advanced or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
ConclusionsThis aRCC case study identified marked differences in the predictive accuracy of survival extrapolation methods for nivolumab but less so for everolimus. The dependent log-logistic model did not suffer from overfitting to early DBLs to the same extent as more complex methods. Methods that provide more degrees of freedom may accurately represent survival for IO therapy, particularly if data are more mature or external data are available to inform the long-term extrapolations. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 11, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Productivity-Adjusted Life-Years: A New Metric for Quantifying Disease Burden
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - January 11, 2021 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Cost-Utility Analysis of a Dolutegravir-Based Versus Low-Dose Efavirenz-Based Regimen for the Initial Treatment of HIV-Infected Patients in Cameroon (NAMSAL ANRS 12313 Trial)
ConclusionsAt 2020 antiretroviral drug prices, a DTG-based first-line regimen should be preferred over an EFV400-based regimen in sub-Saharan Africa.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02777229. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - December 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Common Problems, Common Data Model Solutions: Evidence Generation for Health Technology Assessment
AbstractThere is growing interest in using observational data to assess the safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness of medical technologies, but operational, technical, and methodological challenges limit its more widespread use. Common data models and federated data networks offer a potential solution to many of these problems. The open-source Observational and Medical Outcomes Partnerships (OMOP) common data model standardises the structure, format, and terminologies of otherwise disparate datasets, enabling the execution of common analytical code across a federated data network in which only code and aggregate res...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - December 18, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

The Application and Implications of Novel Deterministic Sensitivity Analysis Methods
AbstractDeterministic sensitivity analyses (DSA) remain important to interpret the effect of uncertainties in individual parameters on results of cost-effectiveness analyses. Classic DSA methodologies may lead to wrong conclusions due to a lack of or misleading information regarding marginal effects, non-linearity, likelihood and correlations. In addition, tornado diagrams are misleading in some situations. Recent advances in DSA methods have the potential to provide decision makers with more reliable information regarding the effects of uncertainties in individual parameters. This practical application discusses advances ...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - December 14, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Health State Utilities of Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Literature Review
ConclusionsThere is a wealth of published utility values for heart failure to support economic evaluations. Data are heterogenous owing to specificities of the study population and methodology of utility value elicitation and analysis. Choice of value(s) to support economic models must be carefully justified to ensure a robust economic analysis. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - November 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Comment on “External Validation of the Core Obesity Model to Assess the Cost-Effectiveness of Weight Management Interventions”
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - November 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Authors ’ reply to Comment on “External Validation of the Core Obesity Model to Assess the Cost-Effectiveness of Weight Management Interventions”
(Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Source: PharmacoEconomics - November 30, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Quantitative Evidence Synthesis Methods for the Assessment of the Effectiveness of Treatment Sequences for Clinical and Economic Decision Making: A Review and Taxonomy of Simplifying Assumptions
AbstractSequential use of alternative treatments for chronic conditions represents a complex intervention pathway; previous treatment and patient characteristics affect both the choice and effectiveness of subsequent treatments. This paper critically explores the methods for quantitative evidence synthesis of the effectiveness of sequential treatment options within a health technology assessment (HTA) or similar process. It covers methods for developing summary estimates of clinical effectiveness or the clinical inputs for the cost-effectiveness assessment and can encompass any disease condition. A comprehensive review of ...
Source: PharmacoEconomics - November 26, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research