An Instrument to Capture the Phenomenology of Implantable Brain Device Use
AbstractOne important concern regarding implantable Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) is the fear that the intervention will negatively change a patient ’s sense of identity or agency. In particular, there is concern that the user will be psychologically worse-off following treatment despite postoperative functional improvements. Clinical observations from similar implantable brain technologies, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), show a small b ut significant proportion of patients report feelings of strangeness or difficulty adjusting to a new concept of themselves characterized by a maladaptiveje ne sais quoi desp...
Source: Neuroethics - November 8, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

AI Assistants and the Paradox of Internal Automaticity
In conclusion, we make practical recommendations for how to better manage the integration of AI assistants into society. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - November 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Limited Relevance of Neuroimaging in Insanity Evaluations
AbstractForensic evaluations of insanity have recently borne witness to an influx of neuroimaging methods, especially structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, to assist in the development of explanations that help to excuse legal responsibility for criminal behavior. The results of these scanning methods have been increasingly introduced in legal settings to offer or support a clinical diagnosis that in turn suggests that an individual was incapable of knowing right from wrong, or to pinpoint brain dysfunction suggestive of an inability to control behavior. This paper examines ...
Source: Neuroethics - October 30, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Locked-in Syndrome: Perspectives from Ethics, History, and Phenomenology
AbstractThe existential situation of persons who suffer from the locked-in syndrome (LIS) raises manifold issues significant to medical anthropology, phenomenology, biomedical ethics, and neuroethics that have not yet been systematically explored. The present special issue ofNeuroethics illustrates the joint effort of a consolidating network of scholars from various disciplines in Europe, North America and Japan to go in that direction, and to explore LIS beyond clinical studies and quality of life assessments. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - August 8, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

DBS and Autonomy: Clarifying the Role of Theoretical Neuroethics
AbstractIn this article, we sketch how theoretical neuroethics can clarify the concept of autonomy. We hope that this can both serve as a model for the conceptual clarification of other components of PIAAAS (personality, identity, agency, authenticity, autonomy, and self) and contribute to the development of the empirical measures that Gilbert and colleagues [1] propose. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - July 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS
AbstractGilbert and colleagues (2018) point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality (and related concepts of identity, agency, authenticity, autonomy, and self, i.e., PIAAAS) following implantation of deep brain stimulating (DBS) electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow ’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities (representing the conceptual publications) and the sciences (representing the empir...
Source: Neuroethics - July 16, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Changes in Personality Associated with Deep Brain Stimulation: a Qualitative Evaluation of Clinician Perspectives
This study contributes to the first-hand primary research on the topic exploring DBS clinicians ’ views on post-DBS personality change among their patients and its underlying cause. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen clinicians from various disciplines working in Australian DBS practice for movement disorders and/or psychiatric conditions. Thematic analysis of the intervi ews revealed five primary themes: 1) types, frequency and duration of personality change, 2) causes of personality change, 3) impact on patient and family, 4) communication, comprehension and awareness, and 5) management. Clinici...
Source: Neuroethics - July 12, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Committing Crimes with BCIs: How Brain-Computer Interface Users can Satisfy Actus Reus and be Criminally Responsible
AbstractBrain-computer interfaces allow agents to control computers without moving their bodies. The agents imagine certain things and the brain-computer interfaces read the concomitant neural activity and operate the computer accordingly. But the use of brain-computer interfaces is problematic for criminal law, which requires that someone can only be found criminally responsible if they have satisfied theactus reus requirement: that the agent has performed some (suitably specified) conduct. Agents who affect the world using brain-computer interfaces do not obviously perform any conduct, so when they commit crimes using br...
Source: Neuroethics - July 8, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Impact of the Japanese Disability Homecare System on ALS Patients ’ Decision to Receive Tracheostomy with Invasive Ventilation
This study aims to fill this gap by collecting and analyzing patients’ and family members’ narratives. In Japan, about 30% of ALS patients utilize TIV. This rate is much higher than in most other developed countries. Patients’ narratives illuminate the psychological and especially the c ontextual factors of their decision-making. Many Japanese patients who currently use a ventilator say that their family members encouraged them to prolong their lives through ventilation. These family members have done so because patients are able to use long-term ventilation for only ¥1000 (around $11) per month, and ...
Source: Neuroethics - July 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Brain Interventions, Moral Responsibility, and Control over One ’s Mental Life
AbstractIn the theoretical literature on moral responsibility, one sometimes comes across cases of manipulated agents. In cases of this type, the agent is a victim of wholesale manipulation, involving the implantation of various pro-attitudes (desires, values, etc.) along with the deletion of competing pro-attitudes. As a result of this manipulation, the agent ends up performing some action unlike any that she would have performed were it not for the manipulation. These sorts of cases are sometimes thought to motivate historical views of responsibility, on which the agent ’s past is relevant to whether she is respons...
Source: Neuroethics - June 14, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The history of BCI: From a vision for the future to real support for personhood in people with locked-in syndrome
AbstractThe history of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) developed from a mere idea in the days of early digital technology to today ’s highly sophisticated approaches for signal detection, recording, and analysis. In the 1960s, electroencephalography (EEG) was tied to the laboratory due to equipment and recording requirements. Today, amplifiers exist that are built in the electrode cap and are so resistant to movement artefact s that data collection in the field is no longer a critical issue. Within 60 years, the field has moved from simple and artefact-sensitive EEG recording to making real the vision of brain-c...
Source: Neuroethics - May 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

On the Significance of the Identity Debate in DBS and the Need of an Inclusive Research Agenda. A Reply to Gilbert, Viana and Ineichen
AbstractGilbert et al. (Neuroethics,2018) argue that the concerns about the influence of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on – as they lump together – personality, identity, agency, autonomy, authenticity and the self (PIAAAS) are due to an ethics hype. They argue that there is only a small empirical base for an extended ethics debate. We will critically examine their claims and argue that Gilbert and colleagues do no t show that the identity debate in DBS is a bubble, they in fact give very little evidence for that. Rather they show the challenges of doing research in a field that is stretched out over multiple di...
Source: Neuroethics - May 26, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Justice Without Retribution: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Stakeholder Views and Practical Implications
(Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - May 21, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Discussions of DBS in Neuroethics: Can We Deflate the Bubble Without Deflating Ethics?
AbstractGilbert and colleagues are to be commended for drawing our attention to the need for a sounder empirical basis, and for more careful reasoning, in the context of the neuroethics debate on Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and its potential impact on the dimensions of personality, identity, agency, authenticity, autonomy and self (PIAAAS). While acknowledging this, this extended commentary critically examines their claim that the real-world relevance of the conclusions drawn in the neuroethics literature is threatened by the fact that the concepts at the center of the discussion have “weak empirical grounding&rdquo...
Source: Neuroethics - May 12, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Regulating the Use of Cognitive Enhancement: an Analytic Framework
AbstractRecent developments in neuroscience have enabled technological advances to modulate cognitive functions of the brain. Despite ethical concerns about cognitive enhancement, both individuals and society as a whole can benefit greatly from these technologies, depending on how we regulate their use. To date, regulatory analyses of neuromodulation technologies have focused on a technology itself – for instance, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation of a brain stimulation device – rather than the use of a technology, such as the use of a brain stimulation device at work or school. Given that some f...
Source: Neuroethics - May 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

‘Woe Betides Anybody Who Tries to Turn me Down.’ A Qualitative Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease
AbstractDeep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) for the treatment of Parkinson ’s disease (PD) can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These can include harmful changes in mood and behaviour that alienate family members and raise ethical questions about personal responsibility for actions committed under stimulation-dependent mental states. Qualitative inte rviews were conducted with twenty participants (ten PD patient-caregiver dyads) following subthalamic DBS at a movement disorders centre, in order to explore the meaning and significance of stimulation-related neuropsychiatr...
Source: Neuroethics - May 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Neuroessentialism, our Technological Future, and DBS Bubbles
AbstractHaving reviewed a considerable body of scholarly work in neuroethics related to DBS, Gilbert, Via ña, and Ineichen identify a major flaw in the debate—a “bubble” in the literature—and propose new directions for research. This comment addresses the authors’ diagnosis: What exactly is the nature of this bubble? Here, I argue that there are at least two different orientations in the “D BS causes personality changes” bubble. According to a first narrative, DBS is a special technology because its direct, causal action on the brain leads to personality changes. This approa...
Source: Neuroethics - April 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Why Neurotechnologies? About the Purposes, Opportunities and Limitations of Neurotechnologies in Clinical Applications
This article will shortly review different stakeholders ’ opinions and their expectation in the field, assembles information the state-of-the art in medical applications of neurotechnological implants and describes and assesses the fundamental technologies that are used to build up these implants starting with essential requirements of technical materi als in contact with living tissue. The different paragraphs guide the reader through the main aspects of neurotechnologies and lay a foundation of knowledge to be able to contribute to the discussion in which cases implants will be beneficial and in which cases we shou...
Source: Neuroethics - April 13, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

More than our Body: Minimal and Enactive Selfhood in Global Paralysis
AbstractThis paper looks to phenomenology and enactive cognition in order to shed light on the self and sense of self of patients with locked-in syndrome. It critically discusses the concept of the minimal self, both in its phenomenological and ontological dimension. Ontologically speaking, the self is considered to be equal to a person ’s sensorimotor embodiment. This bodily self also grounds the minimal sense of self as being a distinct experiential subject. The view from the minimal bodily self presupposes that sociality comes after the self, or that in other words, the essence of self remains independent of our s...
Source: Neuroethics - April 10, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Locked-In Syndrome: a Challenge to Standard Accounts of Selfhood and Personhood?
AbstractA point made repeatedly over the last few years is that the Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) offers unique real-life material for revisiting and challenging certain ingrained philosophical assumptions about the nature of personhood and personal identity. Indeed, the claim has been made that a closer study of LIS will call into question some of the traditional conceptions of personhood that primarily highlight the significance of consciousness, self-consciousness and autonomy and suggest the need for a more interpersonal account of the person. I am skeptical about these claims and will in the following argue that the theore...
Source: Neuroethics - April 10, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Determinism, Moral Responsibility and Retribution
AbstractIn this article, we will identify two issues that deserve greater attention from those researching lay people ’s attitudes to moral responsibility and determinism. The first issue concerns whether people interpret the term “moral responsibility” in a retributive way and whether they are motivated to hold offenders responsible for pre-determined behaviour by considerations other than retributivism, e.g . the desires to condemn the action (as opposed to the actor) and to protect society. The second issue concerns whether explicitly rejecting moral responsibility and retributivism, after reading abou...
Source: Neuroethics - March 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A critical analysis of Australia ’s ban on the sale of electronic nicotine delivery systems
AbstractAustralia does not allow adult smokers to buy or use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) that contain nicotine without a prescription. This paper critically evaluates the empirical and ethical justifications provided for the policy by Federal and State governments, public health advocates and health organisations. These are: (1) that ENDS should only be approved as products for smoking cessation when there is evidence from randomised controlled trials that they are effective; (2) that as a matter of precaution we should not allow the sale of ENDS to smokers as consumer products because we do not know what t...
Source: Neuroethics - March 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

What we (Should) Talk about when we Talk about Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity
AbstractA number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation (DBS) may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists centers on the nature of the threat posed by DBS, asking whether it is...
Source: Neuroethics - March 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Cognitive Enhancement vs. Plagiarism: a Quantitative Study on the Attitudes of an Italian Sample
AbstractIrrespective of the presence of formal norms, behaviours such as plagiarism, data fabrication and falsification are commonly regarded as unethical and unfair. Almost unanimously, they are considered forms of academic misconduct. Is this the case also for newer behaviours that technology is making possible and are now entering the academic scenario?In the current paper we focus on cognitive enhancement (CE), the use of drugs to enhance cognitive skills of an otherwise healthy individual. At present, there are no formal rules forbidding its use in the academic setting. However, it is not clear whether there is a gene...
Source: Neuroethics - February 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence as a Socratic Assistant for Moral Enhancement
AbstractThe moral enhancement of human beings is a constant theme in the history of humanity. Today, faced with the threats of a new, globalised world, concern over this matter is more pressing. For this reason, the use of biotechnology to make human beings more moral has been considered. However, this approach is dangerous and very controversial. The purpose of this article is to argue that the use of another new technology, AI, would be preferable to achieve this goal. Whilst several proposals have been made on how to use AI for moral enhancement, we present an alternative that we argue to be superior to other proposals ...
Source: Neuroethics - February 26, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Meta-Analysis of Neuro-Marketing Studies: Past, Present and Future
AbstractOne of the new topics that has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years is neuro-marketing. The purpose of the present study is to achieve an insight into the progress of studies on neuro-marketing through review of scientific articles in this field with methodology text-mining. A total of 394 articles were selected between 2005 and 2017 using the search for “neuro-marketing” in valid databases. By reviewing the title, abstract, and keywords at various stages of screening, the researchers selected 311 articles related to the neuro-marketing topic in order to carry out the text mining proce...
Source: Neuroethics - February 12, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Australian Psychotherapy for Trauma Incorporating Neuroscience: Evidence- and Ethics-Informed Practice
AbstractCurrently there are several psychotherapy modalities utilising theory and research from neuroscience in treatment frameworks for mental health and recovery from trauma. In Australia this includes: (i) the Conversational Model of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, a contemporary psychodynamic approach used for treating Borderline Personality Disorder and other trauma-related disorders; (ii) Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback, a brain training therapy which has been used as an adjunct to counselling/psychotherapy in traumatic stress and developmental trauma; and (iii) Somatic Experiencing, an integrative mind-body approach...
Source: Neuroethics - January 31, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Neuroscience and Punishment: From Theory to Practice
AbstractIn a 2004 paper, Greene and Cohen predicted that neuroscience would revolutionise criminal justice by presenting a mechanistic view of human agency that would change people ’s intuitions about retributive punishment. According to their theory, this change in intuitions would in turn lead to the demise of retributivism within criminal justice systems. Their influential paper has been challenged, most notably by Morse, who has argued that it is unlikely that there will be major changes to criminal justice systems in response to neuroscience. In this paper we commence a tentative empirical enquiry into the claim...
Source: Neuroethics - January 17, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Neurolaw in Australia: The Use of Neuroscience in Australian Criminal Proceedings
AbstractRecent research has detailed the use of neuroscience in several jurisdictions, but Australia remains a notable omission. To fill this substantial void we performed a systematic review of neuroscience in Australian criminal cases. The first section of this article reports the results of our review by detailing the purposes for which neuroscience is admitted into Australian criminal courts. We found that neuroscience is being admitted pre-trial (as evidence of fitness to stand trial), at trial (to support the defence of insanity and substantial impairment of the mind), and during sentencing. In the second section, we...
Source: Neuroethics - January 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Valuing Emotions in Punishment: an Argument for Social Rehabilitation with the Aid of Social and Affective Neuroscience
AbstractDominant approaches to punishment tend to downplay the socio-emotional dimension of perpetrators. This attitude is inconsistent with the body of evidence from social and affective neuroscience and its adjacent disciplines on the crucial role of emotions and emotion-related skills coupled with positive social stimuli in promoting prosocial behavior. Through a literature review of these studies, this article explores and assesses the implications that greater consideration of emotional and social factors in sentencing and correctional practices might have for conventional punitive approaches to crime. It argues that ...
Source: Neuroethics - December 4, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Neuroethics, Deep Brain Stimulation and Personality - Deflating, but not Bursting, the Bubble
AbstractGilbert et al. have raised important questions about the empirical grounding of neuroethical analyses of the apparent phenomenon of Deep Brain Stimulation ‘causing’ personality changes. In this paper, we consider how to make neuroethical claims appropriately calibrated to existing evidence, and the role that philosophical neuroethics has to play in this enterprise of ‘evidence-based neuroethics’. In the first half of the paper, we begin by hig hlighting the challenges we face in investigating changes to PIAAAS following DBS, explaining how different trial designs may be of different degrees ...
Source: Neuroethics - December 3, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Phenomenology of the Locked-In Syndrome: an Overview and Some Suggestions
AbstractThere is no systematic knowledge about how individuals with Locked-in Syndrome (LIS) experience their situation. A phenomenology of LIS, in the sense of a description of subjective experience as lived by the ill persons themselves, does not yet exist as an organized endeavor. The present article takes a step in that direction by reviewing various materials and making some suggestions. First-person narratives provide the most important sources, but very few have been discussed. LIS barely appears in bioethics and neuroethics. Research on Quality of Life (QOL) provides relevant information, one questionnaire study ex...
Source: Neuroethics - October 31, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement: Examining the Ethical Principles Guiding College Students ’ Abstention
ConclusionsStudents abstain from PCE for a multitude of reasons, many of which are guided by ethical principles. These findings may be incorporated into future prevention programming messages. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - October 29, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

It ’s Not Just Counting that Counts: a Reply to Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen
AbstractGilbert et al. argue that discussions of self-related changes in patients undergoing DBS are overblown. They show that there is little evidence that these changes occur frequently and make recommendations for further research. We point out that their framing of the issue, their methodology, and their recommendations do not attend to other important questions about these changes. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - October 27, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethical and Empirical Status of Dimensional Diagnosis: Implications for Public Mental Health?
AbstractThe field of mental health continues to struggle with the question of how best to structure its diagnostic systems. This issue is of considerable ethical importance, but the implications for public health approaches to mental health have yet to be explored in any detail. In this article I offer a preliminary treatment, drawing out several core issues while sounding a note of caution. A central strand of the debates over diagnosis has been the contrast between categorical and dimensional models, with renewed attention due to recent publication of the DSM-5, launch of the RDoC, and ongoing work on the ICD-11. This di...
Source: Neuroethics - October 25, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correction to: Deflating the “DBS Causes Personality Changes” Bubble
Owing to an oversight, we noted that the acknowledgement section was missing from the original published version of this paper. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - October 24, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correction to: Deflating the “DBS causes personality changes” bubble
The article Deflating the"DBS causes personality changes" bubble, written by Frederic Gilbert, J. N. M. Via ña and C. Ineichen, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 19 June 2018 without open access. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - October 23, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Enhancing the Nature-of-Activities Account of Enhancement
AbstractMany find it intuitive that those who use enhancements like steroids and Adderall in Olympic weightlifting and education are due less praise than those who perform equally well without using these enhancements. Nonetheless, it is not easy to coherently explain why one might be justifiably due less praise for using these technologies to enhance one ’s performance. Justifications for this intuition which rely on concerns regarding authenticity, cheating, or shifts in who is responsible for the performance face serious problems. Santoni de Sio et al., however, have recently defended a justification for this intu...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Information Processing Biases in the Brain: Implications for Decision-Making and Self-Governance
AbstractTo make behavioral choices that are in line with our goals and our moral beliefs, we need to gather and consider information about our current situation. Most information present in our environment is not relevant to the choices we need or would want to make and thus could interfere with our ability to behave in ways that reflect our underlying values. Certain sources of information could even lead us to make choices we later regret, and thus it would be beneficial to be able to ignore that information. Our ability to exert successful self-governance depends on our ability to attend to sources of information that w...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Decision-Making and Self-Governing Systems
AbstractNeuroscience has illuminated the neural basis of decision-making, providing evidence that supports specific models of decision-processes. These models typically are quite mechanical, the realization of abstract mathematical “diffusion to bound” models. While effective decision-making seems to be essential for sophisticated behavior, central to an account of freedom, and a necessary characteristic of self-governing systems, it is not clear how the simple models neuroscience inspires can underlie the notion of self-g overnance. Drawing from both philosophy and neuroscience I explore ways in which the prop...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Debates over Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mental Health Evaluations at Guant ánamo
AbstractEthical debates over the use of mental health knowledge and practice at the Guant ánamo Bay detention facility have mostly revolved around military clinicians sharing detainee medical information with interrogators, falsifying death certificates in interrogations, and disagreements over whether the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) “enhanced interrogation techniques” vio lated bioethical principles to do no harm. However, debates over the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the mental health evaluations of detainees have received little attention. This paper provides the first know...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Updating our Selves: Synthesizing Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on Incorporating New Information into our Worldview
We present a plausible philosophical account of this process, whi ch we claim is generally applicable to theories about the nature of autonomy, both internalist and externalist alike. We then evaluate this account by providing a model for how the incorporation of values might occur in the brain; one that is inspired by recent theoretical and empirical advances in our understanding of the neural processes by which our beliefs are updated by new information. Finally, we synthesize these two perspectives and discuss how the neurobiology might inform the philosophical discussion. (Source: Neuroethics)
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Understanding Self-Control as a Whole vs. Part Dynamic
AbstractAlthough dual-process or divided-mind models of self-control dominate the literature, they suffer from empirical and conceptual challenges. We propose an alternative approach, suggesting that self-control can be characterized by a fragmented part versus integrated whole dynamic. Whereas responses to events derived from fragmented parts of the mind undermine self-control, responses to events derived from integrated wholes enhance self-control. We review empirical evidence from psychology and related disciplines that support this model. We, moreover, discuss the implications of this work for psychology, neuroscience,...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Bottom Up Ethics - Neuroenhancement in Education and Employment
AbstractNeuroenhancement involves the use of neurotechnologies to improve cognitive, affective or behavioural functioning, where these are not judged to be clinically impaired. Questions about enhancement have become one of the key topics of neuroethics over the past decade. The current study draws on in-depth public engagement activities in ten European countries giving a bottom-up perspective on the ethics and desirability of enhancement. This informed the design of an online contrastive vignette experiment that was administered to representative samples of 1000 respondents in the ten countries and the United States. The...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Role of Emotion Regulation in Moral Judgment
AbstractMoral judgment has typically been characterized as a conflict between emotion and reason. In recent years, a central concern has been determining which process is the chief contributor to moral behavior. While classic moral theorists claimed that moral evaluations stem from consciously controlled cognitive processes, recent research indicates that affective processes may be driving moral behavior. Here, we propose a new way of thinking about emotion within the context of moral judgment, one in which affect is generated and transformed by both automatic and controlled processes, and moral evaluations are shifted acc...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Free Will, Self-Governance and Neuroscience: An Overview
AbstractGiven dramatic increases in recent decades in the pace of scientific discovery and understanding of the functional organization of the brain, it is increasingly clear that engagement with the neuroscientific literature and research is central to making progress on philosophical questions regarding the nature and scope of human freedom and responsibility. While patterns of brain activity cannot provide the whole story, developing a deeper and more precise understanding of how brain activity is related to human choice and conduct is crucial to the development of realistic, just, and intellectually rigorous models of ...
Source: Neuroethics - October 1, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

More Autonomous or more Fenced-in? Neuroscientific Instruments and Intervention in Criminal Justice
AbstractNeuroscientific research in relation to antisocial behavior has strongly grown in the last decades. This has resulted in a better understanding of biological factors associated with antisocial behavior. Furthermore several neuroscientific instruments and interventions have been developed that have a relatively low threshold for use in the criminal justice system to contribute to prevention or reduction of antisocial and criminal behavior. When considering implementation in the criminal justice system, ethical aspects of the use of neuroscientific instruments and interventions need to be taken into account. With res...
Source: Neuroethics - September 13, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Intensity of Experience: Maher ’s Theory of Schizophrenic Delusion Revisited
AbstractMaher proposed in 1974 that schizophrenic delusions are hypotheses formed to explain anomalous experiences. He stated that they are “rational, given the intensity of the experiences that they are developed to explain.” Two-factor theorists of delusion criticized Maher’s theory because 1) it does not explain why some patients with anomalous experiences do not develop delusions, and 2) adopting and adhering to delusional hyp otheses is irrational, considering the totality of experiences and patients’ other beliefs. In this paper, the notion of the intensity of experience is reappraised to upho...
Source: Neuroethics - September 13, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

More Autonomous or more Fenced-in? Neuroscientific Instruments and Intervention in Criminal Justice
AbstractNeuroscientific research in relation to antisocial behavior has strongly grown in the last decades. This has resulted in a better understanding of biological factors associated with antisocial behavior. Furthermore several neuroscientific instruments and interventions have been developed that have a relatively low threshold for use in the criminal justice system to contribute to prevention or reduction of antisocial and criminal behavior. When considering implementation in the criminal justice system, ethical aspects of the use of neuroscientific instruments and interventions need to be taken into account. With res...
Source: Neuroethics - September 13, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research