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Mixed-Effects Modeling of Neurofeedback Self-Regulation Performance: Moderators for Learning in Children with ADHD.
Conclusion: This first study analyzing moderators of NF learning in ADHD with a mixed-effects modeling approach shows that NF performance is moderated differentially by effects of age and MPH depending on the training task and time window. Future studies may benefit from using this approach to analyze NF learning and NF specificity. The trial name Neurofeedback and Computerized Cognitive Training in Different Settings for Children and Adolescents With ADHD is registered with NCT02358941. PMID: 29765401 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zuberer A, Minder F, Brandeis D, Drechsler R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

TLR4-NF- κB Signal Involved in Depressive-Like Behaviors and Cytokine Expression of Frontal Cortex and Hippocampus in Stressed C57BL/6 and ob/ob Mice.
This study used chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) to induce a depressive-like behavior in an animal model and examine depressive-like behaviors, memory changes, and serum corticosterone levels, as well as the expressions of cytokines and NF-κB in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. We aimed to observe the role of neuroinflammation in susceptibility to depression in obesity under CUMS. In addition, we investigated the protective effect of inhibiting the TLR4-NF-κB signal. Our results demonstrated that CUMS induced depressive-like behavior and spatial memory damage, higher level of serum corticosterone, an...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Y, Xu J, Liu Y, Li Z, Li X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effect of Maternal Administration of Edible Bird's Nest on the Learning and Memory Abilities of Suckling Offspring in Mice.
In this study, by oral administration of EBN to female mice during the pregnancy or lactation period, the effects of EBN on the levels of sialic acid in mouse milk were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the spatial learning performances of their offspring were assessed using the Morris water maze test. Additionally, cerebral malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cubs nursed by the female mice given the EBN homogenate were examined, while BDNF immunohistochemical staining and neuron count in hippocamp...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xie Y, Zeng H, Huang Z, Xu H, Fan Q, Zhang Y, Zheng B Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of 20  Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Disorders of Consciousness: A Resting-State Electroencephalography Study.
This study aimed to examine the effects of 20 Hz rTMS on the electroencephalography (EEG) reactivity and clinical response in patients with DOC and to explore the neuromodulatory effects of high-frequency rTMS. In this randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study, real or sham 20 Hz rTMS was applied to the left primary motor cortex (M1) of patients with DOC for 5 consecutive days. Evaluations were blindly performed at the baseline (T0), immediately after the end of the 5 days of treatment (T1) and 1 week after the treatment (T2) using the JFK coma recovery scale-revised (CRS-R) and resting-state EEG. Only one...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: He F, Wu M, Meng F, Hu Y, Gao J, Chen Z, Bao W, Liu K, Luo B, Pan G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Koumine Attenuates Neuroglia Activation and Inflammatory Response to Neuropathic Pain.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the possible underlying mechanisms of koumine. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of koumine were explored by using chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) neuropathic pain model in vivo and LPS-induced injury in microglia BV2 cells in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis were used to assess the modulator effect of koumine on microglia and astrocyte activation after CCI surgery. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Western b...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jin GL, He SD, Lin SM, Hong LM, Chen WQ, Xu Y, Yang J, Li SP, Yu CX Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Examination Stress Results in Attentional Bias and Altered Neural Reactivity in Test-Anxious Individuals.
In conclusion, examination stress resulted in attentional bias and functional perturbations of a brain circuitry that reacted rapidly to test-related threat in high test-anxious individuals. PMID: 29755511 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Dong Y, Zhou R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Proton Pump Inhibitors and Dementia: Physiopathological Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences.
s D, Nava Mesa MO Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, mainly encompassing cognitive decline in subjects aged ≥65 years. Further, AD is characterized by selective synaptic and neuronal degeneration, vascular dysfunction, and two histopathological features: extracellular amyloid plaques composed of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles formed by hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Dementia and AD are chronic neurodegenerative conditions with a complex physiopathology involving both genetic and environmental factors. Recent clinical studies have shown that proto...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ortiz-Guerrero G, Amador-Muñoz D, Calderón-Ospina CA, López-Fuentes D, Nava Mesa MO Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Motor Imagery during Action Observation of Locomotor Tasks Improves Rehabilitation Outcome in Older Adults after Total Hip Arthroplasty.
This study aimed at determining whether the combination of action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI) of locomotor tasks could positively affect rehabilitation outcome after hip replacement surgery. Of initially 405 screened participants, 21 were randomly split into intervention group (N = 10; mean age = 64 y; AO + MI of locomotor tasks: 30 min/day in the hospital, then 3×/week in their homes for two months) and control group (N = 11, mean age = 63 y, active controls). The functional outcomes (Timed Up and Go, TUG; Four Step Square Test,...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Marusic U, Grosprêtre S, Paravlic A, Kovač S, Pišot R, Taube W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Motor Improvement of Skilled Forelimb Use Induced by Treatment with Growth Hormone and Rehabilitation Is Dependent on the Onset of the Treatment after Cortical Ablation.
os AS Abstract We previously demonstrated that the administration of GH immediately after severe motor cortex injury, in rats, followed by rehabilitation, improved the functionality of the affected limb and reexpressed nestin in the contralateral motor cortex. Here, we analyze whether these GH effects depend on a time window after the injury and on the reexpression of nestin and actin. Injured animals were treated with GH (0.15 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, at days 7, 14, and 35 after cortical ablation. Rehabilitation was applied at short and long term (LTR) after the lesion and then sacrificed. Nestin and actin w...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Heredia M, Palomero J, de la Fuente A, Criado JM, Yajeya J, Devesa J, Devesa P, Vicente-Villardón JL, Riolobos AS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Anticorrelations between Active Brain Regions: An Agent-Based Model Simulation Study.
Abstract Anticorrelations among brain areas observed in fMRI acquisitions under resting state are not endowed with a well-defined set of characters. Some evidence points to a possible physiological role for them, and simulation models showed that it is appropriate to explore such an issue. A large-scale brain representation was considered, implementing an agent-based brain-inspired model (ABBM) incorporating the SER (susceptible-excited-refractory) cyclic mechanism of state change. The experimental data used for validation included 30 selected functional images of healthy controls from the 1000 Functional Connecto...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Parente F, Colosimo A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Synaptic Paths to Neurodegeneration: The Emerging Role of TDP-43 and FUS in Synaptic Functions.
Abstract TAR DNA-binding protein-43 KDa (TDP-43) and fused in sarcoma (FUS) as the defining pathological hallmarks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), coupled with ALS-FTD-causing mutations in both genes, indicate that their dysfunctions damage the motor system and cognition. On the molecular level, TDP-43 and FUS participate in the biogenesis and metabolism of coding and noncoding RNAs as well as in the transport and translation of mRNAs as part of cytoplasmic mRNA-ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) granules. Intriguingly, many of the RNA targets of TDP-43 and FUS are involved ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ling SC Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Exploring Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction and Delirium in Noncardiac Surgery Using MRI: A Systematic Review.
sghar MS Abstract Surgical patients are at high risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and postoperative delirium (POD). POCD and POD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and worsening functional outcomes leading to severe socioeconomic consequences for the patient and the society in general. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a unique opportunity to study the anatomy and function of the brain. MRI thus plays an important role in elucidating the neuronal component of POCD and POD. Our aim has been to systematically gather MRI findings that are related to POCD and POD. S...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang C, Mårtensson J, Gögenur I, Asghar MS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Theta Burst Stimulation Enhances Connectivity of the Dorsal Attention Network in Young Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study.
We examined effects of theta burst stimulation (TBS) applied over two distinct cortical areas (the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule) on the Stroop task performance in 20 young healthy subjects. Neural underpinnings of the behavioral effect were tested using fMRI. A single session of intermittent TBS of the left superior parietal lobule induced certain cognitive speed enhancement and significantly increased resting-state connectivity of the dorsal attention network. This is an exploratory study that prompts further research with multiple-session TBS in subjects with cognitive impairment. ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Anderkova L, Pizem D, Klobusiakova P, Gajdos M, Koritakova E, Rektorova I Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Evaluation of Neural Network Development in Patients Undergoing Therapeutic Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation following Stroke.
Abstract We aimed to investigate plastic changes in cerebral white matter structures using diffusion tensor imaging following a 15-day stroke rehabilitation program. We compared the detection of cerebral plasticity between generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), a novel tool for investigating white matter structures, and fractional anisotropy (FA). Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) of 2400 pulses applied to the nonlesional hemisphere and 240 min intensive occupation therapy (OT) daily over 15 days. Motor function was evaluated using the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and Wol...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamada N, Ueda R, Kakuda W, Momosaki R, Kondo T, Hada T, Sasaki N, Hara T, Senoo A, Abo M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery Improves Mental Imagery Ability, Disease Severity, and Motor and Cognitive Functions in People with Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract People with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience kinesthetic deficits, which affect motor and nonmotor functions, including mental imagery. Imagery training is a recommended, yet underresearched, approach in PD rehabilitation. Dynamic Neuro-Cognitive Imagery (DNI™) is a codified method for imagery training. Twenty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III) were randomly allocated into DNI training (experimental; n = 10) or in-home learning and exercise program (control; n = 10). Both groups completed at least 16 hours of training within two weeks. DNI training focused on anatomical emb...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Abraham A, Hart A, Andrade I, Hackney ME Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Biomarkers of Rehabilitation Therapy Vary according to Stroke Severity.
We examined the performance of candidate structural, functional, and angiogenesis-related MRI biomarkers before and after a 3-week course of standardized robotic therapy in 18 patients with chronic stroke and hypothesized that results vary significantly according to stroke severity. Patients were 4.1 ± 1 months poststroke, with baseline arm Fugl-Meyer scores of 20-60. When all patients were examined together, no imaging measure changed over time in a manner that correlated with treatment-induced motor gains. However, when also considering the interaction with baseline motor status, treatment-induced mo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Quinlan EB, Dodakian L, See J, McKenzie A, Stewart JC, Cramer SC Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Targeted Neuromodulation of Abnormal Interhemispheric Connectivity to Promote Neural Plasticity and Recovery of Arm Function after Stroke: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial Study Protocol.
Conclusion: The findings from this single-site early stage clinical trial will provide foundational results to inform the design of larger-scale, multisite clinical trials to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ihPAS-based neuromodulation for upper limb recovery after stroke. This trial is registered with NCT02465034. PMID: 29721010 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Borich MR, Wolf SL, Tan AQ, Palmer JA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

NMDA Receptor Subunits Change after Synaptic Plasticity Induction and Learning and Memory Acquisition.
Abstract NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are crucial in activity-dependent synaptic changes and in learning and memory. NMDARs are composed of two GluN1 essential subunits and two regulatory subunits which define their pharmacological and physiological profile. In CNS structures involved in cognitive functions as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, GluN2A and GluN2B are major regulatory subunits; their expression is dynamic and tightly regulated, but little is known about specific changes after plasticity induction or memory acquisition. Data strongly suggest that following appropriate stimulation,...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Baez MV, Cercato MC, Jerusalinsky DA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Instrumental or Physical-Exercise Rehabilitation of Balance Improves Both Balance and Gait in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract We hypothesised that rehabilitation specifically addressing balance in Parkinson's disease patients might improve not only balance but locomotion as well. Two balance-training protocols (standing on a moving platform and traditional balance exercises) were assessed by assigning patients to two groups (Platform, n = 15, and Exercises, n = 17). The platform moved periodically in the anteroposterior, laterolateral, and oblique direction, with and without vision in different trials. Balance exercises were based on the Otago Exercise Program. Both platform and exercise sessions were administered from easy to d...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Giardini M, Nardone A, Godi M, Guglielmetti S, Arcolin I, Pisano F, Schieppati M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

How Visual Body Perception Influences Somatosensory Plasticity.
Abstract The study of somatosensory plasticity offers unique insights into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie human adaptive and maladaptive plasticity. So far, little attention has been paid on the specific influence of visual body perception on somatosensory plasticity and learning in humans. Here, we review evidence on how visual body perception induces changes in the functional architecture of the somatosensory system and discuss the specific influence the social environment has on tactile plasticity and learning. We focus on studies that have been published in the areas of human cognitive and clinical neur...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuehn E, Pleger B Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Exercise Intervention Associated with Cognitive Improvement in Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the syndrome of cognitive and functional decline. Pharmacotherapy has always been in a dominant position for the treatment of AD. However, in most cases, drug therapy is accompanied with clinical delays when older adults have suffered from cognitive decline in episodic memory, working memory, and executive function. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise intervention may ameliorate the progression of cognitive impairment in aging ones while the standard strategy is lacking based on different levels of cogniti...
Source: Neural Plasticity - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui MY, Lin Y, Sheng JY, Zhang X, Cui RJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Regulation of Central Nervous System Myelination in Higher Brain Functions.
Abstract The hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are interconnected brain regions, playing central roles in higher brain functions, including learning and memory, planning complex cognitive behavior, and moderating social behavior. The axons in these regions continue to be myelinated into adulthood in humans, which coincides with maturation of personality and decision-making. Myelin consists of dense layers of lipid membranes wrapping around the axons to provide electrical insulation and trophic support and can profoundly affect neural circuit computation. Recent studies have revealed that long-lasting changes o...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nickel M, Gu C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical Alterations in Patients with Early Stage of Unilateral Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.
Abstract During the past several years, the rapid development of neuroimaging techniques has contributed greatly in the noninvasive imaging studies of tinnitus. The aim of the present study was to explore the brain anatomical alterations in patients with right-sided unilateral pulsatile tinnitus (PT) in the early stage of PT symptom using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Twenty-four patients with right-sided pulsatile tinnitus and 24 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited to this study. Structural image data preprocessing was performed using VBM8 toolbox. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) sc...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Lv H, Zhao P, Liu Z, Chen W, Gong S, Wang Z, Zhu JM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Photoperiod-Induced Neuroplasticity in the Circadian System.
Abstract Seasonal changes in light exposure have profound effects on behavioral and physiological functions in many species, including effects on mood and cognitive function in humans. The mammalian brain's master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), transmits information about external light conditions to other brain regions, including some implicated in mood and cognition. Although the detailed mechanisms are not yet known, the SCN undergoes highly plastic changes at the cellular and network levels under different light conditions. We therefore propose that the SCN may be an essential mediator of ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Porcu A, Riddle M, Dulcis D, Welsh DK Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: An fMRI Study.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the structural and functional connectivity (FC) of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and rs-fMRI data were collected in 25 patients with JME and in 24 control subjects. A FC analysis was subsequently performed, with seeding at the regions that demonstrated between-group differences in gray matter volume (GMV). Then, the observed structural and FCs were associated with the clinical manifestations. The decreased GMV regions were found in t...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhong C, Liu R, Luo C, Jiang S, Dong L, Peng R, Guo F, Wang P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Recovery of the 20  Hz Rebound to Tactile and Proprioceptive Stimulation after Stroke.
Recovery of the 20 Hz Rebound to Tactile and Proprioceptive Stimulation after Stroke. Neural Plast. 2018;2018:7395798 Authors: Parkkonen E, Laaksonen K, Parkkonen L, Forss N Abstract Sensorimotor integration is closely linked to changes in motor-cortical excitability, observable in the modulation of the 20 Hz rhythm. After somatosensory stimulation, the rhythm transiently increases as a rebound that reflects motor-cortex inhibition. Stroke-induced alterations in afferent input likely affect motor-cortex excitability and motor recovery. To study the role of somatosensory afferents in moto...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Parkkonen E, Laaksonen K, Parkkonen L, Forss N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Stimulating the Healthy Brain to Investigate Neural Correlates of Motor Preparation: A Systematic Review.
Conclusions: Despite methodological heterogeneity among studies, results support a functional implication of five cortical regions (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex), integrated into a frontoparietal network, in various components of motor preparation ranging from attentional to motor aspects. PMID: 29670648 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Neige C, Massé-Alarie H, Mercier C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Synaptic Plasticity and Excitation-Inhibition Balance in the Dentate Gyrus: Insights from In Vivo Recordings in Neuroligin-1, Neuroligin-2, and Collybistin Knockouts.
Abstract The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a role in spatial learning and memory and is thought to encode differences between similar environments. The integrity of excitatory and inhibitory transmission and a fine balance between them is essential for efficient processing of information. Therefore, identification and functional characterization of crucial molecular players at excitatory and inhibitory inputs is critical for understanding the dentate gyrus function. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies unraveling molecular mechanisms of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission, long-term synaptic pla...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jedlicka P, Muellerleile J, Schwarzacher SW Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Age-Related Differences in Cortical and Subcortical Activities during Observation and Motor Imagery of Dynamic Postural Tasks: An fMRI Study.
Abstract Age-related changes in brain activation other than in the primary motor cortex are not well known with respect to dynamic balance control. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore age-related differences in the control of static and dynamic postural tasks using fMRI during mental simulation of balance tasks. For this purpose, 16 elderly (72 ± 5 years) and 16 young adults (27 ± 5 years) were asked to mentally simulate a static and a dynamic balance task by motor imagery (MI), action observation (AO), or the combination of AO and MI (AO + MI). Age...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mouthon A, Ruffieux J, Mouthon M, Hoogewoud HM, Annoni JM, Taube W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Time-Compressed Speech Training on Multiple Functional and Structural Neural Mechanisms Involving the Left Superior Temporal Gyrus.
Abstract Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant di...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Maruyama T, Takeuchi H, Taki Y, Motoki K, Jeong H, Kotozaki Y, Nakagawa S, Nouchi R, Iizuka K, Yokoyama R, Yamamoto Y, Hanawa S, Araki T, Sakaki K, Sasaki Y, Magistro D, Kawashima R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Role of Cell Adhesion Molecule Genes Regulating Neuroplasticity in Addiction.
Abstract A variety of genetic approaches, including twin studies, linkage studies, and candidate gene studies, has established a firm genetic basis for addiction. However, there has been difficulty identifying the precise genes that underlie addiction liability using these approaches. This situation became especially clear in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of addiction. Moreover, the results of GWAS brought into clarity many of the shortcomings of those early genetic approaches. GWAS studies stripped away those preconceived notions, examining genes that would not previously have been considered in the stud...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Muskiewicz DE, Uhl GR, Hall FS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulating Brain Connectivity by Simultaneous Dual-Mode Stimulation over Bilateral Primary Motor Cortices in Subacute Stroke Patients.
In this study, simultaneous stimulation using both rTMS and tDCS (dual-mode stimulation) over bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) was investigated to compare its modulatory effects with single rTMS stimulation over the ipsilesional M1 in subacute stroke patients. Twenty-four patients participated; 12 participants were assigned to the dual-mode stimulation group while the other 12 participants were assigned to the rTMS-only group. We assessed each patient's motor function using the Fugl-Meyer assessment score and acquired their resting-state fMRI data at two times: prior to stimulation and 2 months after stimulation. Twe...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee J, Park E, Lee A, Chang WH, Kim DS, Shin YI, Kim YH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Recovery of Chronic Stress-Triggered Changes of Hippocampal Glutamatergic Transmission.
In conclusion, spontaneous recovery acts as an important mechanism in system homeostasis. PMID: 29666637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin M, Hou G, Zhao Y, Yuan TF Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Bilateral Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Reshapes Resting-State Brain Networks: A Magnetoencephalography Assessment.
Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can noninvasively induce brain plasticity, and it is potentially useful to treat patients affected by neurological conditions. However, little is known about tDCS effects on resting-state brain networks, which are largely involved in brain physiological functions and in diseases. In this randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study on healthy subjects, we have assessed the effect of bilateral tDCS applied over the sensorimotor cortices on brain and network activity using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system. Bilateral tDCS, with the cathode (-) cente...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pellegrino G, Maran M, Turco C, Weis L, Di Pino G, Piccione F, Arcara G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Perinatal Programming of Circadian Clock-Stress Crosstalk.
Abstract An intact communication between circadian clocks and the stress system is important for maintaining physiological homeostasis under resting conditions and in response to external stimuli. There is accumulating evidence for a reciprocal interaction between both-from the systemic to the molecular level. Disruption of this interaction by external factors such as shiftwork, jetlag, or chronic stress increases the risk of developing metabolic, immune, or mood disorders. From experiments in rodents, we know that both systems maturate during the perinatal period. During that time, exogenous factors such as stres...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Astiz M, Oster H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Precision Light for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders.
This article is a contribution to a special issue on Circadian Rhythms in Regulation of Brain Processes and Role in Psychiatric Disorders curated by editors Shimon Amir, Karen Gamble, Oliver Stork, and Harry Pantazopoulos. PMID: 29593784 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaladchibachi S, Fernandez F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Circadian Regulation of Hippocampal-Dependent Memory: Circuits, Synapses, and Molecular Mechanisms.
Abstract Circadian modulation of learning and memory efficiency is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, occurring in organisms ranging from invertebrates to higher mammalian species, including humans. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master mammalian pacemaker, recent evidence suggests that forebrain regions, including the hippocampus, exhibit oscillatory capacity. This finding, as well as work on the cellular signaling events that underlie learning and memory, has opened promising new avenues of investigation into the precise cellular, molecular, and circuit-based me...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Snider KH, Sullivan KA, Obrietan K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Acoustic Trauma Changes the Parvalbumin-Positive Neurons in Rat Auditory Cortex.
Abstract Acoustic trauma is being reported to damage the auditory periphery and central system, and the compromised cortical inhibition is involved in auditory disorders, such as hyperacusis and tinnitus. Parvalbumin-containing neurons (PV neurons), a subset of GABAergic neurons, greatly shape and synchronize neural network activities. However, the change of PV neurons following acoustic trauma remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated how auditory cortical PV neurons change following unilateral 1 hour noise exposure (left ear, one octave band noise centered at 16 kHz, 116 dB SPL). Noi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu C, Xu T, Liu X, Huang Y, Wang H, Luo B, Sun J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Photoperiodic Programming of the SCN and Its Role in Photoperiodic Output.
Abstract Though the seasonal response of organisms to changing day lengths is a phenomenon that has been scientifically reported for nearly a century, significant questions remain about how photoperiod is encoded and effected neurobiologically. In mammals, early work identified the master circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), as a tentative encoder of photoperiodic information. Here, we provide an overview of research on the SCN as a coordinator of photoperiodic responses, the intercellular coupling changes that accompany that coordination, as well as the SCN's role in a putative brain network control...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tackenberg MC, McMahon DG Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Ropinirole and Pramipexole Promote Structural Plasticity in Human iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons via BDNF and mTOR Signaling.
Abstract The antiparkinsonian ropinirole and pramipexole are D3 receptor- (D3R-) preferring dopaminergic (DA) agonists used as adjunctive therapeutics for the treatment resistant depression (TRD). While the exact antidepressant mechanism of action remains uncertain, a role for D3R in the restoration of impaired neuroplasticity occurring in TRD has been proposed. Since D3R agonists are highly expressed on DA neurons in humans, we studied the effect of ropinirole and pramipexole on structural plasticity using a translational model of human-inducible pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Two hiPSC clones from healthy dono...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Collo G, Cavalleri L, Bono F, Mora C, Fedele S, Invernizzi RW, Gennarelli M, Piovani G, Kunath T, Millan MJ, Merlo Pich E, Spano P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Proteolytic Remodeling of Perineuronal Nets: Effects on Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Population Dynamics.
Abstract The perineuronal net (PNN) represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV-) positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples. The present review is focused on the comp...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lorenzo Bozzelli P, Alaiyed S, Kim E, Villapol S, Conant K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Astrocytes and the Warning Signs of Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Abstract Two decades into the two thousands, intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) continues to reap lives across the globe. In the US, nearly 12,000 people suffer from ICH every year. Half of them survive, but many are left with permanent physical and cognitive disabilities, the severity of which depends on the location and broadness of the brain region affected by the hemorrhage. The ongoing efforts to identify risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke have been instrumental for the development of new medical practices to prevent, aid the recovery and reduce the risk of recurring ICH. Recent efforts approach the stud...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Scimemi A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

New Insights into the Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Noradrenergic System in Memory and Perception Dysfunction.
PMID: 29270321 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Eschenko O, Mello-Carpes PB, Hansen N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Glucose Intake Alters Expression of Neuropeptides Derived from Proopiomelanocortin in the Lateral Hypothalamus and the Nucleus Accumbens in Fructose Preference Rats.
Abstract To study the neuroendocrine mechanism of sugar preference, we investigated the role of glucose feeding in the regulation of expression levels of neuropeptides derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in fructose preference rats. Fructose preference rats were induced by using the lithium chloride backward conditioning procedure. The fructose preference was confirmed by the two-bottle test. The drinking behavior of rats was assessed by the fructose concentration gradient test. The preference of 10% glucose or 0.1% saccharine was assessed, and the e...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 19, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiao G, Zhang G, Wang H, Zhao W, Cui Y, Liu Y, Gao F, Yuan F, Zhang Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Modulates CNTF-Induced Axonal Growth and Neuroprotection in the Mouse Visual System.
Abstract The lack of axonal regeneration and neuronal cell death causes permanent neurological deficits in the injured CNS. Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal growth, but in an incomplete fashion. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms impairing CNTF-induced axonal regeneration is paramount to promote visual recovery. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the contribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) to the neuroprotective and regenerative effects of CNTF...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Joly S, Dalkara D, Pernet V Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hippocampal Regulation of Postsynaptic Density Homer1 by Associative Learning.
Abstract Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated. Here, we used in situ hybridization ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Clifton NE, Cameron D, Trent S, Sykes LH, Thomas KL, Hall J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Mood Disorders: Insights into the Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.
Abstract Circadian rhythm disturbances are a common symptom among individuals with mood disorders. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), in the ventral part of the anterior hypothalamus, orchestrates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. The SCN consists of self-sustaining oscillators and receives photic and nonphotic cues, which entrain the SCN to the external environment. In turn, through synaptic and hormonal mechanisms, the SCN can drive and synchronize circadian rhythms in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues. Thus, genetic or environmental perturbations of SCN rhythms could disrupt brain reg...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Vadnie CA, McClung CA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Regionally Specific Regulation of Sensorimotor Network Connectivity Following Tactile Improvement.
e T Abstract Correlations between inherent, task-free low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals of the brain provide a potent tool to delineate its functional architecture in terms of intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC). Still, it remains unclear how iFC is modulated during learning. We employed whole-brain resting-state magnetic resonance imaging prior to and after training-independent repetitive sensory stimulation (rSS), which is known to induce somatosensory cortical reorganization. We investigated which areas in the sensorimotor network are susceptible to neural pl...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Heba S, Lenz M, Kalisch T, Höffken O, Schweizer LM, Glaubitz B, Puts NAJ, Tegenthoff M, Dinse HR, Schmidt-Wilcke T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation Effects of Cordycepin on Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in the Presence/Absence of Oxygen.
Abstract Our previous study revealed that cordycepin features important neuroprotective effects against hypoxic insult by improvement of neuronal electrophysiological function. Modulation on voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) in CA1 neurons is the initial event during hypoxia/ischemia. However, no study comprehensively investigated cordycepin on VGSC. Hence, this study investigated modulation effects of cordycepin on VGSC not only in oxygen physiological conditions but also in acute oxygen deprivation injury conditions. Results revealed that cordycepin (80 μM) reduced the amplitude of VGSC currents (INa...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu ZB, Liu C, Zeng B, Huang LP, Yao LH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Correlation between Traits of Emotion-Based Impulsivity and Intrinsic Default-Mode Network Activity.
Abstract Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anter...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao J, Tomasi D, Wiers CE, Shokri-Kojori E, Demiral ŞB, Zhang Y, Volkow ND, Wang GJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research