Circuitry and Synaptic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease: A New Tau Hypothesis.
ntilde;a-Ortega F Abstract For more than five decades, the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has focused on two main hypotheses positing amyloid-beta (Aβ) and Tau phosphorylation (pTau) as key pathogenic mediators. In line with these canonical hypotheses, several groups around the world have shown that the synaptotoxicity in AD depends mainly on the increase in pTau levels. Confronting this leading hypothesis, a few years ago, we reported that the increase in phosphorylation levels of dendritic Tau, at its microtubule domain (MD), acts as a neuroprotective mechanism that prevents N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mondragón-Rodríguez S, Salgado-Burgos H, Peña-Ortega F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroencephalographic and Neuroimaging Asymmetry Correlation in Patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Abstract The present study explores the correlation between electroencephalographic and neuroimaging asymmetry index from EEG-MRI functional connectome and EEG power analysis in inattention, motion, and mixed profile subgroups of ADHD. Sixty-two subjects from Healthy Brain Network Biobank of the Child Mind Institute dataset were selected basing on the quotient score. From both MRI and EEG asymmetry index, Pearson's correlation, ANOVA, and partial least square analysis were performed matching left and right brain parcels and channels. The asymmetry index significantly correlated across subjects between fMRI and pow...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Longarzo M, Cavaliere C, Alfano V, Mele G, Salvatore M, Aiello M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cochlear Implantation in a Patient with a Novel POU3F4 Mutation and Incomplete Partition Type-III Malformation.
Conclusion: A novel frame shift variant c.400_401insACTC (p.Q136LfsX58) in the POU3F4 gene was identified in a Chinese family with X-linked inheritance hearing loss. A patient with this mutation and IP-III malformation could get good benefits from CI. However, the outcomes of the cochlear implantation might decline as the patient grows old. PMID: 32952548 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chao X, Xiao Y, Zhang F, Luo J, Wang R, Liu W, Wang H, Xu L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

In Vivo Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Striatums Is Related to Decreased Astrocytic BDNF in Itpr2-/- Mice Exhibiting Depressive-Like Behavior.
Conclusion: By combining biochemistry and MR analyses, this study provides evidences to support that the Itpr2-related neuropathological effect is possibly mediated by the striatal abnormality associated with dysfunctional astrocytes in Itpr2 -/- mice in vivo, thus may help us better understand underlying mechanisms of Itpr2 deficiency as well as its relation to depressive-like behavior. PMID: 32952549 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeng S, Liu K, Zhang J, Chen C, Xu Y, Wu Y, Deng Y, Sun X, Wen G, Jing L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Microglia TREM2: A Potential Role in the Mechanism of Action of Electroacupuncture in an Alzheimer's Disease Animal Model.
In this study, we applied senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 mice as the AD animal model, used the Morris water maze, and applied hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunofluorescence double staining, and Western blotting, to explore the effects and potential mechanisms of action of electroacupuncture. In summary, this study suggested that electroacupuncture treatment could improve the learning and memory abilities (p
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Jiang J, Tang Q, Tian H, Wang S, Wang Z, Liu H, Yang J, Ren J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Acupuncture Modulates Disrupted Whole-Brain Network after Ischemic Stroke: Evidence Based on Graph Theory Analysis.
Conclusion: The poststroke whole-brain network tended to a random network with reduced network efficiency. Acupuncture was able to modulate the disrupted patterns of the whole-brain network following the subcortical ischemic stroke. Our findings shed light on the potential mechanisms of the functional reorganization on poststroke brain networks involving acupuncture intervention from a large-scale perspective. PMID: 32922447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Han X, Jin H, Li K, Ning Y, Jiang L, Chen P, Liu H, Zhang Y, Zhang H, Tan Z, Cui F, Ren Y, Bai L, Zou Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Erratum to "Ketamine Administration Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Alterations in Excitatory and Inhibitory Transmission in the Rat Dorsal Raphe Nucleus".
Erratum to "Ketamine Administration Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Alterations in Excitatory and Inhibitory Transmission in the Rat Dorsal Raphe Nucleus". Neural Plast. 2020;2020:1514094 Authors: Sowa J, Kusek M, Bobula B, Hess G, Tokarski K Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2019/3219490.]. PMID: 32908481 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sowa J, Kusek M, Bobula B, Hess G, Tokarski K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A Customized Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Panel to Identify Novel Genetic Variants in Dementing Disorders: A Pilot Study.
Conclusions: Notwithstanding the preliminary value of this study, some rare genetic variants with a probable disease association were detected. Although future application of NGS-based sensors and further replication of these experimental data are needed, this approach seems to offer promising translational perspectives in the diagnosis and management of a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID: 32908482 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lanza G, Calì F, Vinci M, Cosentino FII, Tripodi M, Spada RS, Cantone M, Bella R, Mattina T, Ferri R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mindfulness Training Enhances Endurance Performance and Executive Functions in Athletes: An Event-Related Potential Study.
This study sought to examine whether a mindfulness training program would affect both the endurance performance and executive functions of athletes. In addition, event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with the Stroop task were assessed to investigate the potential electrophysiological activation associated with the mindfulness training. Applying a quasiexperimental design, forty-six university athletes were recruited and assigned into a five-week mindfulness training program or a waiting list control group. For each participant, the mindfulness level, endurance performance assessed by a graded exercise test, executive ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nien JT, Wu CH, Yang KT, Cho YM, Chu CH, Chang YK, Zhou C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Suppress Hippocampal Neuron Autophagy Stress Induced by Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage: The Possible Role of Endogenous IL-6 Secretion.
Conclusion: Endogenous IL-6 in MSCs may reduce autophagy in hippocampal neurons partly through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID: 32908484 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang M, Sun W, Xiao L, He M, Gu Y, Yang T, Chen J, Liang X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Inhibited CSF1R Alleviates Ischemia Injury via Inhibition of Microglia M1 Polarization and NLRP3 Pathway.
In this study, cerebral ischemia stroke mice model was established. The C57/B6J mice were administered with Ki20227, a CSF1R inhibitor, by gavage for 7 consecutive days (0.002 mg/kg/day) before modeling. The Rota-Rod test and neurobehavioral score test were investigated to assess neurobehavioral functions. The area of infarction was assessed by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The mRNA expressions of M1/M2 microglia markers were evaluated by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were utilized to detect the changes of Iba1 and NLRP3 pathway proteins. Results showed that neurobehavior...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Du X, Xu Y, Chen S, Fang M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Disease Stage-Associated Alterations in Learning and Memory through the Electroacupuncture Modulation of the Cortical Microglial M1/M2 Polarization in Mice with Alzheimer's Disease.
In this study, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints for 16 weeks could improve learning and memory in the Morris water maze test and reduce amyloid β-protein in the parietal association cortex and entorhinal cortex in mice with mild and moderate AD. Besides, electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints not only suppressed M1 marker (iNOS/IL-1β) expression but also increased the M2 marker (CD206/Arg1) expression in those regions. We propose that electroacupuncture at the Shenting and Baihui acupoints could regulate microglial polarization and decrease Aβ plaq...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li L, Li L, Zhang J, Huang S, Liu W, Wang Z, Liang S, Tao J, Chen L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Therapeutic Targets in Auditory Neuropathy.
Abstract Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) becomes an inevitable worldwide public health issue, and deafness treatment is urgently imperative; yet their current curative therapy is limited. Auditory neuropathies (AN) were proved to play a substantial role in SNHL recently, and spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) dysfunction is a dominant pathogenesis of AN. Auditory pathway is a high energy consumption system, and SGNs required sufficient mitochondria. Mitochondria are known treatment target of SNHL, but mitochondrion mechanism and pathology in SGNs are not valued. Mitochondrial dysfunction and pharmacological therapy we...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng B, Jin C, Cheng Z, Zhao X, Sun Z, Zheng X, Li X, Dong T, Tao Y, Wu H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Mediating Effects of Coping Style on the Effects of Breath Count Mindfulness Training on Depressive Symptoms among International Students in China.
This study has certain theoretical significance in exploring the mechanism of the occurrence and development of depression among international students and provides useful tools for this special group of international students. In addition, the international students can also learn Chinese culture through the training. These findings indicate that mindfulness training and positive coping style are interrelated with treating depressive symptoms for international students. PMID: 32908488 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu S, Li Y, Liang F, Feng R, Zeng Z, Wang F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Separate Causes of Hearing Loss in One Deaf Family and Variable Clinical Manifestations for the p.R161C Mutation in SOX10.
In this study, we applied targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to resolve the genetic etiology of hearing loss in a Chinese Han family with multiple affected family members. Targeted sequencing of 415 deafness-related genes identified the heterozygous c.481C>T (p.R161C) mutation in SOX10 and the homozygous c.235delC (p.L79Cfs∗3) mutation in GJB2 as separate pathogenic mutations in distinct affected family members. The SOX10 c.481C>T (p.R161C) mutation has been previously reported in a Caucasian patient with Kallmann syndrome that features congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with anosmia. In contrast,...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu X, Lin Y, Wu H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

GPER-Deficient Rats Exhibit Lower Serum Corticosterone Level and Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior.
Abstract Ample evidence suggests that estrogens have strong influences on the occurrence of stress-related mood disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Through multiple approaches, we demonstrate that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is widely distributed along the HPA axis and in brain structures critically involved in mood control. Genetic ablation of GPER in the rat resulted in significantly lower basal serum corticosterone level but enhanced ACTH release in response to acute restraint stress, especially in the female. GPER-/- rats of either sex displayed increased anxie...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng Y, Wu M, Gao T, Meng L, Ding X, Meng Y, Jiao Y, Luo P, He Z, Sun T, Zhang G, Shi X, Rong W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Machine Learning in Neuroimaging: A New Approach to Understand Acupuncture for Neuroplasticity.
Abstract The effects of acupuncture facilitating neural plasticity for treating diseases have been identified by clinical and experimental studies. In the last two decades, the application of neuroimaging techniques in acupuncture research provided visualized evidence for acupuncture promoting neuroplasticity. Recently, the integration of machine learning (ML) and neuroimaging techniques becomes a focus in neuroscience and brings a new and promising approach to understand the facilitation of acupuncture on neuroplasticity at the individual level. This review is aimed at providing an overview of this rapidly growin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin T, Ma P, Tian Z, Xie K, He Z, Sun R, Zeng F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A Novel Spontaneous Mutation of the SOX10 Gene Associated with Waardenburg Syndrome Type II.
We report the case of a proband in a Chinese family who was diagnosed with WS type II. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of the proband detected a novel heterozygous spontaneous mutation: SOX10 c.246delC. According to analysis based on nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, this mutation may produce a truncated protein, with loss of the HMG structure domain. Therefore, this truncated protein may fail to activate the expression of the MITF gene, which regulates melanocytic development and plays a key role in WS. Our finding expands the database of SOX10 mutations associated with WS and provides more information regarding the mol...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen S, Jin Y, Xie L, Xie W, Xu K, Qiu Y, Bai X, Zhang HM, Liu XZ, Wang XH, Kong WJ, Sun Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Neuropharmacological Effects of Mesaconitine: Evidence from Molecular and Cellular Basis of Neural Circuit.
Abstract Mesaconitine (MA), a diester-diterpenoid alkaloid in aconite roots, is considered to be one of the most important bioactive ingredients. In this review, we summarized its neuropharmacological effects, including analgesic effects and antiepileptiform effects. Mesaconitine can act on the central noradrenergic system and the serotonin system; behaving like the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants that increase norepinephrine levels in stress-induced depression. Therefore, the possible perspectives for future studies on the depression of MA were also discussed as well. The pharmaco...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun Z, Yang L, Zhao L, Cui R, Yang W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Biases of Happy Faces in Face Classification Processing of Depression in Chinese Patients.
Abstract We explored the face classification processing mechanism in depressed patients, especially the biases of happy faces in face classification processing of depression. Thirty patients with the first episode of depression at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University were selected as the depression group, while healthy people matched for age, gender, and educational level were assigned to the control group. The Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale were used to select the subjects; then, we used the forced face classification paradigm to collect behavioral (response time and ac...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tong Y, Zhao G, Zhao J, Xie N, Han D, Yang B, Liu Q, Sun H, Yang Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Toll-Like Receptor 2 Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in Dentate Gyrus of Rats.
Abstract It was not clear how and whether neural stem cells (NSCs) responded to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the inflammatory environment after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study investigated the correlation of TLR2 and NSC proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) using the TBI model of rats. Immunofluorescence (IF) was used to observe the expression of BrdU, nestin, and TLR2 in the DG in morphology. Proliferating cells in the DG were labelled by thymidine analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Three-labelled BrdU, nestin, and DAPI was used for the identification of newly generated NSCs. Western blott...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang X, Hei Y, Bai W, Huang T, Kang E, Chen H, Kong C, Yang Y, Ye Y, He X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture-Induced Plasticity between Different Representations in Human Motor Cortex.
Abstract Somatosensory stimulation can effectively induce plasticity in the motor cortex representation of the stimulated body part. Specific interactions have been reported between different representations within the primary motor cortex. However, studies evaluating somatosensory stimulation-induced plasticity between different representations within the primary motor cortex are sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of somatosensory stimulation on the modulation of plasticity between different representations within the primary motor cortex. Twelve healthy volunteers received both elect...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Peng W, Yang T, Yuan J, Huang J, Liu J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Effects of 1  mA tACS and tRNS on Children/Adolescents and Adults: Investigating Age and Sensitivity to Sham Stimulation.
This study contributes to the findings that noninvasive brain stimulation is well tolerated in children and adolescents including tACS, which has not been studied before. Finally, our study supports a modulating role of sensitivity to sham stimulation on responsiveness to a broader stimulation and age range. PMID: 32855633 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Splittgerber M, Suwelack JH, Kadish NE, Moliadze V Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A New Chief Editor for Neural Plasticity Growth.
Abstract Neural Plasticity is pleased to announce the appointment of Dr. Michel Baudry as its new Chief Editor. Dr. Baudry is currently University Professor at Western University of Health Sciences in Pomona, CA. In this Editorial, Dr. Baudry describes some of the journal's journey and current status, and shares his vision and aspirations for its future. PMID: 32802033 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baudry M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Outcomes and Adverse Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on the Ventral Intermediate Nucleus in Patients with Essential Tremor.
This study was aimed at identifying the potential outcome predictors, comparing the efficacy in patients with different tremor characteristics, and summarizing the adverse effect rates (AERs) of deep brain stimulation on the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM-DBS) for essential tremor (ET). Methods: An extensive search of articles published to date in 2019 was conducted, and two main aspects were analyzed. Improvement was calculated as a percentage of change in any objective tremor rating scale (TRS) and analyzed by subgroup analyses of patients' tremor characteristics, laterality, and stimulation parameters. Furthermo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu G, Luo L, Liu M, Zheng Z, Zhang B, Chen X, Hua X, Fan H, Mo G, Duan J, Li M, Hong T, Zhou D Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Transcript Profiles of Stria Vascularis in Models of Waardenburg Syndrome.
Conclusions: Our data suggests that there is a significant difference on the gene expression and function between these two models. PMID: 32802035 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen L, Wang L, Chen L, Wang F, Ji F, Sun W, Zhao H, Han W, Yang S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Injury through Promotion of Synaptic and Neuronal Health.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia is a common cerebrovascular condition which often induces neuronal apoptosis, leading to brain damage. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been reported to be involved in ischemic stroke, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that expressions of Shh, Ptch, and Gli-1 were significantly downregulated at 24 h following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injury in neurons in vitro, effects which were associated with increasing numbers of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species generation. In addition, expressio...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yin S, Bai X, Xin D, Li T, Chu X, Ke H, Han M, Chen W, Li X, Wang Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Approaches to Restore Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Mammals.
Abstract The hair cells that reside in the cochlear sensory epithelium are the fundamental sensory structures responsible for understanding the mechanical sound waves evoked in the environment. The intense damage to these sensory structures may result in permanent hearing loss. The present strategies to rehabilitate the hearing function include either hearing aids or cochlear implants that may recover the hearing capability of deaf patients to a limited extent. Therefore, much attention has been paid on developing regenerative therapies to regenerate/replace the lost hair cells to treat the damaged cochlear sensor...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Waqas M, Us-Salam I, Bibi Z, Wang Y, Li H, Zhu Z, He S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hearing Phenotypes of Patients with Hearing Loss Homozygous for the GJB2 c.235delc Mutation.
Abstract Hereditary hearing loss is characterized by remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity. Patients with the same pathogenic mutations may exhibit various hearing loss phenotypes. In the Chinese population, the c.235delC mutation is the most common pathogenic mutation of GJB2 and is closely related to hereditary recessive hearing loss. Here, we investigated the hearing phenotypes of patients with hearing loss associated with the homozygous c.235delC mutation, paying special attention to asymmetric interaural hearing loss. A total of 244 patients with the GJB2 c.235delC homozygous mutation encountered from 2007 to 2...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo C, Huang SS, Yuan YY, Zhou Y, Wang N, Kang DY, Yang SY, Zhang X, Gao X, Dai P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effect and Safety of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Recovery of Upper Limb Motor Function in Subacute Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study.
The objective of this study is to investigate the effect and safety of taVNS on upper limb motor function in subacute ischemic stroke patients. Methods: Twenty-one subacute ischemia stroke patients with single upper limb motor function impairment were enrolled and randomly assigned to conventional rehabilitation training with real or sham taVNS, delivered for 15 consecutive days. Electrodes were fixed to the cymba conchae of the left ear with or without electrical stimulation. Conventional rehabilitation training was performed immediately after the end of real or sham taVNS by the same therapists. Baseline assessments...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu D, Ma J, Zhang L, Wang S, Tan B, Jia G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

GABAergic System in Stress: Implications of GABAergic Neuron Subpopulations and the Gut-Vagus-Brain Pathway.
Abstract Stress can cause a variety of central nervous system disorders, which are critically mediated by the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in various brain structures. GABAergic neurons have different subsets, some of which coexpress certain neuropeptides that can be found in the digestive system. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the gut-brain axis, which is primarily regulated by the vagus nerve, is involved in stress, suggesting a communication between the "gut-vagus-brain" pathway and the GABAergic neuronal system. Here, we first summarize the evidence that the GABAergic system plays...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hou X, Rong C, Wang F, Liu X, Sun Y, Zhang HT Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impact of Experimental Tonic Pain on Corrective Motor Responses to Mechanical Perturbations.
ier C Abstract Movement is altered by pain, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Assessing corrective muscle responses following mechanical perturbations can help clarify these underlying mechanisms, as these responses involve spinal (short-latency response, 20-50 ms), transcortical (long-latency response, 50-100 ms), and cortical (early voluntary response, 100-150 ms) mechanisms. Pairing mechanical (proprioceptive) perturbations with different conditions of visual feedback can also offer insight into how pain impacts on sensorimotor integration. The general aim of this study was to e...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Traverse E, Brun C, Harnois É, Mercier C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Compound Heterozygous Mutations in TMC1 and MYO15A Are Associated with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in Two Chinese Han Families.
In this study, by targeted next-generation sequencing of 414 known deafness genes, we identified compound heterozygous mutations p.R34X/p.M413T in TMC1 and p.S3417del/p.R1407T in MYO15A in two recessive Chinese Han deaf families. Intrafamilial cosegregation of the mutations with the hearing phenotype was confirmed in both families by the Sanger sequencing. Auditory features of the affected individuals are consistent with that previously reported for recessive mutations in TMC1 and MYO15A. The two novel mutations identified in this study, p.M413T in TMC1 and p.R1407T in MYO15A, are classified as likely pathogenic according ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu P, Xu J, Peng H, Yang T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Regenerative Potential of Facial Nerve Motoneurons following Chronic Axotomy in Rats.
Conclusion: The greatest regeneration potential of the facial nerve occurred within 5 months following chronic axotomy in rats, and regeneration may involve the Shh signaling pathway. PMID: 32802043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ni Y, Chen D, Jiang Y, Qiu D, Li W, Li H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Aging Alters Olfactory Bulb Network Oscillations and Connectivity: Relevance for Aging-Related Neurodegeneration Studies.
Abstract The aging process eventually cause a breakdown in critical synaptic plasticity and connectivity leading to deficits in memory function. The olfactory bulb (OB) and the hippocampus, both regions of the brain considered critical for the processing of odors and spatial memory, are commonly affected by aging. Using an aged wild-type C57B/6 mouse model, we sought to define the effects of aging on hippocampal plasticity and the integrity of cortical circuits. Specifically, we measured the long-term potentiation of high-frequency stimulation (HFS-LTP) at the Shaffer-Collateral CA1 pyramidal synapses. Next, local...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahnaou A, Rodriguez-Manrique D, Embrechts S, Biermans R, Manyakov NV, Youssef SA, Drinkenburg WHIM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Loss of Cochlear Ribbon Synapse Is a Critical Contributor to Chronic Salicylate Sodium Treatment-Induced Tinnitus without Change Hearing Threshold.
In this study, we injected adult rats with salicylate sodium (SS) (200 mg/kg/day for 10 days) and found no significant hearing threshold changes at 2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, 20, or 24 kHz (all p> 0.05). Tinnitus was confirmed in the treated rats via Behaviour Testing of Acoustic Startle Response (ASR) and Gap Prepulse Inhibition Test of Acoustic Startle Reflex (GPIAS). A immunostaining study showed that there is significant loss of anti-CtBP2 puncta (a marker of cochlear inner hair cell (HC) ribbon synapses) in treated animals in apical, middle, and basal turns (all p
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang W, Peng Z, Yu S, Song QL, Qu TF, He L, Liu K, Gong SS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A Neurophysiological Study of Musical Pitch Identification in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users.
Abstract Music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users is far from satisfactory, not only because of the technological limitations of current CI devices but also due to the neurophysiological alterations that generally accompany deafness. Early behavioral studies revealed that similar mechanisms underlie musical and lexical pitch perception in CI-based electric hearing. Although neurophysiological studies of the musical pitch perception of English-speaking CI users are actively ongoing, little such research has been conducted with Mandarin-speaking CI users; as Mandarin is a tonal language, these individuals req...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cai J, Liu Y, Yao M, Xu M, Zhang H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Differences in Clinical Characteristics and Brain Activity between Patients with Low- and High-Frequency Tinnitus.
This study was aimed at delineating and comparing differences in clinical characteristics and brain activity between patients with low- and high-frequency tinnitus (LFT and HFT, respectively) using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). This study enrolled 3217 patients with subjective tinnitus who were divided into LFT (frequency
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Huang S, Zhou H, Feng Y, Shi H, Wang D, Nan W, Wang H, Yin S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Alternative Splicing of Cdh23 Exon 68 Is Regulated by RBM24, RBM38, and PTBP1.
Abstract Alternative splicing plays a pivotal role in modulating the function of eukaryotic proteins. In the inner ear, many genes undergo alternative splicing, and errors in this process lead to hearing loss. Cadherin 23 (CDH23) forms part of the so-called tip links, which are indispensable for mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) in the hair cells. Cdh23 gene contains 69 exons, and exon 68 is subjected to alternative splicing. Exon 68 of the Cdh23 gene is spliced into its mRNA only in a few cell types including hair cells. The mechanism responsible for the alternative splicing of Cdh23 exon 68 remains elusive. I...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li N, Du H, Ren R, Wang Y, Xu Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Toxic Effects of 3,3'-Iminodipropionitrile on Vestibular System in Adult C57BL/6J Mice In Vivo.
Abstract The utricle is one of the five sensory organs in the mammalian vestibular system, and while the utricle has a limited ability to repair itself, this is not sufficient for the recovery of vestibular function after hair cell (HC) loss induced by ototoxic drugs. In order to further explore the possible self-recovery mechanism of the adult mouse vestibular system, we established a reliable utricle epithelium injury model for studying the regeneration of HCs and examined the toxic effects of 3,3'-iminodiproprionitrile (IDPN) on the utricle in vivo in C57BL/6J mice, which is one of the most commonly used strain...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeng S, Ni W, Jiang H, You D, Wang J, Lu X, Liu L, Yu H, Wu J, Chen F, Li H, Wang Y, Chen Y, Li W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

An In Vitro Study on Prestin Analog Gene in the Bullfrog Hearing Organs.
Abstract The prestin-based active process in the mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) is believed to play a crucial role in auditory signal amplification in the cochlea. Prestin belongs to an anion transporter family (SLC26A). It is densely expressed in the OHC lateral plasma membrane and functions as a voltage-dependent motor protein. Analog genes can be found in the genome of nonmammalian species, but their functions in hearing are poorly understood. In the present study, we used the gerbil prestin sequence as a template and identified an analog gene in the bullfrog genome. We expressed the gene in a stable cell li...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Z, Qian M, Wang Q, Liu H, Wu H, Huang Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Plasticity of the Primary Motor Cortex in Patients with Primary Brain Tumors.
Abstract There are two neuron-level mechanisms proposed to underlie neural plasticity: recruiting neurons nearby to support the lost function (ipsilesional plasticity) and uncovering latent pathways that can assume the function that was lost (contralesional plasticity). While both patterns have been demonstrated in patient groups following injury, the specific mechanisms underlying each mode of plasticity are poorly understood. In a retrospective case series of 13 patients, we utilize a novel paradigm that analyzes serial fMRI scans in patients harboring intrinsic brain tumors that vary in location and growth kine...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kong NW, Gibb WR, Badhe S, Liu BP, Tate MC Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Increased Accuracy of Emotion Recognition in Individuals with Autism-Like Traits after Five Days of Magnetic Stimulations.
Abstract Individuals with autism-like traits (ALT) belong to a subclinical group with similar social deficits as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Their main social deficits include atypical eye contact and difficulty in understanding facial expressions, both of which are associated with an abnormality of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS). It is still undetermined whether it is possible to improve the social function of ALT individuals through noninvasive neural modulation. To this end, we randomly assigned ALT individuals into the real (n = 16) and sham (n = 16) stimulation groups. All subjects ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu P, Xiao G, He K, Zhang L, Wu X, Li D, Zhu C, Tian Y, Hu P, Qiu B, Ji GJ, Wang K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cerebral Blood Flow and Its Connectivity Deficits in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that acute mTBI patients exhibit both regional CBF abnormalities and CBF connectivity deficits, which may underlie the cognitive impairment of the acute mTBI patients. PMID: 32684919 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li F, Lu L, Shang S, Chen H, Wang P, Haidari NA, Chen YC, Yin X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

High Frequency of AIFM1 Variants and Phenotype Progression of Auditory Neuropathy in a Chinese Population.
In conclusion, we confirmed that AIFM1 is the primary related gene among late-onset AN cases, and the most common recurrent variant is p.Leu344Phe. Except for the X-linked recessive inheritance pattern, the X-linked dominant inheritance pattern is another probability of AIFM1-related AN, with females affected. Phenotypical features of AIFM1-related AN suggested that auditory dyssynchrony progressively worsened over time. PMID: 32684920 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang H, Bing D, Li J, Xie L, Xiong F, Lan L, Wang D, Guan J, Wang Q Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Four Novel Variants in POU4F3 Cause Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.
In this study, four novel variants in POU4F3, c.696G>T (p.Glu232Asp), c.325C>T (p.His109Tyr), c.635T>C (p.Leu212Pro), and c.183delG (p.Ala62Argfs∗22), were identified in four different Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Based on the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, c.183delG (p.Ala62Argfs∗22) is classified as a pathogenic variant, c.696G>T (p.Glu232Asp) and c.635T>C (p.Leu212Pro) are classified as likely pathogenic variants, and c.325C>T (p.His109Tyr) is classified as a variant of uncertain significance. Bas...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cui TY, Gao X, Huang SS, Sun YY, Zhang SQ, Jiang XX, Yang YZ, Kang DY, Zhu QW, Yuan YY Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Auditory Neural Plasticity in Tinnitus Mechanisms and Management.
Abstract Tinnitus, which is the perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding external acoustic stimulus, including change of hearing and neural plasticity, has become an increasingly important ailment affecting the daily life of a considerable proportion of the population and causing significant burdens for both the affected individuals and society as a whole. Here, we briefly review the epidemiology and classification of tinnitus, and the currently available treatments are discussed in terms of the available evidence for their mechanisms and efficacy. The conclusion drawn from the available evidence is t...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang K, Tang D, Ma J, Sun S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Evolving Patterns of Cortical Networks in Progression of Alzheimer's Disease: A Graph-Based Resting-State fMRI Study.
Abstract AD is a common chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. However, the understanding of the dynamic longitudinal change of the brain in the progression of AD is still rough and sometimes conflicting. This paper analyzed the brain networks of healthy people and patients at different stages (EMCI, LMCI, and AD). The results showed that in global network properties, most differences only existed between healthy people and patients, and few were discovered between patients at different stages. However, nearly all subnetwork properties showed significant differences between patients at different stages. M...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li W, Wen W, Chen X, Ni B, Lin X, Fan W, The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Spatial Information of Somatosensory Stimuli in the Brain: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.
Abstract Background: Multivoxel pattern analysis has provided new evidence on somatotopic representation in the human brain. However, the effects of stimulus modality (e.g., penetrating needle versus non-penetrating touch) and level of classification (e.g., multiclass versus binary classification) on patterns of brain activity encoding spatial information of body parts have not yet been studied. We hypothesized that performance of brain-based prediction models may vary across the types of stimuli, and neural patterns of voxels in the SI and parietal cortex would significantly contribute to the prediction of stimul...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee IS, Jung WM, Park HJ, Chae Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Imagined and Actual Acupuncture Effects on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study.
Conclusion: These findings support VGAIT as a promising method for pain management. PMID: 32684925 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao J, Orr SP, Wilson G, Kong J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research