Thrombin Inhibition Reduces the Expression of Brain Inflammation Markers upon Systemic LPS Treatment.
Abstract Systemic inflammation and brain pathologies are known to be linked. In the periphery, the inflammation and coagulation systems are simultaneously activated upon diseases and infections. Whether this well-established interrelation also counts for neuroinflammation and coagulation factor expression in the brain is still an open question. Our aim was to study whether the interrelationship between coagulation and inflammation factors may occur in the brain in the setting of systemic inflammation. The results indicate that systemic injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) upregulate the expression of both inflam...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shavit Stein E, Ben Shimon M, Artan Furman A, Golderman V, Chapman J, Maggio N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Neural Basis of Fear Promotes Anger and Sadness Counteracts Anger.
Abstract In contrast to cognitive emotion regulation theories that emphasize top-down control of prefrontal-mediated regulation of emotion, in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, different emotions are considered to have mutual promotion and counteraction relationships. Our previous studies have provided behavioral evidence supporting the hypotheses that "fear promotes anger" and "sadness counteracts anger"; this study further investigated the corresponding neural correlates. A basic hypothesis we made is the "internal versus external orientation" assumption proposing that fe...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhan J, Ren J, Sun P, Fan J, Liu C, Luo J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Persistent Stress-Induced Neuroplastic Changes in the Locus Coeruleus/Norepinephrine System.
Abstract Neural plasticity plays a critical role in mediating short- and long-term brain responses to environmental stimuli. A major effector of plasticity throughout many regions of the brain is stress. Activation of the locus coeruleus (LC) is a critical step in mediating the neuroendocrine and behavioral limbs of the stress response. During stressor exposure, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis promotes release of corticotropin-releasing factor in LC, where its signaling promotes a number of physiological and cellular changes. While the acute effects of stress on LC physiology have been descri...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Borodovitsyna O, Joshi N, Chandler D Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impact of Global Mean Normalization on Regional Glucose Metabolism in the Human Brain.
Abstract Because the human brain consumes a disproportionate fraction of the resting body's energy, positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of absolute glucose metabolism (CMRglc) can serve as disease biomarkers. Global mean normalization (GMN) of PET data reveals disease-based differences from healthy individuals as fractional changes across regions relative to a global mean. To assess the impact of GMN applied to metabolic data, we compared CMRglc with and without GMN in healthy awake volunteers with eyes closed (i.e., control) against specific physiological/clinical states, including healthy/awake with ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mortensen KN, Gjedde A, Thompson GJ, Herman P, Parent MJ, Rothman DL, Kupers R, Ptito M, Stender J, Laureys S, Riedl V, Alkire MT, Hyder F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Role of Autoimmunity in the Pathogenesis of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.
Abstract Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a clinically common acute symptom in otolaryngology. Although the incidence of SSHL has increased around the world in recent years, the etiology of the disease is still unclear. It has been reported that infections, ototoxic drugs, membrane labyrinth rupture, carcinomas, circulatory system diseases, autoimmune diseases, brain lesions, mental diseases, congenital or inherited diseases, and so on, are all risk factors for SSHL. Here, we discuss the autoimmune mechanisms behind SSHL, which might be induced by type II-IV allergic reactions. We also introduce the mai...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li G, You D, Ma J, Li W, Li H, Sun S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Laterality of Poststroke Cortical Motor Activity during Action Observation Is Related to Hemispheric Dominance.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that action observation is lateralized to the dominant, rather than ipsilesional, hemisphere, which may reflect an interaction between the lesioned hemisphere and the dominant hemisphere in driving lateralization of brain activity after stroke. Hemispheric dominance and laterality should be carefully considered when characterizing poststroke neural activity. PMID: 29997648 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liew SL, Garrison KA, Ito KL, Heydari P, Sobhani M, Werner J, Damasio H, Winstein CJ, Aziz-Zadeh L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Intrinsic Coupling between Functional Connectivity Density and Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuation in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Depressive Symptoms.
Abstract Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder increases the risk of dementia in older individuals with mild cognitive impairment. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the intrinsic coupling patterns between the amplitude and synchronisation of low-frequency brain fluctuations using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the functional connectivity density (FCD) in 16 patients who had mild cognitive impairment with depressive symptoms (D-MCI) (mean age: 69.6 ± 6.2 years) and 18 patients with nondepressed mild cog...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu X, Chen J, Shen B, Wang G, Li J, Hou H, Chen X, Guo Z, Mao C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Acoustical Enrichment during Early Development Improves Response Reliability in the Adult Auditory Cortex of the Rat.
; J, Syka J Abstract It is well known that auditory experience during early development shapes response properties of auditory cortex (AC) neurons, influencing, for example, tonotopical arrangement, response thresholds and strength, or frequency selectivity. Here, we show that rearing rat pups in a complex acoustically enriched environment leads to an increased reliability of responses of AC neurons, affecting both the rate and the temporal codes. For a repetitive stimulus, the neurons exhibit a lower spike count variance, indicating a more stable rate coding. At the level of individual spikes, the discharge patte...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bureš Z, Pysanenko K, Lindovský J, Syka J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Testing rTMS-Induced Neuroplasticity: A Single Case Study of Focal Hand Dystonia.
Abstract Focal hand dystonia in musicians is a neurological motor disorder in which aberrant plasticity is caused by excessive repetitive use. This work's purposes were to induce plasticity changes in a dystonic musician through five daily thirty-minute sessions of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left M1 by using neuronavigated stimulation and to reliably measure the effect of these changes. To this aim, the relationship between neuroplasticity changes and motor recovery was investigated using fine-grained kinematic analysis. Our results suggest a statistically signif...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Betti S, Spoto A, Castiello U, Sartori L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs on the Epigenetic Modification of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in the Hippocampi of Chronic Restraint Stress Rats.
Abstract Recent studies have shown that antipsychotic drugs have epigenetic effects. However, the effects of antipsychotic drugs on histone modification remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antipsychotic drugs on the epigenetic modification of the BDNF gene in the rat hippocampus. Rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (6 h/d for 21 d) and then were administered with either olanzapine (2 mg/kg) or haloperidol (1 mg/kg). The levels of histone H3 acetylation and MeCP2 binding at BDNF promoter IV were assessed with chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. The mRN...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Seo MK, Kim YH, McIntyre RS, Mansur RB, Lee Y, Carmona NE, Choi AJ, Kim GM, Lee JG, Park SW Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Test-Retest Reliability of Homeostatic Plasticity in the Human Primary Motor Cortex.
Abstract Homeostatic plasticity regulates synaptic activity by preventing uncontrolled increases (long-term potentiation) or decreases (long-term depression) in synaptic efficacy. Homeostatic plasticity can be induced and assessed in the human primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulation. However, the reliability of this methodology has not been investigated. Here, we examined the test-retest reliability of homeostatic plasticity induced and assessed in M1 using noninvasive brain stimulation in ten, right-handed, healthy volunteers on days 0, 2, 7, and 14. Homeostatic plasticity was induced in the...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Thapa T, Schabrun SM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Function of Connexins in the Interaction between Glial and Vascular Cells in the Central Nervous System and Related Neurological Diseases.
Abstract Neuronal signaling together with synapse activity in the central nervous system requires a precisely regulated microenvironment. Recently, the blood-brain barrier is considered as a "neuro-glia-vascular unit," a structural and functional compound composed of capillary endothelial cells, glial cells, pericytes, and neurons, which plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of the microenvironment in and out of the brain. Tight junctions and adherens junctions, which function as barriers of the blood-brain barrier, are two well-known kinds in the endothelial cell junctions. In this review, we ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao Y, Xin Y, He Z, Hu W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

State-of-the-Art Techniques to Causally Link Neural Plasticity to Functional Recovery in Experimental Stroke Research.
Abstract Current experimental stroke research faces the same challenge as neuroscience: to transform correlative findings in causative ones. Research of recent years has shown the tremendous potential of the central nervous system to react to noxious stimuli such as a stroke: Increased plastic changes leading to reorganization in form of neuronal rewiring, neurogenesis, and synaptogenesis, accompanied by transcriptional and translational turnover in the affected cells, have been described both clinically and in experimental stroke research. However, only minor attempts have been made to connect distinct plastic re...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wahl AS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effect of Group-Based Rehabilitation Combining Action Observation with Physiotherapy on Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Freezing of gait (FoG) is among the most disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Recent studies showed that action observation training (AOT) with repetitive practice of the observed actions represents a strategy to induce longer-lasting effects compared with standard physiotherapy. We investigated whether AOT may improve FoG and mobility in PD, when AOT is applied in a group-based setting. Sixty-four participants with PD and FoG were assigned to the experimental (AO) or control groups and underwent a 45-minute training session, twice a week, for 5 weeks. AOT consisted in physical trainin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pelosin E, Barella R, Bet C, Magioncalda E, Putzolu M, Di Biasio F, Cerulli C, Casaleggio M, Abbruzzese G, Avanzino L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mu Suppression Is Sensitive to Observational Practice but Results in Different Patterns of Activation in Comparison with Physical Practice.
Abstract Research has shown the effectiveness of observational practice for motor learning, but there continues to be debate about the mechanisms underlying effectiveness. Although cortical processes can be moderated during observation, after both physical and observational practice, how these processes change with respect to behavioural measures of learning has not been studied. Here we compared short-term physical and observational practice during the acquisition and retention of a novel motor task to evaluate how each type of practice modulates EEG mu rhythm (8-13 Hz). Thirty healthy individuals were ran...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Alhajri N, Hodges NJ, Zwicker JG, Virji-Babul N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Heterozygous CDKL5 Knockout Female Mice Are a Valuable Animal Model for CDKL5 Disorder.
In conclusion, our study provides a comprehensive overview of neurobehavioral phenotypes of heterozygous female Cdkl5 +/- mice and demonstrates that the heterozygous female might be a valuable animal model in preclinical studies on CDKL5 disorder. PMID: 29977282 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Fuchs C, Gennaccaro L, Trazzi S, Bastianini S, Bettini S, Martire VL, Ren E, Medici G, Zoccoli G, Rimondini R, Ciani E Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Newly Generated Cells in the Dentate Gyrus Differentially Respond to Brief Spatial Exploration and Forced Swim in Adult Female Balb/C Mice.
ez MDÁ, Ortiz-López L Abstract Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is influenced by several factors including external stimuli. In addition to their involvement in learning and memory processes, newborn neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) buffer against the effects of stress. Although the response of these cells to environmental stimuli has been shown, the age of the cells that respond to a brief spatial exploration or a stressful situation produced by forced-swim stress in adult female Balb/C mice is still unknown. Here, we investigated the activation of newborn neurons after three (IdU) or six weeks (Cld...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ramírez-Rodríguez GB, Ocaña-Fernández MDÁ, Ortiz-López L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A Proposed Molecular Mechanism for Physical Analgesia in Chronic Pain.
Abstract Although pain is indispensable for survival, chronic pain places a heavy burden on humans. As the efficacy of opioid treatment is limited, the development of alternative methods of pain relief without medication is desirable. Recently, we have developed a novel method of physical analgesia using an adhesive "pyramidal thorn patch." When we apply about 3 trials of these patches on the skin of a pain region, the pain region moves toward the spinal cord like a "cutaneous rabbit," and finally, the pain vanishes. In the present review, we propose a molecular mechanism for this analgesic met...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Saito N, Shima R, Yamada Y, Nagaoka M, Ito E, Yoshioka T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Manipulation of Auditory Inputs as Rehabilitation Therapy for Maladaptive Auditory Cortical Reorganization.
Abstract Neurophysiological and neuroimaging data suggest that the brains of not only children but also adults are reorganized based on sensory inputs and behaviors. Plastic changes in the brain are generally beneficial; however, maladaptive cortical reorganization in the auditory cortex may lead to hearing disorders such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Recent studies attempted to noninvasively visualize pathological neural activity in the living human brain and reverse maladaptive cortical reorganization by the suitable manipulation of auditory inputs in order to alleviate detrimental auditory symptoms. The effects ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Okamoto H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythms in Regulation of Brain Processes and Role in Psychiatric Disorders.
PMID: 29887881 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pantazopoulos H, Gamble K, Stork O, Amir S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Retracted: Fractalkine Attenuates Microglial Cell Activation Induced by Prenatal Stress.
Abstract [This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/7258201.]. PMID: 29874338 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Plasticity N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Consumption of a High-Fat Diet Alters Perineuronal Nets in the Prefrontal Cortex.
Abstract A key factor in the development of obesity is the overconsumption of fatty foods, which, in addition to facilitating weight gain, alters neuronal structures within brain reward circuitry. Our previous work demonstrates that sustained consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates spine density in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whether HFD promotes structural adaptation among inhibitory cells of the PFC is presently unknown. One structure of interest is the perineuronal net (PNN), a specialized extracellular matrix surrounding, primarily, parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons. PNNs contribute to syn...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Dingess PM, Harkness JH, Slaker M, Zhang Z, Wulff SS, Sorg BA, Brown TE Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hollow Mesoporous Silica@Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Capsules and Their Applications for Gentamicin Delivery.
Abstract We have synthesized hollow mesoporous silica (HMS) at a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) capsule that can be used as a drug delivery system for gentamicin (GM). The GM is first loaded into HMS. Then, the outer surface of the GM/HMS is coated with uniformed ZIF nanoparticles (denoted as GM/HMS@ZIF). The GM/HMS@ZIF has been successfully prepared and acts as a capsule for GM. The GM/HMS@ZIF shows a good biocompatibility and a good cellular uptake in House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells. The GM is released slowly within 10 h under acidic conditions, which is used to simulate the pH ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu X, Chen H, Wu X, Chen S, Qi J, He Z, Zou S, Xie L, Xu K, Yuan H, Sun Y, Zheng H, Kong W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Extracellular Environment of the CNS: Influence on Plasticity, Sprouting, and Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract The extracellular environment of the central nervous system (CNS) becomes highly structured and organized as the nervous system matures. The extracellular space of the CNS along with its subdomains plays a crucial role in the function and stability of the CNS. In this review, we have focused on two components of the neuronal extracellular environment, which are important in regulating CNS plasticity including the extracellular matrix (ECM) and myelin. The ECM consists of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and tenascins, which are organized into unique structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNN...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Quraishe S, Forbes LH, Andrews MR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Motor and Perceptual Recovery in Adult Patients with Mild Intellectual Disability.
Discussion: Multimodal integrated interventions targeting visual-perceptual abilities and motor skills are an effective neurorehabilitative approach in adult patients with mild ID. Motor learning and memory-mediated mechanisms of neural plasticity might underlie the observed recovery, suggesting the presence of plastic adaptive changes even in the adult brain with ID. PMID: 29849555 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cantone M, Catalano MA, Lanza G, La Delfa G, Ferri R, Pennisi M, Bella R, Pennisi G, Bramanti A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Benefits of Residual Hair Cell Function for Speech and Music Perception in Pediatric Bimodal Cochlear Implant Listeners.
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the benefits of residual hair cell function for speech and music perception in bimodal pediatric Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) listeners. Design: Speech and music performance was measured in 35 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI users for unilateral (CI-only) and bimodal listening. Mandarin speech perception was measured for vowels, consonants, lexical tones, and sentences in quiet. Music perception was measured for melodic contour identification (MCI). Results: Combined electric and acoustic hearing significantly improved MCI and Mandari...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng X, Liu Y, Wang B, Yuan Y, Galvin JJ, Fu QJ, Shu Y, Chen B Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability Depends on the Pattern of Mechanical Tactile Stimulation.
Abstract We investigated the effects of different patterns of mechanical tactile stimulation (MS) on corticospinal excitability by measuring the motor-evoked potential (MEP). This was a single-blind study that included nineteen healthy subjects. MS was applied for 20 min to the right index finger. MS intervention was defined as simple, lateral, rubbing, vertical, or random. Simple intervention stimulated the entire finger pad at the same time. Lateral intervention stimulated with moving between left and right on the finger pad. Rubbing intervention stimulated with moving the stimulus probe, fixed by protrus...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kojima S, Onishi H, Miyaguchi S, Kotan S, Sasaki R, Nakagawa M, Kirimoto H, Tamaki H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Specific Influences of Early Acoustic Environments on Cochlear Hair Cells in Postnatal Mice.
Abstract The auditory function develops and matures after birth in many mammalian species. After hearing onset, environmental sounds exert profound and long-term effects on auditory functions. However, the effects of the acoustic environment on the functional development of the peripheral auditory system, especially the cochlear sensory hair cells, are still unclear. In the present study, we exposed mouse pups to frequency-enriched acoustic environments in postnatal days 0-14. The results indicated that the acoustic environment significantly decreased the threshold of the auditory brainstem response in a frequency...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang A, Chen P, Guo S, Xu N, Pan W, Zhang H, Li C, Tang J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Palmitoylation as a Functional Regulator of Neurotransmitter Receptors.
Abstract The majority of neuronal proteins involved in cellular signaling undergo different posttranslational modifications significantly affecting their functions. One of these modifications is a covalent attachment of a 16-C palmitic acid to one or more cysteine residues (S-palmitoylation) within the target protein. Palmitoylation is a reversible modification, and repeated cycles of palmitoylation/depalmitoylation might be critically involved in the regulation of multiple signaling processes. Palmitoylation also represents a common posttranslational modification of the neurotransmitter receptors, including G pro...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Naumenko VS, Ponimaskin E Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Three MYO15A Mutations Identified in One Chinese Family with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.
Abstract Hearing impairment is one of the most common sensory disease, of which more than 50% is attributed to a genetic etiology. The goal of this research is to explore the genetic cause of a Chinese deafness pedigree who was excluded of GJB2, SLC26A4, or MtDNA12SrRNA variants. Three variants, c.3971C>A (p.A1324D), c.4011insA (p.Q1337Qfs∗22), and c.9690+1G>A, in the MYO15A gene were identified by targeted capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing, and the first two of them were novel. These variants were cosegregated with the disease in this family and absent in 200 normal hearing persons. They were ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang F, Xu L, Xiao Y, Li J, Bai X, Wang H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Clocking In Time to Gate Memory Processes: The Circadian Clock Is Part of the Ins and Outs of Memory.
Abstract Learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval are processes known to be modulated by the circadian (circa: about; dies: day) system. The circadian regulation of memory performance is evolutionarily conserved, independent of the type and complexity of the learning paradigm tested, and not specific to crepuscular, nocturnal, or diurnal organisms. In mammals, long-term memory (LTM) formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein kinase C (PKC)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (M...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rawashdeh O, Parsons R, Maronde E Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Metabolic Changes Associated with a Rat Model of Diabetic Depression Detected by Ex Vivo 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Hypothalamus.
Abstract Diabetic patients often present with comorbid depression. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying diabetic depression (DD) remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms underpinning the pathogenesis of the disease, we used ex vivo 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and immunohistochemistry to investigate the main metabolic and pathological changes in various rat brain areas in an animal model of DD. Compared with the control group, rats in the DD group showed significant decreases in neurotransmitter concentrations of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocam...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu K, Zhao L, Xu W, Lin Q, Zhou Y, Huang X, Ye X, He J, Bai G, Yan Z, Gao H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Contralateral Suppression of DPOAEs in Mice after Ouabain Treatment.
Abstract Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent feedback is suggested to protect the ear from acoustic injury and to increase its ability to discriminate sounds against a noisy background. We investigated whether type II spiral ganglion neurons participate in the contralateral suppression of the MOC reflex. The application of ouabain to the round window of the mouse cochlea selectively induced the apoptosis of the type I spiral ganglion neurons, left the peripherin-immunopositive type II spiral ganglion neurons intact, and did not affect outer hairs, as evidenced by the maintenance of the distorted product otoacousti...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li J, Chen Y, Zeng S, Lai C, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Shi Y, Zhang T, Li H, Dai P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Context and Time Matter: Effects of Emotion and Motivation on Episodic Memory Overtime.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that compared with neutral cues, stimuli with positive and negative/stressful contexts or reward and punishment cues are remembered better. However, it is unclear whether the enhanced effect differs in emotion or motivation dimensions and the passage of time. We addressed these issues by manipulating different contextual cues for neutral words at different time intervals. In experiment 1, subjects were asked to learn words with picture contexts in positive, negative/stressful, and neutral valences and were tested by old/new word recognition and contextual judgment 10 min...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun Q, Gu S, Yang J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Role of Internal and External Visual Imagery: Preliminary Evidences from Pilates.
Abstract The present study investigates whether a functional difference between the visualization of a sequence of movements in the perspective of the first- (internal VMI-I) or third- (external VMI-E) person exists, which might be relevant to promote learning. By using a mental chronometry experimental paradigm, we have compared the time or execution, imagination in the VMI-I perspective, and imagination in the VMI-E perspective of two kinds of Pilates exercises. The analysis was carried out in individuals with different levels of competence (expert, novice, and no-practice individuals). Our results showed that i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Montuori S, Curcio G, Sorrentino P, Belloni L, Sorrentino G, Foti F, Mandolesi L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

A Novel p.G141R Mutation in ILDR1 Leads to Recessive Nonsyndromic Deafness DFNB42 in Two Chinese Han Families.
In this study, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in two Chinese Han families identified a novel p.G141R homozygous mutation in ILDR1 as the genetic cause of the deafness. Consistent with the recessive inheritance, cosegregation of the p.G141R variant with the hearing loss was confirmed in members of both families by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing. SNP genotyping analysis suggested that those two families were not closely related. Our study showed that targeted NGS is an effective tool for diagnosis of genetic deafness and that p.G141R in ILDR1 may be a relatively frequent mutation for DFNB42 in Chinese Han...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Wang L, Peng H, Yang T, Wu H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Glucose Takeup by Glucose Transport on the Isolated OHCs.
This study assessed the uptake of glucose by OHCs using live-cell microscopy and examined the distribution of glucose transporter isoforms by immunohistochemistry. We found that glucose transporter-4 was mostly expressed on the lateral wall of OHCs. Glucose crossed the lateral walls of OHCs via glucose transporters-4 mainly, and this process could be modulated. These results suggest that the lateral walls are involved in modulating energy transport into OHCs. PMID: 29849567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheng XT, Yang FB, Jiang QQ, Zhang R, Yang SM, Yu N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Differential Corticomotor Excitability Responses to Hypertonic Saline-Induced Muscle Pain in Forearm and Hand Muscles.
This study explored CE changes of the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles in response to muscle pain. Participants (n = 13) attended two sessions (≥48 hours in-between). Hypertonic saline was injected in the ECR (session one) or the FDI (session two) muscle. CE, assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was recorded at baseline, during pain, and twenty minutes postinjection together with pain intensity ratings. Pain intensity ratings did not differ between the two pain sites (p = 0.19). In response to FDI muscle pain, the MEPs of the FDI musc...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Larsen DB, Graven-Nielsen T, Hirata RP, Boudreau SA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Corticospinal and Spinal Excitabilities Are Modulated during Motor Imagery Associated with Somatosensory Electrical Nerve Stimulation.
Abstract Motor imagery (MI), the mental simulation of an action, influences the cortical, corticospinal, and spinal levels, despite the lack of somatosensory afferent feedbacks. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of MI associated with somatosensory stimulation (SS) on the corticospinal and spinal excitabilities. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation to induce motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and H-reflexes, respectively, in soleus and medialis gastrocnemius (MG) muscles of the right leg. Twelve participants performed three tasks: (1) MI of submaximal plantar flexion, ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Traverse E, Lebon F, Martin A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Boosting the Motor Outcome of the Untrained Hand by Action Observation: Mirror Visual Feedback, Video Therapy, or Both Combined-What Is More Effective?
i F Abstract Action observation (AO) allows access to a network that processes visuomotor and sensorimotor inputs and is believed to be involved in observational learning of motor skills. We conducted three consecutive experiments to examine the boosting effect of AO on the motor outcome of the untrained hand by either mirror visual feedback (MVF), video therapy (VT), or a combination of both. In the first experiment, healthy participants trained either with MVF or without mirror feedback while in the second experiment, participants either trained with VT or observed animal videos. In the third experiment, partici...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bähr F, Ritter A, Seidel G, Puta C, Gabriel HHW, Hamzei F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

14-3-3 Proteins in Glutamatergic Synapses.
Abstract The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of proteins that are highly expressed in the brain and particularly enriched at synapses. Evidence accumulated in the last two decades has implicated 14-3-3 proteins as an important regulator of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we will review previous and more recent research that has helped us understand the roles of 14-3-3 proteins at glutamatergic synapses. A key challenge for the future is to delineate the 14-3-3-dependent molecular pathways involved in regulating synaptic functions. PMID: 29849571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang J, Zhou Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Astrocyte Activation in Spinal Ventral Horn Contributes to Nerve Regeneration.
Abstract Accumulating evidences suggest that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) may initiate astrocytic responses in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the response of astrocytes in the spinal ventral horn and its potential role in nerve regeneration after PNI remain unclear. Herein, we firstly illustrated that astrocytes in the spinal ventral horn were dramatically activated in the early stage following sciatic nerve injury, and these profiles were eliminated in the chronic stage. Additionally, we found that the expression of neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth facto...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Qian C, Tan D, Wang X, Li L, Wen J, Pan M, Li Y, Wu W, Guo J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Pharmacological Modulation of Three Modalities of CA1 Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.
Abstract The Ts65Dn mouse is the most studied animal model of Down syndrome. Past research has shown a significant reduction in CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS), but not in LTP induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS), in slices from Ts65Dn mice compared with euploid mouse-derived slices. Additionally, therapeutically relevant doses of the drug memantine were shown to rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. Here, we observed that 1 μM memantine had no detectable effect on HFS-induced LTP in either Ts65Dn- or control-derived slices, but i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Scott-McKean JJ, Roque AL, Surewicz K, Johnson MW, Surewicz WK, Costa ACS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Dynamic Network Analysis Reveals Altered Temporal Variability in Brain Regions after Stroke: A Longitudinal Resting-State fMRI Study.
Abstract Recent fMRI studies have demonstrated that resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is of nonstationarity. Temporal variability of FC reflects the dynamic nature of brain activity. Exploring temporal variability of FC offers a new approach to investigate reorganization and integration of brain networks after stroke. Here, we examined longitudinal alterations of FC temporal variability in brain networks after stroke. Nineteen stroke patients underwent resting fMRI scans across the acute stage (within-one-week after stroke), subacute stage (within-two-weeks after stroke), and early chronic stage (3-4 mont...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu J, Du J, Xu Q, Yang F, Zeng F, Weng Y, Dai XJ, Qi R, Liu X, Lu G, Zhang Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Autosomal Recessive Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss due to a Novel Compound Heterozygous PTPRQ Mutation in a Chinese Family.
Abstract PTPRQ gene, encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Q, is essential for the normal maturation and function of hair bundle in the cochlea. Its mutations can cause the defects of stereocilia in hair cell, which lead to nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing method, we identified a novel compound heterozygous missense mutation, c.4472C>T p.T1491M (maternal allele) and c.1973T>C p.V658A (paternal allele), in PTPRQ gene. The two mutations are the first reported to be the cause of recessively inherited sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing loss...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu X, Wang S, Chen S, Wen YY, Liu B, Xie W, Li D, Liu L, Huang X, Sun Y, Kong WJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Contingent Negative Variation and Working Memory Maintenance in Adolescents with Low and High Motor Competencies.
This study is aimed at comparing contingent negative variation and working memory performance between adolescents with low and high motor competencies. In eighty-two adolescents, motor competencies were assessed with the MOBAK-5 (basic motor competencies, 5th grade) test battery and a median split was performed on this variable to divide them into low and high performers. Additionally, all participants completed a Sternberg paradigm to assess working memory maintenance. The initial (iCNV) and terminal (tCNV) components of the contingent negative variation elicited by the cognitive task were recorded using electroencephalog...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ludyga S, Herrmann C, Mücke M, Andrä C, Brand S, Pühse U, Gerber M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Region-Dependent Alterations in Cognitive Function and ERK1/2 Signaling in the PFC in Rats after Social Defeat Stress.
Abstract Cognitive dysfunctions are highly comorbid with depression. Impairments of cognitive flexibility, which are modulated by the monoaminergic system of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are increasingly recognized as an important component of the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Using a classical model of depression, this study investigated the effects of social defeat stress on emotional behaviors, on cognitive flexibility in the attentional set-shifting task (AST), and on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang Q, Shao F, Wang W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Hearing Loss in a Guinea Pig Model of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence.
Abstract Defective acoustic transmission in the cochlea is closely related with various auditory and vestibular symptoms. Among them, semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) with a defective semicircular bone is typical. Currently, the pathogenesis of SCD is usually explained by the third window hypothesis; however, this hypothesis fails to explain the variability in the symptoms and signs experienced by superior SCD (SSCD) patients. We evaluated the mechanism of hearing loss in a guinea pig model of bony dehiscence with various sizes and locations along the superior semicircular canal. Auditory brainstem responses (A...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tong BS, He ZY, Ding CR, Yang JM, Wang J, Han Z, Huang YB, Gao N, Jia XH, Chi FL, Ren DD Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Roles of Gasotransmitters in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Conditions.
Abstract Synaptic plasticity is important for maintaining normal neuronal activity and proper neuronal functioning in the nervous system. It is crucial for regulating synaptic transmission or electrical signal transduction to neuronal networks, for sharing essential information among neurons, and for maintaining homeostasis in the body. Moreover, changes in synaptic or neural plasticity are associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The improper maintenance of neural plasticity causes incorrect...
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shefa U, Kim D, Kim MS, Jeong NY, Jung J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Ballroom Dancing Promotes Neural Activity in the Sensorimotor System: A Resting-State fMRI Study.
Conclusions: Our results indicated that ballroom dancers showed elevated neural activity in sensorimotor regions relative to novices and functional alterations in frontal-temporal and frontal-parietal connectivity, which may reflect specific training experience related to ballroom dancing, including high-capacity action perception, attentional control, and movement adjustment. PMID: 29853838 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - June 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu Y, Zhao Q, Wang Y, Zhou C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research