Role of Astrocytic Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease Animal Models from a Molecular Signaling Perspective.
This article explores relevant evidence on the involvement of astrocytes in experimental PD neurodegeneration from a molecular signaling perspective. For a long time, astrocytic proliferation was merely considered a byproduct of neuroinflammation, but by the time being, it is clear that astrocytic dysfunction plays a far more important role in PD pathophysiology. Indeed, ongoing experimental evidence suggests the importance of astrocytes and dopaminergic neurons' cross-linking signaling pathways. The Wnt-1 (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1) pathway regulates several processes including neuron survival, ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Udovin L, Quarracino C, Herrera MI, Capani F, Otero-Losada M, Perez-Lloret S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cancer-Related Anemia Is a Risk Factor for Medium-Term Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Laparoscopic Surgery Patients: An Observational Prospective Study.
Abstract Anemia in the elderly may impair cognitive function. Our primary objective was to determine whether cancer-related anemia was associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in nonelderly patients. We conducted an observational prospective study of 177 patients scheduled for laparoscopic surgery. Patients aged 18-64 were divided into two groups according to whether they were anemic due to cancer or not. The cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) 1 day before and 1 week after operation. The cognitive function of the patients was evaluated by using the Telepho...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang H, Lin F, Cen L, Jing R, Pan L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Different Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Upper and Lower Limb Recovery of Stroke Patients with Motor Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Objective: To explore the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the motor recovery of stroke patients and the effect differences between the upper limb and lower limb. Methods: Randomized control trials published until January 2019 were searched from PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was estimated separately for upper and lower limb motor outcomes to understand the mean effect size. Results: Twenty-nine studies with 664 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The ove...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bai X, Guo Z, He L, Ren L, McClure MA, Mu Q Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Maternal Deprivation Induces Memory Deficits That Are Reduced by One Aerobic Exercise Shot Performed after the Learning Session.
Abstract During the neonatal period, the brain is susceptible to external influences. Exposure to stressful events during this phase of life influences brain development and impacts adult life. In animals, the maternal deprivation (MD) model is effective in mimicking stress in the early stages of development. In contrast, physical exercise seems to be able to prevent deficits in memory consolidation. Although the effects of chronic exercise in cognition are already well established, little is known about the effects of acute aerobic exercise. Here, male Wistar rats divided into deprived (MD) and nondeprived (NMD) ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sosa PM, Neves BS, Carrazoni GS, Gomes GM, Del Rosso G, Ramborger BP, Rohers R, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Evidence for Decreased Nucleolar PARP-1 as an Early Marker of Cognitive Impairment.
ez AI Abstract Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a nuclear protein that regulates gene expression through poly(ADP)-ribosylation, resulting in the loosening of chromatin structure. PARP-1 enzymatic activity has been shown to be necessary for the expression of several genes required for memory formation and consolidation. Previously, we showed that nucleolar PARP-1 is significantly decreased in hippocampal pyramidal cells in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We proposed that the displacement of PARP-1 from the nucleolus results in downregulation of new rRNA expression and ribosome biogenesis, leading to cognitive i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Regier M, Liang J, Choi A, Verma K, Libien J, Hernández AI Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Central Plasticity of Cutaneous Afferents Is Associated with Nociceptive Hyperreflexia after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.
Abstract Electrical stimulations of dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) at each lumbothoracic spinal level produce the bilateral cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex responses which consist of two temporal components: an early and late responses purportedly mediated by Aδ and C fibers, respectively. We have previously reported central projections of DCN A and C fibers and demonstrated that different projection patterns of those afferent types contributed to the somatotopic organization of CTM reflex responses. Unilateral hemisection spinal cord injury (SCI) was made at T10 spinal segments to investigate the plasti...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee HJ, Malone PS, Chung J, White JM, Wilson N, Tidwell J, Tansey KE Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Alteration of Extracellular Matrix Molecules and Perineuronal Nets in the Hippocampus of Pentylenetetrazol-Kindled Mice.
This study shows that possibility of changes in extracellular matrix molecules due to astrocyte activation is associated with epilepticus in PTZ-kindled mice. PMID: 31827499 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ueno H, Suemitsu S, Murakami S, Kitamura N, Wani K, Takahashi Y, Matsumoto Y, Okamoto M, Ishihara T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Motor Training on Accuracy and Precision of Jaw and Finger Movements.
Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of training of jaw and finger movements with and without visual feedback on precision and accuracy. Method: Twenty healthy participants (10 men and 10 women; mean age 24.6 ± 0.8 years) performed two tasks: a jaw open-close movement and a finger lifting task with and without visual feedback before and after 3-day training. Individually determined target positions for the jaw corresponded to 50% of the maximal jaw opening position, and a fixed target position of 20 mm was set for the finger. Movements were repeated 10 times each. The variability in the am...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Wu S, Tang Z, Zhang J, Wang L, Yu L, Wang K, Svensson P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder due to Two Novel Compound Heterozygous OTOF Mutations in Two Chinese Families.
Abstract Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), also called auditory neuropathy (AN), is a unique type of prelingual hearing impairment. Up to 10% of deaf infants and children are affected by this disease. Mutation of the OTOF gene which encodes otoferlin is the common cause of congenital nonsyndromic ANSD. To date, over 110 mutations have been identified in the OTOF gene according to the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). Here, next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed that the compound heterozygous mutations c.4748G>A/c.2523+1G>T and c.5248G>C/c.5098G>C of the OTOF gene were present in two C...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Qiu Y, Chen S, Xie L, Xu K, Lin Y, Bai X, Zhang HM, Liu XZ, Jin Y, Sun Y, Kong WJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Opportunities and Limitations of Vascular Risk Factor Models in Studying Plasticity-Promoting and Restorative Ischemic Stroke Therapies.
Abstract Major efforts are currently made promoting neuronal plasticity and brain remodeling in the postacute stroke phase. Experimental studies evaluating new stroke therapies are mostly performed in rodents, which compared to humans exhibit a short lifespan. These studies widely employ young, otherwise healthy, rodents that lack the vascular risk factors and comorbidities of stroke patients. These risk factors compromise postischemic neurological recovery and brain plasticity and in several contexts reduce the brain responsiveness to recovery-inducing plasticity-promoting treatments. By examining risk factor mod...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hermann DM, Doeppner TR, Popa-Wagner A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Intracortical Administration of the Complement C3 Receptor Antagonist Trifluoroacetate Modulates Microglia Reaction after Brain Injury.
Abstract Worldwide, millions of individuals suffer an ischemic stroke each year, causing major disability, especially in the elderly, where stroke is the number one cause of disability. However, to date, no effective therapy exists that targets the functional recovery after stroke. After necrosis, neuroinflammation is a common feature of the acute stroke and a major obstacle to tissue restoration. In the lesioned area, the dying neurons release chemotactic signals, such as fractalkine/CX3CL1, which evoke "eat-me" signals that are recognized by microglia expressing complement C3a receptor (C3aR), resultin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Surugiu R, Catalin B, Dumbrava D, Gresita A, Olaru DG, Hermann DM, Popa-Wagner A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin Decoction Reverses Depression-Like Behavior in LPS-Induced Mice by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome and Neurogenesis.
In conclusion, the study indicates that MFX relieves a depressive-like state in LPS-induced mice through the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the enhancement of the neurogenesis pathway. PMID: 31814820 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jing W, Song S, Sun H, Chen Y, Zhao Q, Zhang Y, Dai G, Ju W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Studying Cortical Plasticity in Ophthalmic and Neurological Disorders: From Stimulus-Driven to Cortical Circuitry Modeling Approaches.
Abstract Unsolved questions in computational visual neuroscience research are whether and how neurons and their connecting cortical networks can adapt when normal vision is compromised by a neurodevelopmental disorder or damage to the visual system. This question on neuroplasticity is particularly relevant in the context of rehabilitation therapies that attempt to overcome limitations or damage, through either perceptual training or retinal and cortical implants. Studies on cortical neuroplasticity have generally made the assumption that neuronal population properties and the resulting visual field maps are stable...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carvalho J, Renken RJ, Cornelissen FW Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Role of Functional Imaging Techniques to Assess Motor and Language Cortical Plasticity in Glioma Patients: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Cerebral plasticity is the ability of the central nervous system to reorganize itself in response to different injuries. The reshaping of functional areas is a crucial mechanism to compensate for damaged function. It is acknowledged that functional remodeling of cortical areas may occur also in glioma patients. Principal limits of previous investigations on cortical plasticity of motor and language functions included scarce reports of longitudinal evaluations and limited sample sizes. This systematic review is aimed at elucidating cortical brain plasticity for motor and language functions, in adult glioma...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Cirillo S, Caulo M, Pieri V, Falini A, Castellano A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Ethanol Exposure Induces Microglia Activation and Neuroinflammation through TLR4 Activation and SENP6 Modulation in the Adolescent Rat Hippocampus.
This study investigates the effects of long-term ethanol consumption on neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of adolescent rats and the regulatory roles of TLR4 and SENP6. Twenty-one days of ethanol exposure in adolescent rats were used to develop an animal model. The number of microglia, microglial activation, and the expression of TLR4 in the hippocampus of adolescent rats were examined by immunoreactivity. The levels of TLR4, activation of NF-κB including IkB-α and p-NF-κB-p65, and SENP6 were measured by western blotting. Proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measur...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Q, Liu D, Pan F, Ho CSH, Ho RCM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Motor Cortical Activities by Action Observation and Execution in Patients with Stroke: An MEG Study.
This study was aimed at investigating the effects of action observation and two types of AOE on motor cortical activations after stroke using magnetoencephalography. Twenty patients with stroke and 20 healthy controls were recruited for the collection of data on the beta oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex (M1). All participants performed the conditions of resting, observation only, and video observation combined with execution (video AOE). Stroke patients performed one additional condition of affected hand observation combined with execution (affected hand AOE). The relative change index of beta oscillations ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhu JD, Cheng CH, Tseng YJ, Chou CC, Chen CC, Hsieh YW, Liao YH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Bibliometric Study of the Comorbidity of Pain and Depression Research.
Abstract Background: Comorbid pain and depression occur with high prevalence in clinical observations, and published academic journals about them have been increasing in number over time. However, few studies used the bibliometric method to analyze the general aspects of scientific researches on the comorbidity of pain and depression. The aim of this study is to systematically provide global scientific research in the comorbidity of pain and depression from 1980 to 2018. Methods: The published papers were searched between 1980 and 2018 in Web of Science. Publications related to comorbid pain and depression re...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang XQ, Peng MS, Weng LM, Zheng YL, Zhang ZJ, Chen PJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Neuronal Pentraxin 2 Binds PNNs and Enhances PNN Formation.
Abstract The perineuronal net (PNN) is a mesh-like proteoglycan structure on the neuronal surface which is involved in regulating plasticity. The PNN regulates plasticity via multiple pathways, one of which is direct regulation of synapses through the control of AMPA receptor mobility. Since neuronal pentraxin 2 (Nptx2) is a known regulator of AMPA receptor mobility and Nptx2 can be removed from the neuronal surface by PNN removal, we investigated whether Nptx2 has a function in the PNN. We found that Nptx2 binds to the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronan and chondroitin sulphate E in the PNN. Furthermore, in primary co...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Van't Spijker HM, Rowlands D, Rossier J, Haenzi B, Fawcett JW, Kwok JCF Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Regulation of Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation by Graphene-Based Biomaterials.
Abstract The transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has become an emerging treatment for neural degeneration. A key factor in such treatments is to manipulate NSC behaviors such as proliferation and differentiation, resulting in the eventual regulation of NSC fate. Novel bionanomaterials have shown usefulness in guiding the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs due to the materials' unique morphological and topological properties. Among the nanomaterials, graphene has drawn increasing attention for neural regeneration applications based on the material's excellent physicochemical properties, surface modif...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xia L, Zhu W, Wang Y, He S, Chai R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hypertension and Its Impact on Stroke Recovery: From a Vascular to a Parenchymal Overview.
s N Abstract Hypertension is the first modifiable vascular risk factor accounting for 10.4 million deaths worldwide; it is strongly and independently associated with the risk of stroke and is related to worse prognosis. In addition, hypertension seems to be a key player in the implementation of vascular cognitive impairment. Long-term hypertension, complicated or not by the occurrence of ischemic stroke, is often reviewed on its vascular side, and parenchymal consequences are put aside. Here, we sought to review the impact of isolated hypertension or hypertension associated to stroke on brain atrophy, neuron conne...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maïer B, Kubis N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Ganglionic Long-Term Potentiation in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Stages of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Depends on GABA Modulation.
es MA Abstract The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates body functions in normal and pathological conditions and is characterized by the presence of a neuroplastic phenomenon, termed ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP). In hypertension, either in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or in humans, sympathetic hyperfunction, such as elevated SNS outflow and changes in synaptic plasticity have been described. Because enhanced SNS outflow is detected in the hypertensive stage and, more importantly, in the prehypertensive phase of SHR, here we explored whether synaptic plasticity, particularly gLTP, was mod...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Martínez LA, Cifuentes F, Morales MA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Role of the Social Environment on Adaptive Neuroplasticity in Early Development.
PMID: 31687009 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Guzzetta A, Murray L, Montirosso R, Ferrari PF Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Potential Biomarker in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review with Recommendations for Future Research.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Disease progression is variable and unpredictable, warranting the development of biomarkers of disease status. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method used to study the human motor system, which has shown potential in MS research. However, few reviews have summarized the use of TMS combined with clinical measures of MS and no work has comprehensively assessed study quality. This review explored the viability of TMS as a biomarker in studies of MS examining disease severity, cognitive impairment, moto...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Snow NJ, Wadden KP, Chaves AR, Ploughman M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Acute Phase Neuronal Activity for the Prognosis of Stroke Recovery.
Abstract Strokes causing similar lesions and clinical states can be followed by diverse regains of neurological functions, indicating that the clinical recovery can depend on individual modulating factors. A promising line to disclose these factors, to finally open new therapeutic strategies, is to search for individual indices of recovery prognosis. Here, we pursued on strengthening the value of acute phase electrophysiological biomarkers for poststroke functional recovery in a wide group of patients. We enrolled 120 patients affected by a monohemispheric stroke within the middle cerebral artery territory (70 lef...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zappasodi F, Pasqualetti P, Rossini PM, Tecchio F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Wnt1 Promotes EAAT2 Expression and Mediates the Protective Effects of Astrocytes on Dopaminergic Cells in Parkinson's Disease.
Conclusion: Wnt1 promoted EAAT2 expression and mediated the cytoprotective effects of astrocytes on dopaminergic cells. NF-κB might be involved in the regulation of EAAT2 by Wnt1. PMID: 31582965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei L, Chen C, Ding L, Mo M, Zou J, Lu Z, Li H, Wu H, Dai Y, Xu P, Lu Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

MZF1 in the Dorsal Root Ganglia Contributes to the Development and Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain via Regulation of TRPV1.
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) participates in neuropathic pain induced by chronic-constriction injury (CCI) via regulation of voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv). Emerging evidence indicates that transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Although it is known that the transcription of TRPV1 is regulated by Kruppel-like zinc-finger transcription factor 7 (Klf7)-and that the structure of TRPV1 is similar to that of Kv-few studies have systematically investigated the r...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xing F, Gu H, Niu Q, Fan X, Wang Z, Yuan J, Li Z, Xu JT, Zhang W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Cognitive-Motor Interference during Multitasking in Young and Old Adults.
We examined neural and behavioral markers of motor-cognitive dual-task performance in young and old adults performing spatial one-back working memory single and dual tasks during semitandem stance. On the neural level, we used EEG to test for age-related modulations in the frequency domain related to cognitive-postural task load. Twenty-eight healthy young and 30 old adults participated in this study. The tasks included a postural single task, a cognitive-postural dual task, and a cognitive-postural triple task (cognitive dual-task with postural demands). Postural sway (i.e., total center of pressure displacements) was rec...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bohle H, Rimpel J, Schauenburg G, Gebel A, Stelzel C, Heinzel S, Rapp M, Granacher U Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Synapse Organizers in the Regulation of Critical Periods.
Abstract Experience remodels cortical connectivity during developmental windows called critical periods. Experience-dependent regulation of synaptic strength during these periods establishes circuit functions that are stabilized as critical period plasticity wanes. These processes have been extensively studied in the developing visual cortex, where critical period opening and closure are orchestrated by the assembly, maturation, and strengthening of distinct synapse types. The synaptic specificity of these processes points towards the involvement of distinct molecular pathways. Attractive candidates are pre- and p...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ribic A, Biederer T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Classification of Visual Cortex Plasticity Phenotypes following Treatment for Amblyopia.
Abstract Monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period (CP) has enduring effects on visual acuity and the functioning of the visual cortex (V1). This experience-dependent plasticity has become a model for studying the mechanisms, especially glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors, that regulate amblyopia. Less is known, however, about treatment-induced changes to those receptors and if those changes differentiate treatments that support the recovery of acuity versus persistent acuity deficits. Here, we use an animal model to explore the effects of 3 visual treatments started during the CP (n = 24, 10 male an...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Balsor JL, Jones DG, Murphy KM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Cognition: The Role of Gnidia glauca on Spatial Learning and Memory Retention in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.
Abstract Chronic exposures to high-fat diets are linked to neuropathological changes that culminate in obesity-related cognitive dysfunction and brain alteration. Learning, memory performance, and executive function are the main domains affected by an obesogenic diet. There are limited effective therapies for addressing cognitive deficits. Thus, it is important to identify additional and alternative therapies. In African traditional medicine, Gnidia glauca has putative efficacy in the management of obesity and associated complications. The use of Gnidia glauca is largely based on its long-term traditional use. Its...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Arika WM, Kibiti CM, Njagi JM, Ngugi MP Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modification of Peak Plasticity Induced by Brief Dark Exposure.
In this study, we investigated the possibility that brief darkness (dark exposure) imposed just prior to the critical period peak can enhance the level of plasticity beyond that observed naturally. We examined the level of plasticity by measuring two sensitive markers of monocular deprivation, namely, soma size of neurons and neurofilament labeling within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Significantly larger modification of soma size, but not neurofilament labeling, was observed at the critical period peak when dark exposure preceded monocular deprivation. This indicated that the natural plasticity ceiling is modifia...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lingley AJ, Mitchell DE, Crowder NA, Duffy KR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Learning following Brain Injury: Neural Plasticity Markers.
PMID: 31565048 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Carey L, Nilsson M, Boyd L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Agonist-Antagonist Coactivation Enhances Corticomotor Excitability of Ankle Muscles.
Abstract Spinal pathways underlying reciprocal flexion-extension contractions have been well characterized, but the extent to which cortically evoked motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are influenced by antagonist muscle activation remains unclear. A majority of studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation- (TMS-) evoked MEPs to evaluate the excitability of the corticospinal pathway focus on upper extremity muscles. Due to functional and neural control differences between lower and upper limb muscles, there is a need to evaluate methodological factors influencing TMS-evoked MEPs specifically in lower limb musculatu...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kesar TM, Tan A, Eicholtz S, Baker K, Xu J, Anderson JT, Wolf SL, Borich MR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Stimulus- and Neural-Referred Visual Receptive Field Properties following Hemispherectomy: A Case Study Revisited.
Abstract Damage to the visual system can result in (a partial) loss of vision, in response to which the visual system may functionally reorganize. Yet the timing, extent, and conditions under which this occurs are not well understood. Hence, studies in individuals with diverse congenital and acquired conditions and using various methods are needed to better understand this. In the present study, we examined the visual system of a young girl who received a hemispherectomy at the age of three and who consequently suffered from hemianopia. We did so by evaluating the corticocortical and retinocortical projections in ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Halbertsma HN, Haak KV, Cornelissen FW Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Contribution of Short-Time Occlusion of the Amblyopic Eye to a Passive Dichoptic Video Treatment for Amblyopia beyond the Critical Period.
In this study, we first asked whether dichoptic movie viewing could improve the visual function of amblyopic subjects beyond the critical period. Secondly, we tested if this effect could be enhanced by short-term monocular occlusion of the amblyopic eye. 17 subjects presenting stable functional amblyopia participated in this study. 10 subjects followed 6 sessions of 1.5 hour of dichoptic movie viewing (nonpatched group), and 7 subjects, prior to each of these sessions, had to wear an occluding patch over the amblyopic eye for two hours (patched group). Best-corrected visual acuity, monocular contrast sensitivity, interocul...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sauvan L, Stolowy N, Denis D, Matonti F, Chavane F, Hess RF, Reynaud A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Novelty and Novel Objects Increase c-Fos Immunoreactivity in Mossy Cells in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus.
Abstract The dentate gyrus (DG) and its primary cell type, the granule cell (GC), are thought to be critical to many cognitive functions. A major neuronal subtype of the DG is the hilar mossy cell (MC). MCs have been considered to play an important role in cognition, but in vivo studies to understand the activity of MCs during cognitive tasks are challenging because the experiments usually involve trauma to the overlying hippocampus or DG, which kills hilar neurons. In addition, restraint typically occurs, and MC activity is reduced by brief restraint stress. Social isolation often occurs and is potentially confou...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bernstein HL, Lu YL, Botterill JJ, Scharfman HE Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Early Brain Damage Affects Body Schema and Person Perception Abilities in Children and Adolescents with Spastic Diplegia.
Abstract Early brain damage leading to cerebral palsy is associated to core motor impairments and also affects cognitive and social abilities. In particular, previous studies have documented specific alterations of perceptual body processing and motor cognition that are associated to unilateral motor deficits in hemiplegic patients. However, little is known about spastic diplegia (SpD), which is characterized by motorial deficits involving both sides of the body and is often associated to visuospatial, attentional, and social perception impairments. Here, we compared the performance of a sample of 30 children and ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Butti N, Montirosso R, Giusti L, Piccinini L, Borgatti R, Urgesi C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Sudden Intrabulbar Amyloid Increase Simultaneously Disrupts Olfactory Bulb Oscillations and Odor Detection.
ntilde;a-Ortega F Abstract There seems to be a correlation between soluble amyloid beta protein (Aβ) accumulation in the main olfactory bulb (OB) and smell deterioration in both Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and animal models. Moreover, this loss of smell appears to be related to alterations in neural network activity in several olfactory-related circuits, including the OB, as has been observed in anesthetized animals and brain slices. It is possible that there is a correlation between these two pathological phenomena, but a direct and simultaneous evaluation of the acute and direct effect of Aβ on O...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hernández-Soto R, Rojas-García KD, Peña-Ortega F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Role of SIL1 in Neurodevelopment and Learning.
Conclusions: These results suggested that SIL1 is required for the development of the central nervous system which is associated with its role in Reelin signaling. PMID: 31531014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu S, Zhu J, Mi K, Shen Y, Zhang X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Ketamine Administration Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Alterations in Excitatory and Inhibitory Transmission in the Rat Dorsal Raphe Nucleus.
Abstract Ketamine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects in human patients and ameliorates depressive-like behavioral effects of chronic stress in animal models. Chronic stress and elevated corticosterone levels have been shown to modify serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, and ketamine's antidepressant-like activity involves a 5-HT-dependent mechanism. However, it is not known if and how ketamine affects the electrophysiological characteristics of neurons and synaptic transmission within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the main source of 5-HT forebrain projections. ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sowa J, Kusek M, Bobula B, Hess G, Tokarski K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Modulatory Effect of Cerebrovascular Burden in Response to Cognitive Stimulation in Healthy Ageing and Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Conclusions: The current research evidences the modulatory effect of cerebrovascular pathology in interventions aimed at re-establishing network connectivity to prevent cognitive deterioration and delay the transition to the dementia stage of AD. Examination of co-occurring vascular pathology may improve precision in targeting treatment to MCI candidates who may respond optimally to such cognitive interventions. PMID: 31467519 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bentham C, De Marco M, Venneri A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Correlated Resting-State Functional MRI Activity of Frontostriatal, Thalamic, Temporal, and Cerebellar Brain Regions Differentiates Stroke Survivors with High Compared to Low Depressive Symptom Scores.
Conclusions: We provide evidence that fALFF is sensitive to changes in poststroke depressive symptom severity and implicates frontostriatal and cerebellar regions, consistent with previous studies. The use of multiband analysis could be an effective method to examine neural correlates of depression after stroke. The START-PrePARE trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, number ACTRN12610000987066. PMID: 31467520 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Goodin P, Lamp G, Vidyasagar R, Connelly A, Rose S, Campbell BCV, Tse T, Ma H, Howells D, Hankey GJ, Davis S, Donnan G, Carey LM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

NADPH Oxidase 2-Mediated Insult in the Auditory Cortex of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.
In this study, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used as a T2DM rat model to observe ultrastructural alterations in the auditory cortex and investigate possible mechanisms underlying CAS damage in T2DM. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) of ZDF rats was found to be markedly elevated in low (8 kHz) and high (32 kHz) frequencies. Protein expression of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and its matching subunits P22phox, P47phox, and P67phox was increased in the auditory cortex of ZDF rats. Expression of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of DNA oxidative damage, was also increased in the neuronal mitochon...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Du ZD, Wei W, Yu S, Song QL, Liu K, Gong SS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Posttraining Alpha Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Impairs Motor Consolidation in Elderly People.
Abstract The retention of a new sequential motor skill relies on repeated practice and subsequent consolidation in the absence of active skill practice. While the early phase of skill acquisition remains relatively unaffected in older adults, posttraining consolidation appears to be selectively impaired by advancing age. Motor learning is associated with posttraining changes of oscillatory alpha and beta neuronal activities in the motor cortex. However, whether or not these oscillatory dynamics relate to posttraining consolidation and how they relate to the age-specific impairment of motor consolidation in older a...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Rumpf JJ, Barbu A, Fricke C, Wegscheider M, Classen J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity of Children with Unilateral Amblyopia: A Resting State fMRI Study.
Conclusions: Unilateral amblyopia may reduce local brain activity and FC in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways and affect the top-down attentional control. Amblyopia may also alter FC between brain functional networks. These findings may help understand the pathological mechanisms of children with amblyopia. PMID: 31428144 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dai P, Zhang J, Wu J, Chen Z, Zou B, Wu Y, Wei X, Xiao M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Writers and Readers of DNA Methylation/Hydroxymethylation in Physiological Aging and Its Impact on Cognitive Function.
Abstract The chromatin landscape has acquired deep attention from several fields ranging from cell biology to neurological and psychiatric diseases. The role that DNA modifications have on gene expression regulation has become apparent in several physiological processes, and numerous efforts have been performed to establish a relationship between DNA modifications and physiological conditions, such as cognitive performance and aging. DNA modifications are incorporated by specific sets of enzymes-the writers-and the modified DNA-interacting partners-the readers-are ultimately responsible for maintaining a functiona...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Torres RF, Kouro R, Kerr B Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Enhanced Glutamatergic Currents at Birth in Shank3 KO Mice.
We report that in CA3 pyramidal neurons, the driving force and inhibitory action of GABA are not different in naïve and Shank3-mutant age-matched animals at birth and during the second postnatal week. In contrast, the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents is already enhanced at birth and persists through postnatal day 15. Therefore, in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Shank3-mutant mice, glutamatergic but not GABAergic activity is affected at early developmental stages, hence reflecting the heterogeneity of mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID: 31354805 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chiesa M, Nardou R, Lozovaya N, Eftekhari S, Tyzio R, Guimond D, Ferrari DC, Ben-Ari Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hyperexcitability of Cortical Oscillations in Patients with Somatoform Pain Disorder: A Resting-State EEG Study.
Abstract Patients with somatoform pain disorder (SPD) suffer from somatic pain that cannot be fully explained by specific somatic pathology. While the pain experience requires the integration of sensory and contextual processes, the cortical oscillations have been suggested to play a crucial role in pain processing and integration. The present study is aimed at identifying the abnormalities of spontaneous cortical oscillations among patients with SPD, thus for a better understanding of the ongoing brain states in these patients. Spontaneous electroencephalography data during a resting state with eyes open were rec...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ye Q, Yan D, Yao M, Lou W, Peng W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Conflict Processing by Theta-Range tACS over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.
Abstract Behavioral response conflict arises in the color-word Stroop task and triggers the cognitive control network. Midfrontal theta-band oscillations correlate with adaptive control mechanisms during and after conflict resolution. In order to prove causality, in two experiments, we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 6 Hz to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during Stroop task performance. Sham stimulation served as a control in both experiments; 9.7 Hz tACS served as a nonharmonic alpha band control in the second experiment. We employed generalized linear mixe...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lehr A, Henneberg N, Nigam T, Paulus W, Antal A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Corticomuscular Signal Coupling Is Weakened during Voluntary Motor Action in Cancer-Related Fatigue.
Conclusion: Impaired functional coupling between the brain and muscle signals could be a consequence of cancer and/or its treatment, and it may be one of the contributing factors to the abnormal feeling of fatigue that caused the early failure of sustaining a prolonged motor task. PMID: 31346330 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang C, Yang Q, Chen T, Siemionow V, Ranganathan VK, Yan AF, Yue GH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research