Somatosensory Plasticity in Pediatric Cerebral Palsy following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.
Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is predominantly a disorder of movement, with evidence of sensory-motor dysfunction. CIMT1 is a widely used treatment for hemiplegic CP. However, effects of CIMT on somatosensory processing remain unclear. To examine potential CIMT-induced changes in cortical tactile processing, we designed a prospective study, during which 10 children with hemiplegic CP (5 to 8 years old) underwent an intensive one-week-long nonremovable hard-constraint CIMT. Before and directly after the treatment, we recorded their cortical event-related potential (ERP) responses to calibrated light touch (versus a ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matusz PJ, Key AP, Gogliotti S, Pearson J, Auld ML, Murray MM, Maitre NL Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Boosting Action Observation and Motor Imagery to Promote Plasticity and Learning.
PMID: 30532773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bisio A, Bassolino M, Pozzo T, Wenderoth N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cognitive Deficit-Related Interhemispheric Asynchrony within the Medial Hub of the Default Mode Network Aids in Classifying the Hyperthyroid Patients.
This study is aimed at investigating the association between the disrupted functional coordination and psychological dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. Method: Thirty-three hyperthyroid patients and thirty-three matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and they received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans and neuropsychological evaluation. The VMHC value was computed to reveal the functional coordination between homotopic regions in both groups. The neurobehavioral relevancy method was employed to explore the relationship between the altered VMHC and emotional, cognition measures. Furth...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhi M, Hou Z, Zhang Y, Yue Y, Li L, Yuan Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates the Remifentanil-Induced Hyperalgesia by Regulating the Activities of the Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus of the Thalamus Neurons in Rats.
This study aimed to explore the role of VPL in the development of OIH and the effect of EA treatment on OIH in rats. RF was administered to rats via the tail vein for OIH induction. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) in response to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to thermal stimulation were tested in rats for the assessment of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Spontaneous neuronal activity and local field potential (LFP) in VPL were recorded in freely moving rats using the in vivo multichannel recording technique. EA at 2 Hz frequency (pulse width 0.6 ms, 1-3 ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao HY, Liu LY, Cai J, Cui YJ, Xing GG Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Aberrances of Cortex Excitability and Connectivity Underlying Motor Deficit in Acute Stroke.
Conclusions: The study suggested that a dysfunction of the ipsilesional M1 and abnormal interhemispheric interactions might underlie the motor disability in acute ischemic stroke. Modifying the excitability of the motor cortex and correcting the abnormal motor network connectivity associated with the motor deficit might be the therapeutic target in early neurorehabilitation for stroke patients. PMID: 30420876 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Du J, Hu J, Hu J, Xu Q, Zhang Q, Liu L, Ma M, Xu G, Zhang Y, Liu X, Lu G, Zhang Z, Yang F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

No Modulatory Effects when Stimulating the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus with Continuous 6  Hz tACS and tRNS on Response Inhibition: A Behavioral Study.
In this study, we intend to examine whether the boosting of theta activity by electrical stimulation over rIFG reduces the number of errors and the reaction times in a response inhibition task (Go/NoGo paradigm) during and after stimulation. 23 healthy right-handed adults participated in the study. In three separate sessions, theta tACS at 6 Hz, transcranial random noise (tRNS) as a second stimulation condition, and sham stimulation were applied for 20 minutes. Based on behavioral data, this study could not show any effects of 6 Hz tACS as well as full spectrum tRNS on response inhibition in any of the condit...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Brauer H, Kadish NE, Pedersen A, Siniatchkin M, Moliadze V Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Synaptic Plasticity Changes: Hallmark for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders.
PMID: 30425736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Martella G, Bonsi P, Johnson SW, Quartarone A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cholinergic Mechanisms of Target Oddball Stimuli Detection: The Late "P300-Like" Event-Related Potential in Rats.
This study provides evidence that AEP P300-like responses can be elicited by rats engaged in attentive and memory processing of target stimuli and outline the relevance of the cholinergic system in stimulus discrimination processing. The findings highlight the sensitivity of this translational index for investigating brain circuits and/or novel pharmacological agents, which modulate cholinergic transmission associated with increased allocation of attentional resources. PMID: 30410536 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahnaou A, Biermans R, Drinkenburg WHIM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Key Transcription Factor Expression in the Developing Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs: A Comprehensive Comparison of Spatial and Temporal Patterns.
Abstract Inner ear formation requires that a series of cell fate decisions and morphogenetic events occur in a precise temporal and spatial pattern. Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, including Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1, play important roles during the inner ear development. However, the temporospatial expression patterns among these transcription factors are poorly understood. In the current study, we present a comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial expression profiles of Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1 during auditory and vestibular sensory organ development in mice. Using immunohistochemic...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu S, Wang Y, Lu Y, Li W, Liu W, Ma J, Sun F, Li M, Chen ZY, Su K, Li W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Visual Features in Alzheimer's Disease: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Overview.
rre A Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. It compromises patients' daily activities owing to progressive cognitive deterioration, which has elevated direct and indirect costs. Although AD has several risk factors, aging is considered the most important. Unfortunately, clinical diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced disease stage when dementia is established, making implementation of successful therapeutic interventions difficult. Current biomarkers tend to be expensive, insufficient, or invasive, raising the need for novel, improved tools aimed at early disease dete...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cerquera-Jaramillo MA, Nava-Mesa MO, González-Reyes RE, Tellez-Conti C, de-la-Torre A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Spatial Integration of Somatosensory Inputs during Sensory-Motor Plasticity Phenomena Is Normal in Focal Hand Dystonia.
Conclusions. The inhibitory integration of somatosensory inputs and the somatosensory inhibition are normal in patients with focal dystonia as well as lateral surrounding inhibition phenomena during sensory-motor plasticity in FHD. PMID: 30405710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Terranova C, Rizzo V, Morgante F, Maggio R, Calamuneri A, Chillemi G, Girlanda P, Quartarone A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impaired Ability to Suppress Excitability of Antagonist Motoneurons at Onset of Dorsiflexion in Adults with Cerebral Palsy.
Abstract We recently showed that impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors. Here, we explore potential mechanisms. We investigated the suppression of antagonist excitability, calculated as the amount of soleus H-reflex depression at the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to rest, in 24 adults with CP (34.3 years, range 18-57; GMFCS 1.95, range 1-3) and 15 healthy, age-matched controls. Furthermore, the central common drive to dorsiflexor motoneurons during a static contraction in the two groups was examined by coherence an...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Geertsen SS, Kirk H, Nielsen JB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cerebellar Theta-Burst Stimulation Impairs Memory Consolidation in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning.
Abstract Associative learning of sensorimotor contingences, as it occurs in eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), is known to involve the cerebellum, but its mechanism remains controversial. EBCC involves a sequence of learning processes which are thought to occur in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Recently, the extinction phase of EBCC has been shown to be modulated after one week by cerebellar continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Here, we asked whether cerebellar cTBS could affect retention and reacquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) tested immediately after conditioning. We also i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Monaco J, Rocchi L, Ginatempo F, D'Angelo E, Rothwell JC Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impaired GABA Neural Circuits Are Critical for Fragile X Syndrome.
Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inheritable neuropsychological disease caused by silence of the fmr1 gene and the deficiency of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Patients present neuronal alterations that lead to severe intellectual disability and altered sleep rhythms. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying FXS remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that metabolic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors/circuits are two counter-balanced factors involved in FXS pathophysiology. More and more studies demonstrated that attenuated GABAergic circuits in the absence...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao F, Qi L, Yang Z, Yang T, Zhang Y, Xu H, Zhao H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Improves Baroreflex and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor-Mediated Responses in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Hypertensive Rats.
Electroacupuncture Improves Baroreflex and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor-Mediated Responses in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Hypertensive Rats. Neural Plast. 2018;2018:8919347 Authors: Zhang Q, Tan YY, Liu XH, Yao FR, Cao DY Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to benefit hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that EA attenuates hypertension, in part, through modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the present study, the long-term effect of EA on GABA receptor functi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Q, Tan YY, Liu XH, Yao FR, Cao DY Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Changes in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Are Associated with Improvements in Diabetes Risk Factors after Exercise Training in Adolescents with Obesity: The HEARTY Randomized Controlled Trial.
In conclusion, exercise-induced reductions in some diabetes risk factors were associated with increases in BDNF in adolescents with obesity, suggesting that exercise training may be an effective strategy to promote metabolic health and increases in BDNF, a protein favoring neuroplasticity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00195858, September 12, 2005 (funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research). PMID: 30363954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Walsh JJ, D'Angiulli A, Cameron JD, Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Holcik M, Doucette S, Alberga AS, Prud'homme D, Hadjiyannakis S, Gunnell K, Goldfield GS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Corticospinal Tract Wiring and Brain Lesion Characteristics in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Determinants of Upper Limb Motor and Sensory Function.
Abstract Brain lesion characteristics (timing, location, and extent) and the type of corticospinal tract (CST) wiring have been proposed as determinants of upper limb (UL) motor function in unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP), yet an investigation of the relative combined impact of these factors on both motor and sensory functions is still lacking. Here, we first investigated whether structural brain lesion characteristics could predict the underlying CST wiring and we explored the role of CST wiring and brain lesion characteristics to predict UL motor and sensory functions in uCP. Fifty-two participants with uCP (mea...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Simon-Martinez C, Jaspers E, Mailleux L, Ortibus E, Klingels K, Wenderoth N, Feys H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Repulsive Environment Attenuation during Adult Mouse Optic Nerve Regeneration.
z AMB Abstract The regenerative capacity of CNS tracts has ever been a great hurdle to regenerative medicine. Although recent studies have described strategies to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate axons through the optic nerve, it still remains to be elucidated how these therapies modulate the inhibitory environment of CNS. Thus, the present work investigated the environmental content of the repulsive axon guidance cues, such as Sema3D and its receptors, myelin debris, and astrogliosis, within the regenerating optic nerve of mice submitted to intraocular inflammation + cAMP combin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Goulart CO, Mendonça HR, Oliveira JT, Savoldi LM, Dos Santos Heringer L, Dos Santos Rodrigues A, Paes-de-Carvalho R, Martinez AMB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Anatomical and Functional MRI Changes after One Year of Auditory Rehabilitation with Hearing Aids.
Abstract Hearing aids (HAs) are an effective strategy for auditory rehabilitation in patients with peripheral hearing deficits. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms behind HA use are still unclear. Thus far, most studies have focused on changes in the auditory system, although it is expected that hearing deficits affect a number of cognitive systems, notably speech. In the present study, we used audiometric evaluations in 14 patients with bilateral hearing loss before and after one year of continuous HA use and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical thickness analysis in 12 and 10 of them comp...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pereira-Jorge MR, Andrade KC, Palhano-Fontes FX, Diniz PRB, Sturzbecher M, Santos AC, Araujo DB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Repetitive Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Induces Quantified Changes in Resting Cerebral Perfusion Measured from Arterial Spin Labeling.
Abstract The use of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) as a method to augment neural activity has increased in popularity in the last decade and a half. The specific application of TES to the left prefrontal cortex has been shown to produce broad cognitive effects; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. In this work, we evaluated the effect of repetitive TES on cerebral perfusion. Stimulation was applied to the left prefrontal cortex on three consecutive days, and resting cerebral perfusion was quantified before and after stimulation using arterial spin labeling. Perfusion w...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sherwood MS, Madaris AT, Mullenger CR, McKinley RA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Botulinum Neurotoxin Application to the Severed Femoral Nerve Modulates Spinal Synaptic Responses to Axotomy and Enhances Motor Recovery in Rats.
Abstract Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known for their ability to influence synaptic inputs to neurons. Here, we tested if these drugs can modulate the deafferentation of motoneurons following nerve section/suture and, as a consequence, modify the outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration. We applied drug solutions to the proximal stump of the freshly cut femoral nerve of adult rats to achieve drug uptake and transport to the neuronal perikarya. The most marked effect of this application was a significant reduction of the axotomy-induced loss of perisomatic cholinerg...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Irintchev M, Guntinas-Lichius O, Irintchev A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cortical AAV-CNTF Gene Therapy Combined with Intraspinal Mesenchymal Precursor Cell Transplantation Promotes Functional and Morphological Outcomes after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats.
Abstract Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes survival and enhances long-distance regeneration of injured axons in parts of the adult CNS. Here we tested whether CNTF gene therapy targeting corticospinal neurons (CSN) in motor-related regions of the cerebral cortex promotes plasticity and regrowth of axons projecting into the female adult F344 rat spinal cord after moderate thoracic (T10) contusion injury (SCI). Cortical neurons were transduced with a bicistronic adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1) expressing a secretory form of CNTF coupled to mCHERRY (AAV-CNTFmCherry) or with control AAV only (AAV-GFP) t...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hodgetts SI, Yoon JH, Fogliani A, Akinpelu EA, Baron-Heeris D, Houwers IGJ, Wheeler LPG, Majda BT, Santhakumar S, Lovett SJ, Duce E, Pollett MA, Wiseman TM, Fehily B, Harvey AR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Adult Gross Motor Learning and Sleep: Is There a Mutual Benefit?
Abstract Posttraining consolidation, also known as offline learning, refers to neuroplastic processes and systemic reorganization by which newly acquired skills are converted from an initially transient state into a more permanent state. An extensive amount of research on cognitive and fine motor tasks has shown that sleep is able to enhance these processes, resulting in more stable declarative and procedural memory traces. On the other hand, limited evidence exists concerning the relationship between sleep and learning of gross motor skills. We are particularly interested in this relationship with the learning of...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Christova M, Aftenberger H, Nardone R, Gallasch E Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Antidepressant Effects of Probucol on Early-Symptomatic YAC128 Transgenic Mice for Huntington's Disease.
This study investigated whether chronic administration of the antioxidant probucol improved motor and affective symptoms as well as hippocampal neurogenic function in the YAC128 transgenic mouse model of HD during the early- to mild-symptomatic stages of disease progression. The motor performance and affective symptoms were monitored using well-validated behavioral tests in YAC128 mice and age-matched wild-type littermates at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, after 1, 3, or 5 months of treatment with probucol (30 mg/kg/day via water supplementation, starting on postnatal day 30). Endogenous markers were used to assess the ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Paula Nascimento-Castro C, Wink AC, da Fônseca VS, Bianco CD, Winkelmann-Duarte EC, Farina M, Rodrigues ALS, Gil-Mohapel J, de Bem AF, Brocardo PS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Stress Induced Neuroplasticity and Mental Disorders 2018.
PMID: 30186319 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang F, Pan F, Shapiro LA, Huang JH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity Alterations in Children with Spastic and Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy.
This study aims to detect the alteration of brain functional connectivity in children with SCP and DCP based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Resting-state networks (RSNs) were established based on the independent component analysis (ICA), and the functional network connectivity (FNC) was performed on the fMRI data from 16 DCP, 18 bilateral SCP, and 18 healthy children. Compared with healthy controls, altered functional connectivity within the cerebellum network, sensorimotor network (SMN), left frontoparietal network (LFPN), and salience network (SN) were found in DCP and SCP groups. Furthermore, the disconnections...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Qin Y, Li Y, Sun B, He H, Peng R, Zhang T, Li J, Luo C, Sun C, Yao D Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Green Tea and Red Tea from Camellia sinensis Partially Prevented the Motor Deficits and Striatal Oxidative Damage Induced by Hemorrhagic Stroke in Rats.
In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementation with green tea and red tea from Camellia sinensis on motor deficits and striatum oxidative damage in rats submitted to hemorrhagic stroke (ICH). Male Wistar rats were supplemented with green tea, red tea, or vehicle for 10 days prior to ICH induction. After injury, the rats were submitted to motor tests (open field for locomotion, rotarod for balance, and neurological deficit scale (NDS)) 1, 3, and 7 days after ICH induction, while the tea supplementation was maintained. Subsequently, the rats were euthanized to striatal tissue dissection for biochemical analyze...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sosa PM, de Souza MA, Mello-Carpes PB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Direct Electrophysiological Mapping of Shape-Induced Affective Perception.
Abstract Visual information may convey different affective valences and induce our brain into different affective perceptions. Many studies have found that unpleasant stimuli could produce stronger emotional effects than pleasant stimuli could. Although there has been a notion that triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive, there has been no systematic study to map the degrees of valence of shapes with different affective perceptions. Here, we employed four shapes (ellipse, triangle, and line-drawn happy and angry faces) to investigate the behavior and electrophysiological responses, in order to sys...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li Y, Ding Q, Zhao Y, Bu Y, Tang X, Wang P, Zhang G, Chen M, Liang P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Role of Adiponectin in Central Nervous System Disorders.
Abstract Adiponectin, the most abundant plasma adipokine, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin also possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and vasodilatory properties which may influence central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Although initially not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier, adiponectin enters the brain through peripheral circulation. In the brain, adiponectin signaling through its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, directly influences important brain functions such as energy homeostasis, hippocampal neurogenesis, and synaptic pl...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bloemer J, Pinky PD, Govindarajulu M, Hong H, Judd R, Amin RH, Moore T, Dhanasekaran M, Reed MN, Suppiramaniam V Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Temporary Functional Deafferentation in Chronic Stroke Patients: Who Profits More?
Abstract Temporary functional deafferentation (TFD) by an anesthetic cream on the stroke-affected forearm was shown to improve sensorimotor abilities of stroke patients. The present study investigated different predictors for sensorimotor improvements during TFD and indicated outcome differences between patients grouped in subcortical lesions only and lesions with any cortical involvement. Thirty-four chronic stroke patients were temporarily deafferented on the more affected forearm by an anesthetic cream. Somatosensory performance was assessed using von Frey Hair and grating orientation task; motor performance wa...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sens E, Franz M, Preul C, Meissner W, Witte OW, Miltner WHR, Weiss T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Postnatal Development of Microglia-Like Cells in Mouse Cochlea.
In this study, immunostaining was performed using the MLC-specific marker IBA1 to characterize the presence, distribution, and morphology of MLCs in the developing cochlea. From P0 to P14, MLCs were present in a variety of cochlear regions including the modiolus, spiral lamina, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and the organ of Corti. Interestingly, the overall number of MLCs in a mouse cochlea steadily increased since P0, peaks at P5, then gradually decreased from P5 to P14. In the spiral ligament, the distribution of the MLCs trends to shift from the type I/II fibrocyte-rich regions to the type III/IV fibrocyte-rich regi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen P, Chai Y, Liu H, Li G, Wang L, Yang T, Wu H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Activation of Phosphotyrosine-Mediated Signaling Pathways in the Cortex and Spinal Cord of SOD1G93A, a Mouse Model of Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
In this study, we analyzed the activities of src and fyn tyrosine kinases and of protein tyrosine phosphatases in synaptosomal fractions prepared from the motor cortex and spinal cord of transgenic mice expressing SOD1G93A. We found that (i) protein phosphotyrosine level is increased, (ii) src and fyn activities are upregulated, and (iii) the activity of tyrosine phosphatases, including the striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), is significantly decreased. Moreover, the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit GluN2B tyrosine phosphorylation was upregulated in SOD1G93A. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GluN2B subunits regulates th...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mallozzi C, Spalloni A, Longone P, Domenici MR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anomia Recovery following Personalized Observation, Execution, and Mental Imagery Therapy: A Proof of Concept.
Abstract The impact of sensorimotor strategies on aphasia recovery has rarely been explored. This paper reports on the efficacy of personalized observation, execution, and mental imagery (POEM) therapy, a new approach designed to integrate sensorimotor and language-based strategies to treat verb anomia, a frequent aphasia sign. Two participants with verb anomia were followed up in a pre-/posttherapy fMRI study. POEM was administered in a massed stimulation schedule, with personalized stimuli, resulting in significant improvement in both participants, with both trained and untrained items. Given that the latter fin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Durand E, Berroir P, Ansaldo AI Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Intraspinal Grafting of Serotonergic Neurons Modifies Expression of Genes Important for Functional Recovery in Paraplegic Rats.
Abstract Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) plays an important role in control of locomotion, partly through direct effects on motoneurons. Spinal cord complete transection (SCI) results in changes in 5-HT receptors on motoneurons that influence functional recovery. Activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors improves locomotor hindlimb movements in paraplegic rats. Here, we analyzed the mRNA of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors (encoded by Htr2a and Htr7 genes, resp.) in motoneurons innervating tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GM) hindlimb muscles and the tail extensor caudae medialis (ECM) muscle in ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Miazga K, Fabczak H, Joachimiak E, Zawadzka M, Krzemień-Ojak Ł, Bekisz M, Bejrowska A, Jordan LM, Sławińska U Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Reorganization of the Action Observation Network and Sensory-Motor System in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: An fMRI Study.
Abstract Little is known about the action observation network (AON) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Using fMRI, we aimed to explore AON and sensory-motor network (SMN) in UCP children and compare them to typically developed (TD) children and analyse the relationship between AON (re-)organization and several neurophysiological and clinical measures. Twelve UCP children were assessed with clinical scales and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). For the fMRI study, they underwent a paradigm based on observation of complex and simple object-manipulation tasks executed by dominant and nondominant ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sgandurra G, Biagi L, Fogassi L, Sicola E, Ferrari A, Guzzetta A, Tosetti M, Cioni G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Beneficial Effect of Multidomain Cognitive Training on the Neuropsychological Performance of Patients with Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease.
Conclusions: The study provides evidence of a beneficial effect of MCT with an emphasis on cognitive-language performance of patients with early-stage AD. Considering the limited efficacy of current pharmacological therapies in AD, concurrent computer-based MCT may represent an additional enhancing treatment option in early-stage AD patients. PMID: 30123243 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nousia A, Siokas V, Aretouli E, Messinis L, Aloizou AM, Martzoukou M, Karala M, Koumpoulis C, Nasios G, Dardiotis E Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Inner Ear Hair Cell Protection in Mammals against the Noise-Induced Cochlear Damage.
Abstract Inner ear hair cells are mechanosensory receptors that perceive mechanical sound and help to decode the sound in order to understand spoken language. Exposure to intense noise may result in the damage to the inner ear hair cells, causing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Particularly, the outer hair cells are the first and the most affected cells in NIHL. After acoustic trauma, hair cells lose their structural integrity and initiate a self-deterioration process due to the oxidative stress. The activation of different cellular death pathways leads to complete hair cell death. This review specifically pres...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Waqas M, Gao S, Iram-Us-Salam, Ali MK, Ma Y, Li W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Environmental Enrichment Induces Changes in Long-Term Memory for Social Transmission of Food Preference in Aged Mice through a Mechanism Associated with Epigenetic Processes.
This study aimed at testing whether EE could affect system consolidation in aged mice using the social transmission of food preference paradigm, which involves an ethologically based form of associative olfactory memory. We found that only EE mice successfully performed the remote memory recall task, showed neuronal activation in OFC, assessed with c-fos immunohistochemistry and early tagging of OFC, assessed with histone H3 acetylation, suggesting a defective system consolidation and early OFC tagging in aged mice which are ameliorated by EE. PMID: 30123245 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cintoli S, Cenni MC, Pinto B, Morea S, Sale A, Maffei L, Berardi N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Involvement in the Gentamicin-Induced Hearing Loss and Pathological Changes of Ribbon Synapse in the Mouse Cochlear Inner Hair Cells.
Abstract Cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses play an important role in sound encoding and neurotransmitter release. Previous reports show that both noise and aminoglycoside exposures lead to reduced numbers and morphologic changes of synaptic ribbons. In this work, we determined the distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and their role in the gentamicin-induced pathological changes of cochlear IHC ribbon synaptic elements. In normal mature mouse cochleae, the majority of NMDARs were distributed on the modiolar side of IHCs and close to the IHC nuclei region, while most of synaptic ribbo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hong J, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Li J, Ren L, Yang L, Shi L, Li A, Zhang T, Li H, Dai P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Knock-In Mice with Myo3a Y137C Mutation Displayed Progressive Hearing Loss and Hair Cell Degeneration in the Inner Ear.
Abstract Myo3a is expressed in cochlear hair cells and retinal cells and is responsible for human recessive hereditary nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB30). To investigate the mechanism of DFNB30-type deafness, we established a mouse model of Myo3a kinase domain Y137C mutation by using CRISPR/Cas9 system. No difference in hearing between 2-month-old Myo3a mutant mice and wild-type mice was observed. The hearing threshold of the ≥6-month-old mutant mice was significantly elevated compared with that of the wild-type mice. We observed degeneration in the inner ear hair cells of 6-month-old Myo3a mutant mice, and the deg...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li P, Wen Z, Zhang G, Zhang A, Fu X, Gao J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Repetitive Finger Movements in Healthy Humans.
Abstract Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a noninvasive neurophysiological technique that can entrain brain oscillations. Only few studies have investigated the effects of tACS on voluntary movements. We aimed to verify whether tACS, delivered over M1 at beta and gamma frequencies, has any effect on repetitive finger tapping as assessed by means of kinematic analysis. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled. Objective measurements of repetitive finger tapping were obtained by using a motion analysis system. M1 excitability was assessed by using single-pulse TMS and measuring the amplitude of ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Guerra A, Bologna M, Paparella G, Suppa A, Colella D, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P, Berardelli A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Operant Up-Conditioning of the Tibialis Anterior Motor-Evoked Potential in Multiple Sclerosis: Feasibility Case Studies.
Abstract Damage to the corticospinal pathway often results in weak dorsiflexion of the ankle, thereby limiting the mobility of people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, strengthening corticospinal connectivity may improve locomotion. Here, we investigated the feasibility of tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potential (MEP) operant conditioning and whether it can enhance corticospinal excitability and alleviate locomotor problems in people with chronic stable MS. The protocol consisted of 6 baseline and 24 up-conditioning sessions over 10 weeks. In all sessions, TA MEPs were elicited at 10% above active threshol...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Thompson AK, Favale BM, Velez J, Falivena P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Action Observation Treatment Improves Upper Limb Motor Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Combined Clinical and Brain Imaging Study.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the role of action observation treatment (AOT) in the rehabilitation of upper limb motor functions in children with cerebral palsy. We carried out a two-group, parallel randomized controlled trial. Eighteen children (aged 5-11 yr) entered the study: 11 were treated children, and 7 served as controls. Outcome measures were scores on two functional scales: Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function Scale (MUUL) and the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA). We collected functional scores before treatment (T1), at the end of treatment (T2), and at two m...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Buccino G, Molinaro A, Ambrosi C, Arisi D, Mascaro L, Pinardi C, Rossi A, Gasparotti R, Fazzi E, Galli J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Genetic Etiology Study of Ten Chinese Families with Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss.
In this report, we aimed to disclose the genetic causes of the subjects from the ten Chinese deaf families who did not have pathogenic common genes/mutation. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 142 known deafness genes was performed in the probands of ten families followed by cosegregation analysis of all family members. We identified novel pathogenic variants in six families including p.D1806E/p.R1588W, p.R964W/p.R1588W, and p.G17C/p.G1449D in CDH23; p.T584M/p.D1939N in LOXHD1; p.P1225L in MYO7A; and p.K612X in EYA4. Sanger sequencing confirmed that these mutations segregated with the hearing loss of each family. In four ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu S, Sun F, Zhang J, Tang Y, Qiu J, Wang Z, Zhang L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Contextual Fear Memory Formation and Destabilization Induce Hippocampal RyR2 Calcium Channel Upregulation.
ger P Abstract Hippocampus-dependent spatial and aversive memory processes entail Ca2+ signals generated by ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ channels residing in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Rodents exposed to different spatial memory tasks exhibit significant hippocampal RyR upregulation. Contextual fear conditioning generates robust hippocampal memories through an associative learning process, but the effects of contextual fear memory acquisition, consolidation, or extinction on hippocampal RyR protein levels remain unreported. Accordingly, here we investigated if exposure of male rats to contextual fear pro...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: More J, Casas MM, Sánchez G, Hidalgo C, Haeger P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Dance Training Shapes Action Perception and Its Neural Implementation within the Young and Older Adult Brain.
Abstract How we perceive others in action is shaped by our prior experience. Many factors influence brain responses when observing others in action, including training in a particular physical skill, such as sport or dance, and also general development and aging processes. Here, we investigate how learning a complex motor skill shapes neural and behavioural responses among a dance-naïve sample of 20 young and 19 older adults. Across four days, participants physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences, observed a second set, and a third set remained untrained. Functional MRI was obtained prior to and immedi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kirsch LP, Diersch N, Sumanapala DK, Cross ES Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Changes to Neural Activation Patterns (c-fos Labeling) in Chinchilla Auditory Midbrain following Neonatal Exposure to an Enhanced Sound Environment.
Abstract Sensory brain regions show neuroplastic changes following deficits or experimental augmentation of peripheral input during a neonatal period. We have previously shown reorganization of cortical tonotopic maps after neonatal cochlear lesions or exposure to an enhanced acoustic environment. Such experiments probe the cortex and show reorganization, but it is unclear if such changes are intrinsically cortical or reflect projections from modified subcortical regions. Here, we ask whether an enhanced neonatal acoustic environment can induce midbrain (inferior colliculus (IC)) changes. Neonatal chinchillas were...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: D'Alessandro LM, Harrison RV Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo.
In this study, for the first time, we showed the backward traveling wave by measuring the phase spectra of the basilar membrane vibration at multiple longitudinal locations of the basal turn of the cochlea. A local vibration source with a unique and precise location on the cochlear partition was created to avoid the ambiguity of the vibration source in most previous studies. We also measured the vibration pattern at different places of a mechanical cochlear model. A slow backward traveling wave pattern was demonstrated by the time-domain sequence of the measured data. In addition to the wave propagation study, a transmissi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen F, Zha D, Yang X, Hubbard A, Nuttall A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Oxytocin Signaling at the Synaptic Connection.
Abstract Aberrant regulation of oxytocin signaling is associated with the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Synaptic dysfunctions in neurodevelopmental disorders are becoming increasingly known, and their pathogenic mechanisms could be a target of potential therapeutic intervention. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the role of oxytocin and its receptor in synapse structure, function, and neuron connectivity. An early alteration in oxytocin signaling may disturb neuronal maturation and may have short-term and long-term pathological consequences. At the molecular level, neurodevelopmental disor...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 31, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bakos J, Srancikova A, Havranek T, Bacova Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Noninvasive Brain Stimulations for Unilateral Spatial Neglect after Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Controlled Trials.
Abstract Background: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is the most frequent perceptual disorder after stroke. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a tool that has been used in the rehabilitation process to modify cortical excitability and improve perception and functional capacity. Objective: To assess the impact of NIBS on USN after stroke. Methods: An extensive search was conducted up to July 2016. Studies were selected if they were controlled and noncontrolled trials examining transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and theta burst stimula...
Source: Neural Plasticity - July 30, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kashiwagi FT, El Dib R, Gomaa H, Gawish N, Suzumura EA, da Silva TR, Winckler FC, de Souza JT, Conforto AB, Luvizutto GJ, Bazan R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research