Optogenetic Stimulation Enhanced Neuronal Plasticities in Motor Recovery after Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Motor capability recovery after ischemic stroke involves dynamic remodeling processes of neural connectomes in the nervous system. Various neuromodulatory strategies combining direct stimulating interventions with behavioral trainings for motor recovery after ischemic stroke have been developed. However, the effectiveness of these interventions varies widely due to unspecific activation or inhibition of undefined neuronal subtypes. Optogenetics is a functional and structural connection-based approach that can selectively activate or inhibit specific subtype neurons with a higher precision, and it has been...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu C, Wu X, Ma H, Wang Q, Wang Y, Luo Y, Li C, Xu H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Alterations of the Brain Microstructure and Corresponding Functional Connectivity in Early-Blind Adolescents.
Abstract Although evidence from studies on blind adults indicates that visual deprivation early in life leads to structural and functional disruption and reorganization of the brain, whether young blind people show similar patterns remains unknown. Therefore, this study is aimed at exploring the structural and functional alterations of the brain of early-blind adolescents (EBAs) compared to normal-sighted controls (NSCs) and investigating the effects of residual light perception on brain microstructure and function in EBAs. We obtained magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 23 EBAs (8 with residual light perce...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou Z, Xu J, Shi L, Liu X, Hou F, Zhou J, Luo J, Hu Q, Li H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Alleviated Referral Hindpaw Hyperalgesia via Suppressing Spinal Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in TNBS-Induced Colitis Rats.
Abstract Although referred pain or hypersensitivity has been repeatedly reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and experimental colitis rodents, little is known about the neural mechanisms. Spinal long-term potentiation (LTP) of nociceptive synaptic transmission plays a critical role in the development of somatic hyperalgesia in chronic pain conditions. Herein, we sought to determine whether spinal LTP contributes to the referral hyperalgesia in colitis rats and particularly whether electroacupuncture (EA) is effective to alleviate somatic hyperalgesia via suppressing spinal LTP. Rats in the colitis g...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lv PR, Su YS, He W, Wang XY, Shi H, Zhang XN, Zhu B, Kan Y, Chen LZ, Wu QF, Yu SG, Jing XH Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Intramuscular Injection of Adenoassociated Virus Encoding Human Neurotrophic Factor 3 and Exercise Intervention Contribute to Reduce Spasms after Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, rats received a severe contusive injury at the T9 segment of the spinal cord, followed by gene therapy with adenoassociated virus encoding human neurotrophic factor 3 (AAV-NT3) and a 2-week exercise program starting at 4 weeks after injury. We quantified the frequency of spasms during a swimming test at 4 and 6 weeks after injury and confirmed the results of the swimming test by measuring the H-reflex of the plantar muscle. We obtained weekly hind limb exercise scores to assess the effect of the interventions in hind limb motor function improvement. Then, we used immunofluorescence to observe the immunoreact...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Chang YX, Zhao Y, Pan S, Qi ZP, Kong WJ, Pan YR, Li HR, Yang XY Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Widespread Striatal Delivery of GDNF from Encapsulated Cells Prevents the Anatomical and Functional Consequences of Excitotoxicity.
Conclusions: Delivery of neurotrophic molecules such as GDNF using encapsulated cells has reached a technological point where clinical evaluation is justified. Because GDNF has been effective in animal models of Parkinson's disease, stroke, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease, among other debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, encapsulated cell-based delivery of GDNF might represent one innovative means of slowing the neural degeneration seen in a myriad of currently untreatable neurological diseases. PMID: 30984255 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Emerich DF, Kordower JH, Chu Y, Thanos C, Bintz B, Paolone G, Wahlberg LU Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Podokinetic After-Rotation Is Transiently Enhanced or Reversed by Unilateral Axial Muscle Proprioceptive Stimulation.
Abstract Unilateral axial muscle vibration, eliciting a proprioceptive volley, is known to incite steering behavior. Whole-body rotation while stepping in place also occurs as an after-effect of stepping on a circular treadmill (podokinetic after-rotation, PKAR). Here, we tested the hypothesis that PKAR is modulated by axial muscle vibration. If both phenomena operate through a common pathway, enhancement or cancellation of body rotation would occur depending on the stimulated side when vibration is administered concurrently with PKAR. Seventeen subjects participated in the study. In one session, subjects stepped ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sozzi S, Nardone A, Crisafulli O, Schieppati M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

New Genotypes and Phenotypes in Patients with 3 Subtypes of Waardenburg Syndrome Identified by Diagnostic Next-Generation Sequencing.
Conclusions: EDNRB should be considered as another prevalent pathogenic gene in WS type 1. Our study expanded the genotype and phenotype spectrum of WS, and diagnostic next-generation sequencing is promising for WS. PMID: 30936914 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li W, Mei L, Chen H, Cai X, Liu Y, Men M, Liu XZ, Yan D, Ling J, Feng Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Brain Functional Reserve in the Context of Neuroplasticity after Stroke.
Abstract Stroke is the second cause of death and more importantly first cause of disability in people over 40 years of age. Current therapeutic management of ischemic stroke does not provide fully satisfactory outcomes. Stroke management has significantly changed since the time when there were opened modern stroke units with early motor and speech rehabilitation in hospitals. In recent decades, researchers searched for biomarkers of ischemic stroke and neuroplasticity in order to determine effective diagnostics, prognostic assessment, and therapy. Complex background of events following ischemic episode hinders suc...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dąbrowski J, Czajka A, Zielińska-Turek J, Jaroszyński J, Furtak-Niczyporuk M, Mela A, Poniatowski ŁA, Drop B, Dorobek M, Barcikowska-Kotowicz M, Ziemba A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Language in Preterm Born Children: Atypical Development and Effects of Early Interventions on Neuroplasticity.
a C Abstract Predicting language performances after preterm birth is challenging. It is described in the literature that early exposure to the extrauterine environment can be either detrimental or advantageous for neurodevelopment. However, the emphasis mostly lies on the fact that preterm birth may have an unfavorable effect on numerous aspects of development such as cognition, language, and behavior. Various studies reported atypical language development in preterm born children in the preschool years but also in school-aged children and adolescents. This review gives an overview of the course of language develo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - April 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Vandormael C, Schoenhals L, Hüppi PS, Filippa M, Borradori Tolsa C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Tripchlorolide May Improve Spatial Cognition Dysfunction and Synaptic Plasticity after Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion.
In conclusion, we found that TRC can improve spatial learning and memory, enhance synaptic plasticity, upregulate the expression of some synaptic proteins, and increase the density of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that TRC may be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by CCH. PMID: 30923551 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Yao ZH, Yao XL, Zhang SF, Hu JC, Zhang Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

M2 Macrophages as a Potential Target for Antiatherosclerosis Treatment.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammation course, which could induce life-threatening diseases such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Optimal medical treatments for atherosclerotic risk factors with current antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs (for example, statins) are widely used in clinical practice. However, many patients with established disease still continue to have recurrent cardiovascular events in spite of treatment with a state-of-the-art therapy. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Hence, current treatment of athe...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bi Y, Chen J, Hu F, Liu J, Li M, Zhao L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Induced and Evoked Properties of Vibrotactile Adaptation in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex.
Abstract Prolonged exposure to afferent stimulation ("adaptation") can cause profound short-term changes in the responsiveness of cortical sensory neurons. While several models have been proposed that link adaptation to single-neuron dynamics, including GABAergic inhibition, the process is currently imperfectly understood at the whole-brain level in humans. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the neurophysiological correlates of adaptation within SI in humans. In one condition, a 25 Hz adapting stimulus (5 s) was followed by a 1 s 25 Hz probe ("same"...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Puts NAJ, Edden RAE, Muthukumaraswamy S, Singh KD, McGonigle DJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Different Visual Weighting due to Fast or Slow Vestibular Deafferentation: Before and after Schwannoma Surgery.
usson M Abstract Background: Feedback postural control depends upon information from somatosensation, vision, and the vestibular system that are weighted depending on their relative importance within the central nervous system. Following loss of any sensory component, the weighting changes, e.g., when suffering a vestibular loss, the most common notion is that patients become more dependent on visual cues for maintaining postural control. Dizziness and disequilibrium are common after surgery in schwannoma patients, which could be due to interpretation of the remaining sensory systems involved in feedback-dependent...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tjernström F, Fransson PA, Kahlon B, Karlberg M, Lindberg S, Siesjö P, Magnusson M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Attenuate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Oxygen Glucose Deprivation-Induced Activated Microglial Cells.
Abstract Ischemic stroke is usually followed by inflammatory responses mediated by microglia. However, the effect of statins on directly preventing posthypoxia microglia inflammatory factors to prevent injury to surrounding healthy neurons is unclear. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, which have different physical properties regarding their lipid and water solubility, are the most common HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and might directly block posthypoxia microglia inflammatory factors to prevent injury to surrounding neurons. Neuronal damage and microglial activation of the peri-infarct areas were investigate...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu D, Shen L, Mai H, Zang J, Liu Y, Tsang CK, Li K, Xu A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Aerobic Exercise Upregulating the Expression of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity-Associated Proteins in Diabetic Rats.
Abstract We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in rats with type 2 diabetes and their possible mechanisms. A type 2 diabetes rat model was established with 8 weeks of high-fat diet combined with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Then, a 4-week aerobic exercise intervention was conducted. Memory performance was measured with Y maze tests. The expression and activity of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins and of proteins involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, AMPK/Sirt1, and NFκB/NLRP3/IL-1β signaling ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li J, Liu Y, Liu B, Li F, Hu J, Wang Q, Li M, Lou S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

MicroRNA-219 Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells after Contusion Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.
Abstract MicroRNA-219 (miR-219) regulates the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during central nervous system (CNS) development. OPCs only differentiate into oligodendrocytes (OLs) in the healthy CNS, but can generate astrocytes (As) after injury. We hypothesized that miR-219 may modulate OPC proliferation and differentiation in a cervical C5 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) model. After injury, we observed a decrease in the miR-219 level and quantity of OLs and an increase in the number of OPCs and As. Silencing of miR-219 by its antagomir in vivo produced similar resul...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li F, Zhou MW, Liu N, Yang YY, Xing HY, Lu Y, Liu XX Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity Pattern Analysis Underlying Neural Oscillation Synchronization during Deception.
In this study, 15 participants were randomly assigned to honesty or deception groups and were instructed to tell the truth or lie when facing certain stimuli. Meanwhile, event-related potential signals were recorded using a 64-channel electroencephalography cap. Event-related coherence was computed separately in four frequency bands (delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-30 HZ)) for the long-range intrahemispheric electrode pairs (F3P3, F4P4, F3T7, F4T8, F3O1, and F4O2). The results indicated that deceptive responses elicited greater connectivities in the frontoparietal and fr...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu P, Shen H, Ji S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Memantine Differentially Regulates Tau Phosphorylation Induced by Chronic Restraint Stress of Varying Duration in Mice.
Abstract Exposure to chronic psychiatric stress has been linked to Alzheimer's disease-related tau hyperphosphorylation and abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission. However, the pathological relationship between glutamatergic dysfunction and tau phosphorylation in the cerebral cortex under chronic psychiatric stress is not fully understood. The present study investigated the effects of memantine (MEM, 5 and 10 mg/kg), an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, on chronic restraint stress- (CRS-) induced tau phosphorylation in mice. CRS administered for 16 or 28 consecutive days (...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Cao L, Zhang X, Liang Y, Xu Y, Zhu C Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cortical and Subcortical Contributions to Neuroplasticity after Repetitive Transspinal Stimulation in Humans.
The objectives of this study were to establish cortical and subcortical contributions to neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive repetitive transspinal stimulation in human subjects free of any neurological disorder. To meet our objectives, before and after 40 minutes of transspinal stimulation we established changes in tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) consistent with I-wave periodicity. In order to establish to what extent similar actions are exerted at the spinal cord and motor axons, changes in sole...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Murray LM, Islam MA, Knikou M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

White Matter Biomarkers Associated with Motor Change in Individuals with Stroke: A Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation Study.
Abstract Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) is a form of noninvasive repetitive brain stimulation that, when delivered over the contralesional hemisphere, can influence the excitability of the ipsilesional hemisphere in individuals with stroke. cTBS applied prior to skilled motor practice interventions may augment motor learning; however, there is a high degree of variability in individual response to this intervention. The main objective of the present study was to assess white matter biomarkers of response to cTBS paired with skilled motor practice in individuals with chronic stroke. We tested the effects...
Source: Neural Plasticity - March 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wadden KP, Peters S, Borich MR, Neva JL, Hayward KS, Mang CS, Snow NJ, Brown KE, Woodward TS, Meehan SK, Boyd LA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electronic-Sports Experience Related to Functional Enhancement in Central Executive and Default Mode Areas.
Abstract Electronic-sports (e-sports) is a form of organized, online, multiplayer video game competition, which requires both action skills and the ability and process of forming and adapting a strategy (referred to as strategization hereafter) to achieve goals. Over the past few decades, research has shown that video gaming experience has an important impact on the plasticity of the sensorimotor, attentional, and executive brain areas. However, little research has examined the relationship between e-sports experience and the plasticity of brain networks that are related to strategization. Using resting-state fMRI...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gong D, Ma W, Liu T, Yan Y, Yao D Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Immune Challenge Alters Reactivity of Hippocampal Noradrenergic System in Prenatally Stressed Aged Mice.
Abstract Prenatal stress (PS) has long-term sequelae for the morphological and functional status of the central nervous system of the progeny. A PS-induced proinflammatory status of the organism may result in an impairment of both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory formation in adults. We addressed here the question of how PS-induced alterations in the immune response in young and old mice may contribute to changes in hippocampal function in aging. Immune stimulation (via LPS injection) significantly affected the ability of the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse of PS mice to undergo long-te...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Grigoryan G, Lonnemann N, Korte M Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Combined Fluoxetine and Metformin Treatment Potentiates Antidepressant Efficacy Increasing IGF2 Expression in the Dorsal Hippocampus.
Abstract An increasing number of studies show that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exert their therapeutic action, at least in part, by amplifying the influence of the living environment on mood. As a consequence, when administered in a favorable environment, SSRIs lead to a reduction of symptoms, but in stressful conditions, they show limited efficacy. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches able to neutralize the influence of the stressful environment on treatment are needed. The aim of our study was to test whether, in a mouse model of depression, the combined administration of SSRI fluoxetine a...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Poggini S, Golia MT, Alboni S, Milior G, Sciarria LP, Viglione A, Matte Bon G, Brunello N, Puglisi-Allegra S, Limatola C, Maggi L, Branchi I Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects on Parental Stress of Early Home-Based CareToy Intervention in Low-Risk Preterm Infants.
This study aims at evaluating the effects of CareToy early intervention on parenting stress in preterm infants. Parents (mother and father) of a subgroup of infants enrolled in the RCT filled out a self-report questionnaire on parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF)) before (T0) and after (T1) the CareToy or Standard Care period (4 weeks), according to the allocation of their preterm infant. For twins, an individual questionnaire for each one was filled out. Results obtained from mothers and fathers were separately analysed with nonparametric tests. 44 mothers and 44 fathers of 44 infants (24 CareToy/2...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sgandurra G, Beani E, Inguaggiato E, Lorentzen J, Nielsen JB, Cioni G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Neurorehabilitation: Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery 2018.
PMID: 30804993 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fujiwara T, Ushiba J, Soekadar SR Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

How Early Experience Shapes Human Development: The Case of Psychosocial Deprivation.
Abstract Experience plays an essential role in building brain architecture after birth. The question we address in this paper is what happens to brain and behavior when a young child is deprived of key experiences during critical periods of brain development. We focus in particular on the consequences of institutional rearing, with implication for the tens of millions of children around the world who from an early age experience profound psychosocial deprivation. Evidence is clear that deprivation can lead to a host of both short- and long-term consequences, including perturbations in brain structure and function,...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Nelson CA, Zeanah CH, Fox NA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study of Motor Effect.
This study provides an innovative contribution to scientific literature on the efficacy and safety of anodal tDCS in UCP. This trial is registered with NCT03137940. PMID: 30733800 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Inguaggiato E, Bolognini N, Fiori S, Cioni G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Disrupted Regional Spontaneous Neural Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients with Depressive Symptoms: A Resting-State fMRI Study.
Abstract Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who have an increased risk of dementia. It is currently unclear whether the pattern of spontaneous brain activity in patients with MCI differs between subjects with and without depressive symptoms. The current study sought to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity in MCI patients with depressive symptoms (D-MCI) using coherence regional homogeneity (CReHo) analysis with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). We obtained rsfMRI data in 16 MCI patients with depressive symptoms and 18 non...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu X, Tu Y, Zang Y, Wu A, Guo Z, He J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Localization Research of Brain Plasticity Changes after Brachial Plexus Pain: Sensory Regions or Cognitive Regions?
Abstract Objective: Neuropathic pain after brachial plexus injury remains an increasingly prevalent and intractable disease due to inadequacy of satisfactory treatment strategies. A detailed mapping of cortical regions concerning the brain plasticity was the first step of therapeutic intervention. However, the specific mapping research of brachial plexus pain was limited. We aimed to provide some localization information about the brain plasticity changes after brachial plexus pain in this preliminary study. Methods: 24 Sprague-Dawley rats received complete brachial plexus avulsion with neuropathic pain on th...
Source: Neural Plasticity - February 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang S, Ma ZZ, Lu YC, Wu JJ, Hua XY, Zheng MX, Xu JG Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Time Course of Upper Limb Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.
The objective was to report the five-year evolution in upper limb function and identify factors influencing time trends. Eighty-one children (mean age 9 y and 11 mo, SD 3 y and 3 mo) were assessed at baseline with follow-up after 6 months, 1, and 5 years. Passive range of motion (PROM), tone, muscle, and grip strength were assessed. Activity measurements included Melbourne Assessment, Jebsen-Taylor test, Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA), and ABILHAND-Kids. At 5-year follow-up, PROM (p
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Klingels K, Meyer S, Mailleux L, Simon-Martinez C, Hoskens J, Monbaliu E, Verheyden G, Verbeke G, Molenaers G, Ortibus E, Feys H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Somatosensory Plasticity in Pediatric Cerebral Palsy following Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy.
Abstract Cerebral palsy (CP) is predominantly a disorder of movement, with evidence of sensory-motor dysfunction. CIMT1 is a widely used treatment for hemiplegic CP. However, effects of CIMT on somatosensory processing remain unclear. To examine potential CIMT-induced changes in cortical tactile processing, we designed a prospective study, during which 10 children with hemiplegic CP (5 to 8 years old) underwent an intensive one-week-long nonremovable hard-constraint CIMT. Before and directly after the treatment, we recorded their cortical event-related potential (ERP) responses to calibrated light touch (versus a ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Matusz PJ, Key AP, Gogliotti S, Pearson J, Auld ML, Murray MM, Maitre NL Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Boosting Action Observation and Motor Imagery to Promote Plasticity and Learning.
PMID: 30532773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bisio A, Bassolino M, Pozzo T, Wenderoth N Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cognitive Deficit-Related Interhemispheric Asynchrony within the Medial Hub of the Default Mode Network Aids in Classifying the Hyperthyroid Patients.
This study is aimed at investigating the association between the disrupted functional coordination and psychological dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. Method: Thirty-three hyperthyroid patients and thirty-three matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and they received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans and neuropsychological evaluation. The VMHC value was computed to reveal the functional coordination between homotopic regions in both groups. The neurobehavioral relevancy method was employed to explore the relationship between the altered VMHC and emotional, cognition measures. Furth...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhi M, Hou Z, Zhang Y, Yue Y, Li L, Yuan Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates the Remifentanil-Induced Hyperalgesia by Regulating the Activities of the Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus of the Thalamus Neurons in Rats.
This study aimed to explore the role of VPL in the development of OIH and the effect of EA treatment on OIH in rats. RF was administered to rats via the tail vein for OIH induction. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) in response to mechanical stimuli and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to thermal stimulation were tested in rats for the assessment of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, respectively. Spontaneous neuronal activity and local field potential (LFP) in VPL were recorded in freely moving rats using the in vivo multichannel recording technique. EA at 2 Hz frequency (pulse width 0.6 ms, 1-3 ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao HY, Liu LY, Cai J, Cui YJ, Xing GG Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Aberrances of Cortex Excitability and Connectivity Underlying Motor Deficit in Acute Stroke.
Conclusions: The study suggested that a dysfunction of the ipsilesional M1 and abnormal interhemispheric interactions might underlie the motor disability in acute ischemic stroke. Modifying the excitability of the motor cortex and correcting the abnormal motor network connectivity associated with the motor deficit might be the therapeutic target in early neurorehabilitation for stroke patients. PMID: 30420876 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Du J, Hu J, Hu J, Xu Q, Zhang Q, Liu L, Ma M, Xu G, Zhang Y, Liu X, Lu G, Zhang Z, Yang F Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

No Modulatory Effects when Stimulating the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus with Continuous 6  Hz tACS and tRNS on Response Inhibition: A Behavioral Study.
In this study, we intend to examine whether the boosting of theta activity by electrical stimulation over rIFG reduces the number of errors and the reaction times in a response inhibition task (Go/NoGo paradigm) during and after stimulation. 23 healthy right-handed adults participated in the study. In three separate sessions, theta tACS at 6 Hz, transcranial random noise (tRNS) as a second stimulation condition, and sham stimulation were applied for 20 minutes. Based on behavioral data, this study could not show any effects of 6 Hz tACS as well as full spectrum tRNS on response inhibition in any of the condit...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Brauer H, Kadish NE, Pedersen A, Siniatchkin M, Moliadze V Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Synaptic Plasticity Changes: Hallmark for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders.
PMID: 30425736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Martella G, Bonsi P, Johnson SW, Quartarone A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cholinergic Mechanisms of Target Oddball Stimuli Detection: The Late "P300-Like" Event-Related Potential in Rats.
This study provides evidence that AEP P300-like responses can be elicited by rats engaged in attentive and memory processing of target stimuli and outline the relevance of the cholinergic system in stimulus discrimination processing. The findings highlight the sensitivity of this translational index for investigating brain circuits and/or novel pharmacological agents, which modulate cholinergic transmission associated with increased allocation of attentional resources. PMID: 30410536 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahnaou A, Biermans R, Drinkenburg WHIM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Key Transcription Factor Expression in the Developing Vestibular and Auditory Sensory Organs: A Comprehensive Comparison of Spatial and Temporal Patterns.
Abstract Inner ear formation requires that a series of cell fate decisions and morphogenetic events occur in a precise temporal and spatial pattern. Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, including Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1, play important roles during the inner ear development. However, the temporospatial expression patterns among these transcription factors are poorly understood. In the current study, we present a comprehensive description of the temporal and spatial expression profiles of Pax2, Sox2, and Prox1 during auditory and vestibular sensory organ development in mice. Using immunohistochemic...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 11, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu S, Wang Y, Lu Y, Li W, Liu W, Ma J, Sun F, Li M, Chen ZY, Su K, Li W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Visual Features in Alzheimer's Disease: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Overview.
rre A Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. It compromises patients' daily activities owing to progressive cognitive deterioration, which has elevated direct and indirect costs. Although AD has several risk factors, aging is considered the most important. Unfortunately, clinical diagnosis is usually performed at an advanced disease stage when dementia is established, making implementation of successful therapeutic interventions difficult. Current biomarkers tend to be expensive, insufficient, or invasive, raising the need for novel, improved tools aimed at early disease dete...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Cerquera-Jaramillo MA, Nava-Mesa MO, González-Reyes RE, Tellez-Conti C, de-la-Torre A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Spatial Integration of Somatosensory Inputs during Sensory-Motor Plasticity Phenomena Is Normal in Focal Hand Dystonia.
Conclusions. The inhibitory integration of somatosensory inputs and the somatosensory inhibition are normal in patients with focal dystonia as well as lateral surrounding inhibition phenomena during sensory-motor plasticity in FHD. PMID: 30405710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Terranova C, Rizzo V, Morgante F, Maggio R, Calamuneri A, Chillemi G, Girlanda P, Quartarone A Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impaired Ability to Suppress Excitability of Antagonist Motoneurons at Onset of Dorsiflexion in Adults with Cerebral Palsy.
Abstract We recently showed that impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) is associated with reduced rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors. Here, we explore potential mechanisms. We investigated the suppression of antagonist excitability, calculated as the amount of soleus H-reflex depression at the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to rest, in 24 adults with CP (34.3 years, range 18-57; GMFCS 1.95, range 1-3) and 15 healthy, age-matched controls. Furthermore, the central common drive to dorsiflexor motoneurons during a static contraction in the two groups was examined by coherence an...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Geertsen SS, Kirk H, Nielsen JB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cerebellar Theta-Burst Stimulation Impairs Memory Consolidation in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning.
Abstract Associative learning of sensorimotor contingences, as it occurs in eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), is known to involve the cerebellum, but its mechanism remains controversial. EBCC involves a sequence of learning processes which are thought to occur in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Recently, the extinction phase of EBCC has been shown to be modulated after one week by cerebellar continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). Here, we asked whether cerebellar cTBS could affect retention and reacquisition of conditioned responses (CRs) tested immediately after conditioning. We also i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Monaco J, Rocchi L, Ginatempo F, D'Angelo E, Rothwell JC Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Impaired GABA Neural Circuits Are Critical for Fragile X Syndrome.
Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inheritable neuropsychological disease caused by silence of the fmr1 gene and the deficiency of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Patients present neuronal alterations that lead to severe intellectual disability and altered sleep rhythms. However, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying FXS remain unclear. Previous studies have suggested that metabolic glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors/circuits are two counter-balanced factors involved in FXS pathophysiology. More and more studies demonstrated that attenuated GABAergic circuits in the absence...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao F, Qi L, Yang Z, Yang T, Zhang Y, Xu H, Zhao H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Improves Baroreflex and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor-Mediated Responses in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Hypertensive Rats.
Electroacupuncture Improves Baroreflex and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor-Mediated Responses in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Hypertensive Rats. Neural Plast. 2018;2018:8919347 Authors: Zhang Q, Tan YY, Liu XH, Yao FR, Cao DY Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to benefit hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesized that EA attenuates hypertension, in part, through modulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). In the present study, the long-term effect of EA on GABA receptor functi...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Q, Tan YY, Liu XH, Yao FR, Cao DY Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Changes in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Are Associated with Improvements in Diabetes Risk Factors after Exercise Training in Adolescents with Obesity: The HEARTY Randomized Controlled Trial.
In conclusion, exercise-induced reductions in some diabetes risk factors were associated with increases in BDNF in adolescents with obesity, suggesting that exercise training may be an effective strategy to promote metabolic health and increases in BDNF, a protein favoring neuroplasticity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00195858, September 12, 2005 (funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research). PMID: 30363954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Walsh JJ, D'Angiulli A, Cameron JD, Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Holcik M, Doucette S, Alberga AS, Prud'homme D, Hadjiyannakis S, Gunnell K, Goldfield GS Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Corticospinal Tract Wiring and Brain Lesion Characteristics in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: Determinants of Upper Limb Motor and Sensory Function.
Abstract Brain lesion characteristics (timing, location, and extent) and the type of corticospinal tract (CST) wiring have been proposed as determinants of upper limb (UL) motor function in unilateral cerebral palsy (uCP), yet an investigation of the relative combined impact of these factors on both motor and sensory functions is still lacking. Here, we first investigated whether structural brain lesion characteristics could predict the underlying CST wiring and we explored the role of CST wiring and brain lesion characteristics to predict UL motor and sensory functions in uCP. Fifty-two participants with uCP (mea...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Simon-Martinez C, Jaspers E, Mailleux L, Ortibus E, Klingels K, Wenderoth N, Feys H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Repulsive Environment Attenuation during Adult Mouse Optic Nerve Regeneration.
z AMB Abstract The regenerative capacity of CNS tracts has ever been a great hurdle to regenerative medicine. Although recent studies have described strategies to stimulate retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to regenerate axons through the optic nerve, it still remains to be elucidated how these therapies modulate the inhibitory environment of CNS. Thus, the present work investigated the environmental content of the repulsive axon guidance cues, such as Sema3D and its receptors, myelin debris, and astrogliosis, within the regenerating optic nerve of mice submitted to intraocular inflammation + cAMP combin...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Goulart CO, Mendonça HR, Oliveira JT, Savoldi LM, Dos Santos Heringer L, Dos Santos Rodrigues A, Paes-de-Carvalho R, Martinez AMB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Anatomical and Functional MRI Changes after One Year of Auditory Rehabilitation with Hearing Aids.
Abstract Hearing aids (HAs) are an effective strategy for auditory rehabilitation in patients with peripheral hearing deficits. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms behind HA use are still unclear. Thus far, most studies have focused on changes in the auditory system, although it is expected that hearing deficits affect a number of cognitive systems, notably speech. In the present study, we used audiometric evaluations in 14 patients with bilateral hearing loss before and after one year of continuous HA use and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cortical thickness analysis in 12 and 10 of them comp...
Source: Neural Plasticity - October 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pereira-Jorge MR, Andrade KC, Palhano-Fontes FX, Diniz PRB, Sturzbecher M, Santos AC, Araujo DB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Repetitive Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Induces Quantified Changes in Resting Cerebral Perfusion Measured from Arterial Spin Labeling.
Abstract The use of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) as a method to augment neural activity has increased in popularity in the last decade and a half. The specific application of TES to the left prefrontal cortex has been shown to produce broad cognitive effects; however, the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown. In this work, we evaluated the effect of repetitive TES on cerebral perfusion. Stimulation was applied to the left prefrontal cortex on three consecutive days, and resting cerebral perfusion was quantified before and after stimulation using arterial spin labeling. Perfusion w...
Source: Neural Plasticity - September 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sherwood MS, Madaris AT, Mullenger CR, McKinley RA Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research