Functional Decoupling of Emotion Coping Network Subsides Automatic Emotion Regulation by Implementation Intention.
Abstract Automatic emotion regulation (AER) plays a vital role in the neuropathology underlying both suicide and self-harm via modifying emotional impact effortlessly. However, both the effortless account and the neural mechanisms of AER are undetermined. To investigate the neural changes at AER, we collected functional MRI (fMRI) in 31 participants who attended to neutral and disgust pictures in three conditions: watching, goal intention (GI), and reappraisal by implementation intention (RII). Results showed that RII (but not GI) decreased negative feelings and bilateral amygdala activity without increasing cogni...
Source: Neural Plasticity - January 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen S, Ding N, Wang F, Li Z, Qin S, Biswal BB, Yuan J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Why It Is Necessary to Use the Entire Root rather than Partial Root When Doing Contralateral C7 Nerve Transfer: Cortical Plasticity Also Matters besides the Amount of Nerve Fibers.
Abstract Previous studies suggested that the mode of donor transection is a critical factor affecting the efficacy of the contralateral C7 (CC7) nerve transfer. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the division modes of the CC7 nerve and cortical functional reorganization of Sprague-Dawley rats. We hypothesized that different methods of CC7 nerve transection might induce differences in cortical functional reorganization, thus resulting in differences in surgery efficacy. BDNF, TNF-α/IL-6, and miR-132/134 were...
Source: Neural Plasticity - January 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo J, Zhao X, Lao J, Gao K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Exploring Cortical Thickness Alteration in Parkinson Disease Patients with Freezing of Gaits.
Abstract Background: Freezing of gait (FoG) is a disabling gait disorder that commonly occurs in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying FoG in PD are still unclear. The present study aims to explore alterations of structural gray matter (GM) in PD patients with FoG. Method: Twenty-four PD patients with FoG (FoG+), 37 PD patients without FoG (FoG-) and 24 healthy controls (HC) were included. All subjects underwent a standardized MRI protocol. The cortical thickness (CTh), segmentation volume without ventricles (BrainSegVolNotVent) and estimated total intracranial volu...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li E, Ruan X, Li Y, Zhang G, Li M, Wei X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Episodic Memory in Healthy Older Adults by Modulating Retrieval-Specific Activation.
Abstract Memory decline has become an issue of major importance in the aging society. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) is a viable tool to counteract age-associated episodic memory deterioration. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. In this single-blind, sham-controlled study, we combined atDCS and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the behavioral and neural consequences of multiple-session atDCS in older adults. Forty-nine healthy older adults received either 10 sessions of anodal or sham stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Before and afte...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Huo L, Zheng Z, Huang J, Li R, Li J, Li J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Does Measurement of Corticospinal Tract Involvement Add Value to Clinical Behavioral Biomarkers in Predicting Motor Recovery after Stroke?
Conclusions: Motor recovery of the upper and lower extremities after stroke could be predicted using the initial FMA score. CST injury was significant for the prediction of motor recovery of the upper extremity in patients with severe initial motor deficits (FMA-UE 
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lim JY, Oh MK, Park J, Paik NJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Emergence of Beta Oscillations of a Resonance Model for Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract In Parkinson's disease, the excess of beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits has been correlated with normal movement suppression. In this paper, a physiologically based resonance model, generalizing an earlier model of the STN-GPe circuit, is employed to analyze critical dynamics of the occurrence of beta oscillations, which correspond to Hopf bifurcation. With the experimentally measured parameters, conditions for the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation with time delay are deduced by means of linear stability analysis, center manifold theorem, and normal form analysis. It is found that bet...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Wang J, Kang Y, Ghori MB Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Modulation of Astrocytes on Mode Selection of Neuron Firing Driven by Electromagnetic Induction.
Abstract Both of astrocytes and electromagnetic induction are magnificent to modulate neuron firing by introducing feedback currents to membrane potential. An improved astro-neuron model considering both of the two factors is employed to investigate their different roles in modulation. The mixing mode, defined by combination of period bursting and depolarization blockage, characterizes the effect of astrocytes. Mixing mode and period bursting alternatively appear in parameter space with respect to the amplitude of feedback current on neuron from astrocyte modulation. However, magnetic flux obviously plays a role o...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gao Z, Yuan Z, Wang Z, Feng P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Spontaneous Activity Induced by Gaussian Noise in the Network-Organized FitzHugh-Nagumo Model.
Abstract In this paper, we show some dynamical and biological mechanisms of the short-term memory (the fixed point attractor) through the toggle switch in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model (FN). Firstly, we obtain the bistable conditions, show the effect of Gaussian noise on the toggle switch, and explain the short-term memory's switch mechanism by mean first passage time (MFPT). Then, we obtain a Fokker-Planck equation and illustrate the meaning of the monostable and bistable state in the short-term memory. Furthermore, we study the toggle switch under the interaction of network and noise. Meanwhile, we show that network...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng Q, Shen J, Xu Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Brief Mindfulness Meditation Induces Gray Matter Changes in a Brain Hub.
Abstract Previous studies suggest that the practice of long-term (months to years) mindfulness meditation induces structural plasticity in gray matter. However, it remains unknown whether short-term (
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tang R, Friston KJ, Tang YY Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Musculoskeletal Pain during the Menopausal Transition: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
In conclusion, the perimenopause is a state during which women are particularly predisposed to develop MSP. As to moderate to severe degrees of MSP, the odds increase linearly with age, from premenopause to peri- and then to postmenopause. PMID: 33299396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu CB, Liu PF, Zhou YS, Meng FC, Qiao TY, Yang XJ, Li XY, Xue Q, Xu H, Liu Y, Han Y, Zhang Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Relationship between Sparseness and Energy Consumption of Neural Networks.
Abstract About 50-80% of total energy is consumed by signaling in neural networks. A neural network consumes much energy if there are many active neurons in the network. If there are few active neurons in a neural network, the network consumes very little energy. The ratio of active neurons to all neurons of a neural network, that is, the sparseness, affects the energy consumption of a neural network. Laughlin's studies show that the sparseness of an energy-efficient code depends on the balance between signaling and fixed costs. Laughlin did not give an exact ratio of signaling to fixed costs, nor did they give th...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang G, Wang R, Kong W, Zhang J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Functional Connectivity after Epileptic Seizure Revealed by Scalp EEG.
This study is aimed at exploring the differences in a related brain activity before and after chronic repetitive seizures by investigating the power spectral density (PSD), fuzzy entropy, and functional connectivity in epileptic patients. The PSD analysis revealed differences between the two states at local area, showing postseizure energy accumulation. Besides, the fuzzy entropies of preseizure in the frontal, central, and temporal regions are higher than that of postseizure. Additionally, attenuated long-range connectivity and enhanced local connectivity were also found. Moreover, significant correlations were found betw...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liang Y, Chen C, Li F, Yao D, Xu P, Yu L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) Governs Microglia-Like BV2 Cell Migration via Progranulin (PGRN).
In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that transcription factor REST may act as a repressor of microglia migration through PGRN. PMID: 33299399 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu T, Lin Y, Xu Y, Dou Y, Wang F, Quan H, Zhao Y, Liu X Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Baseline Motor Impairment Predicts Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Physical Therapy-Induced Improvement in Individuals with Chronic Stroke.
Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance the effect of conventional therapies in post-stroke neurorehabilitation. The ability to predict an individual's potential for tDCS-induced recovery may permit rehabilitation providers to make rational decisions about who will be a good candidate for tDCS therapy. We investigated the clinical and biological characteristics which might predict tDCS plus physical therapy effects on upper limb motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. A cohort of 80 chronic stroke individuals underwent ten to fifteen sessions of tDCS plus physical therapy. The sensor...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baltar A, Piscitelli D, Marques D, Shirahige L, Monte-Silva K Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Dynamic Transitions in Neuronal Network Firing Sustained by Abnormal Astrocyte Feedback.
Abstract Astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal firing activity. Their abnormal state may lead to the pathological transition of neuronal firing patterns and even induce seizures. However, there is still little evidence explaining how the astrocyte network modulates seizures caused by structural abnormalities, such as gliosis. To explore the role of gliosis of the astrocyte network in epileptic seizures, we first established a direct astrocyte feedback neuronal network model on the basis of the hippocampal CA3 neuron-astrocyte model to simulate the condition of gliosis when astrocyte processes swell and the fe...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yu Y, Yuan Z, Fan Y, Li J, Wu Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

From Uncertainty to Anxiety: How Uncertainty Fuels Anxiety in a Process Mediated by Intolerance of Uncertainty.
Abstract Uncertainty about future events may lead to worry, anxiety, even inability to function. The highly related concept-intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-emerged in the early 1990s, which is further developed into a transdiagnostic risk factor in multiple forms of anxiety disorders. Interests in uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty have rapidly increased in recent years; little is known about the construct and phenomenology of uncertainty and IU and the association between them. In an attempt to reveal the nature of two concepts, we reviewed broad literature surrounding uncertainty and intolerance of uncer...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gu Y, Gu S, Lei Y, Li H Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Acupuncture for Adults with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Diarrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Conclusion. Acupuncture treatment can improve the clinical effectiveness of IBS-D or FD, with great safety, but the above conclusions need to be further verified through the higher quality of evidence. PMID: 33299403 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo J, Xing X, Wu J, Zhang H, Yun Y, Qin Z, He Q Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Stress-Sensitive Protein Rac1 and Its Involvement in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Abstract Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) is a small GTPase that is well known for its sensitivity to the environmental stress of a cell or an organism. It senses the external signals which are transmitted from membrane-bound receptors and induces downstream signaling cascades to exert its physiological functions. Rac1 is an important regulator of a variety of cellular processes, such as cytoskeletal organization, generation of oxidative products, and gene expression. In particular, Rac1 has a significant influence on certain brain functions like neuronal migration, synaptic plasticity, and memory...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Liu D, Wei F, Li Y, Wang X, Li L, Wang G, Zhang S, Zhang L Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Cytokine-, Neurotrophin-, and Motor Rehabilitation-Induced Plasticity in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Neuroinflammation and cytokine-dependent neurotoxicity appear to be major contributors to the neuropathology in Parkinson's disease (PD). While pharmacological advancements have been a mainstay in the treatment of PD for decades, it is becoming increasingly clear that nonpharmacological approaches including traditional and nontraditional forms of exercise and physical rehabilitation can be critical adjunctive or even primary treatment avenues. Here, we provide an overview of preclinical and clinical research detailing the biological role of proinflammatory molecules in PD and how motor rehabilitation can ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Policastro G, Brunelli M, Tinazzi M, Chiamulera C, Emerich DF, Paolone G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Hyperexcitability of the Nucleus Accumbens Is Involved in Noise-Induced Hyperacusis.
Abstract Reduced tolerance to sound stimuli (hyperacusis) is commonly seen in tinnitus patients. Dysfunction of limbic systems, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may be involved in emotional reactions to the sound stimuli in tinnitus patients. To study the functional changes in the NAc in hyperacusis, we have examined the neural activity changes of the NAc using c-Fos staining in an animal model of hyperacusis. The c-Fos staining was also examined in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN), a central auditory pathway which has neural projections to the NAc. Postnatal rats (14 days) were exposed to loud noise (115&t...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu Y, Alkharabsheh A, Sun W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Changes in Hippocampal Plasticity in Depression and Therapeutic Approaches Influencing These Changes.
Abstract Depression is a common neurological disease that seriously affects human health. There are many hypotheses about the pathogenesis of depression, and the most widely recognized and applied is the monoamine hypothesis. However, no hypothesis can fully explain the pathogenesis of depression. At present, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurogenesis hypotheses have highlighted the important role of plasticity in depression. The plasticity of neurons and glial cells plays a vital role in the transmission and integration of signals in the central nervous system. Plasticity is the adaptive change...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu W, Yao X, Zhao F, Zhao H, Cheng Z, Yang W, Cui R, Xu S, Li B Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Dynamic Transitions of Epilepsy Waveforms Induced by Astrocyte Dysfunction and Electrical Stimulation.
Abstract Experimental studies have shown that astrocytes participate in epilepsy through inducing the release of glutamate. Meanwhile, considering the disinhibition circuit among inhibitory neuronal populations with different time scales and the feedforward inhibition connection from thalamic relay nucleus to cortical inhibitory neuronal population, here, we propose a modified thalamocortical field model to systematically investigate the mechanism of epilepsy. Firstly, our results show that rich firing activities can be induced by astrocyte dysfunction, including high or low saturated state, high- or low-frequency...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang H, Shen Z, Zhao Q, Yan L, Du L, Deng Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Pretreatment of Ascorbic Acid Inhibits MPTP-Induced Astrocytic Oxidative Stress through Suppressing NF- κB Signaling.
Pretreatment of Ascorbic Acid Inhibits MPTP-Induced Astrocytic Oxidative Stress through Suppressing NF-κB Signaling. Neural Plast. 2020;2020:8872296 Authors: Zeng X, Xu K, Wang J, Xu Y, Qu S Abstract Astrocytes are a major constituent of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytic oxidative stress contributes to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Maintaining production of antioxidant and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in astrocytes is critical to prevent PD. Study has illuminated that ascorbic acid (AA) stimulates dopamine synthesis and expression of ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zeng X, Xu K, Wang J, Xu Y, Qu S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

In Vivo Plasticity at Hippocampal Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Synapses: Replicability of the LTP Response and Pharmacology in the Long-Evans Rat.
Abstract Broad issues associated with non-replicability have been described in experimental pharmacological and behavioral cognitive studies. Efforts to prevent biases that contribute to non-replicable scientific protocols and to improve experimental rigor for reproducibility are increasingly seen as a basic requirement for the integrity of scientific research. Synaptic plasticity, encompassing long-term potentiation (LTP), is believed to underlie mechanisms of learning and memory. The present study was undertaken in Long-Evans (LE) rats, a strain of rat commonly used in cognitive behavioral tests, to (1) compare ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahnaou A, White E, Biermans R, Manyakov NV, Drinkenburg WHIM Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Mental Fatigue Has Great Impact on the Fractal Dimension of Brain Functional Network.
Abstract Mental fatigue has serious negative impacts on the brain cognitive functions and has been widely explored by the means of brain functional networks with the neuroimaging technique of electroencephalogram (EEG). Recently, several researchers reported that brain functional network constructed from EEG signals has fractal feature, raising an important question: what are the effects of mental fatigue on the fractal dimension of brain functional network? In the present study, the EEG data of alpha1 rhythm (8-10 Hz) at task state obtained by a mental fatigue model were chosen to construct brain functiona...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li G, Xu Y, Jiang Y, Jiao W, Xu W, Zhang J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Caffeine Effect on Cognitive Function during a Stroop Task: fNIRS Study.
This study is aimed at acquiring brain activation during executing task performance. The aim is to explore the effect of coffee on cognitive function by the fNIRS neuroimaging method, particularly on the prefrontal cortex regions. The behavioral experimental results on 31 healthy subjects with a Stroop task indicate that coffee can easily and effectively modulate the execute task performance by feedback information of the response time and accuracy rate. The findings of fNIRS showed that apparent hemodynamic changes were detected in the bilateral VLPFC regions and the brain activation regions varied with different coffee c...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yuan Y, Li G, Ren H, Chen W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

An Enriched Environment Enhances Angiogenesis Surrounding the Cingulum in Ischaemic Stroke Rats.
Abstract An enriched environment (EE) has been demonstrated to improve functional recovery in animal models of ischaemic stroke through enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) mediated neuroprotection accompanied by angiogenesis in the ischaemic hemisphere. Whether EEs also promote VEGF-mediated neuroprotection and angiogenesis in the contralateral hemisphere remains unclear. Here, we explored the effect of EEs on VEGF expression and angiogenesis within the contralateral cerebral cortex in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/r) model. We assessed the expression levels of platelet...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen X, Luo L, Wang F, Yu K, Xie H, Tian S, Liu G, Bao C, Fan Y, Xing Y, Wang N, Li S, Liu L, Zhang Q, Wu Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

EA Improves the Motor Function in Rats with Spinal Cord Injury by Inhibiting Signal Transduction of Semaphorin3A and Upregulating of the Peripheral Nerve Networks.
In this study, the interaction between PNNs and semaphrin3A (Sema3A) in the recovery of the motor function after SCI was observed, and the effect of EA on them was evaluated. After the establishment of the SCI animal model, we found that motor neurons in the ventral horn of the injured spinal cord segment decreased, Nissl bodies were blurry, and PNNs and Sema3A as well as its receptor neuropilin1 (NRP1) aggregated around the central tube of the gray matter of the spinal cord. When we knocked down the expression of Sema3A at the damage site, NRP1 also downregulated, importantly, PNNs concentration decreased, and tenascin-R ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu R, Xu H, Jiang Y, Chen Y, He K, Wu L, Shao X, Ma R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Comparison of Different In Vivo Animal Models of Brachial Plexus Avulsion and Its Application in Pain Study.
Abstract Brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) are high-energy trauma that can result in serious functional problems in the affected upper extremities, and brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) could be considered the most severe type of them. The booming occurrence rate of BPA brings up devastating impact on patients' life. Complications of muscle atrophy, neuropathic pain, and denervation-associated psychological disorders are major challenges in the treatment of BPA. Animal models of BPA are good vehicles for this kind of research. Full understanding of the current in vivo BPA models, which could be classified into anterior...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Xian H, Xie R, Luo C, Cong R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Radix Scutellariae Ameliorates Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors via Protecting Neurons through the TGF β3-Smad2/3-Nedd9 Signaling Pathway.
Radix Scutellariae Ameliorates Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors via Protecting Neurons through the TGFβ3-Smad2/3-Nedd9 Signaling Pathway. Neural Plast. 2020;2020:8886715 Authors: Zhao F, Zhang C, Xiao D, Zhang W, Zhou L, Gu S, Qu R Abstract Chronic stress can impair hippocampal neurogenesis, increase neuronal apoptosis, and cause depressive-like behaviors. Our previous studies found that Radix Scutellariae (RS) can rescue the stress-induced neuronal injury, but the mechanism is not clear. Here, we continued to investigate the underlying antidepressant mechanisms of the RS extract. A 7-wee...
Source: Neural Plasticity - December 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao F, Zhang C, Xiao D, Zhang W, Zhou L, Gu S, Qu R Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Predictors of Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Prolonged Consciousness Disorder".
Corrigendum to "Predictors of Recovery from Traumatic Brain Injury-Induced Prolonged Consciousness Disorder". Neural Plast. 2020;2020:7169025 Authors: Abe H, Shimoji K, Nagamine Y, Fujiwara S, Izumi SI Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/9358092.]. PMID: 33224189 [PubMed] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Abe H, Shimoji K, Nagamine Y, Fujiwara S, Izumi SI Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

High-Frequency Synchronization Improves Firing Rate Contrast and Information Transmission Efficiency in E/I Neuronal Networks.
Abstract High-frequency synchronization has been found in many real neural systems and is confirmed by excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) network models. However, the functional role played by it remains elusive. In this paper, it is found that high-frequency synchronization in E/I neuronal networks could improve the firing rate contrast of the whole network, no matter if the network is fully connected or randomly connected, with noise or without noise. It is also found that the global firing rate contrast enhancement can prevent the number of spikes of the neurons measured within the limited time window from being confu...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Han F, Wang Z, Fan H, Zhang Y Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Multiple Firing Patterns in Coupled Hindmarsh-Rose Neurons with a Nonsmooth Memristor.
Abstract A model is introduced by coupling two three-dimensional Hindmarsh-Rose models with the help of a nonsmooth memristor. The firing patterns dependent on the external forcing current are explored, which undergo a process from adding-period to chaos. The stability of equilibrium points of the considered model is investigated via qualitative analysis, from which it can be gained that the model has diversity in the number and stability of equilibrium points for different coupling coefficients. The coexistence of multiple firing patterns relative to initial values is revealed, which means that the referred model...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi X, Wang Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Function of the Hippocampus in Bridging Functional and Temporal Discontiguity.
Abstract Theoretical assessment of the function of the hippocampus has suggested that given certain physiological constraints at both the neuronal and cortical level, the hippocampus is best suited to associate discontiguous items that occur in different temporal or spatial positions. Conceptually, "discontiguous" refers to events that are to be associated with one another but do not temporally or spatially overlap. However, given that humans can actively maintain information "online" by rehearsing it, even when the information is no longer being presented to the sensory system, the right way t...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Z, Niki K, Luo J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Protection of Cochlear Ribbon Synapses and Prevention of Hidden Hearing Loss.
Abstract In the auditory system, ribbon synapses are vesicle-associated structures located between inner hair cells (IHCs) and spiral ganglion neurons that are implicated in the modulation of trafficking and fusion of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic terminals. Synapse loss may result in hearing loss and difficulties with understanding speech in a noisy environment. This phenomenon happens without permanent hearing loss; that is, the cochlear synaptopathy is "hidden." Recent studies have reported that synapse loss might be critical in the pathogenesis of hidden hearing loss. A better understanding of...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wei M, Wang W, Liu Y, Mao X, Chen TS, Lin P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

The Electric Shock during Acupuncture: A Normal Needling Sensation or a Warning Sign.
Abstract The electric shock has been proposed as one of the new needling sensations in recent years. In acupuncture sensation scales, the electric shock is included by ASS and SNQS, but not SASS, MASS, and C-MMASS. Some scholars argue that the electric shock is a normal needling sensation, but some researchers do not agree with this view. This problem has not been resolved due to a lack of evidence from basic research. Literature and research point out that the electric shock is caused by inserting a needle into the nerve directly. A question of considerable scientific and practical interest is whether the electri...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo Y, Zhu K, Guo J, Kuang Y, Zhao Z, Li W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Multishell Diffusion MRI Reflects Improved Physical Fitness Induced by Dance Intervention.
Abstract Using multishell diffusion MRI and both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tracking of specific tracts of interest, we evaluated the neural underpinnings of the impact of a six-month dance intervention (DI) on physical fitness and cognitive outcomes in nondemented seniors. The final cohort had 76 nondemented seniors, randomized into DI and control (life as usual) groups. Significant effects were observed between the DI and control groups in physical fitness measures and in attention. We detected associations between improved physical fitness and changes in diffusion tensor imagining (...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sejnoha Minsterova A, Klobusiakova P, Kropacova S, Novakova L, Brabenec L, Balazova Z, Grmela R, Skotakova A, Svobodova L, Rektorova I Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Improves Cognitive Function in Senescence-Accelerated P8 (SAMP8) Mice via the NLRP3/Caspase-1 Pathway.
Abstract Background. Clinically, electroacupuncture (EA) is the most common therapy for aging-related cognitive impairment (CI). However, the underlying pathomechanism remains unidentified. The aims of this study were to observe the effect of EA on cognitive function and explore the potential mechanism by which EA acts on the NLRP3/caspase-1 signaling pathway. Main Methods. Thirty male SAMP8 mice were randomly divided into the model, the 2 Hz EA and 10 Hz EA groups. Ten male SAMR1 mice were assigned to the control group. Cognitive function was assessed through the Morris water maze test. Hippocampal ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hou Z, Qiu R, Wei Q, Liu Y, Wang M, Mei T, Zhang Y, Song L, Shao X, Shang H, Chen J, Sun Z Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Developmental and Functional Hair Cell-Like Cells Induced by Atoh1 Overexpression in the Adult Mammalian Cochlea In Vitro.
In this study, we used a three-dimensional cochlear culture system and an adenoviral-mediated delivery vector to overexpress Atoh1 in adult mouse cochleae. HCLCs were successfully induced from 3 days after virus infection (3 DVI) in vitro, and the number increased with time. HCLCs were myosin7a positive and distinguishable from remnant HCs in a culture environment. Meanwhile, patch-clamp results showed that noninactive outward potassium currents (sustained outward potassium currents) could be recorded in HCLCs and that their magnitude increased with time, similar to normal HCs. Furthermore, transient HCN currents were reco...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kong L, Xin Y, Chi F, Chen J, Yang J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Large-Scale Internetwork Functional Connectivity Mediates the Relationship between Serum Triglyceride and Working Memory in Young Adulthood.
In this study, 157 healthy young adults underwent resting-state functional MRI scans. Functional connectivity between and within 14 functional networks were calculated using independent component analysis. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected to measure serum lipids. Working memory was assessed using a 3-back task. Linear regression, correlation, and mediation analyses were conducted to test for potential associations between serum lipids, inter- and intranetwork functional connectivity, and working memory performance. We found that higher serum triglyceride (TG) level was correlated with stronger connectivity be...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang C, Cai H, Sun X, Si L, Zhang M, Xu Y, Qian Y, Zhu J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Evaluation and Treatment of Vascular Cognitive Impairment by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Abstract The exact relationship between cognitive functioning, cortical excitability, and synaptic plasticity in dementia is not completely understood. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is deemed to be the most common cognitive disorder in the elderly since it encompasses any degree of vascular-based cognitive decline. In different cognitive disorders, including VCI, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be exploited as a noninvasive tool able to evaluate in vivo the cortical excitability, the propension to undergo neural plastic phenomena, and the underlying transmission pathways. Overall, TMS in VCI reve...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cantone M, Lanza G, Fisicaro F, Pennisi M, Bella R, Di Lazzaro V, Di Pino G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Improves Neurite Outgrowth from Spiral Ganglion Neurons In Vitro through a cGMP-Dependent Manner.
Abstract The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the primary afferent neurons in the spiral ganglion (SG), while their degeneration or loss would cause sensorineural hearing loss. As a cardiac-derived hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis through binding to its functional receptors (NPR-A and NPR-C). ANP and its receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian nervous system where they could be implicated in the regulation of multiple neural functions. Although previous studies have provided direct evidence for the presence of ANP and its functional receptors i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun F, Zhou K, Tian KY, Wang J, Qiu JH, Zha DJ Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Pattern Recognition of Spiking Neural Networks Based on Visual Mechanism and Supervised Synaptic Learning.
Abstract Electrophysiological studies have shown that mammalian primary visual cortex are selective for the orientations of visual stimuli. Inspired by this mechanism, we propose a hierarchical spiking neural network (SNN) for image classification. Grayscale input images are fed through a feed-forward network consisting of orientation-selective neurons, which then projected to a layer of downstream classifier neurons through the spiking-based supervised tempotron learning rule. Based on the orientation-selective mechanism of the visual cortex and tempotron learning rule, the network can effectively classify images...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li X, Yi H, Luo S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Brain Structural Networks in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Located in Broca's Area.
In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging and graph theory methods to investigate the alterations of brain structural networks in 14 patients with AVMs in the presumed Broca's area, compared to 27 normal controls. Weighted brain structural networks were constructed based on deterministic tractography. We compared the topological properties and network connectivity between patients and normal controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed contralateral reorganization of Broca's area in five (35.7%) patients. Compared to normal controls, the patients exhibited preserved small-worldness of brain structural net...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Li M, Jiang P, Wu J, Guo R, Deng X, Cao Y, Wang S Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Pain Perception, Brain Connectivity, and Neurochemistry in Healthy, Capsaicin-Sensitive Subjects.
ilcke T Abstract Most of the occupational exposure limits (OELs) are based on local irritants. However, exposure to much lower concentrations of irritant substances can also lead to health complaints from workers. Exposure to irritants is often accompanied by strong unpleasant odors, and strong odors might have distracting effects and hence pose a safety risk. The findings obtained in human exposure studies with chemically sensitive, stressed, or anxious persons suggest that their ability to direct attention away from the odorous exposure and to focus on a cognitive task is reduced. In addition, after repeated odo...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Heba S, Sczesny-Kaiser M, Sucker K, Bünger J, Brüning T, Tegenthoff M, Schmidt-Wilcke T Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Learning a Second Language in Adulthood Changes Subcortical Neural Encoding.
Abstract Second language learning has been shown to impact and reshape the central nervous system, anatomically and functionally. Most of the studies on second language learning and neuroplasticity have been focused on cortical areas, whereas the subcortical neural encoding mechanism and its relationship with L2 learning have not been examined extensively. The purpose of this study was to utilize frequency-following response (FFR) to examine if and how learning a tonal language in adulthood changes the subcortical neural encoding in hearing adults. Three groups of subjects were recruited: native speakers of Mandar...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu D, Wang S, Gao Q, Dong R, Fu X, Pugh E, Hu J Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Effects of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Peripheral and Central Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Rats with Depression-Chronic Somatic Pain Comorbidity.
In this study, we investigated the effects of acupuncture on blood and brain regional tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in rats with depression and chronic somatic pain comorbidity. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following 4 groups with 10 each: control, model, model treated with transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS), and model treated with electroacupuncture (EA). Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) with chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) was used to produce depression and chronic somatic pain comorbidity in the latter 3 groups. The rats of the ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo X, Zhao Y, Huang F, Li S, Luo M, Wang Y, Zhang J, Li L, Zhang Y, Jiao Y, Zhao B, Wang J, Meng H, Zhang Z, Rong P Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Altered Functional Integration in the Salience and Default Mode Networks in Euthymic Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.
In this study, 16 euthymic PBD patients and 16 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A data-driven functional connectivity analysis was used to investigate functional connectivity changes of the euthymic PBD. Compared with healthy controls, the euthymic PBD exhibited greater global functional connectivity density in the left anterior insula and lower global functional connectivity density in the right temporoparietal junction, the left angular gyrus, and the bilateral occipital lobule. A distant functional connectivity analysis demonstrated altered integration within the salience a...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao W, Chen H, Jiao Q, Cui D, Guo Y, Gao W, Qiu J, Su L, Lu G Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Personality Differences of Brain Networks in Placebo Analgesia and Nocebo Hyperalgesia: A Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI) Approach in fMRI.
Abstract It is generally believed that the placebo response can elicit an analgesic effect, whilst the nocebo response can elicit a hyperalgesia effect in pain. Placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia effects are increasing concerns for researchers. Growing evidence suggests personality differences have an impact on both placebo and nocebo effects. However, previous studies have not reached a unified conclusion. We designed this study to explore the personality differences of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in placebo response and nocebo response by using psychophysiological interaction (PPI...
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shi Y, Huang S, Zhan H, Wang Y, Zeng Y, Cai G, Yang J, Wu W Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research

Research Progress of Hair Cell Protection Mechanism.
Abstract How to prevent and treat hearing-related diseases through the protection of hair cells (HCs) is the focus in the field of hearing in recent years. Hearing loss caused by dysfunction or loss of HCs is the main cause of hearing diseases. Therefore, clarifying the related mechanisms of HC development, apoptosis, protection, and regeneration is the main goal of current hearing research. This review introduces the latest research on mechanism of HC protection and regeneration. PMID: 33133179 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neural Plasticity)
Source: Neural Plasticity - November 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mu Y, Su H, Wu F, Yang J, Li D Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research