Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties - United States, 2010-2017.
This report enhances the geographic detail by using the six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme for counties and extending estimates of potentially excess deaths by annual percent change (APC) and for additional years (2010-2017). Trends were tested both with linear and quadratic terms. PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2017. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death among persons aged
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 8, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Garcia MC, Rossen LM, Bastian B, Faul M, Dowling NF, Thomas CC, Schieb L, Hong Y, Yoon PW, Iademarco MF Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Violent Deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 32 States, 2016.
This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 32 U.S. states for 2016. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, type of location where injured, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. PERIOD COVERED: 2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, Supplementary Homicide Reports, hospital data, and crime laborator...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - October 4, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ertl A, Sheats KJ, Petrosky E, Betz CJ, Yuan K, Fowler KA Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Population-Based Active Surveillance for Culture-Confirmed Candidemia - Four Sites, United States, 2012-2016.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by yeasts in the genus Candida. Candidemia is one of the most common health care-associated BSIs in the United States, with all-cause in-hospital mortality of up to 30%. PERIOD COVERED: 2012-2016. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), a collaboration among CDC, state health departments, and academic partners that was established in 1995, was used to conduct active, population-based laboratory surveillance for candidemia in 22 counties in four states (Georgia, Maryland, Oregon, and Tennessee) with a co...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 27, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Toda M, Williams SR, Berkow EL, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Bonner L, Marceaux KM, Hollick R, Zhang AY, Schaffner W, Lockhart SR, Jackson BR, Vallabhaneni S Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Coccidioidomycosis - United States, 2011-2017.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) is an infection caused by the environmental fungus Coccidioides spp., which typically causes respiratory illness but also can lead to disseminated disease. This fungus typically lives in soils in warm, arid regions, including the southwestern United States. REPORTING PERIOD: 2011-2017. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Coccidioidomycosis has been nationally notifiable since 1995 and is reportable in 26 states and the District of Columbia (DC), where laboratories and physicians notify local and state public health departments about possible coccidioidomyc...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 20, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benedict K, McCotter OZ, Brady S, Komatsu K, Sondermeyer Cooksey GL, Nguyen A, Jain S, Vugia DJ, Jackson BR Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

CCL20-CCR6 axis modulated traumatic brain injury-induced visual pathologies.
CONCLUSION: The present data indicate that rTBI-induced retinal pathology is mediated at least in part by CCL20 in a CCR6-dependent manner. PMID: 31151410 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Surveill Summ)
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Das M, Tang X, Han JY, Mayilsamy K, Foran E, Biswal MR, Tzekov R, Mohapatra SS, Mohapatra S Tags: J Neuroinflammation Source Type: research

Babesiosis Surveillance - United States, 2011-2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Babesiosis is caused by parasites of the genus Babesia, which are transmitted in nature by the bite of an infected tick. Babesiosis can be life threatening, particularly for persons who are asplenic, immunocompromised, or elderly. PERIOD COVERED: 2011-2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: CDC has conducted surveillance for babesiosis in the United States since January 2011, when babesiosis became a nationally notifiable condition. Health departments in states in which babesiosis is reportable voluntarily notify CDC of cases through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 31, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gray EB, Herwaldt BL Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2016.
This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2016 and summarizes trends in previous years. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC refer...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 17, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mace KE, Arguin PM, Lucchi NW, Tan KR Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2016.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substant...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - April 26, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sunderam S, Kissin DM, Zhang Y, Folger SG, Boulet SL, Warner L, Callaghan WM, Barfield WD Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Cyclosporiasis Surveillance - United States, 2011-2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis, which is transmissible by ingestion of fecally contaminated food or water. Cyclosporiasis is most common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the United States, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been linked to various types of imported fresh produce (e.g., basil, raspberries, and snow peas). Validated molecular typing tools, which could facilitate detection and investigation of outbreaks, are not yet available for C. cayetanensis. PERIOD COVERED: 2011-2015. DESCRIPT...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - April 19, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Casillas SM, Hall RL, Herwaldt BL Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 4 Years - Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, Seven Sites, United States, 2010, 2012, and 2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is estimated to affect up to 3% of children in the United States. Public health surveillance for ASD among children aged 4 years provides information about trends in prevalence, characteristics of children with ASD, and progress made toward decreasing the age of identification of ASD so that evidence-based interventions can begin as early as possible. PERIOD COVERED: 2010, 2012, and 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (Early ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides biennial e...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - April 12, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Christensen DL, Maenner MJ, Bilder D, Constantino JN, Daniels J, Durkin MS, Fitzgerald RT, Kurzius-Spencer M, Pettygrove SD, Robinson C, Shenouda J, White T, Zahorodny W, Pazol K, Dietz P Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Foodborne Illness Outbreaks at Retail Establishments - National Environmental Assessment Reporting System, 16 State and Local Health Departments, 2014-2016.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: State and local public health departments report hundreds of foodborne illness outbreaks each year to CDC and are primarily responsible for investigations of these outbreaks. Typically, investigations involve epidemiology, laboratory, and environmental health components. Health departments voluntarily report epidemiologic and laboratory data from their foodborne illness outbreak investigations to CDC through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS); however, minimal environmental health data from outbreak investigations are reported to FDOSS. PERIOD COVERED: 2014-...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 22, 2019 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lipcsei LE, Brown LG, Coleman EW, Kramer A, Masters M, Wittry BC, Reed K, Radke VJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Evaluation of an HIV-Related Mortuary Surveillance System - Nairobi, Kenya, Two Sites, 2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-mortality surveillance data can help public health officials monitor, evaluate, and improve HIV treatment programs. Many high-income countries have high-coverage civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems linked to case-based HIV surveillance on which to base HIV mortality estimates. However, in the absence of comprehensive CRVS systems in low- and medium-income countries, such as Kenya, mortuary surveillance can be used to understand the occurrence of HIV infection among cadavers. In 2015, a pilot HIV-related mortuary surveillance s...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - December 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ali H, Kiama C, Muthoni L, Waruru A, Young PW, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Waruiru W, Hark Lerode R, Kim AA, Swaminathan M, De Cock KM, Wamicwe J Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jatlaoui TC, Shah J, Mandel MG, Krashin JW, Suchdev DB, Jamieson DJ, Pazol K Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2015, data were received from 49 reporting areas. Abortion data provided by these 49 reporting areas for each year during 2006-2015 were used in trend analyses. ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jatlaoui TC, Boutot ME, Mandel MG, Whiteman MK, Ti A, Petersen E, Pazol K Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.
This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known comprehensive evaluation was performed, the proportion of children with a previous ASD diagnosis, the specific type of ASD diagnosis, and any special educa...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Christensen DL, Braun KVN, Baio J, Bilder D, Charles J, Constantino JN, Daniels J, Durkin MS, Fitzgerald RT, Kurzius-Spencer M, Lee LC, Pettygrove S, Robinson C, Schulz E, Wells C, Wingate MS, Zahorodny W, Yeargin-Allsopp M Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Cancers Associated with Tobacco Use - United States, 2010-2014.
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of recent tobacco-associated cancer incidence for each cancer type by sex, age, race/ethnicity, metropolitan county classification, tumor characteristics, U.S. census region, and state. These data are important for initiation, monitoring, and evaluation of tobacco prevention and control measures. PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Cancer incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted incidence rate...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gallaway MS, Henley SJ, Steele CB, Momin B, Thomas CC, Jamal A, Trivers KF, Singh SD, Stewart SL Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Violent Deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 27 States, 2015.
This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 27 U.S. states for 2015. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD: 2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, supplemental homicide reports, hospital data, and crime laboratory data). Th...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 28, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jack SPD, Petrosky E, Lyons BH, Blair JM, Ertl AM, Sheats KJ, Betz CJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks - United States, 2009-2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Known foodborne disease agents are estimated to cause approximately 9.4 million illnesses each year in the United States. Although only a small subset of illnesses are associated with recognized outbreaks, data from outbreak investigations provide insight into the foods and pathogens that cause illnesses and the settings and conditions in which they occur. REPORTING PERIOD: 2009-2015 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, which are defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar ill...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - July 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Dewey-Mattia D, Manikonda K, Hall AJ, Wise ME, Crowe SJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2015.
This report presents results for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico), and Guam and for 130 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas (MMSAs) (N = 441,456 respondents) for 2015. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors, self-reported chronic health conditions, access to and use of health care, and use of preventive health services varied substantially by state, territory, and MMSA in 2015. Results are summarized for selected BRFSS measures. Each set of proportions refers to the median (range) of age-adjusted prevalence estimates for...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - June 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pickens CM, Pierannunzi C, Garvin W, Town M Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2017.
This report summarizes results from the 2017 national YRBS for 121 health-related behaviors and for obesity, overweight, and asthma by demographic subgroups defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and by sexual minority status; updates the numbers of sexual minority students nationwide; and describes overall trends in health-related behaviors during 1991-2017. This reports also summarizes results from 39 state and 21 large urban school district surveys with weighted data for the 2017 YRBSS cycle by sex and sexual minority status (where available). RESULTS: Results from the 2017 national YRBS indicated that...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - June 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kann L, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, Queen B, Lowry R, Chyen D, Whittle L, Thornton J, Lim C, Bradford D, Yamakawa Y, Leon M, Brener N, Ethier KA Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.
This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC refer...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mace KE, Arguin PM, Tan KR Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.
This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, and describes characteristics of the population of children with ASD. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which made considerable changes to ASD diagnostic criteria. The change in ASD diagnostic criteria might influence ADDM ASD prevalence estimates; therefore, most (85%) of the records used to determine prevalence estimates based on DSM-IV-TR criteria underwent additional r...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - April 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, Maenner MJ, Daniels J, Warren Z, Kurzius-Spencer M, Zahorodny W, Robinson Rosenberg C, White T, Durkin MS, Imm P, Nikolaou L, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Lee LC, Harrington R, Lopez M, Fitzgerald RT, Hewitt A, Pettygrove S, Const Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years - United States, 1968-2015.
This study demonstrates the use of NVSS data to conduct surveillance of heart disease death rates by race and of black-white disparities in heart disease death rates. Continued surveillance of temporal trends in heart disease death rates by race can provide valuable information to policy makers and public health practitioners working to reduce heart disease death rates both for blacks and whites and disparities between blacks and whites. PMID: 29596406 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Surveill Summ)
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - March 30, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Van Dyke M, Greer S, Odom E, Schieb L, Vaughan A, Kramer M, Casper M Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. REPORTING PERIOD: 2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Behavi...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - March 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Barbour KE, Moss S, Croft JB, Helmick CG, Theis KA, Brady TJ, Murphy LB, Hootman JM, Greenlund KJ, Lu H, Wang Y Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substant...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 16, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sunderam S, Kissin DM, Crawford SB, Folger SG, Boulet SL, Warner L, Barfield WD Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Violent Deaths - 
National Violent Death Reporting System, 18 States, 2014.
This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 18 U.S. states for 2014. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths. Data are obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, supplemental hom...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Fowler KA, Jack SPD, Lyons BH, Betz CJ, Petrosky E Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Disparities in Preconception Health Indicators - 
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013-2015, and Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2013-2014.
This report includes overall and stratified estimates for nine of these preconception health indicators. REPORTING PERIOD: 2013-2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Survey data from two surveillance systems are included in this report. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based, landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults in the United States aged ≥18 years that is conducted by state and territorial health departments. BRFSS is the main source of self-reported data for states on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, and preventive health serv...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - January 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robbins C, Boulet SL, Morgan I, D'Angelo DV, Zapata LB, Morrow B, Sharma A, Kroelinger CD Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. PERIOD COVERED: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jatlaoui TC, Shah J, Mandel MG, Krashin JW, Suchdev DB, Jamieson DJ, Pazol K Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Among Rural Adults - United States, 2012-2015.
This study revealed difficulties among non-Hispanic whites as well, primarily related to health-related risk behaviors. Across each population, the challenges vary. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Stratifying data by different demographics, using community health needs assessments, and adopting and implementing the National Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Standards can help rural communities identify disparities and develop effective initiatives to eliminate them, which aligns with a Healthy People 2020 overarching goal: achieving health equity. PMID: 29145359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Surveill Summ)
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: James CV, Moonesinghe R, Wilson-Frederick SM, Hall JE, Penman-Aguilar A, Bouye K Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Lyme Disease - United States, 2008-2015.
This report highlights the continuing public health challenge of Lyme disease in states with high incidence and demonstrates its emergence in neighboring states that previously experienced few cases. Educational efforts should be directed accordingly to facilitate prevention, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment. As Lyme disease emerges in neighboring states, clinical suspicion of Lyme disease in a patient should be based on local experience rather than incidence cutoffs used for surveillance purposes. A diagnosis of Lyme disease should be considered in patients with compatible clinical signs and a history of potenti...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Schwartz AM, Hinckley AF, Mead PS, Hook SA, Kugeler KJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Occupational Exposure to Vapor-Gas, Dust, and Fumes in a Cohort of Rural Adults in Iowa Compared with a Cohort of Urban Adults.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Many rural residents work in the field of agriculture; however, employment in nonagricultural jobs also is common. Because previous studies in rural communities often have focused on agricultural workers, much less is known about the occupational exposures in other types of jobs in rural settings. Characterizing airborne occupational exposures that can contribute to respiratory diseases is important so that differences between rural and urban working populations can be assessed. REPORTING PERIOD: 1994-2011. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: This investigation used data from the baseline ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - November 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Doney BC, Henneberger PK, Humann MJ, Liang X, Kelly KM, Cox-Ganser JM Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Receipt of Selected Preventive Health Services for Women and Men of Reproductive Age - United States, 2011-2013.
This report presents baseline estimates of the use of these preventive services before the publication of QFP that can be used to monitor progress toward improving the quality of preventive care received by women and men of reproductive age. PERIOD COVERED: 2011-2013. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: Three surveillance systems were used to document receipt of preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age as recommended in QFP. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) collects data on factors that influence reproductive health in the United States since 1973, with a focus on fertility, sexual act...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - October 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Pazol K, Robbins CL, Black LI, Ahrens KA, Daniels K, Chandra A, Vahratian A, Gavin LE Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.
This report examines annual county level trends in suicide rates during 2001-2015 among and within urbanization levels by select demographics and mechanisms of death. Counties were collapsed into three urbanization levels using the 2006 National Center for Health Statistics classification scheme. RESULTS: Suicide rates increased across the three urbanization levels, with higher rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties than in medium/small or large metropolitan counties. Each urbanization level experienced substantial annual rate changes at different times during the study period. Across urbanization levels, suicide rat...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - October 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Ivey-Stephenson AZ, Crosby AE, Jack SPD, Haileyesus T, Kresnow-Sedacca MJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. REPORTING PERIOD: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS: Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a censu...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Beck LF, Downs J, Stevens MR, Sauber-Schatz EK Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors and Conditions Among States and Selected Local Areas - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2013 and 2014.
Abstract PROBLEM: Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e.g., staying physically active, quitting tobacco use, obtaining routine physical checkups, and checking blood pr...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 15, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Gamble S, Mawokomatanda T, Xu F, Chowdhury PP, Pierannunzi C, Flegel D, Garvin W, Town M Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

BRCA Genetic Testing and Receipt of Preventive Interventions Among Women Aged 18-64 Years with Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas - United States, 2009-2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Genetic testing for breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) gene mutations can identify women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer. These testing results can be used to select preventive interventions and guide treatment. Differences between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan populations in rates of BRCA testing and receipt of preventive interventions after testing have not previously been examined. PERIOD COVERED: 2009-2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Medical claims data from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters databases were u...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 8, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kolor K, Chen Z, Grosse SD, Rodriguez JL, Green RF, Dotson WD, Bowen MS, Lynch JA, Khoury MJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Invasive Cancer Incidence, 2004-2013, and Deaths, 2006-2015, in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Counties - United States.
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of cancer incidence and deaths by cancer type in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties. REPORTING PERIOD: 2004-2015. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Cancer incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted incidence rates for 2009-2013 and trends in annual age-adjusted incidence rates for 2004-2013. Cancer mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate average annual age-adjusted death ra...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - July 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Henley SJ, Anderson RN, Thomas CC, Massetti GM, Peaker B, Richardson LC Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural ar...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - June 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Strosnider H, Kennedy C, Monti M, Yip F Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.
This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood sample...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 26, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mace KE, Arguin PM Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. PERIOD COVERED: August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 20...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - May 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Williams WW, Lu PJ, O'Halloran A, Kim DK, Grohskopf LA, Pilishvili T, Skoff TH, Nelson NP, Harpaz R, Markowitz LE, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Fiebelkorn AP Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Diabetes Self-Management Education Programs in Nonmetropolitan Counties - United States, 2016.
This report defined nonmetropolitan counties using the rural-urban continuum code from the 2013 Atlas of Rural and Small-Town America data set. This code included six nonmetropolitan categories of 1,976 urban and rural counties (62% of counties) adjacent to and nonadjacent to metropolitan counties. RESULTS: In 2016, a total of 1,065 DSME programs were located in 38% of the 1,976 nonmetropolitan counties; 62% of nonmetropolitan counties did not have a DSME program. The total number of DSME programs for nonmetropolitan counties with at least one DSME program ranged from 1 to 8, with an average of 1.4 programs. After adj...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - April 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Rutledge SA, Masalovich S, Blacher RJ, Saunders MM Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2-8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas - United States, 2011-2012.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. REPORTING PERIOD: 2011-2012. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - March 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Robinson LR, Holbrook JR, Bitsko RH, Hartwig SA, Kaminski JW, Ghandour RM, Peacock G, Heggs A, Boyle CA Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Traumatic Brain Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2007 and 2013.
This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent. Categories of injury intent included unintentional (motor-vehicle crashes, falls, being struck by or against an object, mechanism unspecified), intentional (self-harm and assault/hom...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - March 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Health Care Access and Health Services Use, Adults Aged 18-64 Years - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2014.
This report summarizes 2014 BRFSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on health care access and use of selected CPS recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices among working-aged adults (aged 18-64 years), by state, state Medicaid expansion status, expanded geographic region, and federal poverty level (FPL). This report also provides analysis of primary type of health insurance coverage at the time of interview, continuity of health insurance coverage during the preceding 12 months, and other health care access measures (i.e., unmet health care...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Okoro CA, Zhao G, Fox JB, Eke PI, Greenlund KJ, Town M Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2014.
This report provides state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2014 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2014 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2013 and 2014) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2014. PERIOD COVERED: 2014. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: In 1996, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493). Data are collected through ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Sunderam S, Kissin DM, Crawford SB, Folger SG, Jamieson DJ, Warner L, Barfield WD Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Health-Related Behaviors by Urban-Rural County Classification - United States, 2013.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Persons living in rural areas are recognized as a health disparity population because the prevalence of disease and rate of premature death are higher than for the overall population of the United States. Surveillance data about health-related behaviors are rarely reported by urban-rural status, which makes comparisons difficult among persons living in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. REPORTING PERIOD: 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, random-digit-dialed landline- and cellular-telephone su...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - February 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Matthews KA, Croft JB, Liu Y, Lu H, Kanny D, Wheaton AG, Cunningham TJ, Khan LK, Caraballo RS, Holt JB, Eke PI, Giles WH Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Surveillance for Cancer Incidence and Mortality - United States, 2013.
This report provides, in tabular and graphic form, official federal statistics on cancer incidence and mortality for 2013 and trends for 1999-2013 as reported by CDC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Data in this report come from the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) system (1), which includes cancer incidence data from population-based cancer registries that participate in CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program reported as of November 2015 and cancer mortality data from death certificate information reported to state vital statist...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - January 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Singh SD, Henley SJ, Ryerson AB Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Childhood Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged < 5 Years - United States, 2009-2014.
Childhood Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - January 20, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Raymond J, Brown MJ Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Reducing Potentially Excess Deaths from the.
PMID: 28081057 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Surveill Summ)
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - January 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Garcia MC, Faul M, Massetti G, Thomas CC, Hong Y, Bauer UE, Iademarco MF Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.
Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. PERIOD COVERED: 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially exce...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - January 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Moy E, Garcia MC, Bastian B, Rossen LM, Ingram DD, Faul M, Massetti GM, Thomas CC, Hong Y, Yoon PW, Iademarco MF Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research