The Third Asian Radiology Forum: Screening Programs in Asia.
Abstract According to reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2017 in Taipei, the landscape of screening in Asia is growing, and the role of radiologists is also evolving. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by the Korean Society of Radiology and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2017, current trends and policies concerning various cancer screening programs from each delegate country were discussed. Various screening programs were discussed, including liver screening...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Chien N, Chen JY, Chen SJ, Chang YC Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Asian Oceanian Radiology Forum 2018: International Education of Radiology in Asian Oceanian Countries.
Abstract According to the reports presented at the Fourth Asian Oceanian Radiology Forum (AORF) 2018, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology during the Korean Congress of Radiology in September 2018 in Seoul, there is an increasing demand for the Asian Oceanian Society of Radiology and its member societies for international education in radiology in the Asian Oceanian region. In AORF 2018, the national delegates of the Asian Oceanian radiological partner societies primarily discussed their societies' activities and current status of international education in radiology. PMID: 31997588 [PubMed - in proce...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Beck KS, Jung SC, Choo HJ, Ha SM, Han K, Lee W Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Advanced Medical Use of Three-Dimensional Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease: Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Virtual Reality, and Three-Dimensional Printing.
Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) imaging and image reconstruction play a prominent role in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and post-therapeutic monitoring of patients with congenital heart disease. More interactive and realistic medical experiences take advantage of advanced visualization techniques like augmented, mixed, and virtual reality. Further, 3D printing is now used in medicine. All these technologies improve the understanding of the complex morphologies of congenital heart disease. In this review article, we describe the technical advantages and disadvantages of various advanced visualization technique...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Goo HW, Park SJ, Yoo SJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic Demonstration of the Tissue Microvasculature in Children: Microvascular Ultrasonography Versus Conventional Color Doppler Ultrasonography.
Abstract Microvascular ultrasonographic imaging is the most recent and unique Doppler ultrasound technique. It uses an advanced clutter filter that can remove clutter artifacts and preserve the low-velocity microvascular flow signal. The potential advantages of microvascular ultrasonography are its superiority in detection and visualization of the small blood vessels in tissues, providing radiologists with more information on the vascular structures. Therefore, it has shown particular value in the clinical fields. The aim of this study was to provide microvascular ultrasonographic images for the tissue microvascul...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yoo J, Je BK, Choo JY Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Radiomics in Lung Cancer from Basic to Advanced: Current Status and Future Directions.
Abstract Ideally, radiomics features and radiomics signatures can be used as imaging biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and prediction of tumor response. Thus, the number of published radiomics studies is increasing exponentially, leading to a myriad of new radiomics-based evidence for lung cancer. Consequently, it is challenging for radiologists to keep up with the development of radiomics features and their clinical applications. In this article, we review the basics to advanced radiomics in lung cancer to guide young researchers who are eager to start exploring radiomics investigations. In addition, ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee G, Park H, Bak SH, Lee HY Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Shear-Wave Elastography of the Breast: Added Value of a Quality Map in Diagnosis and Prediction of the Biological Characteristics of Breast Cancer.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the added value of a shear-wave elastography (SWE) quality map (QM) in the diagnosis of breast lesions and in predicting the biological characteristics of invasive breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2016 and February 2019, this study included 368 women with 368 pathologically proven breast lesions, which appeared as poor-quality regions in the QM of SWE. To measure shear-wave velocity (SWV), seven regions of interest were placed in each lesion with and without QM guidance. Under QM guidance, poor-quality areas were avoided. Diagnostic performance was calcula...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Zheng X, Huang Y, Liu Y, Wang Y, Mao R, Li F, Cao L, Zhou J Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Preoperative Cardiac Computed Tomography Characteristics Associated with Recurrent Aortic Regurgitation after Aortic Valve Re-Implantation.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify the preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) factors influencing postoperative recurrent aortic regurgitation (AR) in patients who underwent aortic valve repair with the re-implantation technique (David operation) due to AR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 117 patients (age, 49.4 ± 15.6 years; 83 males) who underwent the David operation for AR were included in this retrospective study. Aortic root profiles including the aortic regurgitant orifice area (ARO) and the aortic cusp asymmetry ratio of the areas (ASRarea), which is defined as the maximum/minimum areas am...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ahn Y, Koo HJ, Lee S, Kim DH, Song JM, Kang DH, Song JK, Kim HJ, Kim JB, Jung SH, Choo SJ, Chung CH, Lee JW, Kang JW, Yang DH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography-Derived Fractional Flow Reserve in Patients with Anomalous Origin of the Right Coronary Artery from the Left Coronary Sinus.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the fractional flow reserve derived from computed tomographic angiography (CT-FFR) in patients with anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left coronary sinus (R-ACAOS) with an interarterial course, assess the relationship of CT-FFR with the anatomical features of interarterial R-ACAOS on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), and determine its clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-four patients with interarterial R-ACAOS undergoing CCTA were retrospectively included. Anatomic features (proximal vessel morphology [oval or slit-like], take-o...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Tang CX, Lu MJ, Schoepf JU, Tesche C, Bauer M, Nance J, Griffith P, Lu GM, Zhang LJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantification of Initial Right Ventricular Dimensions by Computed Tomography in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease and a Hypoplastic Right Ventricle.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using cardiothoracic CT for quantification of the initial right ventricle (RV) dimensions in infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and a hypoplastic RV and to compare these measurements with those obtained in a control group with CHD without a hypoplastic RV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial RV dimensions, including RV volumes, RV/left ventricle (LV) volume ratios, atrioventricular valve annulus diameter ratios, and RV/LV length ratios based on CT data, were collected from 57 infants with CHD and a hypoplastic RV (hypoplastic RV group; age range, 1 day...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Goo HW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

In Vivo Detection of Lipid-Core Plaques by Coronary CT Angiography: A Head-to-Head Comparison with Histologic Findings.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We sought to distinguish lipid plaques using a CT quantitative pixel density histogram, based on the pathological diagnosis of lipid cores as the gold standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight patients awaiting heart transplantation due to end-stage coronary heart disease underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) spectroscopy prior to heart transplantation; coronary artery pathological analysis was performed for all patients. Lipid-core plaques were defined pathologically as manifesting a lipid core diameter> 200 μm, a circumference> 60 degrees, and a cap thickness
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yin WH, Zhang Y, Li XN, Wang HY, An YQ, Sun Y, Hou ZH, Gao Y, Lu B, Zheng Z Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

B-Value Optimization in the Estimation of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Parameters in Patients with Cervical Cancer.
CONCLUSION: Subsampling of six b-values halved the IVIM scan time without significant losses in accuracy and discriminative ability. Simplified IVIM is possible with only three b-values, at the risk of losing diagnostic information. PMID: 31997597 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Perucho JAU, Chang HCC, Vardhanabhuti V, Wang M, Becker AS, Wurnig MC, Lee EYP Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Alpha Stent for Coiling of Unruptured, Wide-Necked, Distal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Safety and Effectiveness at 6 Months.
CONCLUSION: For endovascular treatment of unruptured, wide-necked, distal ICA aneurysms, coil embolization using the newly developed Alpha stent showed excellent procedural and mid-term clinical follow-up results in terms of effectiveness and safety. PMID: 31997598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Song Y, Sheen JJ, Kim JG, Lee SH, Cho SH, Park JC, Choi CG, Lee DH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Performance of F-18 Fluorocholine PET/CT for Detection of Hyperfunctioning Parathyroid Tissue in Patients with Elevated Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Negative or Discrepant Results in conventional Imaging.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic performance of F-18 fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in detecting hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue (HPT) in patients with elevated parathyroid hormone levels with negative or inconclusive conventional imaging results and to compare the findings with those obtained using technetium-99m sestamibi (MIBI) scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of 105 patients with hyperparathyroidism who underwent FCH PET/CT, dual-phase MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy (median interval: 42 days)...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Uslu-Be┼čli L, Sonmezoglu K, Teksoz S, Akgun E, Karayel E, Pehlivanoglu H, Khosroshahi BR, Ocak M, Kabasakal L, Sager S, Bukey Y Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantification of Fat Concentration and Vascular Response in Brown and White Adipose Tissue of Rats by Spectral CT Imaging.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to non-invasively characterize and discriminate brown adipose tissue (BAT) from white adipose tissue (WAT) in rats using spectral computed tomography (CT) with histological validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lipid-containing phantom (lipid fractions from 0% to 100%) was imaged with spectral CT. An in vivo, non-enhanced spectral CT scan was performed on 24 rats, and fat concentrations of BAT and WAT were measured. The rats were randomized to receive intraperitoneal treatment with norepinephrine (NE) (n = 12) or saline (n = 12). Non-enhanced and enhanced spectr...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Peng XG, Zhao Z, Chang D, Bai Y, Xu Q, Ju S Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Introduction of New Breast Section Editor.
PMID: 31920023 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Choe YH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

History of the Asian Society of Abdominal Radiology.
Abstract The history and administrative system of the Asian Society of Abdominal Radiology (ASAR) are described briefly with a focus on its academic activity, including congresses and education. ASAR is one of the three regional societies in the field of abdominal radiology, comprising approximately 2500 members from seven countries in Asia. A further increase in the numbers of members and affiliated societies is expected with the advancement of imaging technology and the distribution of radiologic equipment and knowledge. ASAR is responsible in Asia for matters of interdisciplinary collaboration in the field of a...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Choi BI, Kim MJ, Kim SH, Mori H, Minami M Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Automated Breast Ultrasound Screening for Dense Breasts.
Abstract Mammography is the primary screening method for breast cancers. However, the sensitivity of mammographic screening is lower for dense breasts, which are an independent risk factor for breast cancers. Automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) is used as an adjunct to mammography for screening breast cancers in asymptomatic women with dense breasts. It is an effective screening modality with diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of handheld ultrasound (HHUS). Radiologists should be familiar with the unique display mode, imaging features, and artifacts in ABUS, which differ from those in HHUS. The purpose of this ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim SH, Kim HH, Moon WK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Automated Breast Ultrasound System for Breast Cancer Evaluation: Diagnostic Performance of the Two-View Scan Technique in Women with Small Breasts.
CONCLUSION: 2-VST of ABUS achieved comparable scan coverage and diagnostic performance to that of conventional 3-VST in women with small breasts. PMID: 31920026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kwon BR, Chang JM, Kim SY, Lee SH, Kim SY, Lee SM, Cho N, Moon WK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Basics of Deep Learning: A Radiologist's Guide to Understanding Published Radiology Articles on Deep Learning.
Abstract Artificial intelligence has been applied to many industries, including medicine. Among the various techniques in artificial intelligence, deep learning has attained the highest popularity in medical imaging in recent years. Many articles on deep learning have been published in radiologic journals. However, radiologists may have difficulty in understanding and interpreting these studies because the study methods of deep learning differ from those of traditional radiology. This review article aims to explain the concepts and terms that are frequently used in deep learning radiology articles, facilitating ge...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Do S, Song KD, Chung JW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in Randomized, Multi-Center Clinical Trials of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review.
Abstract Appropriate use and analysis of neuroimaging techniques is an inevitable aspect of clinical trials for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Neuroimaging examinations were recently used to define the core eligibility criteria and outcomes in acute ischemic stroke research. Recent clinical trials for endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke have also demonstrated the efficacy or safety of endovascular treatment using various imaging modalities as well as clinical indices. Furthermore, independent imaging reviews and imaging core laboratory assessments are essential to manage and analyze imaging data ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Suh CH, Jung SC, Kim B, Cho SJ, Woo DC, Oh WY, Lee JG, Kim KW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Myocardial Coverage and Radiation Dose in Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Using Third-Generation Dual-Source CT.
This study aimed to compare the image quality, estimated MBF, and radiation dose of dynamic CTP between 2nd-DSCT and 3rd-DSCT and to evaluate whether a 10.5-cm coverage is suitable for dynamic CTP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 107 patients who underwent dynamic CTP using 2nd-DSCT at 80 kV (n = 54) or 3rd-DSCT at 70 kV (n = 53). Image quality, estimated MBF, radiation dose, and coverage of left ventricular (LV) myocardium were compared. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between 3rd-DSCT and 2nd-DSCT in contrast-to-noise ratio (37.4 ± 11.4 vs. 35.5 ± 11.2, p = 0.3...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Takafuji M, Kitagawa K, Ishida M, Goto Y, Nakamura S, Nagasawa N, Sakuma H Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Using 2-mSv Appendiceal CT in Usual Practice for Adolescents and Young Adults: Willingness Survey of 579 Radiologists, Emergency Physicians, and Surgeons from 20 Hospitals.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To survey care providers' willingness to use 2-mSv computed tomography (CT) in their usual practice for adolescents and young adults with suspected appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ethical committee approved this prospective study. We introduced 2-mSv CT in 20 hospitals through a pragmatic clinical trial. At the final phase of the trial, we invited 698 potentially-involved care providers in the survey regarding their willingness to use 2-mSv CT. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with willingness. Nine months after the completion...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kim HJ, Lee KH, Kim MJ, Park SB, Ko Y, LOCAT Group Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Feasibility of Simultaneous Multislice Acceleration Technique in Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Rectum.
This study included 65 patients with initially-diagnosed rectal cancer. All patients underwent C-DWI and SMS-DWI with acceleration factors of 2 and 3 (SMS2-DWI and SMS3-DWI, respectively) using a 3T scanner. Acquisition times of the three DWI sequences were measured. Image quality in the three DWI sequences was reviewed by two independent radiologists using a 4-point Likert scale and subsequently compared using the Friedman test. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for rectal cancer and the normal rectal wall were compared among the three sequences using repeated measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Acquisi...
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Park JH, Seo N, Lim JS, Hahm J, Kim MJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a Deep Learning System for Segmentation of Abdominal Muscle and Fat on Computed Tomography.
CONCLUSION: The fully convolutional network-based segmentation system exhibited high performance and accuracy in the automatic segmentation of abdominal muscle and fat on CT images. PMID: 31920032 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Park HJ, Shin Y, Park J, Kim H, Lee IS, Seo DW, Huh J, Lee TY, Park T, Lee J, Kim KW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Predictors of Catastrophic Outcome after Endovascular Thrombectomy in Elderly Patients with Acute Anterior Circulation Stroke.
CONCLUSION: Baseline infarct size and reperfusion status were independently associated with a catastrophic outcome after endovascular thrombectomy in elderly patients aged ≥ 80 years with acute anterior circulation LVO. PMID: 31920033 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ahn Y, Kim SK, Baek BH, Lee YY, Lee HJ, Yoon W Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Concordance of Three International Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules Classified by Ultrasonography and Diagnostic Performance of Biopsy Criteria.
CONCLUSION: We found a high concordance between the three guidelines for high- or intermediate-suspicion nodules, and the diagnostic performance of the biopsy criteria was approximately equivalent for each simulated size criterion. The difference in diagnostic performance between the three guidelines is mostly influenced by the various size thresholds for biopsies. PMID: 31920034 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yim Y, Na DG, Ha EJ, Baek JH, Sung JY, Kim JH, Moon WJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Erratum: Structural and Functional Features on Quantitative Chest Computed Tomography in the Korean Asian versus the White American Healthy Non-Smokers.
d Blood Institute's SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) and Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) Abstract This corrects the article on p. 20 in vol. 1236, PMID: 31270987. PMID: 31920035 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - January 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Cho HB, Chae KJ, Jin GY, Choi J, Lin CL, Hoffman EA, Wenzel SE, Castro M, Fain SB, Jarjour NN, Schiebler ML, Barr RG, Hansel N, Cooper CB, Kleerup EC, Han MK, Woodruff PG, Kanner RE, Bleecker ER, Peters SP, Moore WC, Lee CH, Choi S, National Heart, Lung a Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Guideline for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging from the Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging-Part 1: Standardized Protocol.
Abstract Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in many areas of cardiovascular disease assessment. This is a practical, standard CMR protocol for beginners that is designed to be easy to follow and implement. This protocol guideline is based on previously reported CMR guidelines and includes sequence terminology used by vendors, essential MR physics, imaging planes, field strength considerations, MRI-conditional devices, drugs for stress tests, various CMR modules, and disease/symptom-based protocols based on a survey of cardiologists and various appropriate-use criteria. It will be of considerab...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Jo Y, Kim J, Park CH, Lee JW, Hur JH, Yang DH, Lee BY, Im DJ, Hong SJ, Kim EY, Park EA, Kim PK, Yong HS Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Flow Pattern in the Ascending Aorta in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Four-Dimensional Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
This study included 44 patients with repaired TOF (25 males and 19 females; mean age, 28.9 ± 8.4 years) and 11 volunteers (10 males and 1 female, mean age, 33.7 ± 8.8 years) who had undergone 4D-flow MRI. The aortic diameters, velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), flow jet angle (FJA), and flow displacement (FD) at the level of the sinotubular junction (STJ) and mid-AA were compared between the repaired TOF and volunteer groups. The hemodynamic and clinical parameters were also compared between the aortic dilatation and non-dilatation subgroups in the repaired TOF group. RESULTS: The diameters of the sinus ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee S, Kim YJ, Jung JW, Choi JY, Park HK, Shin YR, Choi BW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantitative Imaging in Pediatric Hepatobiliary Disease.
Abstract Pediatric hepatobiliary imaging is important for evaluation of not only congenital or structural disease but also metabolic or diffuse parenchymal disease and tumors. A variety of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can be used for these assessments. In ultrasonography, conventional ultrasound imaging as well as vascular imaging, elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can be used, while in MRI, fat quantification, T2/T2* mapping, diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance elastography, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI can be performed. These techniques may be ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Yoon H, Shin HJ, Kim MJ, Lee MJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Application of Vendor-Neutral Iterative Reconstruction Technique to Pediatric Abdominal Computed Tomography.
CONCLUSION: Vendor-neutral IR technique shows image quality similar to that of clinically used vendor-specific hybrid IR technique for abdominopelvic CT in young patients. PMID: 31464114 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lim WH, Choi YH, Park JE, Cho YJ, Lee S, Cheon JE, Kim WS, Kim IO, Kim JH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

A Stepwise Diagnostic Approach to Cystic Lung Diseases for Radiologists.
Abstract Lung cysts are commonly seen on computed tomography (CT), and cystic lung diseases show a wide disease spectrum. Thus, correct diagnosis of cystic lung diseases is a challenge for radiologists. As the first diagnostic step, cysts should be distinguished from cavities, bullae, pneumatocele, emphysema, honeycombing, and cystic bronchiectasis. Second, cysts can be categorized as single/localized versus multiple/diffuse. Solitary/localized cysts include incidental cysts and congenital cystic diseases. Multiple/diffuse cysts can be further categorized according to the presence or absence of associated radiolog...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee KC, Kang EY, Yong HS, Kim C, Lee KY, Hwang SH, Oh YW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Radiomics MRI Phenotyping with Machine Learning to Predict the Grade of Lower-Grade Gliomas: A Study Focused on Nonenhancing Tumors.
CONCLUSION: Radiomics feature-based classifiers may be useful to predict LGG grades. However, radiomics classifiers may have a limited value when applied to the nonenhancing LGG subgroup in a TCGA cohort. PMID: 31464116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Park YW, Choi YS, Ahn SS, Chang JH, Kim SH, Lee SK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

De Novo Intracranial Aneurysms Detected on Imaging Follow-Up of Coiled Aneurysms in a Korean Population.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Coiled aneurysms are known to recanalize over time, making follow-up evaluations mandatory. Although de novo intracranial aneurysms (DNIAs) are occasionally detected during routine patient monitoring, such events have not been thoroughly investigated to date. Herein, we generated estimates of DNIA development during long-term observation of coiled cerebral aneurysms, focusing on incidence and the risk factors involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 773 patients undergoing coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms between 2008 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Their medical recor...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Yeon EK, Cho YD, Yoo DH, Lee SH, Kang HS, Cho WS, Kim JE, Han MH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Quantitative Evaluation of Hepatic Steatosis Using Normalized Local Variance in a Rat Model: Comparison with Histopathology as the Reference Standard.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the normalized local variance (NLV) ultrasound technique in the assessment of hepatic steatosis, and to identify the factors that influence the NLV value using histopathological examination as the reference standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet for variable periods (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 days or 2, 3, or 4 weeks; four rats per group). At the end of each diet duration, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and NLV examination were performed. Thereafter, the rats were sacrifice...
Source: Korean J Radiol - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Bae JS, Lee JY, Lee DH, Kim H, Lee Y, Han JK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Use of Cardiac Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Case Management of Atrial Fibrillation with Catheter Ablation.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia associated with the risk of morbidity and mortality in clinical patients. AF is considered as an arrhythmia type that develops and progresses through close connection with cardiac structural arrhythmogenic substrates. Since the introduction of catheter ablation-mediated electrical isolation of arrhythmogenic substrates, cardiac imaging indicates improved treatment outcome and prognosis with appropriate candidate selection, ablation catheter guidance, and post-ablation follow-up. Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) and cardiovascular magnetic ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Lee HG, Shim J, Choi JI, Kim YH, Oh YW, Hwang SH Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Myocardial Blood Flow Quantified by Low-Dose Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Is Associated with Peak Troponin Level and Impaired Left Ventricle Function in Patients with ST-Elevated Myocardial Infarction.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantified by dynamic computed tomography (CT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with troponin level and left ventricle (LV) function in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five STEMI patients who successfully had undergone reperfusion treatment within 1 week of their infarction were consecutively enrolled. All patients were referred for dynamic CT-MPI. Serial high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measured by echocardi...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Pan J, Yuan M, Yu M, Gao Y, Shen C, Wang Y, Lu B, Zhang J Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography for the Diagnosis of Vasospastic Angina: Comparison with Invasive Coronary Angiography and Ergonovine Provocation Test.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic validity of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) in vasospastic angina (VA) and factors associated with discrepant results between invasive coronary angiography with the ergonovine provocation test (iCAG-EPT) and cCTA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 1397 patients diagnosed with VA from 2006 to 2016, 33 patients (75 lesions) with available cCTA data from within 6 months before iCAG-EPT were included. The severity of spasm (% diameter stenosis [%DS]) on iCAG-EPT and cCTA was assessed, and the difference in %DS (Δ%DS) was calculated. Δ%DS wa...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Park J, Kim HK, Park EA, Park JB, Lee SP, Lee W, Kim YJ, Sohn DW Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Coronary CT Angiography with Knowledge-Based Iterative Model Reconstruction for Assessing Coronary Arteries and Non-Calcified Predominant Plaques.
This study included 66 patients (53 men and 13 women; aged 39-76 years; mean age, 55 ± 13 years) having single-vessel disease with predominantly non-calcified plaques evaluated using prospective electrocardiogram-gated 256-slice CT angiography. Paired image sets were created using two types of reconstruction: hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR. Plaque characteristics were compared using the two algorithms. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the images and the CNR between the plaque and adjacent adipose tissue were also compared between the two reformatted methods. RE...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Li T, Tang T, Yang L, Zhang X, Li X, Luo C Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Current Opinion on Endovascular Therapy for Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Due to Underlying Intracranial Atherosclerotic Stenosis.
Abstract For recanalization of emergent large vessel occlusions (ELVOs), endovascular therapy (EVT) using newer devices, such as a stent retriever and large-bore catheter, has shown better patient outcomes compared with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator only. Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is a major cause of acute ischemic stroke, the incidence of which is rising worldwide. Thus, it is not rare to encounter underlying ICAS during EVT procedures, particularly in Asian countries. ELVO due to underlying ICAS is often related to EVT procedure failure or complications, which can lead t...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Kang DH, Yoon W Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Effect of a Deep Learning Framework-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System on the Diagnostic Performance of Radiologists in Differentiating between Malignant and Benign Masses on Breast Ultrasonography.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a deep learning framework (deep learning-based CAD) improves the diagnostic performance of radiologists in differentiating between malignant and benign masses on breast ultrasound (US). MATERIALS AND METHODS: B-mode US images were prospectively obtained for 253 breast masses (173 benign, 80 malignant) in 226 consecutive patients. Breast mass US findings were retrospectively analyzed by deep learning-based CAD and four radiologists. In predicting malignancy, the CAD results were dichotomized (possibly benign vs. possibl...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Choi JS, Han BK, Ko ES, Bae JM, Ko EY, Song SH, Kwon MR, Shin JH, Hahn SY Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

A Prospective Study on the Value of Ultrasound Microflow Assessment to Distinguish Malignant from Benign Solid Breast Masses: Association between Ultrasound Parameters and Histologic Microvessel Densities.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of ultrasound (US) microflow assessment in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses as well as the association between US parameters and histologic microvessel density (MVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight breast masses (57 benign and 41 malignant) were examined using Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) before biopsy. Two radiologists evaluated the quantitative and qualitative vascular parameters on SMI (vascular index, morphology, distribution, and penetration) and CEUS (time-intensity curve analysis and enhancem...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Park AY, Kwon M, Woo OH, Cho KR, Park EK, Cha SH, Song SE, Lee JH, Cha J, Son GS, Seo BK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Segmental Liver Stiffness Evaluated with Magnetic Resonance Elastography Is Responsive to Endovascular Intervention in Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome.
CONCLUSION: Segmental LS measured by MRE is a promising repeatable quantitative biomarker for monitoring the treatment response to minimally invasive endovascular intervention in patients with BCS. PMID: 30993928 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Xu P, Lyu L, Ge H, Sami MU, Liu P, Hu C, Xu K Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound of Gastric Cancer: Correlation with Perfusion CT and Histopathology.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters and perfusion CT (PCT) parameters of gastric cancers and their correlation with histologic features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. We included 43 patients with pathologically-proven gastric cancers undergoing CEUS using SonoVue® (Bracco) and PCT on the same day. Correlation between the CEUS parameters (peak intensity [PI], area under the curve [AUC], rise time [RT] from 10% to 90% of PI, time to peak [TTPUS], and mean transit time [MTTUS]) an...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Joo I, Kim SH, Lee DH, Han JK Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Monoexponential, Biexponential, Stretched-Exponential, and Kurtosis Models of Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Differentiation of Renal Solid Masses.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare various models of diffusion-weighted imaging including monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), biexponential (fast diffusion coefficient [Df], slow diffusion coefficient [Ds], and fraction of fast diffusion), stretched-exponential (distributed diffusion coefficient and anomalous exponent term [α]), and kurtosis (mean diffusivity and mean kurtosis [MK]) models in the differentiation of renal solid masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 81 patients (56 men and 25 women; mean age, 57 years; age range, 30-69 years) with 18 benign and 63 malignant lesions were ...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhang J, Suo S, Liu G, Zhang S, Zhao Z, Xu J, Wu G Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Monitoring Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Primary Osteosarcoma Using Diffusion Kurtosis Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Initial Findings.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is effective in monitoring tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine osteosarcoma patients (20 men and 9 women; mean age, 17.6 ± 7.8 years) who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DKI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were included. Tumor volume, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK), and change ratio (ΔX) between pre- and post-treatment were calculated. Based on histologic response, the patien...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu C, Xi Y, Li M, Jiao Q, Zhang H, Yang Q, Yao W Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

MRI Evaluation of Suspected Pathologic Fracture at the Extremities from Metastasis: Diagnostic Value of Added Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.
This study included 49 patients each with pathologic and traumatic fractures at extremities. The patients underwent conventional MRI combined with DWI. For qualitative analysis, two radiologists (R1 and R2) independently reviewed three imaging sets with a crossover design using a 5-point scale and a 3-scale confidence level: DWI plus non-enhanced MRI (NEMR; DW set), NEMR plus contrast-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted imaging (CEFST1; CE set), and DWI plus NEMR plus CEFST1 (combined set). McNemar's test was used to compare the diagnostic performances among three sets and perform subgroup analyses (single vs. multiple bone...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Park SY, Lee MH, Jeon JY, Chung HW, Lee SH, Shin MJ Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Duplicated Internal Auditory Canal: High-Resolution CT and MRI Findings.
CONCLUSION: Double-canal appearance is a characteristic finding of DIAC on HRCT, and it is usually accompanied by other ear anomalies. The VCN usually appears aplastic, with a normal FN, on HRMRI. PMID: 30993933 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang L, Zhang L, Li X, Guo X Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Evaluation of Renal Pathophysiological Processes Induced by an Iodinated Contrast Agent in a Diabetic Rabbit Model Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion and Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging for detecting renal changes after iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) development in a diabetic rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two rabbits were randomized into 2 groups: diabetic rabbits with the contrast agent (DCA) and healthy rabbits with the contrast agent (NCA). In each group, 6 rabbits underwent IVIM and BOLD imaging at 1 hour, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after an iohexol injection while 5 rabbits were selected to und...
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang Y, Zhang X, Wang B, Xie Y, Wang Y, Jiang X, Wang R, Ren K Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research

Learning Curve of C-Arm Cone-beam Computed Tomography Virtual Navigation-Guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy.
CONCLUSION: The novice operators' skills in performing CBCT virtual navigation-guided PTNBs improved with increasing experience over a wide range of learning periods. PMID: 30993935 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean J Radiol)
Source: Korean J Radiol - April 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Authors: Ahn SY, Park CM, Yoon SH, Kim H, Goo JM Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research