COVID-19: urgent actions, critical reflections and future relevance of 'WaSH': lessons for the current and future pandemics.
Authors: Howard G, Bartram J, Brocklehurst C, Colford JM, Costa F, Cunliffe D, Dreibelbis R, Eisenberg JNS, Evans B, Girones R, Hrudey S, Willetts J, Wright CY Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic placed hygiene at the centre of disease prevention. Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle- and high-income countries. This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) in disease emergence, previous outbreaks, combatting COVID-19 and in preparing for future pa...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Quality change mechanism and drinking safety of repeatedly-boiled water and prolonged-boil water: a comparative study.
Authors: Zhai Y, Yang J, Zhu Y, Du Q, Yuan W, Lu H Abstract Quality, safety and potability of repeatedly-boiled water (RBW) and prolonged-boil water (PBW) lead to concern and even misgivings in the public from time to time, especially in China, and other societies have a habit of drinking boiled water, with improvements of living standards and owing to increasing concerns for human health. This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the fact that the conclusions drawn from existing scientific experiments could not respond well to the concerns. In order to make up for this deficiency, tap water was selected to carry out...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in drinking water fountains in urban parks.
This study evaluated the water quality of drinking water fountains and mist makers in four municipal parks of São Paulo for 13 months. Although all samples met bacteriological water quality criteria according to Brazilian regulations, the absence of residual chlorine (
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Bacterial community evolution along full-scale municipal wastewater treatment processes.
This study investigated the changes in the bacterial community over the course of treatment by a WWTP. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing was performed to characterize the bacterial communities in the WWTP. This study found that potential pathogens in the WWTP, especially the genera Arcobacter and Acinetobacter, were greatly reduced. In addition, high chemical oxygen demand levels provided excessive growth substrates for the genera Hyphomicrobium and Rhodoplanes, the abundance of which could exceed autotrophic bacteria, increasing the ammonium removal. According to the network analysis, the bacterial assemblage was ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of bottled water quality by determining nitrate concentration.
Authors: Fortunato MS, González AJ, Tellechea MF, Reynoso MH, Vallejos F, Donaire AN, Korol SE, Gallego A Abstract The presence of nitrate in sources of drinking water is a matter of concern because of its potential risk for human health. In many countries like Argentina, an increasing proportion of the population chooses to consume bottled water, among other reasons, for lack of water access. The present study was conducted (a) to evaluate the quality of bottled waters by determining nitrate concentration, (b) to relate bottled water quality with water access, (c) to analyze public awareness about bottled w...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water safety in drought: an indigenous knowledge-based qualitative study.
Authors: Fatehpanah A, Jahangiri K, Seyedin SH, Kavousi A, Malekinezhad H Abstract The indigenous knowledge of our ancestors provides valuable information on how to prevent negative health impacts on water hygiene in the event of drought. The present study aimed to explore the role of indigenous knowledge in maintaining water safety in drought conditions. A qualitative content analysis method using in-depth semi-structured interviews was used to collect and analyze the data. The current research was carried out from April 2017 to June 2018. A purposive sampling method was used to select 15 participants. Trustworthi...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

An investigation of the possible scenarios for the optimal locating of quality sensors in the water distribution networks with uncertain contamination.
In this study, six scenarios are defined for the contamination event in the water distribution network. These scenarios consider the effects of varying pollutant dose and the contamination input from nodes which are prone to its entry. Also, the NSGA-II has been utilized in order to minimize the damage with minimum number of sensors. The proposed model is evaluated on a real network in Iran. The results indicate that adding only one or two contamination warning sensors to the proposed locations can lead to the decreasing damage caused by the contaminated water consumption from 54 to 82%. According to the proposed method, t...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water desalination, serum magnesium and dementia: a population-based study.
In this study, we explore the link between serum magnesium levels and the prevalence of dementia following the adoption of desalinated water (DSW) in Israel. DSW contains no magnesium, and relying on it for drinking water can lead to an increased incidence of hypomagnesia. Our objective was to analyze in a treat-control context how the switch to desalinated drinking water affected serum magnesium concentrations and the prevalence of dementia. We selected two cities which differed in terms of their access to underground aquifers but were otherwise similar. Rehovot has no underground water and uses over 90% DSW, whereas Kfar...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Inorganic contaminants in Canadian First Nation community water systems.
We examined 12 years of data from 47 First Nation community water systems to identify systems experiencing difficulties meeting sampling frequency or regulatory guidelines. While most contaminant concentrations were below guideline values, we identified elevated concentrations and issues with sampling frequency. No system met both sampling frequency requirements - a minimum of one sample per year per analyte - and regulatory guidelines. Exceedance rates for lead, manganese, and arsenic were high in some systems. Moreover, current sampling procedures for lead specify that taps be flushed prior to sampling, which is known to...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Variability of water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions and the potential infection risk following cesarean delivery in rural Rwanda.
Authors: Robb KA, Habiyakare C, Kateera F, Nkurunziza T, Dusabe L, Kubwimana M, Powell B, Koch R, Gruendl M, Ngamije P, Riviello R, Hedt-Gauthier B Abstract Safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) is critical for the prevention of postpartum infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the WASH conditions women are exposed to following cesarean section in rural Rwanda. We assessed the variability of WASH conditions in the postpartum ward of a district hospital over two months, the WASH conditions at the women's homes, and the association between WASH conditions and suspected surgical site infection (SSI...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Prevalence, antibiotic resistance and virulence of Enterococcus spp. from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving waters in South Africa.
Authors: Molale-Tom LG, Bezuidenhout CC Abstract Poorly operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) result in faecal pollution of receiving waters, posing a health risk to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and presence of virulent genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from three WWTPs' final effluent and receiving waters in the North West Province, South Africa. Sixty-three Enterococcus spp. were identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as the presence of five virulence genes, determined. The antibiotic inhibition zone diameter data we...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Impact of wave action and rainfall on incidence and antibiotic resistance of total coliforms in Southern California beaches.
This study examined the numbers of coliforms as well as the incidence of antibiotic-resistant coliforms in beaches with restricted and non-restricted wave action by sampling from the shores of both types of beaches following dry and wet weather. Total coliforms were selected by membrane filtration onto mEndo agar and then enumerated. Randomly selected isolates from each location were screened for resistance to nine classes of antibiotics by disk diffusion, and the multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was calculated. Numbers of total coliforms were significantly higher following rain compared to dry weather. Total col...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in Seven Crater Lakes of Laguna, Philippines.
Authors: Ballares LD, Masangkay FR, Dionisio J, Villaflores O, Pineda-Cortel MR, Milanez GD PMID: 33095200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Trends in access to water and sanitation in Malawi: progress and inequalities (1992-2017).
Authors: Cassivi A, Tilley E, Waygood EOD, Dorea C Abstract Billions of people globally gained access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation in the last decades, following effort towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Global progress remains a general indicator as it is unclear if access is equitable across groups of the population. Agenda 2030 calling for `leaving no one behind', there is a need to focus on the variations of access in different groups of the population, especially in the context of low- and middle-income countries including Malawi. We analyzed data from Demographic Health S...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) factors associated with growth between birth and 1 year of age in children in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Baby WASH study.
This study drew cross-sectional data from a longitudinal cohort study and used hierarchical regression analyses to assess associations between WASH factors: water index, sanitation, hygiene index, and growth: height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ) at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum among infants a priori born healthy in Soweto, Johannesburg. Household access to sanitation facilities that were not safely managed was associated with a decrease in HAZ scores at 1 month (β = -2.24) and 6 months (β = -0.96); a decrease in WAZ at 1 month (β = -1.21), 6 months (β = -1.57), and 12 mo...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular detection of opportunistic pathogens and insights into microbial diversity in private well water and premise plumbing.
This study provided integrated knowledge on the persistence of pathogenic organisms in private well water. Further study is needed to explore the presence of clinical species of those opportunistic pathogens in private well water systems to elucidate the health risk. PMID: 33095203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Association between concentrations of chromium in drinking water and mortality due to suicide in Alabama.
Authors: Whitaker CC, Cates ME, Cruthirds DL, Gorman GS Abstract Preclinical studies and clinical data from case series and placebo-controlled trials suggest that chromium might have antidepressant effects. We conducted an observational study in order to assess the association between concentrations of chromium in drinking water and mortality due to suicide in Alabama. Publicly available databases were used to determine both county-level concentrations of chromium in drinking water and county-level rates of mortality due to suicide in the years 2005-2015. Data analyses comparing county-level concentrations of total...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Chemical disinfectants of COVID-19: an overview.
Authors: Al-Sayah MH Abstract The outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a broad use of chemical disinfectants in order to sterilize public spaces and prevent contamination. This paper surveys the chemicals that are effective in deactivating the virus and their mode of action. It presents the different chemical classes of disinfectants and identifies the chemical features of these compounds that pertain to their biocidal activity, relevant to surface/water disinfection. PMID: 33095205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli presence in urban aquatic environments in Kanpur, India.
Authors: Johnson A, Ginn O, Bivins A, Rocha-Melogno L, Tripathi SN, Brown J Abstract In India, high rates of antibiotic consumption and poor sanitation infrastructure combine to pose a significant risk to the public through the environmental transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The WHO has declared extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli a key indicator for the surveillance of AMR worldwide. In the current study, we measured the prevalence of AMR bacteria in an urban aquatic environment in India by detecting metabolically active ESBL-positive E. coli. Water samples were collecte...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water quality aspects related to domestic drinking water storage tanks and consideration in current standards and guidelines throughout the world - a review.
Authors: Slavik I, Oliveira KR, Cheung PB, Uhl W Abstract In many parts of the world, drinking water storage takes place in near-house or in-house tanks. This can impact drinking water quality considerably. International and numerous national standards and guidelines addressing the construction, installation and operation of domestic drinking water storage tanks are reviewed on their consideration of water quality aspects and the minimisation of health risks associated with drinking water storage. Several national and international standards and guidelines are reviewed in terms of drinking water quality requirement...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Waterborne diarrhoeal infection risk from multiple water sources and the impact of an earthquake.
This study aimed to compare the infection risk of diarrhoea from multiple water sources with different concentrations of Escherichia coli among water supply areas and evaluate the impact of changing water sources due to the Gorkha earthquake on the infection risk. The concentration of enteropathogenic E. coli was estimated in samples of piped water, jar water, groundwater, and tanker water, which were collected in the Valley. The volume of each water ingestion was determined based on a questionnaire survey and considering drinking and bathing sources. The highest estimated risk was observed for households drinking groundwa...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Inside environmental Clostridium perfringens genomes: antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors and genomic features.
This study provides a genomic insight into the potential pathogenicity of C. perfringens present in the environment and emphasises the importance of monitoring this niche in the future. PMID: 32833675 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Solar inactivated Vibrio cholerae induces maturation of JAWS II dendritic cell line in vitro.
This study investigated the potential for solar inactivated Vibrio cholerae to induce the maturation of dendritic cells in vitro. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells found in mammals. However, only in their mature form are dendritic cells able to play their role towards a long lasting immune response. Three strains of V. cholerae were solar irradiated for 7 hours. Thereafter, the solar irradiated, non-solar irradiated, phosphate buffered saline prepared and heat/chemically inactivated cultures of V. cholerae as well as lipopolysaccharide and cholerae toxin-β subunit were used to stimulate immatur...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Social factors shaping the adoption of lead-filtering point-of-use systems: an observational study of an MTurk sample.
Authors: Chesley N, Meier H, Luo J, Apchemengich I, Davies WH Abstract Some municipalities are promoting lead-filtering point-of-use (POU) systems to minimize the risk of lead exposure through drinking water, often targeting use at racial minorities and low-income households. However, links among social inequality markers and adoption of these systems are not well understood. Survey data on adoption and use of POU systems were collected from a U.S. Mechanical Turk (MTurk) sample (N = 2,867) in March 2018. We use logistic regression to assess the association of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and lead-fi...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Reducing public exposure to common, harmful well water contaminants through targeted outreach to highly susceptible neighborhoods as a method of increasing the likelihood of testing and treatment of water from private wells.
Authors: MacDonald K, Tippett M Abstract While the Safe Drinking Water Act mandates testing of public water supplies in the USA, private well owners are responsible for testing and treating their own water. A small percentage of well owners perform annual testing as recommended and many never test at all for common and potentially harmful groundwater contaminants. Finding effective ways to inform residents of the risks associated with their private well drinking water and promote the testing and treatment for common contaminants is a challenge faced by federal, state, and local agencies concerned with public health...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of exposure of children swimmers to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool.
This study aimed to understand the exposure levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) in an indoor swimming pool and calculate the risks of exposure to THMs, based on the presence of each THM species, of children swimmers aged 6-17, in Beijing, China. We obtained exposure factors for the children through questionnaires and measured THM concentrations through laboratory tests, and we combined the results with an exposure model to calculate the risks, with consideration of different exposure routes (oral ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption). In terms of exposure factors for the swimmers aged 6-17, the average body weight, exp...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

The establishment and first experiences of a crisis advisory service for water supplies in Norway.
Authors: Hyllestad S, Lund V, Nygård K, Aavitsland P, Vold L Abstract Water supply systems, in particular small-scale water supply systems, are vulnerable to adverse events that may jeopardise safe drinking water. The consequences of contamination events or the failure of daily operations may be severe, affecting many people. In Norway, a 24-hour crisis advisory service was established in 2017 to provide advice on national water supplies. Competent and expert advisors from water suppliers throughout the country assist other water suppliers and individuals who may be in need of advice during an adverse event. ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Does community-wide water chlorination reduce hepatitis E virus infections during an outbreak? A geospatial analysis of data from an outbreak in Am Timan, Chad (2016-2017).
Authors: Lenglet A, Ehlkes L, Taylor D, Fesselet JF, Nassariman JN, Ahamat A, Chen A, Noh I, Moustapha A, Spina A Abstract Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) genotype 1 and 2 infect an estimated 20 million people each year, via the faecal-oral transmission route. An urban outbreak of HEV occurred in Am Timan, Chad, between September 2016 and April 2017. As part of the outbreak response, Médecins Sans Frontières and the Ministry of Health implemented water and hygiene interventions, including the chlorination of town water sources. We aimed to understand whether these water treatment activities had any impact on ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of natural radioactivity and consequent radiological hazard in different brands of commercialized bottled mineral water produced in China.
In this study, the gross-α and gross-β activity concentrations in 15 different brands of commercial bottled mineral water consumed in China were analyzed to evaluate the quality and corresponding health impact on the population. The activity concentrations of gross-α and gross-β in different samples varied from 4.4 to 130.6 and 17.3-320.3 mBq L-1, respectively. The values of the annual effective dose equivalent rate (AED) for infants, children and adults ranged from 1.3 to 21.6, 2.9-52.5 and 5.5-97.8 μSv y-1, respectively. The average excess lifetime cancer risk caused by the consumption of bottled...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in foods of plant origin in North-Western Greece.
Authors: Sakkas H, Economou V, Bozidis P, Gousia P, Papadopoulou C, Karanis P Abstract Giardia and Cryptosporidium are recognized as leading causes of waterborne and foodborne diarrhoeal disease with worldwide distribution. The study aimed to determine the protozoan contamination of various foods of plant origin. A total of 72 samples from 27 different varieties of fresh vegetables and fruits were collected from supermarkets and open markets in North-Western Greece and were examined using conventional diagnostic methods. Two out of 72 (2.8%) samples were found positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts, while no sample w...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sub-optimal household water access is associated with greater risk of intimate partner violence against women: evidence from Nepal.
Authors: Choudhary N, Brewis A, Wutich A, Udas PB Abstract Household water management is often women's responsibility, as related to the gendered nature of household roles. Ethnographic data suggest that household water insecurity could increase women's exposure to emotional and physical forms of intimate partner violence (IPV), as punishments for failures to complete socially expected household tasks that rely on water (like cooking and cleaning) and the generally elevated emotional state of household members dealing with resource scarcity. Here, we test the associations between sub-optimal household water access ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Predicting children's blood lead levels from exposure to school drinking water in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The objective of this study was to evaluate quality of water consumed by kindergarten school children in Addis Ababa city, who are highly susceptible to issues related to heavy metals in water. Through conducting chemical analysis, using microwave plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (MP-AES), the level of lead (Pb) was measured at 38 selected schools in the city. Drinking water samples were taken from three water supply sub-systems: Akaki, Legedadi, and Gefersa. Results revealed the average Pb concentration in the city was 62.37 μg/L which is significantly higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Coliform bacteria and salt content as drinking water challenges at sand dams in Kenya.
This study investigated the levels of coliform bacteria and salt content as parameters of potential concern. Most water taken from sand dam sources had fecal coliforms present. Median fecal coliforms were in the range of 150-800 cfu/100 ml for unprotected sources (scoop holes, surface water or hand dug wells), levels which are considered high or very high health risk. Pump wells had less contamination, with fecal coliforms detected in one-third of samples in the dry season. Despite this contamination, user surveys indicated that 74% of communities generally view water as clean for drinking, and 72% reported that no or few ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Pharmaceuticals' removal by constructed wetlands: a critical evaluation and meta-analysis on performance, risk reduction, and role of physicochemical properties on removal mechanisms.
Authors: Ilyas H, Masih I, van Hullebusch ED Abstract This paper presents a comprehensive and critical analysis of the removal of pharmaceuticals (PhCs), the governing physicochemical properties, and removal mechanisms in constructed wetlands (CWs). The average removal efficiency of the most widely studied 34 PhCs ranges from 21% to 93%, with the exception of one PhC that exhibited negative removal. Moreover, CWs are effective in significantly reducing the environmental risk caused by many PhCs. Based on risk assessment, 12 PhCs were classified under high risk category (oxytetracycline> ofloxacin> sulfamethox...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Quantifying public health risks from exposure to waterborne pathogens during river bathing as a basis for reduction of disease burden.
This study gives a basis for reducing the burden of disease in the population by applying appropriate risk management. Findings and methods of this study will be helpful for other countries with similar socio-economic and geographic settings. PMID: 32589616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Design and implementation of water purification system based on deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and a multi-pass geometry reactor.
Authors: Pramanik P, Das S, Adhikary A, Chaudhuri CR, Bhattacharyya A Abstract A novel reactor was designed and implemented for water purification using deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs). The focus was on minimizing the number of LEDs required for effective germicidal action. Simulation studies were carried out on the flow of water as well as the irradiance of UV. Variation was made in the beam divergence of the UV sources and reflectivity of optical coatings used for photon recycling. Based on optimized reactor designs, water purification was carried out both in the static and flow-through configuratio...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Cyanobacteria - insidious foe of the skin?
Authors: Drobac Backović D, Tokodi N, Nikolin B, Svirčev Z Abstract Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic microorganisms that shaped today's atmosphere. Anthropocentric and irresponsible activities are changing the atmosphere which favor the frequent occurrence and mass development of cyanobacteria. Extensive cyanobacterial blooming causes numerous problems, including negative effects on human skin. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, and the increased ultraviolet radiation also affect the skin and lead to more frequent occurrence of skin cancer. This research, for the first time, attempts to establish a...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

A risk-based evaluation of onsite, non-potable reuse systems developed in compliance with conventional water quality measures.
We present risk-based log10 pathogen reduction targets for intermediate-sized non-potable systems, which are 0.5 log10 less than those previously proposed for district-sized systems. Still, pathogen treatment performance data are required to better manage non-potable reuse risk. PMID: 32589619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Next Day Legionella PCR: a highly reliable negative screen for Legionella in the built environment.
This study evaluated the Next Day Legionella PCR (Phigenics, LLC) compared with the traditional culture method (ISO 11731) on 11,125 building water samples for approximately 1 year. Two DNA extraction methods (Methods 1 and 2) were compared. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the Next Day Legionella PCR in comparison to traditional culture for Method 1 was 99.95%, 99.92%, 99.85%, and 99.17% at>10,>2,>1, and>0.1 CFU/ml limits of detection, respectively. The improved DNA extraction (Method 2) increased the NPV to 100% and 99.88% at>1 and>0.1 CFU/ml, respectively. These results demonstrate the reliabilit...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Estimating the malaria transmission over the Indian subcontinent in a warming environment using a dynamical malaria model.
Authors: Chaturvedi S, Dwivedi S Abstract Malaria is a major public health problem in India. The malaria transmission is sensitive to climatic parameters. The regional population-related factors also influence malaria transmission. To take into account temperature and rainfall variability and associated population-related effects (in a changing climate) on the malaria transmission over India, a regional dynamical malaria model, namely VECTRI (vector-borne disease community model) is used. The daily temperature and rainfall data derived from the historical (years 1961-2005) and representative concentration pathway (...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Fate of Ascaris at various pH, temperature and moisture levels.
This study assessed the inactivation of Ascaris eggs under various conditions, in terms of moisture content (MC) (90%), temperature (20-50 °C) and pH (7-12.5). The results highlight that the exposure of Ascaris eggs to elevated pH (10.5-12.5) at temperatures ≤27.5 °C for>70 days had no effect on egg viability. Compounding effects of alkaline pH (≥10.5) or decreasing MC (
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Shotgun metagenomics reveals differences in antibiotic resistance genes among bacterial communities in Western Balkans glacial lakes sediments.
This study explored the abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile genetic elements within bacterial communities from sediments of three Western Balkans glacial lakes: Plav Lake (high impact of human population), Black Lake (medium impact of human population) and Donje Bare Lake (remote lake, minimal impact of human population) via shotgun metagenomics. Assembled metagenomic sequences revealed that Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) efflux pumps genes were most abundant in metagenome from the Plav Lake. The Integron Finder bioinformatics tool detected 38 clusters of attC sites lacking integron-integrases (CALIN) elements...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Factors associated with adherence to safe water chain practices among refugees in Pagirinya refugee settlement, Northern Uganda.
In this study, we interviewed 400 household heads in Pagrinya refugee camp in Northern Uganda and assessed household level adherence to safe water chain practice and associated factors. Modified Poisson regression was used to model the association between adherence to safe water chain and independent variables. All households utilized improved water sources and 74.0% had high adherence to safe water chain. Having post-primary education and high level of knowledge about the safe water chain were positive predictors of high adherence to the safe water chain while round travel time exceeding 1 hour during water collection was...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Rotavirus contamination of surface waters from the northwest of Argentina.
Authors: Prez VE, Poma HR, Giordano GG, Victoria M, Nates SV, Rajal VB, Barril PA Abstract Fecal pollution of water is a serious concern because it is associated with the transmission of pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of group A rotavirus (RVA) in surface waters from the Arias-Arenales River in Salta, a northern city in Argentina, and to define possible sources of fecal viral pollution. A total of 116 water samples were analyzed and RVA was detected in 3.4% (95% CI: 0.1-7.0%), with concentrations ranging from 1.9 × 105 to 3.8 × 106 genome copies per liter. RVA strains wer...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Child undernutrition in households with microbiologically safer drinking water and 'improved water' in Tanna, Vanuatu.
Authors: Morrison AL, Lewthwaite H, Houghton LA, Nasak DSJ, Sharples KJ, Brown P, Crump JA, Jack SJ Abstract The Sustainable Development Goal drinking water indicators include microbiological safety measures, whereas the Millennium Development Goal indicator 'improved water' may be microbiologically unsafe. In rural Vanuatu, we undertook household surveys, child anthropometry, and tested stored drinking water, to investigate relationships between water and undernutrition. Using Escherichia coli most probable number, we categorized results according to Compartment Bag Test drinking water cutoffs: 10-100/100 mL (high...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Diversity, virulence and antibiogram traits of Escherichia coli recovered from potable water sources in Gharbia, Egypt.
This study aimed to assess the public health risk of coliforms and Escherichia coli contamination of potable water sources in Egypt. A total of 150 water samples (100 tap and 50 well) were collected from five districts in Gharbia governorate, Egypt. High rates of coliforms contamination were recorded in 52 and 76% of examined tap and well water samples, respectively. E. coli strains were detected in 16% of the water samples (15% tap water and 18% well water; 23.7% rural and 8.1% urban). Rural water sources were 3.5 times more likely to be contaminated than urban sources (P = 0.01). Eight (33.3%) E. coli isolates were Shiga...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Aquatic yeasts: diversity, characteristics and potential health implications.
Authors: Monapathi ME, Bezuidenhout CC, James Rhode OH Abstract There has been a rising interest in the levels, diversity and potential impacts of yeasts in aquatic environments. Some of the species isolated from such niches are known pathogens or have pathogenic and antifungal resistance features. This deems it necessary to understand the characteristics and potential health implications of such environmental yeasts species. Studies on these subjects are limited. Most studies on aquatic yeasts have linked them to water pollution. However, the current gold standards to determine microbial pollution of water use bac...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - April 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Preparation and characterization of PAN nanofibers containing boehmite nanoparticles for the removal of microbial contaminants and cadmium ions from water.
Authors: Borhani S, Asadi A, Dabbagh HA Abstract Nanofibers of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/boehmite were prepared by electrospinning a homogeneous solution of PAN/DMF (dimethyl formamide). Enhancing the amount of boehmite nanoparticles (NPs) led to increase in the nanofibers' diameter. Samples had high pure water flux, which did not change significantly with boehmite concentration, but decreased with increasing electrospinning duration. Escherichia coli bacteria removal was remarkably more efficient, as it was enhanced from 72.33% to 97.37% with increase in the boehmite NPs' concentration from 0 to 10% wt. High bacteri...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - April 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in two major water reservoirs in the Philippines.
Authors: Milanez G, Masangkay F, Hapan F, Bencito T, Lopez M, Soriano J, Ascaño A, Lizarondo L, Santiago J, Somsak V, Kotepui M, Tsiami A, Tangpong J, Karanis P Abstract Water reservoirs are important manmade structures providing water security to deliver clean and safe water for drinking and other purposes to the community. Eighty water samples were collected from Magat and Ipo water reservoirs using purposive sampling between November 2018 and January 2019. Water samples were collected in sterile containers for testing. The samples were cultured in non-nutrient agar and lawned with Escherichia coli and inc...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - April 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

The occurrence of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi in recreational surface water as a public health risk.
Authors: Góralska K, Błaszkowska J, Dzikowiec M Abstract Microfungi occurring in surface water may represent an important health risk. Recreational water reservoirs are a potential reservoir of pathogenic fungi. The aim of the study was to assess the diversity of mycobiota in selected artificial bathing reservoirs with regard to its biosafety for the human population. The studies were conducted during the summer of 2016 in three research seasons (June (I), July and August (II), and September (III)), taking into account the various periods of recreational activities. Filamentous fungi were isolated from wate...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - April 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research