Disinfection by-products in desalinated and blend water: formation and control strategy.
Authors: Chowdhury S Abstract Desalinated seawater is the major source of drinking water in many countries. During desalination, several activities including pretreatment, desalination, stabilization, mixing, storage and distribution are performed. Few disinfectants are used during these activities to control the biofouling agents and microbiological regrowth. The reactions between the disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM), bromide and iodide form disinfection by-products (DBPs) in product water. The product water is stabilized and mixed with treated freshwater (e.g., groundwater) to meet the domestic wate...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Modification of the Thomas model for predicting unsymmetrical breakthrough curves using an adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference system.
Authors: Amiri MJ, Khozaei M, Gil A Abstract The Thomas equation is a popular model that has been widely used to predict breakthrough curves (BTCs) when describing the dynamic adsorption of different pollutants in a fixed-bed column system. However, BTCs commonly exhibit unsymmetrical patterns that cannot be predicted using empirical equations such as the Thomas model. Fortunately, adaptive neural-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFISs) can be used to model complex patterns found in adsorption processes in a fixed-bed column system. Consequently, a new hybrid model merging Thomas and an ANFIS was introduced to estim...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessing high-throughput environmental DNA extraction methods for meta-barcode characterization of aquatic microbial communities.
Authors: Shahraki AH, Chaganti SR, Heath D Abstract The characterization of microbial community dynamics using genomic methods is rapidly expanding, impacting many fields including medical, ecological, and environmental research and applications. One of the biggest challenges for such studies is the isolation of environmental DNA (eDNA) from a variety of samples, diverse microbes, and widely variable community compositions. The current study developed environmentally friendly, user safe, economical, and high throughput eDNA extraction methods for mixed aquatic microbial communities and tested them using 16 s rRNA g...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence and reduction of F-specific RNA bacteriophage genotypes as indicators of human norovirus at a wastewater treatment plant.
Authors: Lee S, Suwa M, Shigemura H Abstract F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) have been suggested as good indicators of the presence of human enteric viruses in water treatment facilities. The occurrence and reduction of norovirus (NoV) and FRNAPH genotypes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been well studied; however, the relationship between these genotypes in WWTPs has not been fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the occurrence and reduction of FRNAPH genotypes in an attempt to identify NoV indicators in a WWTP via a 1-year survey. All FRNAPH and NoV genotypes were detected in WWTP in...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Development of a dose-response model for Naegleria fowleri.
This study develops novel dose-response models for Naegleria fowleri from selected peer-reviewed experiments on the virulence based on the intranasal exposure pathway. One data set measured the response of mice intranasally inoculated with the amebae and the other study addressed the response of mice swimming in N. fowleri infected water. The measured response for both studies was death. All experimental data were best fit by the beta-Poisson dose-response model. The three swimming experiments could be pooled, and this is the final recommended model with an LD50 of 13,257 amebae. The results of this study provide a better ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Metagenomic study on the composition of culturable and non-culturable bacteria in tap water and biofilms at intensive care units.
This study sheds light on the prevalence of unculturable bacterial flora in the biofilm ignored by the microbiological standard methods. This study was performed on tap and bulk water from ICUs; however, it indicates the need for further studies to investigate the function and activity of the microbial diversity in order to assess the real risk presented by this water microflora on patients' health. PMID: 30758305 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Weather, environmental conditions, and waterborne Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Iqaluit, Nunavut.
This study examined Giardia and Cryptosporidium in untreated surface water used for drinking in Iqaluit, Canada. Water samples (n = 55) were collected weekly from June to September 2016 and tested for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exact logistic regressions were used to examine associations between parasite presence and environmental exposure variables. Using microscopy, 20.0% of samples tested positive for Giardia (n = 11) and 1.8% of samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium (n = 1). Low water temperatures (1.1 to 6.7 °C) and low air temperatures (...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Low cost drinking water treatment using nonwoven engineered and woven cloth fabrics.
Authors: Siwila S, Brink IC Abstract The study investigated two engineered fabrics and five cloth fabrics for low cost drinking water treatment. An optimized fabric filtration method has been developed and tested. Numerical models for predicting particulate removal efficiency have been developed for each fabric as support tools for selecting optimal process configuration. Both engineered fabrics showed better performance and achieved the most effective particulate removal for the highest number of layers used. Sequential filtration was done on eight layers for representative fabrics of each type and recorded higher...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Fecal coliform concentrations in effluent from ultraviolet disinfection units installed in onsite wastewater treatment systems.
This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine UVD unit effluent quality and determine the association between UV bulb status and fecal coliform levels. Samples from UVD units and pump chambers were tested for bacterial and physiochemical parameters. Field data were supplemented with data from retrospective compliance samples. A multivariate Tobit regression model predicted that the geometric mean (GM) fecal coliform concentration was 122% higher when the UV bulb was deficient than when it was not deficient, adjusted for other OSS deficiencies (95% CI: 36-428, p-value
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Chlorine inactivation of coxsackievirus B5 in recycled water destined for non-potable reuse.
In this study, disinfection efficacy in nitrified/denitrified activated sludge treated wastewater was investigated for coxsackievirus B5 (CB5), an enterovirus known to be highly resistant to free chlorine. The required chlorine contact times (CT) values (mg.min/L) for inactivation of CB5 were established in treated wastewater at 10 °C and of varying turbidity (0.2, 2, 5 and 20 NTU) and pH (7, 8 and 9). CTs were calculated to achieve 1 to 4 log10 inactivation. Robust data is presented in support of the chlorine CT values required to inactivate a chlorine-resistant virus in a range of turbidities and pHs in treated waste...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Predicting culturable enterococci exceedances at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico using satellite remote sensing and artificial neural networks.
Authors: Laureano-Rosario AE, Duncan AP, Symonds EM, Savic DA, Muller-Karger FE Abstract Predicting recreational water quality is key to protecting public health from exposure to wastewater-associated pathogens. It is not feasible to monitor recreational waters for all pathogens; therefore, monitoring programs use fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci, to identify wastewater pollution. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict when culturable enterococci concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC) at Escambron Beac...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium genotyping and land use mapping for hazard identification and source tracking in a small mixed rural-urban watershed in Southeastern Brazil.
Authors: Andrade RC, Bastos RKX, Bevilacqua PD, Andrade RV Abstract PMID: 30758311 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria) in water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.
Authors: Gabriel S, Khan NA, Siddiqui R Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in Peninsular Malaysia and to compare different methodologies to detect them from water samples. Water samples were collected from tap water, recreational places, water dispensers, filtered water, etc. and tested for FLA using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via plating assays and centrifugation methods. Amoebae DNA was extracted using Instagene matrix and PCR was performed using genus-specific primers. Of 250 samples, 142 (56.8%) samples were positive for presence...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

The association between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions and drowning in Bangladesh.
Authors: Jagnoor J, Gupta M, Ul Baset K, Ryan D, Ivers R, Rahman A Abstract The present study investigated associations between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) factors and fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Bangladesh. Here, we report findings from a large household survey (89,700) conducted in Barisal Division of Bangladesh. Univariate analyses showed that the use of surface water rather than piped water was associated with an increased risk of both fatal and non-fatal drowning events. Additionally, increased risk of non-fatal drowning events was associated with shared toilet facilities, lack of toilet fa...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

An exploration of disinfection by-products formation and governing factors in chlorinated swimming pool water.
Authors: Ilyas H, Masih I, van der Hoek JP Abstract This paper investigates disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation and their relationship with governing factors in chlorinated swimming pools. The study compares concentrations of DBPs with WHO guidelines for drinking water quality recommended to screen swimming pool water quality. The statistical analysis is based on a global database of 188 swimming pools accumulated from 42 peer-reviewed journal publications from 16 countries. The mean and standard deviation of dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were estimated as 282 ± 437 and 326 ± 517 ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Critical elements for local Indigenous water security in Canada: a narrative review.
Authors: Latchmore T, Schuster-Wallace CJ, Longboat DR, Dickson-Anderson SE, Majury A Abstract Indigenous communities in Canada are over-represented with respect to poor water quality and water advisories. To date, approaches to solve this water crisis have been founded in the Western Science (WS) context with little to no consultation or dialogue with those communities most impacted, and without regard for culture. A literature review was undertaken to: (i) document Indigenous Knowledge (IK), and perspectives regarding water and (ii) to identify current local water security tools utilized by Indigenous communities...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of Moringa oleifera seed extract by extraction time: effect on coagulation efficiency and extract characteristic.
In this study, the effects of extraction mixing speed and extraction time of MO on coagulation activity were evaluated using a distilled water extraction method. Although the rotation per minute for extraction did not affect the coagulation efficiency, the extraction time strongly affected the coagulation efficiency of the extract. To evaluate the characteristic change of MO extract by extraction time, the charge of MO extract and protein characteristic in MO extract were analysed. As the extraction time was short, more positive charge and higher protein content were observed. For detailed protein analysis, the fluorescenc...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Interaction between typical sulfonamides and bacterial diversity in drinking water.
Authors: Wu Q, Li S, Zhao X, Zhao X Abstract The abuse of antibiotics is becoming more serious as antibiotic use has increased. The sulfa antibiotics, sulfamerazine (SM1) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), are frequently detected in a wide range of environments. The interaction between SM1/SMZ and bacterial diversity in drinking water was investigated in this study. The results showed that after treatment with SM1 or SMZ at four different concentrations, the microbial community structure of the drinking water changed statistically significantly compared to the blank sample. At the genus level, the proportions of the diffe...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Removal of Escherichia coli from well water using continuous laminar flow in a channel system containing PPy/Cu modified electrodes.
Authors: González MB, Brugnoni LI, Flamini DO, Quinzani LM, Saidman SB Abstract Polypyrrole (PPy) films modified with copper species were used for disinfection of well water contaminated with Escherichia coli (E. coli). For that purpose a laboratory-scale continuous flow system with a parallel plate flow chamber configuration was implemented operating under laminar flow. Three flow rates were considered. The testing conditions did not affect the morphology of the modified PPy films, even after 5 h of continuous use at the largest flow rate examined. The results show that the bacteria killing process can be d...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of microbial quality of household water output from desalination systems by the heterotrophic plate count method.
This study aimed to determine the microbial quality of output water from HWDSs in Qom, Iran by using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) method. Samples of input and output water from 30 HWDSs were collected over a six-month period. Heterotrophic bacteria were tested using the pour plate technique. At the first sampling stage, the HPC level in 23% of samples exceeded the 500 CFU/ml threshold level. On average, for 50% of samples, the HPC level of input samples was 0-10 CFU/ml, for 42% it was 10-100 CFU/ml and for 8% it was 100-500 CFU/ml. For output samples, for 25%, the level of HPC was 0-10 CFU/ml, for 43% it was 10-100 ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for the detection of mycobacterial species and their potential association with waterborne pathogens.
Authors: Aboagye G, Rowe MT Abstract The versatility of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) protocol provides enough grounds for its wide application over an array of microorganisms. This work was designed to evaluate DGGE for the detection and confirmation of mycobacteria and their association, if any, with waterborne pathogens. A total of 76 samples comprising raw untreated water, schmutzdecke, floccules and final treated water obtained from a common water source, and two water treatment works (WTW1 and WTW2), were analysed. Thirty-five species were identified from the overall samples, with 7% (5/76), ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Health risk of swimming pool disinfection by-products: a regulatory perspective.
Authors: Pándics T, Hofer Á, Dura G, Vargha M, Szigeti T, Tóth E Abstract While disinfection of swimming pools is indispensable for microbiological safety, it may lead to the formation of disinfection by-products. Most studies agree that inhalation exposure is the predominant pathway of the associated health risks, but assumptions are based on concentrations measured in water and evaporation models. Pool water and air were sampled in 19 swimming pools. Trihalomethanes were detected in all sites; chloroform being the most abundant species. Concentrations ranged between 12.8-71.2 μg/L and 11.1...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Storage of aerobic granular sludge embedded in agar and its reactivation by real wastewater.
Authors: Cheng Y, Xuan X, Zhang L, Zhao J, Long B Abstract Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was preserved using an agar embedding method to maintain its stability. No obvious damage was imposed on the granular appearance during 30 days of cold and dry storage, but the granular microstructure had an uneven surface with a large number of holes. The results were consistent with the extinction of microbial communities and the monitored consumption of extracellular polymeric substances, in which granular specific oxygen utilization rate and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids/mixed liquor suspended solids ratio, respect...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Rotavirus analyses by SYBR Green real-time PCR and microbiological contamination in bivalves cultivated in coastal water of Amazonian Brazil.
Authors: Marinho ANR, Rocha DCC, Kanai YK, Alves CM, Costa DC, Sousa AH, Barros BCV, Bonfim MCMS, Mascarenhas JDP Abstract The contamination of mussels and oysters by viruses and bacteria is often associated with water contamination and gastroenteritis in humans. The present study evaluated viral and bacterial contamination in 380 samples, from nine mollusk-producing regions in coastal water north of the Brazilian Amazon. Rotavirus contamination was studied for groups A to H, using a two-step SYBR Green RT-qPCR (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), and bacterial families Enterobacteriaceae...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Pathogens in crop production systems irrigated with low-quality water in Bolivia.
This study assessed microbe prevalence in farming systems in the Bolivian highlands that use wastewater-polluted sources for irrigation of lettuce. Samples of soil, lettuce and different water sources used in the farming systems were taken during one crop season and concentrations of coliphages, Escherichia coli and helminth eggs were measured. The results showed high spread of these microorganisms throughout the whole system. There was a significant correlation between microbial quality of water and of the harvested produce for several microorganisms. The microbial prevalence in protected shallow wells was found to be sig...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

River water analysis using a multiparametric approach: Portuguese river as a case study.
Authors: Barbosa-Vasconcelos A, Mendes Â, Martins F, Lopes E, Machado A, Bordalo AA, Vaz-Pires P, Vieira N, Martins da Costa P, Bessa LJ Abstract The Ave River in northern Portugal has a history of riverbanks and water quality degradation. The river water quality was assessed by physicochemical, biological (macroinvertebrates) and microbiological (Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli) parameters in six locations (A-F, point A being the nearest to the source) throughout its course during a year. Epilithic biofilms were studied through polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGG...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Enterococci as a key parameter for water quality index: Purires River, Costa Rica.
This study used the Canadian Water Quality Index (CWI) to characterize water sampled at three points within the Purires River micro basin, Costa Rica. The first sampling point is located in a high zone with domestic agricultural activities, the second point around the mid-point of the flow of the river, and the third point at the lowest zone with extensive agricultural activities mainly centered on the production of fresh vegetables. Eleven physicochemical parameters (As, Cd, Cr, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4+, NO3-, Pb, pH, percent saturation of dissolved oxygen (PSO), and total suspen...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water quality, availability, and acute gastroenteritis on the Navajo Nation - a pilot case-control study.
Authors: Grytdal SP, Weatherholtz R, Esposito DH, Campbell J, Reid R, Gregoricus N, Schneeberger C, Lusk TS, Xiao L, Garrett N, Bopp C, Hammitt LL, Vinjé J, Hill VR, O'Brien KL, Hall AJ Abstract The Navajo Nation includes approximately 250,000 American Indians living in a remote high desert environment with limited access to public water systems. We conducted a pilot case-control study to assess associations between acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and water availability, use patterns, and quality. Case patients with AGE and non-AGE controls who presented for care to two Indian Health Service hospitals were recru...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Snow angels - the microbiology of freshly fallen snow: implications for immunocompromised patients.
Authors: Moore JE, McCaughan J, Stirling J, Bell J, Millar BC Abstract The frequency of seasonal snowfall results in the transient covering of gardens/amenity sites/open public spaces, which encourages recreational interaction mainly with children. No data is available demonstrating the microbiological composition of such fallen snow and therefore a study was undertaken to examine the microbiology of snow from 37 sites, estimating (i) total viable count (TVC), (ii) identification of bacteria, and (iii) the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mean TVC count of 8.3 colony-forming units (cfu)/ml snow melt water, 51.7 ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Beyond reasonable drought: hotspots reveal a link between the 'Big Dry' and cryptosporidiosis in Australia's Murray Darling Basin.
Authors: Lal A, Konings P Abstract There is little evidence on how the health impacts of drought vary spatially and temporally. With a focus on waterborne cryptosporidiosis, we identify spatio-temporal hotspots and by using interrupted time series analysis, examine the impact of Australia's Big Dry (2001-2009) in these disease clusters in the Murray Darling Drainage Basin. Analyses revealed a statistically significant hotspot in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and a hotspot in the north-eastern end of the basin in Queensland. After controlling for long-term trend and seasonality in cryptosporidi...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Journal of Water and Health 16 (4), 491-500: Use of bacterial spores in monitoring water quality and treatment, Gerard N. Stelma, Jr.
Authors: Abstract PMID: 30540278 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

A review of potential factors contributing to epidemic cholera in Yemen.
Authors: Al-Gheethi A, Noman E, Jeremiah David B, Mohamed R, Abdullah AH, Nagapan S, Hashim Mohd A Abstract The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the popu...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Natural organic matter as precursor to disinfection byproducts and its removal using conventional and advanced processes: state of the art review.
Authors: Tak S, Vellanki BP Abstract Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and if present can cause varied drinking water quality issues, the major one being disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are major classes of DBP that are formed during chlorination of NOM. The best way to remove DBPs is to target the precursors (NOM) directly. The main aim of this review is to study conventional as well as advanced ways of treating NOM, with a broad focus on NOM removal using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and biofiltration. The first part of the paper focuses on...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sick leave due to diarrhea caused by contamination of drinking water supply with Cryptosporidium hominis in Sweden: a retrospective study.
Authors: Ridderstedt F, Widerström M, Lindh J, Lilja M Abstract We investigated sick leave from work, studies, preschool, and kindergarten occurring between 1 November 2010 and 31 January 2011 and associated with a waterborne outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in late November 2010 in Östersund, Sweden with 45.2% of 60,000 residents being symptomatic. A questionnaire defining acute watery diarrhoea and/or ≥3 diarrhea episodes/day as cryptosporidiosis was sent to 1,508 residents in late January 2011 (response rate 69.2%). Among adults aged 18-60 years, 24.0% took sick leave for a mea...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Categorical performance characteristics of method ISO 7899-2 and indicator value of intestinal enterococci for bathing water quality monitoring.
This study defines the performance characteristics of the reference method ISO 7899-2:2000 with water samples collected from inland and coastal bathing areas in Finland. From a total of 341 bacterial isolates grown on Slanetz and Bartley medium, 63.6% were confirmed as intestinal enterococci on bile aesculin agar. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clades accounted for 93.1% of the confirmed isolates. The range of the false positive and false negative rate of the ISO 7899-2 was 0.0-18.5% and 5.6-57.1%, respectively, being affected by the presumptive colony count o...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Association of water quality with soil-transmitted helminthiasis and diarrhea in Nueva Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 2010.
Authors: Matanock A, Lu X, Derado G, Cuéllar VM, Juliao P, Alvarez M, López B, Muñoz F, Thornton A, Patel JC, Lopez G, Reyes L, Arvelo W, Blackstock AJ, Lindblade KA, Roy SL Abstract Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. To assess water quality associations with diarrhea and STH, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in households of south-eastern Guatemala. Diarrhea was self-reported in the past week and month. STH was diagnosed by sto...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of the parasitological quality of water stored in private cisterns in rural areas of Tunisia.
This study evaluated the drinking water quality stored in home-based systems, located in rural areas of Tunisia. Water management was also documented as an improvement of good practice as most of the water contamination could be related to behavioral patterns. Thirty-nine water samples from five different sources (rainwater, truck cistern, mix, etc.) were screened for enteric parasitic contamination with the modified Bailenger technique. This technique allowed the detection of three protozoa: Giardia spp.; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii; Entamoeba coli and one helminth specie: Ascaris spp. The overall prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the hydraulic (filtration) efficiency of a residential swimming pool.
In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model together with Eulerian and Lagrangian-based techniques are used for investigating the residence time characteristics of a passive tracer and particles in the water, representative of chemicals and pathogens, respectively. The flow pattern in the pool is found to be characterized by dead zone regions where water constituents may be retained for extended periods of times, thereby potentially decreasing the pool hydraulic efficiency. Two return-jet configurations are studied in order to understand the effect of return-jet location and intensity on the hydra...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Faecal contamination in public pools in Barcelona province: Cryptosporidium spp. and bacterial indicators.
Authors: Gracenea M, Castaño S, Méndez J, Lucena F, Gómez MS Abstract A study was conducted of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in indoor heated public swimming pools and of three bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli, faecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) on pool surrounds. Although all examined pools adhered strictly to the Spanish regulations, the influence of several parameters related to water conditions, pool structure, users and location on the presence of protozoa and bacteria was analysed. Cryptosporidium was detected in 18.8% of pools in 60% of the five towns studied. The ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black 5 on the surface of tin oxide microrods.
Authors: Khan SR, Khalid MU, Jamil S, Li S, Mujahid A, Janjua MRSA Abstract A simple co-precipitation technique is proposed for synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2) microrods. Stannous chloride and urea were used during synthesis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the annealed product consists of SnO2 microrods having tetragonal unit cells, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the rod-like morphology of a synthesized product. These synthesized microrods are used as photocatalyst for the degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5). Degradation kinetics of RB5 are monitored under daylight...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Contamination of arsenic, manganese and coliform bacteria in groundwater at Kushtia District, Bangladesh: human health vulnerabilities.
Authors: Rahman A, Rahaman H Abstract Safe water is essential for life. Consumption of arsenic and manganese contaminated water poses a range of health effects to humans. Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of groundwater at five administrative upazillas in Kushtia District, Bangladesh, have been studied to evaluate the potability of water for drinking purpose from 32 randomly selected tube wells (TWs). APHA (2012) standard analytical methods were applied for analyses of the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of the water samples. Arsenic, iron, and manganese content were analyzed by a...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Ultraviolet A and B wavelength-dependent inactivation of viruses and bacteria in the water.
In this study, the inactivation and photoreactivation of viruses and bacteria in the UVA-B range were analyzed. MS2 and T4 bacteriophages, and Escherichia coli were used as surrogates to quantify dose-response behaviors. Inactivation in UVC was used to validate the methodology and to expand the inactivation action spectra. The results showed log-linear inactivation for MS2 and T4 in the 254-320 nm wavelength range. T4 inactivation was consistently faster than MS2 (except at 320 nm), and for both phages, inactivation decreased with increasing wavelength. The dose-response of bacteria exhibited a lag at low doses, possibly b...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from hot springs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.
Authors: Dodangeh S, Kialashaki E, Daryani A, Sharif M, Sarvi S, Moghaddam YD, Hosseini SA Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan that can be found in natural and artificial environments such as hot tubs, surface water and springs and can cause severe diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The present study was conducted owing to the lack of research regarding genotypes of Acanthamoeba in hot springs of Mazandaran province in northern Iran. Twenty-four water samples were collected from all hot springs in Mazandaran province. After filtration through nitrocellulose mem...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Preparation, adsorptive properties and chemical regeneration studies of high-porous activated carbon derived from Platanus orientalis leaves for Cr(VI) removal.
Authors: Liu X, Huang L, Wang L, Wang C, Wu X, Dong G, Liu Y Abstract Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Platanus orientalis leaves by H3PO4 activation using a microwave heating method and characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) techniques. AC exhibited a surface area of 1089.67 m2/g and a relatively high pore volume of 1.468 cm3/g. Utilization of AC for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was researched. The adsorption efficiency was highly pH dependent and adsorption capacity of AC for C...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Drinking water in West Virginia (USA): tap water or bottled water - what is the right choice for college students?
Authors: Levêque JG, Burns RC Abstract West Virginia has had a history of water quality issues. In parallel, the world is facing a plastic pollution crisis. In order to better understand behavioral responses to perceived water quality, a survey was conducted at a major research university to ask participants about water quality perceptions and drinking water behaviors. A total of 4,188 students completed the survey during the Spring 2017 semester. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict behaviors. Results indicated that a third of the student population primarily used bottled water for drinking purp...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Monitoring levels of viable Helicobacter pylori in surface water by qPCR in Northeast Spain.
Authors: Acosta CP, Codony F, Fittipaldi M, Sierra-Torres CH, Morató J Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. Although the infection may be acquired through different transmission routes, the presence and viability of H. pylori in water sources are not well known. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse the viability of H. pylori cells in urban surface waters collected at the Vallparadís public park in Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. The water samples were analysed by viability quantitative polymerase chai...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Degradation of rhodamine B with manganese dioxide nanorods.
This study could pave the way for development of cost-effective, nontoxic nanostructures for treatment of wastewaters containing RhB. PMID: 30285965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis in sludge and spent filter backwash water of a water treatment plant.
Authors: Ladeia WA, Martins FDC, E Silva CFR, Freire RL Abstract The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in a water treatment plant (WTP) using settling sludge and backwash water (BW) samples in previous and post the deflocculation of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) flacks. Eleven collections were performed. BW and settling sludge (SSF) were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, and another aliquot of settling sludge (SSC) by centrifugation. The samples were divided as follows: Group A, containing 33 samples without degradation of PAC flakes, and G...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Use of bacterial spores in monitoring water quality and treatment.
Authors: Stelma GN Abstract Because Clostridium perfringens spores are both specific to sewage contamination and environmentally stable, they are considered as possible conservative indicators of human fecal contamination and possible surrogates for environmentally stable pathogens. This review discusses the reasons and summarizes methods for monitoring spores in water. Cultural methods are still preferred over qPCR for routine water quality monitoring because of their low costs. Membrane filter (MF) methods are preferred over the more laborious and less accurate most probable number methods. The most commonly used...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Clostridium perfringens identifies source of pollution and reference streams in a tropical highland environment.
Authors: Mushi D Abstract Clostridium perfringens was analysed in soils from a tropical highland catchment and corresponding headwater streams at baseflow condition in order to understand the contribution of soils to the microbiological quality of stream water and the feasibility of using these streams as surrogate for negative control (reference streams). The concentrations of C. perfringens depended on the sample matrix. C. perfringens concentrations were significantly higher in the catchment soil than in the stream water (P
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research