A review of potential factors contributing to epidemic cholera in Yemen.
Authors: Al-Gheethi A, Noman E, Jeremiah David B, Mohamed R, Abdullah AH, Nagapan S, Hashim Mohd A Abstract The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the popu...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Natural organic matter as precursor to disinfection byproducts and its removal using conventional and advanced processes: state of the art review.
Authors: Tak S, Vellanki BP Abstract Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and if present can cause varied drinking water quality issues, the major one being disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Trihalomethanes (THMs) are major classes of DBP that are formed during chlorination of NOM. The best way to remove DBPs is to target the precursors (NOM) directly. The main aim of this review is to study conventional as well as advanced ways of treating NOM, with a broad focus on NOM removal using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and biofiltration. The first part of the paper focuses on...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sick leave due to diarrhea caused by contamination of drinking water supply with Cryptosporidium hominis in Sweden: a retrospective study.
Authors: Ridderstedt F, Widerström M, Lindh J, Lilja M Abstract We investigated sick leave from work, studies, preschool, and kindergarten occurring between 1 November 2010 and 31 January 2011 and associated with a waterborne outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis in late November 2010 in Östersund, Sweden with 45.2% of 60,000 residents being symptomatic. A questionnaire defining acute watery diarrhoea and/or ≥3 diarrhea episodes/day as cryptosporidiosis was sent to 1,508 residents in late January 2011 (response rate 69.2%). Among adults aged 18-60 years, 24.0% took sick leave for a mea...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Categorical performance characteristics of method ISO 7899-2 and indicator value of intestinal enterococci for bathing water quality monitoring.
This study defines the performance characteristics of the reference method ISO 7899-2:2000 with water samples collected from inland and coastal bathing areas in Finland. From a total of 341 bacterial isolates grown on Slanetz and Bartley medium, 63.6% were confirmed as intestinal enterococci on bile aesculin agar. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis clades accounted for 93.1% of the confirmed isolates. The range of the false positive and false negative rate of the ISO 7899-2 was 0.0-18.5% and 5.6-57.1%, respectively, being affected by the presumptive colony count o...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Association of water quality with soil-transmitted helminthiasis and diarrhea in Nueva Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 2010.
Authors: Matanock A, Lu X, Derado G, Cuéllar VM, Juliao P, Alvarez M, López B, Muñoz F, Thornton A, Patel JC, Lopez G, Reyes L, Arvelo W, Blackstock AJ, Lindblade KA, Roy SL Abstract Improved water quality reduces diarrhea, but the impact of improved water quality on Ascaris and Trichuris, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) conveyed by the fecal-oral route, is less well described. To assess water quality associations with diarrhea and STH, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in households of south-eastern Guatemala. Diarrhea was self-reported in the past week and month. STH was diagnosed by sto...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of the parasitological quality of water stored in private cisterns in rural areas of Tunisia.
This study evaluated the drinking water quality stored in home-based systems, located in rural areas of Tunisia. Water management was also documented as an improvement of good practice as most of the water contamination could be related to behavioral patterns. Thirty-nine water samples from five different sources (rainwater, truck cistern, mix, etc.) were screened for enteric parasitic contamination with the modified Bailenger technique. This technique allowed the detection of three protozoa: Giardia spp.; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii; Entamoeba coli and one helminth specie: Ascaris spp. The overall prevalence ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the hydraulic (filtration) efficiency of a residential swimming pool.
In this study, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model together with Eulerian and Lagrangian-based techniques are used for investigating the residence time characteristics of a passive tracer and particles in the water, representative of chemicals and pathogens, respectively. The flow pattern in the pool is found to be characterized by dead zone regions where water constituents may be retained for extended periods of times, thereby potentially decreasing the pool hydraulic efficiency. Two return-jet configurations are studied in order to understand the effect of return-jet location and intensity on the hydra...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Faecal contamination in public pools in Barcelona province: Cryptosporidium spp. and bacterial indicators.
Authors: Gracenea M, Castaño S, Méndez J, Lucena F, Gómez MS Abstract A study was conducted of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in indoor heated public swimming pools and of three bacterial indicators (Escherichia coli, faecal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) on pool surrounds. Although all examined pools adhered strictly to the Spanish regulations, the influence of several parameters related to water conditions, pool structure, users and location on the presence of protozoa and bacteria was analysed. Cryptosporidium was detected in 18.8% of pools in 60% of the five towns studied. The ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Photocatalytic degradation of reactive black 5 on the surface of tin oxide microrods.
Authors: Khan SR, Khalid MU, Jamil S, Li S, Mujahid A, Janjua MRSA Abstract A simple co-precipitation technique is proposed for synthesis of tin oxide (SnO2) microrods. Stannous chloride and urea were used during synthesis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the annealed product consists of SnO2 microrods having tetragonal unit cells, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed the rod-like morphology of a synthesized product. These synthesized microrods are used as photocatalyst for the degradation of reactive black 5 (RB5). Degradation kinetics of RB5 are monitored under daylight...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Contamination of arsenic, manganese and coliform bacteria in groundwater at Kushtia District, Bangladesh: human health vulnerabilities.
Authors: Rahman A, Rahaman H Abstract Safe water is essential for life. Consumption of arsenic and manganese contaminated water poses a range of health effects to humans. Physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of groundwater at five administrative upazillas in Kushtia District, Bangladesh, have been studied to evaluate the potability of water for drinking purpose from 32 randomly selected tube wells (TWs). APHA (2012) standard analytical methods were applied for analyses of the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of the water samples. Arsenic, iron, and manganese content were analyzed by a...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Ultraviolet A and B wavelength-dependent inactivation of viruses and bacteria in the water.
In this study, the inactivation and photoreactivation of viruses and bacteria in the UVA-B range were analyzed. MS2 and T4 bacteriophages, and Escherichia coli were used as surrogates to quantify dose-response behaviors. Inactivation in UVC was used to validate the methodology and to expand the inactivation action spectra. The results showed log-linear inactivation for MS2 and T4 in the 254-320 nm wavelength range. T4 inactivation was consistently faster than MS2 (except at 320 nm), and for both phages, inactivation decreased with increasing wavelength. The dose-response of bacteria exhibited a lag at low doses, possibly b...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from hot springs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran.
Authors: Dodangeh S, Kialashaki E, Daryani A, Sharif M, Sarvi S, Moghaddam YD, Hosseini SA Abstract Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan that can be found in natural and artificial environments such as hot tubs, surface water and springs and can cause severe diseases including amoebic keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. The present study was conducted owing to the lack of research regarding genotypes of Acanthamoeba in hot springs of Mazandaran province in northern Iran. Twenty-four water samples were collected from all hot springs in Mazandaran province. After filtration through nitrocellulose mem...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Preparation, adsorptive properties and chemical regeneration studies of high-porous activated carbon derived from Platanus orientalis leaves for Cr(VI) removal.
Authors: Liu X, Huang L, Wang L, Wang C, Wu X, Dong G, Liu Y Abstract Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from Platanus orientalis leaves by H3PO4 activation using a microwave heating method and characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) techniques. AC exhibited a surface area of 1089.67 m2/g and a relatively high pore volume of 1.468 cm3/g. Utilization of AC for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was researched. The adsorption efficiency was highly pH dependent and adsorption capacity of AC for C...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Drinking water in West Virginia (USA): tap water or bottled water - what is the right choice for college students?
Authors: Levêque JG, Burns RC Abstract West Virginia has had a history of water quality issues. In parallel, the world is facing a plastic pollution crisis. In order to better understand behavioral responses to perceived water quality, a survey was conducted at a major research university to ask participants about water quality perceptions and drinking water behaviors. A total of 4,188 students completed the survey during the Spring 2017 semester. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict behaviors. Results indicated that a third of the student population primarily used bottled water for drinking purp...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Monitoring levels of viable Helicobacter pylori in surface water by qPCR in Northeast Spain.
Authors: Acosta CP, Codony F, Fittipaldi M, Sierra-Torres CH, Morató J Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric carcinoma and lymphoma. Although the infection may be acquired through different transmission routes, the presence and viability of H. pylori in water sources are not well known. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyse the viability of H. pylori cells in urban surface waters collected at the Vallparadís public park in Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. The water samples were analysed by viability quantitative polymerase chai...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Degradation of rhodamine B with manganese dioxide nanorods.
This study could pave the way for development of cost-effective, nontoxic nanostructures for treatment of wastewaters containing RhB. PMID: 30285965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis in sludge and spent filter backwash water of a water treatment plant.
Authors: Ladeia WA, Martins FDC, E Silva CFR, Freire RL Abstract The purpose of this study was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in a water treatment plant (WTP) using settling sludge and backwash water (BW) samples in previous and post the deflocculation of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) flacks. Eleven collections were performed. BW and settling sludge (SSF) were concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation, and another aliquot of settling sludge (SSC) by centrifugation. The samples were divided as follows: Group A, containing 33 samples without degradation of PAC flakes, and G...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Use of bacterial spores in monitoring water quality and treatment.
Authors: Stelma GN Abstract Because Clostridium perfringens spores are both specific to sewage contamination and environmentally stable, they are considered as possible conservative indicators of human fecal contamination and possible surrogates for environmentally stable pathogens. This review discusses the reasons and summarizes methods for monitoring spores in water. Cultural methods are still preferred over qPCR for routine water quality monitoring because of their low costs. Membrane filter (MF) methods are preferred over the more laborious and less accurate most probable number methods. The most commonly used...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Clostridium perfringens identifies source of pollution and reference streams in a tropical highland environment.
Authors: Mushi D Abstract Clostridium perfringens was analysed in soils from a tropical highland catchment and corresponding headwater streams at baseflow condition in order to understand the contribution of soils to the microbiological quality of stream water and the feasibility of using these streams as surrogate for negative control (reference streams). The concentrations of C. perfringens depended on the sample matrix. C. perfringens concentrations were significantly higher in the catchment soil than in the stream water (P
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

A gastroenteritis outbreak associated with drinking water in a college in northwest China.
Authors: Zhang L, Li X, Wu R, Chen H, Liu J, Wang Z, Xing Y, Ishaq HM, Wang J, Yu P, Xu J, Ma C Abstract An acute gastroenteritis outbreak occurred at a private college in June 2014 in northwest China. This outbreak involved two teachers and 629 students (range: 17-27 years, average 21.3 years). The main symptoms included non-bloody watery diarrhea, stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting, and the duration of illness ranged from 1 to 7 days. Eight of 18 water samples were disqualified. Thirty-four norovirus (NoV) RNA-positive samples were identified from 48 stool-related samples (genotyping results: 13 GII, 13 GI and 8 ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Campylobacter in recreational lake water in southern Quebec, Canada: presence, concentration, and association with precipitation and ruminant farm proximity.
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and concentrations of Campylobacter, and determine the influence of agricultural activities and precipitation on their presence, at lake beaches used for water recreation in southern Quebec, Canada. A total of 413 water samples were collected from June to August, from 22 beaches, between 2011 and 2013. The overall proportion of positive water samples was estimated to be 33.9% (95% CI: 27.7, 40.1) for C. jejuni and 49.7% (95% CI: 41.8, 57.6) for Campylobacter spp. The concentrations of both thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni ranged from 20 to 900 bacte...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Multi-objective optimization of ciprofloxacin antibiotic removal from an aqueous phase with grey taguchi method.
In this study, the effect of different factors on ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal of water soluble was studied. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization was performed utilizing the Taguchi method based on a grey relational analysis. Optimum levels of factors were determined to optimize three responses simultaneously with grey Taguchi. Meanwhile, grey relational analysis was applied to model and optimize three target responses, namely, CIP removal, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, and sludge to iron ratio. Multi-objective optimization results obtained based on grey relational analysis showed that the optimal value of...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Uranium natural levels in soil, rock and water: assessment of the quality of drinking water in Singida Urban District, Tanzania.
Authors: Kaishwa SJ, Marwa EM, Msaky JJ, Mwakalasya WN Abstract An analytical study was carried out to determine the level of uranium in the soil and rock and associate it with the levels in surface and underground water, which are the main sources of drinking water in Singida Urban District, Tanzania. Fifteen water samples, 12 soil samples and nine rock samples were collected in Singida Urban District in February 2016. Water samples were analysed by the Government Chemist Laboratory Agency using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (2007) and analyses for soil and rock samples were ca...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Water quality modelling: microbial risks associated with manure on pasture and arable land.
Authors: Sokolova E, Lindström G, Pers C, Strömqvist J, Lewerin SS, Wahlström H, Sörén K Abstract While agricultural activities, such as the application of manure on arable land and animal grazing on pastures, provide economic and environmental benefits, they may also pose microbial risks to water sources. The aim of this paper was to study the microbial fate and transport in an agricultural catchment and recipient water source through further development of the hydrological model HYPE. Hydrological modelling was combined with hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the fate and transport of S...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Is the default of 2 liters for daily per-capita water consumption appropriate? A nationwide survey reveals water intake in Japan.
This study aimed to reveal actual water intakes from tap water and other types of drinks, and to explore the relationships between these intakes. For this purpose, we conducted a nationwide Internet questionnaire survey. Tap water intake negatively correlated with bottled water and soft drink intakes, suggesting a mutually complementary relationship. We propose an index, potential Tap Water Intake (pTWI), calculated by adding soft drinks and bottled water to tap water intake. Mean per-capita tap water intake across the entire Japanese population was estimated at 1.28 L/d, whereas mean pTWI was estimated at 1.65 L/d. Two li...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Hydrogeochemistry, water quality and health risk assessment of water resources contaminated by agricultural activities in Korkuteli (Antalya, Turkey) district center.
In conclusion, the study area is at high risk in terms of the health risk assessment. PMID: 30067240 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Coagulant residues' influence on virus enumeration as shown in a study on virus removal using aluminium, zirconium and chitosan.
Authors: Christensen E, Myrmel M Abstract Research on microorganism reduction by physicochemical water treatment is often carried out under the assumption that the microbiological enumeration techniques are not affected by the presence of coagulants. Data presented here indicate that bacteriophage enumeration by plaque assay and RT-qPCR (reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction) can be affected by these water treatment chemicals. Treatment of water samples with an alkaline protein-rich solution prior to plaque assay and optimization of RNA extraction for RT-qPCR were implemented to minimize the ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Performance evaluation of waste stabilization ponds on removal of Listeria spp.: a case study of Isfahan, Iran.
Authors: Taherkhani A, Attar HM, Mirzaee SA, Ahmadmoazzam M, Jaafarzadeh N, Hashemi F, Jalali M Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess performance of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) on the removal of Listeria spp. in Isfahan, Iran. A total of 104 samples were taken from eight sampling locations from influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Sewage samples were analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. using selective enrichment protocol. Listeria isolates were also identified by biochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Listeria spp. was enumerated by a three ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Hydrogeochemistry and lead contamination of groundwater in the north part of Esfahan province, Iran.
In this study, 149 water samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations of Pb and As in about 68% and 27% of the samples, respectively, exceeded WHO guidelines. Analyzing the results of ICP-MS of parental rocks and aquifer sediments shows that unweathered volcanic rocks were the primary source for lead mobilizing to groundwaters. PMID: 30067243 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Investigation of estrogen activity in the raw and treated waters of riverbank infiltration using a yeast estrogen screen and chemical analysis.
Authors: Plutzer J, Avar P, Keresztes D, Sári Z, Kiss-Szarvák I, Vargha M, Maász G, Pirger Z Abstract Exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can lead to adverse effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in both animals and humans. An adequate strategy for the prevention of environmental contamination and eliminating the effects of them must be established. Chemicals with estrogenic activity were selected, and the effectiveness of their removal during the purification processes in two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using riverbank infiltrated water was determine...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sachet water quality and product registration: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.
Authors: Dzodzomenyo M, Fink G, Dotse-Gborgbortsi W, Wardrop N, Aryeetey G, Coleman N, Hill A, Wright J Abstract The study's objectives were to assess the extent to which packaged water producers follow product registration procedures and to assess the relationship between product registration and drinking water quality in Accra, Ghana. Following preliminary analysis of a national water quality survey, 118 packaged sachet water samples were collected by sampling all brands sold by 66 vendors. A sample of vendors was selected from two high-income and two low-income areas of Accra, Ghana. Sachet packaging and labelli...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in natural surface water bodies in Poland.
Authors: Adamska M Abstract The aim of this study was molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in 36 natural surface water bodies in Poland, including preliminary genotype identification and determination of co-occurrence of this parasite with other protozoa that have been detected in previous studies. The examined DNA samples were obtained before to detect Cryptosporidium, Giardia and free-living amoebae. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on B1 gene and sequencing was performed for both confirmation of parasite presence in water and genotype identification. T. gondii DNA was detected in 19.4% (7/36) wat...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Access to drinking water: time matters.
This study aims to demonstrate the effect of adding a 30-minute collection time component to monitor access to drinking water. This study draws on household surveys from 17 countries to highlight the widespread burden of fetching water and its significant impact on estimates of coverage. The proportion of the population with access decreased by 13% on average for these 17 countries when collection time was added as a consideration. PMID: 30067247 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - August 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Faecal contamination and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers: correlation of key variables affecting swimming suitability.
Authors: Davies-Colley R, Valois A, Milne J Abstract Swimming is a popular activity in Aotearoa-New Zealand (NZ). Two variables that strongly influence swimming suitability of waters are faecal contamination, as indicated by the bacterium Escherichia coli, and visual clarity as it affects aesthetics and safety with respect to submerged hazards. We show that E. coli and visual clarity are inversely related overall in NZ rivers (R = -0.54), and more strongly related in many individual rivers, while similar (but positive) correlations apply also to turbidity. This finding, apparently reflecting co-mobilisation of faec...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

pH dependent octanol-water partitioning coefficients of microcystin congeners.
Authors: McCord J, Lang JR, Hill D, Strynar M, Chernoff N Abstract Hazardous algal blooms can generate toxic compounds with significant health impacts for exposed communities. The ubiquitous class of algal toxins known as microcystins exhibits significant heterogeneity in its peptide structure, which has been minimally studied, given the significant impact this has on hydrophobicity, acid/base character and related environmental fate and health effects. Octanol-water partition coefficients for the microcystin congeners MCLR, MCRR, MCLY, MCLF, and MCLA were calculated over an environmentally and physiologically rele...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Microorganism levels in spray from warm-water bidet toilet seats: factors affecting total viable and heterotrophic plate counts, and examination of the fluctuations and origins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The objectives of this study were to conduct an appropriate microbial evaluation of warm-water bidet toilet seats. Health-related advantages and disadvantages have been associated with using warm-water bidet toilet seats, which are classified according to the tank type, including tanks equipped with reservoir water heaters and on-demand tankless systems equipped with an instantaneous water heater. However, related bacterial research is sparse. Here, we performed a long-term survey of the behavior of microorganisms (i.e., the total viable count (TVC), heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa count) in a...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Locally produced hydrogen sulphide detecting water quality test kits increase household level monitoring in rural Tanzania.
Authors: Matwewe F, Hyland K, Thomas J Abstract In developing countries, rural water sources have the highest levels of faecal contamination but are the least monitored. Affordable field-based water quality tests are needed. The presence of faecal indicator bacteria can be determined with hydrogen sulphide (H2S) detecting tests, that are inexpensive and simple to make locally. In rural Tanzania, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) designed, produced and evaluated a new H2S water quality test kit. The H2S test results correlated with log10 Escherichia coli densities from conventional water quality tests. The produ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Consumer water quality evaluation of private and public drinking water sources.
This study examines the results of a random sample survey of Texans to evaluate citizen awareness and attitudes on water issues. Most respondents reported that they believe their drinking water is of high quality, with 81.4% responding that they believe their tap water is safe to drink. An even larger number, 92.1%, of those receiving their water from private sources believe their tap water is safe. Conversely, only 57.0% of respondents who consume bottled water as their primary source of drinking water believe their tap water is safe to drink. Additionally, more than 65% of Texans receiving their primary drinking water fr...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Fate of Escherichia coli in dialysis device exposed into sewage influent and activated sludge.
Authors: Ung P, Peng C, Yuk S, Ann V, Mith H, Tan R, Miyanaga K, Tanji Y Abstract Tracing the fate of pathogens in environmental water, particularly in wastewater, with a suitable methodology is a demanding task. We investigated the fate of Escherichia coli K12 in sewage influent and activated sludge using a novel approach that involves the application of a biologically stable dialysis device. The ion concentrations inside the device could reach that of surrounding solution when it was incubated in phosphate buffered saline for 2 h. E. coli K12 above 107 CFU mL-1 (inoculated in distilled water, influent, activated ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

A PVC-pipe device as a sanitary barrier for improving rainwater quality for drinking purposes in the Brazilian semiarid region.
Authors: de Carvalho JRS, Luz J, Santos SM, Gavazza S Abstract We evaluate the behavior of a device designed to automatically divert and store the first flush of harvested rainwater in cisterns. The first phase (PI) was conducted with artificial precipitation in an experimental installation seeking to identify how many millimeters of rainwater should be diverted to preserve the rainwater quality. In the second phase (PII), we designed a PVC-pipe device to store the first millimeter of rainwater, and tested it in field (a rural area in Brazil) during two real rainfall events. In the third phase (PIII), the device an...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessment of drinking water suitability in low income rural areas: a case study in Sixaola, Costa Rica.
In this study, water quality was evaluated at 12 wells from 2014 to 2016 (n = 72). The results revealed high concentrations of faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli with maximum values of 4.6 × 104 MPN/100 mL and 1.1 × 104 MPN/100 mL, respectively. In addition, maximum values of pH, conductivity, turbidity, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be outside the standard limits (nationally and internationally) for potable water. Possible sources of water contamination are associated with the geomorphological characteristics of the area, as well as with hydrometeorological and anthropogenic factors such as the...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

In-situ electrochemical Fe(VI) for removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water: comparing dosing of the ferrate ion by electrochemical and chemical means.
We report that a very low dose of EC-ferrate in deionized water (0.5 mg FeO42- L-1) oxidizes MC-LR (MC-LR0 = 10 μg L-1) to below the guideline limit (1.0 μg L-1) within 10 minutes' contact time. With bicarbonate or natural organic matter (NOM), doses of 2.0-5.0 mg FeO42- L-1 are required, with lower efficacy of EC-ferrate than crystalline ferrate due to loss of EC-ferrate by water oxidation. To evaluate the EC-ferrate process to concurrently oxidize micropollutants, coagulate NOM, and disinfect drinking water, we spiked NOM-containing real water with MC-LR and Escherichia coli, finding that EC-ferrate is effective at...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessing natural mineral water microbiology quality in the absence of cultivable pathogen bacteria.
Authors: Totaro M, Casini B, Valentini P, Miccoli M, Lopalco PL, Baggiani A Abstract Italian Directives recommend the good quality of natural mineral waters but literature data assert a potential risk from microorganisms colonizing wellsprings and mineral water bottling plants. We evaluated the presence of microorganisms in spring waters (SW) and bottled mineral waters (BMW) samples. Routine microbiological indicators, additional microorganisms like Legionella spp., Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and amoebae (FLA) were assessed in 24 SW and 10 BMW samples performing cultural and molecular methods. In 33 out of 3...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Cryptosporidium parvum decay during air drying and stockpiling of mesophilic anaerobically digested sewage sludge in a simulation experiment and oocyst counts in sludge collected from operational treatment lagoons in Victoria, Australia.
Authors: Kong FE, Deighton MA, Thurbon NA, Smith SR, Rouch DA Abstract The inactivation of Cryptosporidium species oocysts during sewage sludge treatment is important to protect human health when the residual biosolids are applied to agricultural land. Quantifying the decay of Cryptosporidium species during sludge treatment for microbiological assurance purposes is difficult if low numbers are present in wastewater. The rate of decay of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts during solar/air drying treatment and in sludge stockpiles in temperate environment conditions was simulated in laboratory inoculation experiments usi...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

A quantitative analysis of swimming pool recirculation system efficiency.
Authors: Alansari A, Amburgey J, Madding N Abstract The primary objective of this study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of the hydraulic efficiency of a 1:25 bench-scale swimming pool and to determine whether the recirculation efficiency could be increased by modifying parameters such as turnover rate, inlet/out configuration, and extent of mixing within the pool. Salt tracer studies were conducted using KCl to determine the residence time distribution and describe the hydraulic characteristics of the pool. The results indicated that the removal of the tracer always followed an exponential decay curve, i.e. ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Detection of Salmonella in the intestine of Hypostomus plecostomus from the upper San Marcos River, Texas.
Authors: Gates AY, Guerra TM, Morrison FB, Forstner MRJ, Hardy TB, Hahn D Abstract The prevalence of salmonellae in the intestines of the invasive suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus was assessed in the San Marcos River, just down-stream of its spring-fed headwaters. In 2014, H. plecostomus, sediment, and water samples were collected during 15 sampling events. A combination of semi-selective enrichment and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed the presence of salmonellae in 45% of the fish intestines across the entire year, with a prevalence range of 13-100% per sampling event. Repetitive el...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sea water desalination and removal of iodine: effect on thyroid function.
In conclusion, in this population-based study, following the introduction of DSW, there was no evidence of increased incidence of low thyroid function tests, and the trends were similar in both areas highly consuming, or not consuming, DSW. PMID: 29952335 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Distribution of natural radionuclides and radon concentration in the riverine environs of Cauvery, South India.
Authors: Kaliprasad CS, Narayana Y Abstract Systematic studies were carried out to understand the distribution of natural radionuclides in sediments and radon in water in the riverine environs of Cauvery, one of the major rivers of South India. The activity of radionuclides in the sediment was measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The radon emanation from the sediment was measured by the sealed 'can technique' and the radon in the water was measured using the RAD-7 instrument. The mean values of 40 K, 226Ra, and 232Th in the sediment samples were found to be 297.3 ± 4.16 Bq kg-1, 75.1 ± 2.64 Bq kg-1, an...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Reservoirs of faecal indicator bacteria in well-head hand pumps in Bangladesh.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hand pumps are a reservoir of FIB. We sampled the handle, spout, piston and seal from 19 wells in Araihazar Upazila, Bangladesh and identified that the spout and seal were reservoirs of FIB. These findings led to our recommendation that well spouts be regularly cleaned, including the removal of precipitated deposits, and that the seals be regularly changed. It is envisaged that one or both of these interventions will reduce the numbers of FIB in drinking water, thereby reducing the burden of diarrhoeal disease in Bangladesh. PMID: 29952337 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Jour...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Carbon nanotubes as antimicrobial agents for water disinfection and pathogen control.
Authors: Liu D, Mao Y, Ding L Abstract Waterborne diseases significantly affect human health and are responsible for high mortality rates worldwide. Antibiotics have been known for decades for treatment of bacterial strains and their overuse and irrational applications are causing increasing bacteria resistance. Therefore, there is a strong need to find alternative ways for efficient water disinfection and microbial control. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have demonstrated strong antimicrobial properties due to their remarkable structure. This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of CNTs, discusses diverse mechanism...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - April 22, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research