A comprehensive review of human health risks of arsenic and fluoride contamination of groundwater in the South Asia region
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):235-267. doi: 10.2166/wh.2023.082.ABSTRACTThe present study found that ∼80 million people in India, ∼60 million people in Pakistan, ∼70 million people in Bangladesh, and ∼3 million people in Nepal are exposed to arsenic groundwater contamination above 10 μg/L, while Sri Lanka remains moderately affected. In the case of fluoride contamination, ∼120 million in India, >2 million in Pakistan, and ∼0.5 million in Sri Lanka are exposed to the risk of fluoride above 1.5 mg/L, while Bangladesh and Nepal are mildly affected. The hazard quotient (HQ) for arsenic varied from 0 to 822 in ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Yash Aryan Thambidurai Pon Balamurugan Panneerselvam Anil Kumar Dikshit Source Type: research

COVID-19 cases, vaccination, and SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater: insights from a Brazilian municipality
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):268-277. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.159.ABSTRACTVaccines combatting COVID-19 demonstrate the ability to protect against disease and hospitalization, and reduce the likelihood of death caused by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, monitoring viral loads in sewage emerges as another crucial strategy in the epidemiological context, enabling early and collective detection of outbreaks. The study aimed to monitor the viral concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated sewage in a Brazilian municipality. Also, it attempted to correlate these measurements with the number of clinical cases and deaths resulting from COVID-...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mariana Aparecida de Freitas Abreu Bruna Coelho Lopes Paula Peixoto Assemany Aline Dos Reis Souza Luciene Alves Batista Siniscalchi Source Type: research

Assessing the genotoxic potential of wastewater effluents from three wastewater treatment plants in South Africa
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):278-289. doi: 10.2166/wh.2023.183.ABSTRACTWastewater treatment plants are mainly monitored for quality in terms of their biological oxygen demand and microbiological constituents as stipulated in the specific discharge permit. Wastewater influents and effluents were taken from three WWTPs in South Africa over the summer and winter seasons. Previous toxicity tests such as the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence assay and the Selenastrum capricornutum algal growth inhibition test have shown that the effluents displayed acute toxicity. To further investigate the quality of the effluent, the genotoxi...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Rahzia Hendricks Hein H Du Preez Source Type: research

Detection of endotoxins from selected drinking water microbiota using an LAL-based assay and its implications for human health
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):290-295. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.207.ABSTRACTEndotoxins are pyrogenic lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria that are known to induce fever, septic shock, and multiple organ failure, posing a substantial risk to human health. Drinking water systems are especially prone to home microbiomes containing a large variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Consumption of water from these systems in developed countries is generally regarded as non-hazardous to humans due to the low number of non-pathogenic bacterial cells per milliliter and oral admission. To assess potential risks posed by endotoxins ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Harmen Hawer Rebecca Burmester Nadine Sonnenberg Katja Wei ß Source Type: research

An evaluation of properly operated NSF/ANSI-53 Pb certified drinking water filters in Benton Harbor, MI
In this study, a total of 199 properly installed and operated drinking water filters (combination of faucet mounted and pitcher) were tested in their residential locations. One hundred percent of the water filters were found to perform to the standard to which they were certified, with filtered drinking water Pb concentrations below 5 ppb (maximum observed was 2.5 ppb). In addition, Pb particulate was identified; however, discrete Pb-containing nanoparticles were not widely found or identified.PMID:38421624 | DOI:10.2166/wh.2024.231 (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jennifer Tully Michael Schock Scott Shilling Valerie Bosscher Darren Lytle Stephen Harmon Christina Bennett-Stamper Source Type: research

Unveiling the viral escape: Quantification of microfloc-bound viruses in precoagulation and membrane filtration
This study evaluated how viruses in the microflocs could be quantified using conventional virus quantification methods (plaque assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)) to reveal the risk of underestimating virus concentration. In this study, the microfloc dissolution phenomenon in phosphate buffer solution was employed as a floc dissolution test. Viruses in microflocs formed under the experimental conditions. assuming water treatments, were quantified before and after floc dissolution. The findings revealed that virus concentrations increased by 1.0-3.9 log plaque-forming units/mL according to the plaque as...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Midori Yasui Hiroyuki Katayama Source Type: research

Risk factors for dental caries: A case study in peatlands and non-peatlands of West Kalimantan, Indonesia
The objective was to analyse risk factors for dental caries in communities living in peatlands and non-peatlands in West Kalimantan. The research is a causal comparative study with cross-sectional approach. The samples were chosen by purposive sampling technique among adolescents aged 17-27 years, who were domiciled in Pontianak City (peatland) and Bengkayang (non-peatland) all their lives. The results showed that dental caries is significantly correlated with debris in peatlands (rs = 0.289). On non-peatlands, dental caries is correlated with drinking water phosphate (rs = 0.313) and calculus (rs = 0.034). In West Kaliman...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sri Rezki Sunardi Sunardi Dudi Aripin Khayan Khayan Pawarti Pawarti Aisya Rezki Noeriman Source Type: research

Field study of an arsenic removal plant for drinking water using activated carbon and iron in a rural community in the province of Pisco, Peru
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):329-336. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.273.ABSTRACTThe presence of arsenic in Peru is a serious public health problem due to the geographical extension of populations that consume water with arsenic concentrations above the value recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An arsenic removal plant has been studied in a community of 50 families located in the province of Pisco, Peru, a filter media of activated carbon impregnated with iron (AC-Fe) was applied, the adsorption capacity of the material was studied against As(V) and As(III) species, also, a possible decrease in the adsorption capac...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Manuel Chavez Betsab é Ana Ruffner Source Type: research

Impact of source water quality on total organic carbon and trihalomethane removal efficiency in a water treatment plant: A case study of Upper Awash, Ethiopia
This study addresses the limited understanding of factors affecting the efficiency of water treatment plants in reducing trihalomethane (THM) formation through total organic carbon (TOC) removal, highlighting significant challenges in improving treatment effectiveness. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of water quality on the efficiency of water treatment plants to remove TOC and reduce THM formation. Linear regression and correlation analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between water quality parameters and THM concentrations. The results showed that there was a negative relationship between...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Emeru Assefa Anuradha Jabasingh Eyobel Mulugeta Meseret Dessalegne Endale Teju Source Type: research

Assessment of groundwater quality and human health risk from nitrate contamination using a multivariate statistical analysis
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):350-366. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.291.ABSTRACTThe present study explores the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose and evaluates non-carcinogenic health risks for children, women, and men. For this purpose, 47 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, including nitrate concentration. The results revealed that nitrate concentration varied from 15 to 85 mg/L and that 48.93% of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards' limits of 45 mg/L. The spatial map of the pollution index of groundwater specifies that most of the study area l...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hemant Raheja Arun Goel Mahesh Pal Source Type: research

Priority setting for global WASH challenges in the age of wastewater-based epidemiological surveillance
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):367-371. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.298.NO ABSTRACTPMID:38421630 | DOI:10.2166/wh.2024.298 (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Samuel Dorevitch Abhilasha Shrestha Source Type: research

Human adenovirus-associated health risk in the recreational waters of the Yal-ku lagoon in the Mexican Caribbean
J Water Health. 2024 Feb;22(2):372-384. doi: 10.2166/wh.2024.309.ABSTRACTThe study objective was to evaluate human faecal contamination impacts in the Yal-ku lagoon in the Mexican Caribbean and to estimate adenovirus infection and illness risks associated with recreational exposure during water activities. A total of 20 water samples (10 from each site × two sites) (50 L) were collected monthly over a period of 12 months from two selected sampling sites in the swimming area of the Yal-ku lagoon. The occurrence of faecal-associated viruses was explored, and human adenovirus (HAdV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) conce...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Cecilia Hern ández-Zepeda Luis Jorge Negrete-Alcalde Gabriela Rosiles-Gonz ález Victor Hugo Carrillo-Jovel Sarah E Abney Walter Q Betancourt Charles P Gerba Crist óbal Chaidez-Quiroz Amanda M Wilson Source Type: research

Impact of abattoirs and local textile (Adire and Kampala) effluents on Yemoja River in Abeokuta, Nigeria
This study assessed the impact of abattoir and Kampala designers' effluent discharge on the water quality of the Yemoja River in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Twenty-seven water samples collected at three points, covering 180 m length, for 6 months were assessed for physicochemical parameters and metals and compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) permissible standards. Most discharge point levels were found to be higher than their corresponding upstream and downstream values. Temperature, turbidity, magnesium, alkalinity, DO, TSS, phosphate, lead, BOD and potassium were found to be...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Emmanuel Sanu Ogundairo Gbolahan Muyiwa Folarin Julius Awonusi Awomeso Adewale Matthew Taiwo Source Type: research

Detection and quantification of adenovirus, polyomavirus, and papillomavirus in urban sewage
The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and seasonal frequency of human adenovirus (HAdV), human polyomavirus (HPyV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) in urban sewage. The detection of these viruses was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then the viral concentrations in the positive samples were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, HAdV and HPyV genotyping was also performed by PCR. A total of 38/60 (63.3%) positive samples were found. HAdV was the most prevalent virus (26/60; 43.3%), followed by HPyV (21/60; 35%) and HPV (21/60; 35%). The viral concentrations ranged from 3.5...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mohamed N F Shaheen Nehal Ahmed Kareem Rady Badr Elmahdy Mohamed Elmahdy Source Type: research

Assessment of current water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices in the third and ninth districts of N'Djamena, Chad
This study aimed to assess current practices in water, sanitation, and hygiene in N'Djamena's third and ninth districts. We surveyed 395 households, conducted water source identification, and analyzed seven water samples at the National Water Laboratory. Temperature, ammonium, total coliforms, and aerobic flora values exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Ammonium and temperature averaged 0.7 mg/L and 30.1-31.93 °C, respectively. Bacterial contamination (>100 MPN/100 mL) exceeded the WHO's 0 MPN/100 mL guidelines, rendering the water unfit for consumption. Survey results indicate that 78.7% use hand pump...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - February 29, 2024 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniel Mangueina Esi Awuah Mathias Fru Fonteh Prince Antwi-Agyei Emmanuel Tao Nadji Source Type: research