Factors influencing the relationship between fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis: a ten-year systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Akuno MH, Nocella G, Milia EP, Gutierrez L Abstract The relationship between naturally fluoridated groundwater and dental fluorosis has received large attention from researchers around the world. Despite recognition that several factors influence this relationship, there is a lack of systematic studies analyzing the heterogeneity of these results. To fill such a gap, this study performs a systematic review and meta-analysis to understand which factors influence this relationship and how. Selected studies were sampled between 2007 and 2017 from Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus using keyword...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Survey on bacterial contamination of bidet toilets and relation to the interval of scrubbing these units.
Authors: Tsunoda A, Otsuka Y, Toguchi A, Watanabe K, Nishino R, Takahashi T PMID: 31850894 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Implementation and evaluation of the water safety plan approach for buildings.
Authors: Schmidt I, Rickert B, Schmoll O, Rapp T Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes water safety plans (WSPs) - a risk-based management approach - for premise plumbing systems in buildings to prevent deterioration of drinking-water quality. Experience with the implementation of WSPs in buildings were gathered within a pilot project in Germany. The project included an evaluation of the feasibility and advantages of WSPs by all stakeholders who share responsibility in drinking-water safety. While the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated for all buildings, benefits reported by building operat...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Maternal urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Authors: Mashau F, Ncube EJ, Voyi K Abstract The current study aimed to determine the association between trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes among third-trimester pregnant women who were exposed to chlorinated drinking water. A total of 205 pregnant women who participated in the disinfection by-products exposure and adverse pregnancy outcome study in South Africa were randomly asked to participate in this study by providing their morning urine sample voids. Samples were analysed for urinary creatinine and TCAA. Furthermore, participants gave individual data using a structured question...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Translating pathogen knowledge to practice for sanitation decision-making.
We present findings from a stakeholder engagement workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, to educate, interact with, and solicit feedback from participants on how the relevant scientific literature on pathogens can be made more accessible to practitioners to support decision-making. We targeted Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practitioners involved in different levels of service delivery. Practitioners revealed that different sanitation planning tools are used to inform decision-making; however, most of these tools are not user-friendly or adapted to meet their needs. Most stakeholders (68%) expressed familiarity with patho...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance genes removal and membrane fouling in secondary effluents by combined processes of PAC/BPAC-UF.
In this study, the combined processes of powdered activated carbon (PAC)/biological PAC (BPAC)-ultrafiltration (UF) were adopted to reduce the levels of ARGs in secondary effluents from a wastewater treatment plant. The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the change of normalized flux in the UF process were investigated. In addition, the structural characteristics of the microorganisms of the BPAC were analyzed. The results showed that the appropriate dosage of PAC and BPAC was 40 mg/L. At this dosage, PAC/BPAC-UF combined processes could effectively remove the ARGs in secondary effluents by 1.26-2.69-log and 1.5...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Solar water disinfection with parabolic and flat reflectors.
Authors: Beattie A, Dillon H, Poor C, Kenton R Abstract Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a process by which microbially contaminated water is disinfected by transmitting solar ultraviolet radiation to the water, rendering the bacteria inactive. The purpose of this project was to determine a residence time for disinfection in specific applications using a 3-log reduction in colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL). The water was contained in quartz tubes and tested over both flat and parabolic reflectors. While UVA and UVB radiation are diffuse and independent of reflector style, water temperature is affected...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Multi-drug resistance traits of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and other Staphylococcal species from clinical and environmental sources.
This study informs on the potential contamination of environmental waters downstream from hospitals and possible impacts that this could have on human and animal health. PMID: 31850900 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Examining the factors related to bacteriological testing of private wells in Southern Ontario.
This study examined relationships between well and owner characteristics and the frequency of microbial testing of private wells in two southern-Ontario counties. Using multi-level logistic regression models, testing frequency (i.e., at least once per year vs. less) was modeled, as both self-reported and laboratory-validated, for associations with owner and well characteristics. For the self-reported outcome, a previous adverse test result significantly increased the odds of being classified as a frequent tester, and owners with a well-head more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) above the ground were at significantly higher odds of...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Measurement of gross alpha and beta activity concentration in groundwater of Jordan: groundwater quality, annual effective dose and lifetime risk assessment.
Authors: Alomari AH, Saleh MA, Hashim S, Alsayaheen A, Abdeldin I, Bani Khalaf R Abstract The current study was conducted to measure the activity concentration of the gross alpha and beta in 87 groundwater samples collected from the productive aquifers that constitute a major source of groundwater to evaluate the annual effective dose and the corresponding health impact on the population and to investigate the quality of groundwater in Jordan. The mean activity concentration of gross alpha and beta in groundwater ranges from 0.26 ± 0.03 to 3.58 ± 0.55 Bq L-1 and from 0.51 ± 0.07 to 3.43 ±...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Torque teno virus (TTV) in a wastewater treatment plant in Tehran.
Authors: Tavakoli Nick S, Mohebbi SR, Hosseini SM, Mirjalali H, Alebouyeh M Abstract Torque teno virus (TTV) is a single-stranded DNA virus which is predominantly transmitted by the fecal-oral route and may be excreted in the absence of the clinical symptoms. TTV was previously considered a probable cause of hepatitis, but further studies could not strongly connect TTV to any serious health problem. TTV is highly resistant to water and wastewater treatment processes and can be a useful indicator for determining the fecal contamination of water. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and molec...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Watershed integrity and associations with gastrointestinal illness in the United States.
Authors: Jagai JS, Krajewski AK, Jimenez MP, Murphy MS, Leibowitz SG, Lobdell DT Abstract Gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses are associated with various environmental factors, such as water quality, stormwater runoff, agricultural runoff, sewer overflows, and wastewater treatment plant effluents. However, rather than assessing an individual factor alone, two indices incorporating a combination of ecological and environmental stressors were created to represent (1) overall watershed integrity, Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI) and (2) catchment integrity, Index of Catchment Integrity (ICI). These indices could provide...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning in two urban drinking water utilities in Ethiopia.
Authors: van den Berg H, Rickert B, Ibrahim S, Bekure K, Gichile H, Girma S, Azezew A, Belayneh TZ, Tadesse S, Teferi Z, Abera F, Girma S, Legesse T, Truneh D, Lynch G, Janse I, de Roda Husman AM Abstract Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of re...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Do domestic animals contribute to bacterial contamination of infant transmission pathways? Formative evidence from Ethiopia.
Authors: Budge S, Hutchings P, Parker A, Tyrrel S, Tulu T, Gizaw M, Garbutt C Abstract Child stunting is associated with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), partly due to the effect of infection on intestinal nutrient absorption. WASH interventions, however, show little effect on growth. A hypothesis is that bacterial contamination of hands and floors from domestic animals and their faeces, and subsequent ingestion via infant hand-to-mouth behaviours, may explain this. This formative study used microbial testing and survey and observational data from 20 households in Ethiopia to characterise principle bacter...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Enteric viruses in municipal wastewater effluent before and after disinfection with chlorine and ultraviolet light.
Authors: Simhon A, Pileggi V, Flemming CA, Bicudo JR, Lai G, Manoharan M Abstract In Ontario, Canada, information is lacking on chlorine and ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection performance against enteric viruses in wastewater. We enumerated enteroviruses and noroviruses, coliphages, and Escherichia coli per USEPA methods 1615, 1602, and membrane filtration, respectively, in pre- and post-disinfection effluent at five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with full-year monthly sampling, and calculated log10 reductions (LRs) while WWTPs complied with their monthly geometric mean limit of 200 E. coli/100 mL. Modeling...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Effects of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), an emerging disinfection by-product in drinking water, on the intestinal microbiota of adult zebrafish.
Authors: Xue B, Li C, Wang S, Zhao C, Dai K, Li W, Xi Z, Wang J, Qiu Z, Shen Z Abstract The presence of disinfection by-products (DBPs) increases the mutagenicity of water and may pose adverse health effects. Gut microbiota exerts a fundamental role on host physiology, and how extrinsic perturbations influence its composition has been increasingly examined. However, the effect of DBPs on gut microbiota is still poorly understood. In the present study, adult zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm, an emerging nitrogenous DBP) for 30 days. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons reve...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

High serological response to Cryptosporidium-specific antigens in the Czech Republic and its association with water supply.
Authors: Pumann P, Kožíšek F, Craun GF, Kunde TR, Malý M, Frost FJ, Čeřovská L Abstract A survey was conducted in the Czech Republic to determine whether serological responses to the 15/17-kDa and 27-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens had changed since the end of the communist era and if these responses were associated with drinking water sources. Sera from 301 blood donors residing in six areas served by various sources of drinking water were analysed by Western Blot (mini-immunoblots) to measure the IgG response. The intensity of response and percentage of persons with a strong response t...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Precipitation effects on parasite, indicator bacteria, and wastewater micropollutant loads from a water resource recovery facility influent and effluent.
Authors: Tolouei S, Autixier L, Taghipour M, Burnet JB, Bonsteel J, Duy SV, Sauvé S, Prévost M, Dorner S Abstract The variability of fecal microorganisms and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) loads in relation to influent flow rates was evaluated for a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) in support of a vulnerability assessment of a drinking water source. Incomplete treatment and bypass discharges often occur following intense precipitation events that represent conditions that deviate from normal operation. Parasites, fecal indicator bacteria, and WWMPs concentrations and flow rate were measured...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Genotyping determination of Acanthamoeba strains: an original study and a systematic review in Iran.
This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fragments of 18S rRNA. In the systematic review, data collection using particular terms was carried out using the following electronic databases including Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, EBSCO, Scopus, and Google Sch...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Assessing lead-contaminated drinking water in a large academic institution: a case study.
This study examined lead concentrations in drinking water at a large university, focusing on variability in first-draw samples and variability with dispensed volume. Over 350 sources were sampled twice by independent groups, and while 78% of these samples were within 2.5 μg/L, almost 10% differed by>10 μg/L. In both sampling events, approximately 50% of sources had lead concentrations>1 μg/L, 6% were>15 μg/L, and 30% were between 1 and 15 μg/L. The highest lead concentration detected was 400 μg/L, with five sources>100 μg/L. Nine sources were sampled more intensively and six had first-draw ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Faecal contamination of groundwater in rural Vanuatu: prevalence and predictors.
This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of faecal contamination in groundwater sources across 11 islands in Vanuatu. Escherichia coli was detected in 49% of sources and E. coli concentration exceeded 10 MPN (most probable number)/100 mL for 23% of sources. When adjusting for other variables, the detection of E. coli was significantly associated with severe pump stand corrosion, suggestive of contaminated run-off directly entering boreholes. E. coli concentration>10 MPN/100 mL was also significantly associated with: (i) hand-dug wells (as compared to drilled boreholes); (ii) severe pump stand corrosion; (iii) w...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Spatial distribution of water quality in the Amazonian region: implications for drinking water treatment procedures.
Authors: Wasserman JC, Damaceno VM, Lima GBA, Wasserman MA Abstract Riparian communities in the Amazon suffer from water-borne diseases due to the lack of adequate water treatment capabilities. Therefore, small local water treatment plants are necessary, but the selection of treatment procedures depends largely on the physico-chemical characteristics of the water. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of the water in the Amazon River and its tributaries, in order to determine customized processes for water treatment. Data from 54 fluviometric monitoring stations were o...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of genotoxicity and hematological effects in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) induced by disinfection by-products.
Authors: Perveen S, Hashmi I, Khan R Abstract Disinfection is intended to improve drinking water quality and human health. Although disinfectants may transform organic matter and form disinfection by-products (DBPs), many are branded as cyto- and genotoxic. Traditionally, research focuses on the effects of DBPs on human health, but cytogenic impacts on aquatic organisms still remain ill defined. The current study examines the potential toxic effect of chloroform and iodoform (DBPs) on Cyprinus carpio, selected as a model organism. Fish specimens were exposed to various concentrations of DBPs primarily based on LD50...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Response and remediation actions following the detection of Naegleria fowleri in two treated drinking water distribution systems, Louisiana, 2013-2014.
Authors: Cope JR, Kahler AM, Causey J, Williams JG, Kihlken J, Benjamin C, Ames AP, Forsman J, Zhu Y, Yoder JS, Seidel CJ, Hill VR Abstract Naegleria fowleri causes the usually fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), typically in people who have been swimming in warm, untreated freshwater. Recently, some cases in the United States were associated with exposure to treated drinking water. In 2013, a case of PAM was reported for the first time in association with the exposure to water from a US treated drinking water system colonized with culturable N. fowleri. This system and another were found to hav...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Rainwater catchments in rural Alaska have the potential to produce high-quality water and high quantities of water for household use.
Authors: Mattos K, King E, Lucas C, Snyder EH, Dotson A, Linden K Abstract Rainwater collection is a common source of household water in developed and developing communities where treated on-site water is not available. Although rainwater catchment has been practiced for generations in rural Alaska communities, there are little data available on the quality and quantity of rainwater resources. Forty-eight rainwater samples were collected from nine communities in Alaska over 2 years. Samples were tested for physical water quality parameters, metals, and bacteria. Characteristics of household catchments were recorded...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Estimated burden of disease from arsenic in drinking water supplied by domestic wells in the United States.
Authors: Greco SL, Belova A, Haskell J, Backer L Abstract Well water around the world can be contaminated with arsenic, a naturally occurring geological element that has been associated with myriad adverse health effects. Persons obtaining their drinking water from private wells are often responsible for well testing and water treatment. High levels of arsenic have been reported in well water-supplied areas of the United States. We quantified - in cases and dollars - the potential burden of disease associated with the ingestion of arsenic through private well drinking water supplies in the United States. To estimat...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Acanthamoeba isolated from recreational hot springs in Malaysia: evidence of pathogenic potential.
This study aimed to identify the Acanthamoeba genotypes and their pathogenic potential in five recreational hot springs in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifty water samples were collected between April and September 2018. Physical parameters of water quality were measured in situ while chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in the laboratory. All samples were filtered through the nitrocellulose membrane and tested for Acanthamoeba using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was identified using thermo- and osmotol...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Harmful algal bloom and associated health risks among users of Lake Victoria freshwater: Ukerewe Island, Tanzania.
This study is aimed at understanding the association of HABs and health risks at Ukerewe Island. A cross-sectional study conducted on 432 study subjects and water samples for cyanobacteria species identification were collected at LV shores. The results reveal that concentrations of cyanobacteria cells are beyond (WHO) acceptable limits; species of Microcystis aeruginosa range from 90,361.63 to 3,032.031.65 cells/mL and Anabaena spp. range from 13,310.00 to 4,814,702 cells/mL. Water usage indicates that 31% use lake water, 53% well water and 16% treated supplied pipe water. Vomiting and throat irritation was highly reported...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular analysis of Blastocystis sp. and its subtypes from treated wastewater routinely used for irrigation of vegetable farmlands in Iran.
Authors: Javanmard E, Rahimi HM, Niyyati M, Aghdaei HA, Sharifdini M, Mirjalali H, Zali MR, Karanis P Abstract Treated wastewater samples were collected, filtered using sterile 47-mm cellulose nitrate membrane and DNA extracted from the filtered materials. The presence of Blastocystis sp. was confirmed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the SSU rRNA gene of Blastocystis sp. in 5/12 of samples. Based on the subtype analysis after sequencing, 2, 2 and 1 of ST2, ST6 and ST8 were detected among the isolates, respectively. Furthermore, both ST6s were allele 139, alleles 11 and 138 were identified in ST2 and t...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - October 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Economic impact of harmful algal blooms on human health: a systematic review.
Authors: Kouakou CRC, Poder TG Abstract Harmful algal blooms (HABs) damage human activities and health. While there is wide literature on economic losses, little is known about the economic impact on human health. In this review, we systematically retrieved papers which presented health costs following exposure to HABs. A systematic review was conducted up to January 2019 in databases such as ScienceDirect and PubMed, and 16 studies were selected. Health costs included healthcare and medication expenses, loss of income due to illness, cost of pain and suffering, and cost of death. Two categories of illness (digesti...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Prevalence and public health implications of mycotoxigenic fungi in treated drinking water systems.
Authors: Mhlongo NT, Tekere M, Sibanda T Abstract Insufficient potable water resources and poorly treated drinking water quality are the world's number one cause for preventable morbidity and mortality from water-related pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms, including mycotoxigenic fungi, have been identified in treated drinking water. This paper presents a review of mycotoxigenic fungi as a health risk to the public as these fungi are responsible for allergies, cancers and opportunistic infections mainly to immunocompromised patients. The exacerbating factors contributing to fungal presence in wate...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dental unit waterlines and its relationship with other bacteria: suggestions for microbiological monitoring.
Authors: Ditommaso S, Giacomuzzi M, Ricciardi E, Memoli G, Zotti CM Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmental bacterium, ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). We investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa in DUWLs from private dental settings. We also analyzed the relationship between P. aeruginosa contamination and the presence of Legionella spp. and total viable count (TVC) in order to suggest a simple and inexpensive protocol to test the quality of water from DUWLs. We detected and quantified P. aeruginosa both by culture and by a PMA...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Understanding lead in water and avoidance strategies: a United States perspective for informed decision-making.
Authors: Pieper KJ, Katner A, Kriss R, Tang M, Edwards MA Abstract The pervasiveness of lead in drinking water poses a significant public health threat, which can be reduced by implementing preventive measures. However, the causes of elevated lead in water and the benefits of lead in water avoidance strategies are often misunderstood. Based on experiences in the United States, this paper describes an oversimplified 'lead in water equation' to explain key variables controlling the presence of lead in drinking water to better inform public health practitioners, government officials, utility personnel, and concerned r...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Optimization of Hg(II) adsorption on bio-apatite based materials using CCD-RSM design: characterization and mechanism studies.
Authors: Amiri MJ, Bahrami M, Dehkhodaie F Abstract Bio-apatite based materials were prepared from bovine bone wastes (BBW) by thermal treatments using a direct flame (BBS) and annealing at 500-1,100 °C (BB500-BB1100). These low-crystalline materials were characterized by means of SEM, XRD, FTIR, TG, and pHPZC and were used for the adsorption of Hg(II) ions. A CCD-RSM design was used to optimize and analyze independent variables consisting of initial mercury concentration (10-100 mg L-1), pH (2-9), adsorbent mass (0.1-0.5 g), temperature (20-60 °C), and contact time (15-120 min). The results indicated that ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Comparison of five point-of-use drinking water technologies using a specialized comparison framework.
Authors: Siwila S, Brink IC Abstract Three novel and two commercially available low-cost point-of-use (PoU) water treatment technologies were comparatively evaluated using a specialized comparison framework targeted at them. The comparison results and specialized framework have been discussed. The PoU systems were evaluated principally in terms of performance, flow rate and cost per volume of water treated (quantitatively), ease of use, potential acceptability and material availability (qualitatively) with main focus on rural and suburban settings. The three novel systems assessed were developed in an ongoing resea...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Perceptions of drinking water safety and their associations with plain water intake among US Hispanic adults.
In conclusion, negative perceptions of tap water were common among US Hispanic adults, which can inform efforts to increase awareness about safe public water systems. PMID: 31313996 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater in rural areas in southern Brazil.
In this study, the microbiological quality of water from mines and shallow wells was analyzed for human consumption. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of DEC strains was performed. A total of 210 water samples was analyzed, of which 153 (72.9%) contained total coliforms and 96 (45.7%) E. coli. Of the E. coli isolates, 27 (28.1%) contained DEC genes. The DEC isolates included 48.1% Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), 29.6% enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), 14.9% enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), 3.7% enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and 3.7% enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). All the STECs had cytotoxic effects on Vero ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Drinking water quality and risk for human health in Pelengana commune, Segou, Mali.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the level of pollution of different drinking water sources consumed and its link with health in Pelengana commune, Mali. Samples of water were taken from various sources, namely, hand pumps, boreholes, dug wells, and shallow wells for physical, chemical, heavy metals, and bacteriological analyses, using American Public Health Association (APHA) Standard Techniques. Results revealed that the nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) values of the water samples from the different water sources had concentrations exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US-EPA) regulation of 10 m...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Molecular identification of biological contaminants in different drinking water resources of the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.
This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to detect bacterial pathogens. In addition, a physicochemical analysis was performed on drinking water samples from several sources. A total of 123 drinking water samples were collected from different areas in the Jazan region in Saudi Arabia: ground water (40 samples), bottled water (15 samples), tap water (52 samples), and water purification shops (16 samples). To isolate the bacterial pathogens, the water samples were spread on Nutrient and MacConkey agar media, and the grown pathogens were then identified by the 16S ribosomal RNA technique. In 87 (70.7%) of the...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Effects of water and health on primary school enrolment and absenteeism in Indonesia.
Authors: Komarulzaman A, de Jong E, Smits J Abstract Clean water provision remains a serious problem in low- and middle-income countries. In 2017, about 30% of the world population relied on unimproved water sources located outside of the dwellings. Often women and children are occupied in fetching water. This situation increases the prevalence of water-related diseases such as diarrhoea and reduces children's study time. School attendance may decrease due to the combined effects of diarrhoea and time spent on fetching water. We investigate the effects on school absenteeism and primary school enrolment in Indonesia...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence and the first report of Naegleria australiensis presence in a major lake in the Philippines.
Authors: Milanez G, Masangkay F, Somsak V, Kotepui M, Tangpong J, Karanis P Abstract Laguna de Bay or Laguna Lake is one of the six major lakes in the Philippines to be in close contact with population activities due to the expansion of urban settlements in the immediate cities surrounding the lake, thus pushing the population to settle upon its shores. To date, there are no data showing the biodiversity of free-living amoebae (FLA) present in this lake. The present study aims to isolate and identify the FLA present in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. Thirty subsurface water samples were taken from Laguna De Bay using r...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - July 19, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Role of filtration in managing the risk from Cryptosporidium in commercial swimming pools - a review.
Authors: Wood M, Simmonds L, MacAdam J, Hassard F, Jarvis P, Chalmers RM Abstract Most commercial swimming pools use pressurised filters, typically containing sand media, to remove suspended solids as part of the water treatment process designed to keep water attractive, clean and safe. The accidental release of faecal material by bathers presents a poorly quantified risk to the safety of swimmers using the pool. The water treatment process usually includes a combination of maintaining a residual concentration of an appropriate biocide in the pool together with filtration to physically remove particles, including m...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Human urine contamination with environmental pollutants: simultaneous determination using UPLC-MS/MS.
Authors: Beltifa A, Machreki M, Ghorbel A, Belaid A, Smaoui E, Akrout FM, Di Bella G, Khdary NH, Reyns T, Mansour HB, Van Loco J Abstract Paraben derivatives are widely used as an antifungal, antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic products, pharmaceuticals, and food. These molecules are called endocrine disruptors (EDCs). The exposure of the human body to paraben derivatives needs further study and for this purpose 200 urine samples were collected from Tunisian men and women aged between 5 and 90 years to determine three paraben derivatives: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP) and propylparaben (PP) using ultra p...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Virulence determinants in genetically heterogeneous populations of Aeromonads recovered from an urban lagoon.
Authors: de Melo Rodrigues Sobral M, Barreto C, Bianco K, de Oliveira SS, Clementino MM Abstract The diversity and distribution of Aeromonas spp. associated with virulence profiles from the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon were investigated using phylogenetic analysis of gyrB/rpoB gene sequences for speciation. The concatenated gyrB/rpoB gene sequences clustered into five species: Aeromonas punctata/caviae (n = 37), A. hydrophila (n = 10), A. dhakensis (n = 16), A. jandaei (n = 1) and A. enteropelogenes/trota (n = 3). The virulence genes (atc/aerA/hlyA/asp/amp) resulted in 19 virulence profiles, distributed heterogeneousl...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Application of high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to identify fecal contamination sources and to complement the detection of fecal indicator bacteria in rural groundwater.
Authors: Naphtali P, Mohiuddin MM, Paschos A, Schellhorn HE Abstract Residents in rural communities across Canada collect potable water from aquifers. Fecal contaminants from sewage and agricultural runoffs can penetrate aquifers, posing a public health risk. Standard methods for detecting fecal contamination test for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), but the presence of these do not identify sources of contamination. In contrast, DNA-based diagnostic tools can achieve this important objective. We employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and high-throughput DNA sequencing to trace fecal contamination so...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Sign-constrained linear regression for prediction of microbe concentration based on water quality datasets.
This study presents a novel methodology for estimating the concentration of environmental pollutants in water, such as pathogens, based on environmental parameters. The scientific uniqueness of this study is the prevention of excess conformity in the model fitting by applying domain knowledge, which is the accumulated scientific knowledge regarding the correlations between response and explanatory variables. Sign constraints were used to express domain knowledge, and the effect of the sign constraints on the prediction performance using censored datasets was investigated. As a result, we confirmed that sign constraints mad...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Finding Sarcocystis spp. on the Tioman Island: 28S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing reveals nine new Sarcocystis species.
This study aimed to improve the detection methods for Sarcocystis, in order to have a clearer picture of the true diversity of Sarcocystis species in Tioman. A new primer set (28S R7F-28S R8 Deg R) was designed to amplify the 28S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis. Subsequently, Sarcocystidae was detected in 65.6% (21/32) of water samples and 28% (7/25) of soil samples acquired between 2014 and 2015 from Tioman. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) on 18 of the positive samples was then performed using amplicons generated from the same primer set. This yielded 53 potentially unique Sarcocystidae sequences (290 bp), of which nine of the ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Variations in sensitivity to chlorine in Ecuador and US consumers: implications for community water systems.
This study demonstrated that limited experience with chlorination is a critical factor for accurate chlorine flavor detection in drinking water. PMID: 31095518 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Occurrence of norovirus genogroups I and II in recreational water from four beaches in Bel ém city, Brazilian Amazon region.
This study aimed to investigate the presence of norovirus (NoV) in recreational waters of four estuarine beaches located in Mosqueiro Island, Belém city, Brazilian Amazon, during two years of monitoring (2012 and 2013). NoV particles were concentrated on filtering membrane by the adsorption-elution method and detected by semi-nested RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing. NoV positivity was observed in 37.5% (39/104) of the surface water samples, with genogroup GI (69.2%) occurring at a higher frequency than GII (25.7%), with a cocirculation of both genogroups in two samples (5.1%). ...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research

Toward a comprehensive explanatory model of reliance on alternatives to the tap: evidence from California's retail water stores.
Authors: Pierce G, Lai L Abstract Building on a recent increase in scholarly attention to the problem of tap water mistrust and resulting negative health impacts, we examine the relationship between neighborhood reliance on tap water alternatives and a range of explanatory factors. We model retail water store locations as a proxy for reliance on tap water alternatives in urbanized neighborhoods across California. Our study is unique in its inclusion of variables representing both compliance with primary and secondary water quality standards by publicly regulated drinking water systems serving particular neighborhoo...
Source: Journal of Water and Health - May 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Water Health Source Type: research