Boosting NAD level suppresses inflammatory activation of PBMCs in heart failure
CONCLUSION These findings suggest that systemic inflammation in patients with HF is causally linked to mitochondrial function of the PBMCs. Increasing NAD levels may have the potential to improve mitochondrial respiration and attenuate proinflammatory activation of PBMCs in HF.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03727646.FUNDING This study was funded by the NIH, the University of Washington, and the American Heart Association. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bo Zhou, Dennis Ding-Hwa Wang, Yanhua Qiu, Sophia Airhart, Yaxin Liu, April Stempien-Otero, Kevin D. O’Brien, Rong Tian Source Type: research

Preventing neuronal edema increases network excitability after traumatic brain injury
Edema is an important target for clinical intervention after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used in vivo cellular resolution imaging and electrophysiological recording to examine the ionic mechanisms underlying neuronal edema and their effects on neuronal and network excitability after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Unexpectedly, we found that neuronal edema 48 hours after CCI was associated with reduced cellular and network excitability, concurrent with an increase in the expression ratio of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2. Treatment with the CCC blocker bumetanide prevented neuronal ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Punam A. Sawant-Pokam, Tyler J. Vail, Cameron S. Metcalf, Jamie L. Maguire, Thomas O. McKean, Nick O. McKean, K.C. Brennan Source Type: research

Drugs of unproven benefit for COVID-19: a pharma perspective on ethical allocation of available therapies
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Arthur L. Caplan, Joanne Waldstreicher, Karla Childers, Aran Maree Source Type: research

Landscape of coordinated immune responses to H1N1 challenge in humans
Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we show changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments. Peak change in monocyte, B cell, and T cell subset frequencies coincided with peak virus shedding, followed by marked activation of T and NK cells. Results led to the identification of CD38 as a critical regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in response to influenza virus. Machine learnin...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zainab Rahil, Rebecca Leylek, Christian M. Schürch, Han Chen, Zach Bjornson-Hooper, Shannon R. Christensen, Pier Federico Gherardini, Salil S. Bhate, Matthew H. Spitzer, Gabriela K. Fragiadakis, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Nelson Kim, Sizun Jiang, Jennifer Yo, B Source Type: research

BIN2 orchestrates platelet calcium signaling in thrombosis and thrombo-inflammation
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major route of Ca2+ influx in platelets. The Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) triggers SOCE by forming punctate structures with the Ca2+ channel Orai1 and the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), thereby linking the endo-/sarcoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we identified the BAR domain superfamily member bridging integrator 2 (BIN2) as an interaction partner of STIM1 and IP3R in platelets. Deletion of platelet BIN2 (Bin2fl/fl,Pf4-Cre mice) resulted in reduced Ca2+ store release and Ca2+ influx in response to all tested platelet agonists. These de...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Julia Volz, Charly Kusch, Sarah Beck, Michael Popp, Timo Vögtle, Mara Meub, Inga Scheller, Hannah S. Heil, Julia Preu, Michael K. Schuhmann, Katherina Hemmen, Thomas Premsler, Albert Sickmann, Katrin G. Heinze, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Attila Braun, M Source Type: research

Metabolic effects of air pollution exposure and reversibility
In this study, we modeled early life exposure using chow-fed C57BL/6J male mice that were exposed to real-world inhaled, concentrated PM2.5 (~10 times ambient levels/~60–120 μg/m3) or filtered air over a 14-week period. We investigated the effects of PM2.5 on phenotype, the transcriptome, and chromatin accessibility and compared these with the effects of a prototypical high-fat diet (HFD) as well as cessation of exposure on phenotype reversibility. Exposure to PM2.5 impaired glucose and insulin tolerance and reduced energy expenditure and 18FDG-PET uptake in brown adipose tissue. Multiple differentially expressed ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sanjay Rajagopalan, Bongsoo Park, Rengasamy Palanivel, Vinesh Vinayachandran, Jeffrey A. Deiuliis, Roopesh Singh Gangwar, Lopa Das, Jinhu Yin, Youngshim Choi, Sadeer Al-Kindi, Mukesh K. Jain, Kasper D. Hansen, Shyam Biswal Source Type: research

Sleeping Beauty–engineered CAR T cells achieve antileukemic activity without severe toxicities
CONCLUSION SB-engineered CAR T cells expand and persist in pediatric and adult B-ALL patients relapsed after HSCT. Antileukemic activity was achieved without severe toxicities.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03389035.FUNDING This study was supported by grants from the Fondazione AIRC per la Ricerca sul Cancro (AIRC); Cancer Research UK (CRUK); the Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer (FC AECC); Ministero Della Salute; Fondazione Regionale per la Ricerca Biomedica (FRRB). (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chiara F. Magnani, Giuseppe Gaipa, Federico Lussana, Daniela Belotti, Giuseppe Gritti, Sara Napolitano, Giada Matera, Benedetta Cabiati, Chiara Buracchi, Gianmaria Borleri, Grazia Fazio, Silvia Zaninelli, Sarah Tettamanti, Stefania Cesana, Valentina Colom Source Type: research

Protein phosphatase 2A B55β limits CD8+ T cell lifespan following cytokine withdrawal
How T cells integrate environmental cues into signals that limit the magnitude and length of immune responses is poorly understood. Here, we provide data that demonstrate that B55β, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, represents a molecular link between cytokine concentration and apoptosis in activated CD8+ T cells. Through the modulation of AKT, B55β induced the expression of the proapoptotic molecule Hrk in response to cytokine withdrawal. Accordingly, B55β and Hrk were both required for in vivo and in vitro contraction of activated CD8+ lymphocytes. We show that this process plays a role durin...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Noé Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Iris K. Madera-Salcedo, J. Alejandro Cisneros-Segura, H. Benjamín García-González, Sokratis A. Apostolidis, Abril Saint-Martin, Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Tran Nguyen, Dámaris P. Romero-Rodríguez, George C. Tsokos, Jorge Source Type: research

EBV-induced gene 3 augments IL-23Rα protein expression through a chaperone calnexin
Epstein-Barr virus–induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a subunit common to IL-27, IL-35, and IL-39. Here, we explore an intracellular role of EBI3 that is independent of its function in cytokines. EBI3-deficient naive CD4+ T cells had reduced IFN-γ production and failed to induce T cell–dependent colitis in mice. Similarly reduced IFN-γ production was observed in vitro in EBI3-deficient CD4+ T cells differentiated under pathogenic Th17 polarizing conditions with IL-23. This is because the induction of expression of one of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) subunits, IL-23Rα, but not another IL-23R subunit, IL-1...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Izuru Mizoguchi, Mio Ohashi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Yukino Chiba, Naoko Orii, Shinya Inoue, Chiaki Kawana, Mingli Xu, Katsuko Sudo, Koji Fujita, Masahiko Kuroda, Shin-ichi Hashimoto, Kouji Matsushima, Takayuki Yoshimoto Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes risk gene Dusp8 regulates hypothalamic Jnk signaling and insulin sensitivity
Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified DUSP8, encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase targeting mitogen-activated protein kinases, as a type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk gene. Here, we reveal that Dusp8 is a gatekeeper in the hypothalamic control of glucose homeostasis in mice and humans. Male, but not female, Dusp8 loss-of-function mice, either with global or corticotropin-releasing hormone neuron–specific deletion, had impaired systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when exposed to high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we found impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback, blunted sy...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sonja C. Schriever, Dhiraj G. Kabra, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Emily V. Baumgart, Joachim Nagler, Fabian Seebacher, Luke Harrison, Martin Irmler, Stephanie Kullmann, Felipe Corrêa-da-Silva, Florian Giesert, Ruchi Jain, Hannah Schug, Julien Castel, Source Type: research

Targeting NEK2 attenuates glioblastoma growth and radioresistance by destabilizing histone methyltransferase EZH2
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jia Wang, Peng Cheng, Marat S. Pavlyukov, Hai Yu, Zhuo Zhang, Sung-Hak Kim, Mutsuko Minata, Ahmed Mohyeldin, Wanfu Xie, Dongquan Chen, Violaine Goidts, Brendan Frett, Wenhao Hu, Hongyu Li, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Do-Hyun Nam, Harley I. Kornblum, Maode Wa Source Type: research

Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies
We present current challenges, summarize recent progress, and make recommendations for future research and clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stefano Biressi, Antonio Filareto, Thomas A. Rando Source Type: research

Autologous CMV-specific T cells are a safe adjuvant immunotherapy for primary glioblastoma multiforme
CONCLUSION Data presented in this study demonstrate that CMV-specific ACT can be safely used as an adjuvant therapy for primary GBM and, if offered before recurrence, this therapy may improve OS of GBM patients.TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au: ACTRN12615000656538.FUNDING Philanthropic funding and the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia). (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 13, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Corey Smith, Katie E. Lineburg, J. Paulo Martins, George R. Ambalathingal, Michelle A. Neller, Beth Morrison, Katherine K. Matthews, Sweera Rehan, Pauline Crooks, Archana Panikkar, Leone Beagley, Laetitia Le Texier, Sriganesh Srihari, David Walker, Rajiv Source Type: research

Orally bioavailable CDK9/2 inhibitor shows mechanism-based therapeutic potential in MYCN-driven neuroblastoma
The undruggable nature of oncogenic Myc transcription factors poses a therapeutic challenge in neuroblastoma, a pediatric cancer in which MYCN amplification is strongly associated with unfavorable outcome. Here, we show that CYC065 (fadraciclib), a clinical inhibitor of CDK9 and CDK2, selectively targeted MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma via multiple mechanisms. CDK9 — a component of the transcription elongation complex P-TEFb — bound to the MYCN-amplicon superenhancer, and its inhibition resulted in selective loss of nascent MYCN transcription. MYCN loss led to growth arrest, sensitizing cells for apoptosis follow...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Evon Poon, Tong Liang, Yann Jamin, Susanne Walz, Colin Kwok, Anne Hakkert, Karen Barker, Zuzanna Urban, Khin Thway, Rhamy Zeid, Albert Hallsworth, Gary Box, Marli E. Ebus, Marco P. Licciardello, Yordan Sbirkov, Glori Lazaro, Elizabeth Calton, Barbara M. C Source Type: research

Inhibition of mitophagy drives macrophage activation and antibacterial defense during sepsis
Mitochondria have emerged as key actors of innate and adaptive immunity. Mitophagy has a pivotal role in cell homeostasis, but its contribution to macrophage functions and host defense remains to be delineated. Here, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with IFN-γ inhibited PINK1-dependent mitophagy in macrophages through a STAT1-dependent activation of the inflammatory caspases 1 and 11. In addition, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitophagy triggered classical macrophage activation in a mitochondrial ROS–dependent manner. In a murine model of polymicrobial infection (cecal ligature an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Danish Patoli, Franck Mignotte, Valérie Deckert, Alois Dusuel, Adélie Dumont, Aurélie Rieu, Antoine Jalil, Kevin Van Dongen, Thibaut Bourgeois, Thomas Gautier, Charlène Magnani, Naig Le Guern, Stéphane Mandard, Jean Bastin, Fatima Djouadi, Christine Source Type: research

DCAF1 regulates Treg senescence via the ROS axis during immunological aging
As a hallmark of immunological aging, low-grade, chronic inflammation with accumulation of effector memory T cells contributes to increased susceptibility to many aging-related diseases. While the proinflammatory state of aged T cells indicates a dysregulation of immune homeostasis, whether and how aging drives regulatory T cell (Treg) aging and alters Treg function are not fully understood owing to a lack of specific aging markers. Here, by a combination of cellular, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches, we discovered that Tregs senesce more severely than conventional T (Tconv) cells during aging. We found that Tregs f...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zengli Guo, Gang Wang, Bing Wu, Wei-Chun Chou, Liang Cheng, Chenlin Zhou, Jitong Lou, Di Wu, Lishan Su, Junnian Zheng, Jenny P.-Y. Ting, Yisong Y. Wan Source Type: research

Immune pathogenesis of COVID-19–related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anne H. Rowley, Stanford T. Shulman, Moshe Arditi Source Type: research

ERG orchestrates chromatin interactions to drive prostate cell fate reprogramming
Although cancer is commonly perceived as a disease of dedifferentiation, the hallmark of early-stage prostate cancer is paradoxically the loss of more plastic basal cells and the abnormal proliferation of more differentiated secretory luminal cells. However, the mechanism of prostate cancer proluminal differentiation is largely unknown. Through integrating analysis of the transcription factors (TFs) from 806 human prostate cancers, we found that ERG was highly correlated with prostate cancer luminal subtyping. ERG overexpression in luminal epithelial cells inhibited those cells’ normal plasticity to transdifferentiat...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fei Li, Qiuyue Yuan, Wei Di, Xinyi Xia, Zhuang Liu, Ninghui Mao, Lin Li, Chunfeng Li, Juan He, Yunguang Li, Wangxin Guo, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yiqin Zhu, Rebiguli Aji, Shangqian Wang, Xinyuan Tong, Hongbin Ji, Ping Chi, Brett Carver, Yong Wang, Yu Chen, Dong Gao Source Type: research

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 are distinct presentations of SARS–CoV-2
CONCLUSION Pediatric patients with SARS–CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those with severe COVID-19.FUNDING Financial support for this project was provided by CHOP Frontiers Program Immune Dysregulation Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Cancer Institute; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; Cookies for Kids Cancer; Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer; Children’s Oncology Group; Stand UP 2 Cancer; Team Connor;...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Caroline Diorio, Sarah E. Henrickson, Laura A. Vella, Kevin O. McNerney, Julie Chase, Chakkapong Burudpakdee, Jessica H. Lee, Cristina Jasen, Fran Balamuth, David M. Barrett, Brenda L. Banwell, Kathrin M. Bernt, Allison M. Blatz, Kathleen Chiotos, Brian T Source Type: research

Inhibition of the ATM/Chk2 axis promotes cGAS/STING signaling in ARID1A-deficient tumors
ARID1A, a component of the chromatin-remodeling complex SWI/SNF, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. We sought to develop rational combination therapy to potentiate the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in ARID1A-deficient tumors. In a proteomic analysis of a data set from The Cancer Genomic Atlas, we found enhanced expression of Chk2, a DNA damage checkpoint kinase, in ARID1A-mutated/deficient tumors. Surprisingly, we found that ARID1A targets the nonchromatin substrate Chk2 for ubiquitination. Loss of ARID1A increased the Chk2 level through modulating autoubiquitination of the E3-ligase RNF8...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lulu Wang, Lin Yang, Chen Wang, Wei Zhao, Zhenlin Ju, Wei Zhang, Jianfeng Shen, Yang Peng, Clemens An, Yen T. Luu, Shumei Song, Timothy A. Yap, Jaffer A. Ajani, Gordon B. Mills, Xuetong Shen, Guang Peng Source Type: research

Multiomic analysis and immunoprofiling reveal distinct subtypes of human angiosarcoma
Angiosarcomas are rare, clinically aggressive tumors with limited treatment options and a dismal prognosis. We analyzed angiosarcomas from 68 patients, integrating information from multiomic sequencing, NanoString immuno-oncology profiling, and multiplex immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Through whole-genome sequencing (n = 18), 50% of the cutaneous head and neck angiosarcomas exhibited higher tumor mutation burden (TMB) and UV mutational signatures; others were mutationally quiet and non–UV driven. NanoString profiling revealed 3 distinct patient clusters represented by...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason Yongsheng Chan, Jing Quan Lim, Joe Yeong, Vinod Ravi, Peiyong Guan, Arnoud Boot, Timothy Kwang Yong Tay, Sathiyamoorthy Selvarajan, Nur Diyana Md Nasir, Jie Hua Loh, Choon Kiat Ong, Dachuan Huang, Jing Tan, Zhimei Li, Cedric Chuan-Young Ng, Thuan To Source Type: research

Distinct clinical and immunological features of SARS–CoV-2–induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
CONCLUSION MIS-C encompasses a broad phenotypic spectrum with clinical and laboratory features distinct from KD and MAS.FUNDING This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Rheumatology Research Foundation Investigator Awards and Medical Education Award; Boston Children’s Hospital Faculty Career Development Awards; the McCance Family Foundation; and the Samara Jan Turkel Center. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pui Y. Lee, Megan Day-Lewis, Lauren A. Henderson, Kevin G. Friedman, Jeffrey Lo, Jordan E. Roberts, Mindy S. Lo, Craig D. Platt, Janet Chou, Kacie J. Hoyt, Annette L. Baker, Tina M. Banzon, Margaret H. Chang, Ezra Cohen, Sarah D. de Ferranti, Audrey Dionn Source Type: research

Is multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children on the Kawasaki syndrome spectrum?
An alarming increase in children presenting with fever, hyperinflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction frequently requiring intensive care has been observed after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. The illness resembles Kawasaki disease (KD), with coronary dilatation and aneurysm occurring in some. However, the cardiovascular manifestations were typically on the severe end of the KD spectrum, with cardiogenic shock a common presentation together with other features. This led to defining a unique syndrome named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). In this issue of the JCI, Lee and Da...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rae S.M. Yeung, Polly J. Ferguson Source Type: research

Epigenetic modulator inhibition overcomes temozolomide chemoresistance and antagonizes tumor recurrence of glioblastoma
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) heterogeneity causes a greater number of deaths than any other brain tumor, despite the availability of alkylating chemotherapy. GBM stem-like cells (GSCs) contribute to GBM complexity and chemoresistance, but it remains challenging to identify and target GSCs or factors that control their activity. Here, we identified a specific GSC subset and show that activity of these cells is positively regulated by stabilization of methyl CpG binding domain 3 (MBD3) protein. MBD3 binds to CK1A and to BTRCP E3 ubiquitin ligase, triggering MBD3 degradation, suggesting that modulating this circuit could ant...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Byoung-San Moon, Mingyang Cai, Grace Lee, Tong Zhao, Xiaofeng Song, Steven L. Giannotta, Frank J. Attenello, Min Yu, Wange Lu Source Type: research

HIV-1 viremia not suppressible by antiretroviral therapy can originate from large T cell clones producing infectious virus
CONCLUSION These findings show that clones of HIV-1–infected cells producing virus can cause failure of ART to suppress viremia. The mechanisms involved in clonal expansion and persistence need to be defined to effectively target viremia and the HIV-1 reservoir.FUNDING National Cancer Institute, NIH; Howard Hughes Medical Research Fellows Program, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Office of AIDS Research; American Cancer Society; National Cancer Institute through a Leidos subcontract; National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, to the I4C Martin Delaney Collaboratory...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Elias K. Halvas, Kevin W. Joseph, Leah D. Brandt, Shuang Guo, Michele D. Sobolewski, Jana L. Jacobs, Camille Tumiotto, John K. Bui, Joshua C. Cyktor, Brandon F. Keele, Gene D. Morse, Michael J. Bale, Wei Shao, Mary F. Kearney, John M. Coffin, Jason W. Rau Source Type: research

Complement activation on endothelium initiates antibody-mediated acute lung injury
Antibodies targeting human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins limit successful transplantation and transfusion, and their presence in blood products can cause lethal transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). It is unclear which cell types are bound by these anti-leukocyte antibodies to initiate an immunologic cascade resulting in lung injury. We therefore conditionally removed MHC class I (MHC I) from likely cellular targets in antibody-mediated lung injury. Only the removal of endothelial MHC I reduced lung injury and mortality, related mechanistically to absent endothelial comple...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Simon J. Cleary, Nicholas Kwaan, Jennifer J. Tian, Daniel R. Calabrese, Beñat Mallavia, Mélia Magnen, John R. Greenland, Anatoly Urisman, Jonathan P. Singer, Steven R. Hays, Jasleen Kukreja, Ariel M. Hay, Heather L. Howie, Pearl Toy, Clifford A. Lowell, Source Type: research

Nonsuppressible HIV-1 viremia: a reflection of how the reservoir persists
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) generally reduces plasma HIV to undetectable levels, although virus persists in latently infected CD4+ T cells. In some individuals, viremia remains detectable despite adherence to ART and the absence of drug resistance mutations. In this issue of the JCI, Halvas et al. describe HIV RNA sequences from plasma of 8 donors with persistent viremia. Residual viremia was dominated by identical HIV-1 RNA sequences that remained relatively constant over 4 years. Plasma virus matched replication-competent virus cultured from CD4+ T cells. Integration site analysis confirmed the presence of large clones ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Janet D. Siliciano, Robert F. Siliciano Source Type: research

mRNA vaccine–induced neoantigen-specific T cell immunity in patients with gastrointestinal cancer
CONCLUSION This vaccine was safe, and potential future combination of such vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors or adoptive T cell therapy should be evaluated for possible clinical benefit in patients with common epithelial cancers.TRIAL REGISTRATION Phase I/II protocol (NCT03480152) was approved by the IRB committee of the NIH and the FDA.FUNDING Center for Clinical Research, NCI, NIH. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 6, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gal Cafri, Jared J. Gartner, Tal Zaks, Kristen Hopson, Noam Levin, Biman C. Paria, Maria R. Parkhurst, Rami Yossef, Frank J. Lowery, Mohammad S. Jafferji, Todd D. Prickett, Stephanie L. Goff, Christine T. McGowan, Samantha Seitter, Mackenzie L. Shindorf, Source Type: research

HIFs, angiogenesis, and metabolism: elusive enemies in breast cancer
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and the HIF-dependent cancer hallmarks angiogenesis and metabolic rewiring are well-established drivers of breast cancer aggressiveness, therapy resistance, and poor prognosis. Targeting of HIF and its downstream targets in angiogenesis and metabolism has been unsuccessful so far in the breast cancer clinical setting, with major unresolved challenges residing in target selection, development of robust biomarkers for response prediction, and understanding and harnessing of escape mechanisms. This Review discusses the pathophysiological role of HIFs, angiogenesis, and metabolism in breast can...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ellen C. de Heer, Mathilde Jalving, Adrian L. Harris Source Type: research

A conversation with C. Ronald Kahn
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - October 1, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ushma S. Neill Source Type: research

Getting to the point in point-of-care diagnostics for tuberculosis
This study shows that FujiLAM has considerable potential to reshape the TB diagnostics landscape, making diagnosis and treatment in one office visit a reality for TB. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Elisa H. Ignatius, Keira A. Cohen, William R. Bishai Source Type: research

Oncogene-induced DNA damage: cyclic AMP steps into the ring
Growth hormone–secreting (GH-secreting) pituitary tumors are driven by oncogenes that induce cAMP signaling. In this issue of the JCI, Ben-Shlomo et al. performed a whole-exome study of pituitary adenomas. GH-secreting tumors had a high frequency of whole chromosome or chromosome arm copy number alterations and were associated with an increase in the tumor protein p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1, which are findings consistent with induction of a response to DNA damage. Further, treatment of mouse pituitary cells with cAMP pathway agonists in vitro and in vivo elicited biomarkers of DNA repl...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: James A. Fagin, John H. Petrini Source Type: research

DNA damage and growth hormone hypersecretion in pituitary somatotroph adenomas
Drivers of sporadic benign pituitary adenoma growth are largely unknown. Whole-exome sequencing of 159 prospectively resected pituitary adenomas showed that somatic copy number alteration (SCNA) rather than mutation is a hallmark of hormone-secreting adenomas and that SCNAs correlate with adenoma phenotype. Using single-gene SCNA pathway analysis, we observed that both cAMP and Fanconi anemia DNA damage repair pathways were affected by SCNAs in growth hormone–secreting (GH-secreting) somatotroph adenomas. As somatotroph differentiation and GH secretion are dependent on cAMP activation and we previously showed DNA dam...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anat Ben-Shlomo, Nan Deng, Evelyn Ding, Masaaki Yamamoto, Adam Mamelak, Vera Chesnokova, Artak Labadzhyan, Shlomo Melmed Source Type: research

X chromosome dosage of histone demethylase KDM5C determines sex differences in adiposity
Males and females differ in body composition and fat distribution. Using a mouse model that segregates gonadal sex (ovaries and testes) from chromosomal sex (XX and XY), we showed that XX chromosome complement in combination with a high-fat diet led to enhanced weight gain in the presence of male or female gonads. We identified the genomic dosage of Kdm5c, an X chromosome gene that escapes X chromosome inactivation, as a determinant of the X chromosome effect on adiposity. Modulating Kdm5c gene dosage in XX female mice to levels that are normally present in males resulted in reduced body weight, fat content, and food intak...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jenny C. Link, Carrie B. Wiese, Xuqi Chen, Rozeta Avetisyan, Emilio Ronquillo, Feiyang Ma, Xiuqing Guo, Jie Yao, Matthew Allison, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jerome I. Rotter, Julia S. El -Sayed Moustafa, Kerrin S. Small, Shigeki Iwase, Matteo Pellegrini, Laurent V Source Type: research

Dominant-negative NFKBIA mutation promotes IL-1β production causing hepatic disease with severe immunodeficiency
Although IKK-β has previously been shown as a negative regulator of IL-1β secretion in mice, this role has not been proven in humans. Genetic studies of NF-κB signaling in humans with inherited diseases of the immune system have not demonstrated the relevance of the NF-κB pathway in suppressing IL-1β expression. Here, we report an infant with a clinical pathology comprising neutrophil-mediated autoinflammation and recurrent bacterial infections. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous missense mutation of NFKBIA, resulting in a L34P IκBα variant that severely repressed ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Enrica E.K. Tan, Richard A. Hopkins, Chrissie K. Lim, Saumya S. Jamuar, Christina Ong, Koh C. Thoon, Mark J.A. Koh, Eun Mong Shin, Derrick W.Q. Lian, Madhushanee Weerasooriya, Christopher Z.W. Lee, Andreas Alvin Pumomo Soetedjo, Chang Siang Lim, Veonice B Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of 3 urine lipoarabinomannan tuberculosis assays in HIV-negative outpatients
CONCLUSION Compared with AlereLAM, FujiLAM detected 5 times more patients with TB in HIV-negative participants, had a high positive predictive value, and has the potential to improve rapid diagnosis of TB at the point-of-care. EclLAM demonstrated that additional sensitivity gains are possible, which highlights LAM’s potential as a biomarker. Additional research is required to assess FujiLAM’s performance in prospective cohorts, its cost-effectiveness, and its impact in real-world clinical settings.FUNDING Global Health Innovative Technology Fund, the UK Department for International Development, the Dutch Minist...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tobias Broger, Mark P. Nicol, George B. Sigal, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Alexandra J. Zimmer, Shireen Surtie, Tatiana Caceres-Nakiche, Anna Mantsoki, Elena Ivanova Reipold, Rita Székely, Michael Tsionsky, Judith van Heerden, Tatiana Plisova, Kinuyo Chikamatsu, To Source Type: research

Hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary artery remodeling that can subsequently culminate in right heart failure and premature death. Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling plays a fundamental and pivotal role in the pathogenesis of PH. This Review summarizes the regulation of HIF isoforms and their impact in various PH subtypes, as well as the elaborate conditional and cell-specific knockout mouse studies that brought the role of this pathway to light. We also discuss the current preclinical status of pan- and isoform-selective HIF inhibitors, and propose new research ar...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Soni Savai Pullamsetti, Argen Mamazhakypov, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Rajkumar Savai Source Type: research

Arginase impedes the resolution of colitis by altering the microbiome and metabolome
Arginase 1 (Arg1), which converts l-arginine into ornithine and urea, exerts pleiotropic immunoregulatory effects. However, the function of Arg1 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains poorly characterized. Here, we found that Arg1 expression correlated with the degree of inflammation in intestinal tissues from IBD patients. In mice, Arg1 was upregulated in an IL-4/IL-13– and intestinal microbiota–dependent manner. Tie2-Cre Arg1fl/fl mice lacking Arg1 in hematopoietic and endothelial cells recovered faster from colitis than Arg1-expressing (Arg1fl/fl) littermates. This correlated with decreased vessel densi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Julia Baier, Maximilian Gänsbauer, Claudia Giessler, Harald Arnold, Mercedes Muske, Ulrike Schleicher, Sören Lukassen, Arif Ekici, Manfred Rauh, Christoph Daniel, Arndt Ha rtmann, Benjamin Schmid, Philipp Tripal, Katja Dettmer, Peter J. Oefner, Raja Atr Source Type: research

Stiff stroma increases breast cancer risk by inducing the oncogene ZNF217
Women with dense breasts have an increased lifetime risk of malignancy that has been attributed to a higher epithelial density. Quantitative proteomics, collagen analysis, and mechanical measurements in normal tissue revealed that stroma in the high-density breast contains more oriented, fibrillar collagen that is stiffer and correlates with higher epithelial cell density. microRNA (miR) profiling of breast tissue identified miR-203 as a matrix stiffness–repressed transcript that is downregulated by collagen density and reduced in the breast epithelium of women with high mammographic density. Culture studies demonstr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason J. Northey, Alexander S. Barrett, Irene Acerbi, Mary-Kate Hayward, Stephanie Talamantes, Ivory S. Dean, Janna K. Mouw, Suzanne M. Ponik, Jonathon N. Lakins, Po-Jui Huang, Junmin Wu, Quanming Shi, Susan Samson, Patricia J. Keely, Rita A. Mukhtar, Jan Source Type: research

Antihypoxic oxygenation agents with respiratory hyperoxia to improve cancer immunotherapy
Hypoxia/HIF-1α– and extracellular adenosine/A2 adenosine receptor–mediated immunosuppression protects tissues from collateral damage by antipathogen immune cells. However, this mechanism also protects cancerous tissues by inhibiting antitumor immune cells in hypoxic and extracellular adenosine–rich tumors that are the most resistant to current therapies. Here, we explain a potentially novel, antiimmunosuppressive reasoning to justify strategies using respiratory hyperoxia and oxygenation agents in cancer treatment. Earlier attempts to use oxygenation of tumors as a monotherapy or to improve radiothe...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stephen M. Hatfield, Michail V. Sitkovsky Source Type: research

The CDK4/6-EZH2 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis
Psoriasis is a frequent, inflammatory skin disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and a disease-related infiltration of immune cells. Here, we identified a novel proinflammatory signaling pathway driven by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 and the methyltransferase EZH2 as a valid target for psoriasis therapy. Delineation of the pathway revealed that CDK4/6 phosphorylated EZH2 in keratinocytes, thereby triggering a methylation-induced activation of STAT3. Subsequently, active STAT3 resulted in the induction of IκBζ, which is a key proinflammatory transcription factor required for cytoki...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anne Müller, Antje Dickmanns, Claudia Resch, Knut Schäkel, Stephan Hailfinger, Matthias Dobbelstein, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff, Daniela Kramer Source Type: research

Circadian rhythm influences induction of trained immunity by BCG vaccination
CONCLUSIONS BCG vaccination in the morning induces stronger trained immunity and adaptive responses compared with evening vaccination. Future studies should take vaccine administration time into account when studying specific and nonspecific effects of vaccines; early morning should be the preferred moment of BCG administration.FUNDING The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, the European Research Council, and the Danish National Research Foundation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: L. Charlotte J. de Bree, Vera P. Mourits, Valerie A.C.M. Koeken, Simone J.C.F.M. Moorlag, Robine Janssen, Lukas Folkman, Daniele Barreca, Thomas Krausgruber, Victoria Fife-Gernedl, Boris Novakovic, Rob J.W. Arts, Helga Dijkstra, Heidi Lemmers, Christoph B Source Type: research

BCG vaccination in humans inhibits systemic inflammation in a sex-dependent manner
CONCLUSION The capacity of BCG to enhance microbial responsiveness while dampening systemic inflammation should be further explored for potential therapeutic applications.FUNDING Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, European Research Council, and the Danish National Research Foundation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Valerie A.C.M. Koeken, L. Charlotte J. de Bree, Vera P. Mourits, Simone J.C.F.M. Moorlag, Jona Walk, Branko Cirovic, Rob J.W. Arts, Martin Jaeger, Helga Dijkstra, Heidi Lemmers, Leo A.B. Joosten, Christine S. Benn, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G. Netea Source Type: research

Insights into how innocuous foods or proteins deserving of immune ignorance can become allergens
This study has the potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disorders. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Larry Borish Source Type: research

Immobilization after injury alters extracellular matrix and stem cell fate
Cells sense the extracellular environment and mechanical stimuli and translate these signals into intracellular responses through mechanotransduction, which alters cell maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. Here we use a mouse model of trauma-induced heterotopic ossification (HO) to examine how cell-extrinsic forces impact mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) fate. After injury, single-cell (sc) RNA sequencing of the injury site reveals an early increase in MPC genes associated with pathways of cell adhesion and ECM-receptor interactions, and MPC trajectories to cartilage and bone. Immunostaining uncovers active me...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amanda K. Huber, Nicole Patel, Chase A. Pagani, Simone Marini, Karthik R. Padmanabhan, Daniel L. Matera, Mohamed Said, Charles Hwang, Ginny Ching-Yun Hsu, Andrea A. Poli, Amy L. Strong, Noelle D. Visser, Joseph A. Greenstein, Reagan Nelson, Shuli Li, Mich Source Type: research

Transcriptional frameshifts contribute to protein allergenicity
Transcription infidelity (TI) is a mechanism that increases RNA and protein diversity. We found that single-base omissions (i.e., gaps) occurred at significantly higher rates in the RNA of highly allergenic legumes. Transcripts from peanut, soybean, sesame, and mite allergens contained a higher density of gaps than those of nonallergens. Allergen transcripts translate into proteins with a cationic carboxy terminus depleted in hydrophobic residues. In mice, recombinant TI variants of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, but not the canonical allergen itself, induced, without adjuvant, the production of anaphylactogenic specific IgE...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Benoit Thouvenot, Olivier Roitel, Julie Tomasina, Benoit Hilselberger, Christelle Richard, Sandrine Jacquenet, Françoise Codreanu-Morel, Martine Morisset, Gisèle Kanny, Etienne Beaudouin, Christine Delebarre-Sauvage, Thierry Olivry, Claude Favrot, Berna Source Type: research

Haploinsufficiency of immune checkpoint receptor CTLA4 induces a distinct neuroinflammatory disorder
CONCLUSIONS Neuroinflammation due to CTLA4h is mediated primarily by an infiltrative process with a distinct and striking dissociation between clinical symptoms and radiological findings in the majority of patients.FUNDING NIAID, NIH, Division of Intramural Research, NINDS, NIH, Division of Intramural Research, and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society–American Brain Foundation.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00001355. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Matthew K. Schindler, Stefania Pittaluga, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Helen C. Su, V. Koneti Rao, Amy Rump, Steven Jacobson, Irene Cortese, Daniel S. Reich, Gulbu Uzel Source Type: research

Contributions of alveolar epithelial cell quality control to pulmonary fibrosis
Epithelial cell dysfunction has emerged as a central component of the pathophysiology of diffuse parenchymal diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active lung cell population important for surfactant biosynthesis and alveolar homeostasis. AT2 cells and other distal lung epithelia, like all eukaryotic cells, contain an elegant quality control network to respond to intrinsic metabolic and biosynthetic challenges imparted by mutant protein conformers, dysfunctional subcellular organelles, and dysregulated telomeres. Failed AT2 quality control components (...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeremy Katzen, Michael F. Beers Source Type: research

IL-17 and immunologically induced senescence regulate response to injury in osteoarthritis
Senescent cells (SnCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases including osteoarthritis (OA), in part via expression of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that includes immunologically relevant factors and cytokines. In a model of posttraumatic OA (PTOA), anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced a type 17 immune response in the articular compartment and draining inguinal lymph nodes (LNs) that paralleled expression of the senescence marker p16INK4a (Cdkn2a) and p21 (Cdkn1a). Innate lymphoid cells, γδ+ T cells, and CD4+ T cells contributed to IL-17 expression. Intr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Heather J. Faust, Hong Zhang, Jin Han, Matthew T. Wolf, Ok Hee Jeon, Kaitlyn Sadtler, Alexis N. Peña, Liam Chung, David R. Maestas Jr., Ada J. Tam, Drew M. Pardoll, Judith Campisi, Franck Housseau, Daohong Zhou, Clifton O. Bingham III, Jennifer H. Elisse Source Type: research

Decreased lymphatic HIF-2α accentuates lymphatic remodeling in lymphedema
Pathologic lymphatic remodeling in lymphedema evolves during periods of tissue inflammation and hypoxia through poorly defined processes. In human and mouse lymphedema, there is a significant increase of hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α), but a reduction of HIF-2α protein expression in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). We questioned whether dysregulated expression of these transcription factors contributes to disease pathogenesis and found that LEC-specific deletion of Hif2α exacerbated lymphedema pathology. Even without lymphatic vascular injury, the loss of LEC-specific Hif2α caused an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 22, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xinguo Jiang, Wen Tian, Eric J. Granucci, Allen B. Tu, Dongeon Kim, Petra Dahms, Shravani Pasupneti, Gongyong Peng, Yesl Kim, Amber H. Lim, F. Hernan Espinoza, Matthew Cribb, J. Brandon Dixon, Stanley G. Rockson, Gregg L. Semenza, Mark R. Nicolls Source Type: research