YAP plays a crucial role in the development of cardiomyopathy in lysosomal storage diseases
Lysosomal dysfunction caused by mutations in lysosomal genes results in lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), characterized by accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles in cells and functional abnormalities in major organs, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and liver. In LSD, autophagy is inhibited at the lysosomal degradation step and accumulation of autophagosomes is observed. Enlargement of the left ventricle (LV) and contractile dysfunction were observed in RagA/B cardiac-specific KO (cKO) mice, a mouse model of LSD in which lysosomal acidification is impaired irreversibly. YAP, a downstream effector of the Hippo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shohei Ikeda, Jihoon Nah, Akihiro Shirakabe, Peiyong Zhai, Shin-ichi Oka, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Kun-Liang Guan, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Junichi Sadoshima Source Type: research

A replication-competent adenovirus-vectored influenza vaccine induces durable systemic and mucosal immunity
CONCLUSION Replicating Ad4 delivered to the URT caused prolonged exposure to antigen, drove durable systemic and mucosal immunity, and proved to be a promising platform for the induction of immunity against viral surface glycoprotein targets.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01443936 and NCT01806909.FUNDING Intramural and Extramural Research Programs of the NIAID, NIH (U19 AI109946) and the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS), NIAID, NIH (contract HHSN272201400008C). (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kenta Matsuda, Stephen A. Migueles, Jinghe Huang, Lyuba Bolkhovitinov, Sarah Stuccio, Trevor Griesman, Alyssa A. Pullano, Byong H Kang, Elise Ishida, Matthew Zimmerman, Neena Kashyap, Kelly M. Martins, Daniel Stadlbauer, Jessica Pederson, Andy Patamawenu, Source Type: research

Tetracyclines improve experimental lymphatic filariasis pathology by disrupting interleukin-4 receptor–mediated lymphangiogenesis
Lymphatic filariasis is the major global cause of nonhereditary lymphedema. We demonstrate that the filarial nematode Brugia malayi induced lymphatic remodeling and impaired lymphatic drainage following parasitism of limb lymphatics in a mouse model. Lymphatic insufficiency was associated with elevated circulating lymphangiogenic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor C. Lymphatic insufficiency was dependent on type 2 adaptive immunity, the interleukin-4 receptor, and recruitment of C-C chemokine receptor-2–positive monocytes and alternatively activated macrophages with a prolymphangiogenic phenotype...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Julio Furlong-Silva, Stephen D. Cross, Amy E. Marriott, Nicolas Pionnier, John Archer, Andrew Steven, Stefan Schulte Merker, Matthias Mack, Young-Kwon Hong, Mark J. Taylor, Joseph D. Turner Source Type: research

Visualizing the dynamics of tuberculosis pathology using molecular imaging
Nearly 140 years after Robert Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat and a deadly human pathogen. M. tuberculosis is notable for complex host-pathogen interactions that lead to poorly understood disease states ranging from latent infection to active disease. Additionally, multiple pathologies with a distinct local milieu (bacterial burden, antibiotic exposure, and host response) can coexist simultaneously within the same subject and change independently over time. Current tools cannot optimally measure these distinct pathologies or the spatiotemporal changes. Next-generation m...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alvaro A. Ordonez, Elizabeth W. Tucker, Carolyn J. Anderson, Claire L. Carter, Shashank Ganatra, Deepak Kaushal, Igor Kramnik, Philana L. Lin, Cressida A. Madigan, Susana Mendez, Jianghong Rao, Rada M. Savic, David M. Tobin, Gerhard Walzl, Robert J. Wilki Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2–specific CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals
Characterization of the T cell response in individuals who recover from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is critical to understanding its contribution to protective immunity. A multiplexed peptide-MHC tetramer approach was used to screen 408 SARS-CoV-2 candidate epitopes for CD8+ T cell recognition in a cross-sectional sample of 30 coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent individuals. T cells were evaluated using a 28-marker phenotypic panel, and findings were modelled against time from diagnosis and from humoral and inflammatory responses. There were 132 SARS-CoV-2–specific CD8+ T ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hassen Kared, Andrew D. Redd, Evan M. Bloch, Tania S. Bonny, Hermi Sumatoh, Faris Kairi, Daniel Carbajo, Brian Abel, Evan W. Newell, Maria P. Bettinotti, Sarah E. Benner, Eshan U. Patel, Kirsten Littlefield, Oliver Laeyendecker, Shmuel Shoham, David Sulli Source Type: research

Blood-brain barrier resealing in neuromyelitis optica occurs independently of astrocyte regeneration
Approximately 80% of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients harbor serum anti–aquaporin-4 autoantibodies targeting astrocytes in the CNS. Crucial for NMOSD lesion initiation is disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which allows the entrance of Abs and serum complement into the CNS and which is a target for new NMOSD therapies. Astrocytes have important functions in BBB maintenance; however, the influence of their loss and the role of immune cell infiltration on BBB permeability in NMOSD have not yet been investigated. Using an experimental model of targeted NMOSD lesions in rats, we demonstrat...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anne Winkler, Claudia Wrzos, Michael Haberl, Marie-Theres Weil, Ming Gao, Wiebke Möbius, Francesca Odoardi, Dietmar R. Thal, Mayland Chang, Ghislain Opdenakker, Jeffrey L. Bennett, Stefan Nessler, Christine Stadelmann Source Type: research

Nitric oxide modulates bone anabolism through regulation of osteoblast glycolysis and differentiation
Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) supplements may prevent bone loss and fractures in preclinical models of estrogen deficiency. However, the mechanisms by which NO modulates bone anabolism remain largely unclear. Argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) is the only mammalian enzyme capable of synthesizing arginine, the sole precursor for nitric oxide synthase–dependent (NOS-dependent) NO synthesis. Moreover, ASL is also required for channeling extracellular arginine to NOS for NO production. ASL deficiency (ASLD) is thus a model to study cell-autonomous, NOS-dependent NO deficiency. Here, we report that loss of...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zixue Jin, Jordan Kho, Brian Dawson, Ming-Ming Jiang, Yuqing Chen, Saima Ali, Lindsay C. Burrage, Monica Grover, Donna J. Palmer, Dustin L. Turner, Philip Ng, Sandesh C.S. Nagamani, Brendan Lee Source Type: research

Radiotherapy-exposed CD8+ and CD4+ neoantigens enhance tumor control
We report that radiotherapy upregulates the expression of genes containing immunogenic mutations in a poorly immunogenic mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Vaccination with neoepitopes encoded by these genes elicited CD8+ and CD4+ T cells that, whereas ineffective in preventing tumor growth, improved the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy. Mechanistically, neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells preferentially killed irradiated tumor cells. Neoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells were required for the therapeutic efficacy of vaccination and acted by producing Th1 cytokines, killing irradiated tumor cells, and promoting epit...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Claire Lhuillier, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Takahiro Yamazaki, Tuo Zhang, Maud Charpentier, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Noah Dephoure, Cristina C. Clement, Laura Santambrogio, Xi Kathy Zhou, Silvia C. Formenti, Sandra Demaria Source Type: research

Epicutaneous Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-36 to enhance IgE production and ensuing allergic disease
IgE induced by type 2 immune responses in atopic dermatitis is implicated in the progression of atopic dermatitis to other allergic diseases, including food allergies, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. However, the keratinocyte-derived signals that promote IgE and ensuing allergic diseases remain unclear. Herein, in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis–like skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous Staphylococcus aureus exposure, keratinocyte release of IL‑36α along with IL-4 triggered B cell IgE class-switching, plasma cell differentiation, and increased serum IgE levels—all of which were abrogated in IL-36...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Garrett J. Patrick, Haiyun Liu, Martin P. Alphonse, Dustin A. Dikeman, Christine Youn, Jack C. Otterson, Yu Wang, Advaitaa Ravipati, Momina Mazhar, George Denny, Roger V. Ortines, Emily Zhang, Robert J. Miller, Carly A. Dillen, Qi Liu, Sabrina J. Nolan, K Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitor–associated myocarditis: manifestations and mechanisms
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have transformed the treatment of various cancers, including malignancies once considered untreatable. These agents, however, are associated with inflammation and tissue damage in multiple organs. Myocarditis has emerged as a serious ICI-associated toxicity, because, while seemingly infrequent, it is often fulminant and lethal. The underlying basis of ICI-associated myocarditis is not completely understood. While the importance of T cells is clear, the inciting antigens, why they are recognized, and the mechanisms leading to cardiac cell injury remain poorly characterized. These issues u...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Javid Moslehi, Andrew H. Lichtman, Arlene H. Sharpe, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Richard N. Kitsis Source Type: research

A clear pathway to tubulointerstitial disease: is an exclusive focus on fibrosis justified?
Tubulointerstitial accumulation of matrix proteins in human kidney biopsies is the best predictor of renal survival. In this issue of the JCI, Yen-Ting Chen et al. elegantly show that an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), is a key mediator of experimental kidney fibrosis. The researchers used knockout or conditional knockout animals to reduce Txndc5 expression, which reduced the accumulation of fibrous tissue in three models of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including unilateral ureteral obstruction, unilateral ischemia reperfusion injury, and folic acid nephropathy. More impor...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Safirstein Source Type: research

Nitric oxide and bone: The phoenix rises again
The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in preventing bone loss has long been hypothesized, but despite decades of research the mechanisms remain obscure. In this issue of the JCI, Jin et al. explored NO deficiency using human cell and mouse models that lacked argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the enzyme involved in synthesizing arginine and NO production. Osteoblasts that did not express ASL produced less NO and failed to differentiate. Notably, in the context of Asl deficiency, heterozygous deletion of caveolin 1, which normally inhibits NO synthesis, restored NO production, osteoblast differentiation, glycolysis, and bone mas...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hanghang Liu, Clifford J. Rosen Source Type: research

YAP/TFEB pathway promotes autophagic cell death and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in lysosomal storage diseases
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) are a group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by lysosomal enzyme deficiency. The cardiac phenotype includes cardiomyopathy with eventual heart failure. Lysosome-mediated degradation processes, such as autophagy, maintain cellular homeostasis by discarding cellular debris and damaged organelles. Under stress, the transcription factor EB (TFEB) moves into the nucleus to activate transcription of lysosome biogenesis and autophagic proteins. In this issue of the JCI, Ikeda et al. report on their exploration of the signaling pathway involved with regulating lysosomal proteins speci...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Inna Rabinovich-Nikitin, Lorrie A. Kirshenbaum Source Type: research

Integrating imaging and RNA-seq improves outcome prediction in cervical cancer
Approaches using a single type of data have been applied to classify human tumors. Here we integrate imaging features and transcriptomic data using a prospectively collected tumor bank. We demonstrate that increased maximum standardized uptake value on pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography correlates with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene expression. We derived and validated 3 major molecular groups, namely squamous epithelial, squamous mesenchymal, and adenocarcinoma, using prospectively collected institutional (n = 67) and publicly available (n = 304) data sets. Patients wit...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jin Zhang, Ramachandran Rashmi, Matthew Inkman, Kay Jayachandran, Fiona Ruiz, Michael R. Waters, Perry W. Grigsby, Stephanie Markovina, Julie K. Schwarz Source Type: research

CC17 group B Streptococcus exploits integrins for neonatal meningitis development
In this study, we identified the host transmembrane receptors α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins as the ligands of Srr2, a major CC17-GBS–specific adhesin. Two motifs located in the binding region of Srr2 were responsible for the interaction between CC17-GBS and these integrins. We demonstrated in a blood-brain-barrier cellular model that both integrins contributed to the adhesion and internalization of CC17-GBS. Strikingly, both integrins were overexpressed during the postnatal period in the brain vessels of the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and contributed to juvenile suscepti...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Romain Deshayes de Cambronne, Agnès Fouet, Amandine Picart, Anne-Sophie Bourrel, Cyril Anjou, Guillaume Bouvier, Cristina Candeias, Abdelouhab Bouaboud, Lionel Costa, Anne-Cécile Boulay, Martine Cohen-Salmon, Isabelle Plu, Caroline Rambaud, Eva Faurober Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum protein TXNDC5 promotes renal fibrosis by enforcing TGF-β signaling in kidney fibroblasts
Renal fibrosis, a common pathological manifestation of virtually all types of chronic kidney disease (CKD), often results in diffuse kidney scarring and predisposes to end-stage renal disease. Currently, there is no effective therapy against renal fibrosis. Recently, our laboratory identified an ER-resident protein, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), as a critical mediator of cardiac fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses of renal biopsy specimens from patients with CKD revealed marked TXNDC5 upregulation in fibrotic kidneys, suggesting a potential role of TXNDC5 in renal fibrosis. Employing multiple fluorescence reporter...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yen-Ting Chen, Pei-Yu Jhao, Chen-Ting Hung, Yueh-Feng Wu, Sung-Jan Lin, Wen-Chih Chiang, Shuei-Liong Lin, Kai-Chien Yang Source Type: research

NOD2 drives early IL-33–dependent expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells during Crohn’s disease–like ileitis
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are enriched at barrier surfaces, including the gastrointestinal tract. While most studies have focused on the balance between pathogenic group 1 ILCs (ILC1s) and protective ILC3s in maintaining gut homeostasis and during chronic intestinal inflammation, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), less is known regarding ILC2s. Using an established murine model of CD-like ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mouse strain, we showed that ILC2s, compared with ILC1s and ILC3s, were increased within draining mesenteric lymph nodes and ilea of SAMP versus AKR (parental control) mice early, during the onset...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Carlo De Salvo, Kristine-Ann Buela, Brecht Creyns, Daniele Corridoni, Nitish Rana, Hannah L. Wargo, Chiara L. Cominelli, Peter G. Delaney, Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli, Séverine Vermeire, Theresa T. Pizarro Source Type: research

Targeting a Braf/Mapk pathway rescues podocyte lipid peroxidation in CoQ-deficiency kidney disease
Mutations affecting mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis lead to kidney failure due to selective loss of podocytes, essential cells of the kidney filter. Curiously, neighboring tubular epithelial cells are spared early in disease despite higher mitochondrial content. We sought to illuminate noncanonical, cell-specific roles for CoQ, independently of the electron transport chain (ETC). Here, we demonstrate that CoQ depletion caused by Pdss2 enzyme deficiency in podocytes results in perturbations in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism and the Braf/Mapk pathway rather than ETC dysfunction. Single-nucleus RNA-S...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eriene-Heidi Sidhom, Choah Kim, Maria Kost-Alimova, May Theng Ting, Keith Keller, Julian Avila-Pacheco, Andrew J.B. Watts, Katherine A. Vernon, Jamie L. Marshall, Estefanía Reyes-Bricio, Matthew Racette, Nicolas Wieder, Giulio Kleiner, Elizabeth J. Grink Source Type: research

Concerted roles of PTEN and ATM in controlling hematopoietic stem cell fitness and dormancy
In order to sustain proficient life-long hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must possess robust mechanisms to preserve their quiescence and genome integrity. DNA-damaging stress can perturb HSC homeostasis by affecting their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. Ablation of the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a master regulator of the DNA damage response, impairs HSC fitness. Paradoxically, we show here that loss of a single allele of Atm enhances HSC functionality in mice. To explain this observation, we explored a possible link between ATM and the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin hom...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jerome Fortin, Christian Bassi, Parameswaran Ramachandran, Wanda Y. Li, Ruxiao Tian, Ida Zarrabi, Graham Hill, Bryan E. Snow, Jillian Haight, Chantal Tobin, Kelsey Hodgson, Andrew Wakeham, Vuk Stambolic, Tak W. Mak Source Type: research

Turbinmicin inhibits Candida biofilm growth by disrupting fungal vesicle–mediated trafficking
The emergence of drug-resistant fungi has prompted an urgent threat alert from the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Biofilm assembly by these pathogens further impairs effective therapy. We recently identified an antifungal, turbinmicin, that inhibits the fungal vesicle–mediated trafficking pathway and demonstrates broad-spectrum activity against planktonically growing fungi. During biofilm growth, vesicles with unique features play a critical role in the delivery of biofilm extracellular matrix components. As these components are largely responsible for the drug resistance associated with biofilm growth, we exp...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Miao Zhao, Fan Zhang, Robert Zarnowski, Kenneth Barns, Ryley Jones, Jen Fossen, Hiram Sanchez, Scott R. Rajski, Anjon Audhya, Tim S. Bugni, David R. Andes Source Type: research

Renal tubule Cpt1a overexpression protects from kidney fibrosis by restoring mitochondrial homeostasis
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major epidemiological, clinical, and biomedical challenge. During CKD, renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) present a persistent inflammatory and profibrotic response. Fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the main source of energy for TECs, is reduced in kidney fibrosis and contributes to its pathogenesis. To determine whether gain of function in FAO (FAO-GOF) could protect from fibrosis, we generated a conditional transgenic mouse model with overexpression of the fatty acid shuttling enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A (CPT1A) in TECs. Cpt1a-knockin (CPT1A-KI) mice subjected to 3 mode...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Verónica Miguel, Jessica Tituaña, J. Ignacio Herrero, Laura Herrero, Dolors Serra, Paula Cuevas, Coral Barbas, Diego Rodríguez Puyol, Laura Márquez-Expósito, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Carolina Castillo, Xin Sheng, Katalin Susztak, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jordi Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9 directed to the Ube3a antisense transcript improves Angelman syndrome phenotype in mice
This study provides compelling evidence to further investigate editing of the homologous region of the human UBE3A-ATS because this may provide a lasting therapeutic effect for patients with AS. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ralf S. Schmid, Xuefeng Deng, Priyalakshmi Panikker, Msema Msackyi, Camilo Breton, James M. Wilson Source Type: research

From the gut to bone: connecting the gut microbiota with Th17 T lymphocytes and postmenopausal osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a serious clinical problem that often follows the accelerated bone loss that occurs after the estrogen withdrawal of menopause. In order to better understand the mechanism that produces estrogen withdrawal–induced bone loss, Yu and Pal et al., as reported in this issue of the JCI, examined mice that underwent ovariectomy (OVX). In C57BL/6 mice with enhanced Th17 cells in gut tissue, the authors demonstrated that OVX increased migration of TNF-expressing Th17 cells from the gut to the bone marrow. Furthermore, they found that manipulation of the pathways by which lymphocytes migrate and home to bone ma...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joseph Lorenzo Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine testing in pregnant females is necessary
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sabra L. Klein, Patrick S. Creisher, Irina Burd Source Type: research

Altered glycosylation of IgG4 promotes lectin complement pathway activation in anti-PLA2R1–associated membranous nephropathy
Primary membranous nephropathy (pMN) is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. In most cases, this autoimmune kidney disease is associated with autoantibodies against the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) expressed on kidney podocytes, but the mechanisms leading to glomerular damage remain elusive. Here, we developed a cell culture model using human podocytes and found that anti-PLA2R1–positive pMN patient sera or isolated IgG4, but not IgG4-depleted sera, induced proteolysis of the 2 essential podocyte proteins synaptopodin and NEPH1 in the presence of complement, resulting in perturbations of the ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: George Haddad, Johan M. Lorenzen, Hong Ma, Noortje de Haan, Harald Seeger, Christelle Zaghrini, Simone Brandt, Malte Kölling, Urs Wegmann, Bence Kiss, Gábor Pál, Péter Gál, Rudolf P. Wüthrich, Manfred Wuhrer, Laurence H. Beck, David J. Salant, Géra Source Type: research

Evolutionary conservation of human ketodeoxynonulosonic acid production is independent of sialoglycan biosynthesis
Human metabolic incorporation of nonhuman sialic acid (Sia) N-glycolylneuraminic acid into endogenous glycans generates inflammation via preexisting antibodies, which likely contributes to red meat–induced atherosclerosis acceleration. Exploring whether this mechanism affects atherosclerosis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), we instead found serum accumulation of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid (Kdn), a Sia prominently expressed in cold-blooded vertebrates. In patients with ESRD, levels of the Kdn precursor mannose also increased, but within a normal range. Mannose ingestion by healthy voluntee...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kunio Kawanishi, Sudeshna Saha, Sandra Diaz, Michael Vaill, Aniruddha Sasmal, Shoib S. Siddiqui, Biswa Choudhury, Kumar Sharma, Xi Chen, Ian C. Schoenhofen, Chihiro Sato, Ken Kitajima, Hudson H. Freeze, Anja Münster-Kühnel, Ajit Varki Source Type: research

Biallelic loss-of-function variants in PLD1 cause congenital right-sided cardiac valve defects and neonatal cardiomyopathy
In conclusion, our study provides a more detailed understanding of disease mechanisms and phenotypic expression associated with PLD1 loss of function. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - March 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Najim Lahrouchi, Alex V. Postma, Christian M. Salazar, Daniel M. De Laughter, Fleur Tjong, Lenka Piherová, Forrest Z. Bowling, Dominic Zimmerman, Elisabeth M. Lodder, Asaf Ta-Shma, Zeev Perles, Leander Beekman, Aho Ilgun, Quinn Gunst, Mariam Hababa, Dori Source Type: research

MAPK4 promotes prostate cancer by concerted activation of androgen receptor and AKT
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for PCa cell growth/survival and remains a key therapeutic target for lethal castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). GATA2 is a pioneer transcription factor crucial for inducing AR expression/activation. We recently reported that MAPK4, an atypical MAPK, promotes tumor progression via noncanonical activation of AKT. Here, we demonstrated that MAPK4 activated AR by enhancing GATA2 transcriptional expression and stabilizing GATA2 protein through repression of GATA2 ubiquitination/degradation. MAPK4 expres...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tao Shen, Wei Wang, Wolong Zhou, Ilsa Coleman, Qinbo Cai, Bingning Dong, Michael M. Ittmann, Chad J. Creighton, Yingnan Bian, Yanling Meng, David R. Rowley, Peter S. Nelson, David D. Moore, Feng Yang Source Type: research

Paracardial fat and vitamin A: a mechanism for regulating exercise performance
Different fat depots have different physiologic functions. In a provocative study published in this issue of the JCI, Petrosino et al. investigate the role of paracardial fat in whole-body metabolism and exercise physiology. Petrosino et al. show that paracardial fat samples from older mice or mice fed a Western diet had decreased levels of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1). Paracardial fat samples from humans with obesity also had decreased levels of ADH1 mRNA, supporting the translational relevance. Additional experiments with Adh1-KO mice and surgical fat transplantation experiments provide additional mechanistic insight. ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Leroy C. Joseph, John P. Morrow Source Type: research

Multiorgan failure with abnormal receptor metabolism in mice mimicking Samd9/9L syndromes
Autosomal dominant sterile α motif domain containing 9 (Samd9) and Samd9L (Samd9/9L) syndromes are a large subgroup of currently established inherited bone marrow failure syndromes that includes myelodysplasia, infection, growth restriction, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy (MIRAGE), ataxia pancytopenia, and familial monosomy 7 syndromes. Samd9/9L genes are located in tandem on chromosome 7 and have been known to be the genes responsible for myeloid malignancies associated with monosomy 7. Additionally, as IFN-inducible genes, Samd9/9L are crucial for protection against viruses. Samd9/9L syndro...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Akiko Nagamachi, Akinori Kanai, Megumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Okuda, Akihiko Yokoyama, Satoru Shinriki, Hirotaka Matsui, Toshiya Inaba Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal motility disorders in neurologic disease
The extrinsic and autonomic nervous system intricately controls the major functions of the gastrointestinal tract through the enteric nervous system; these include motor, secretory, sensory, storage, and excretory functions. Disorders of the nervous system affecting gastrointestinal tract function manifest primarily as abnormalities in motor (rather than secretory) functions. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologic disorders include sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Diseases of the entire neural axis ranging from the cerebral hemisphe...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael Camilleri Source Type: research

ActRIIB:ALK4-Fc alleviates muscle dysfunction and comorbidities in murine models of neuromuscular disorders
Patients with neuromuscular disorders suffer from a lack of treatment options for skeletal muscle weakness and disease comorbidities. Here, we introduce as a potential therapeutic agent a heterodimeric ligand-trapping fusion protein, ActRIIB:ALK4-Fc, which comprises extracellular domains of activin-like kinase 4 (ALK4) and activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB), a naturally occurring pair of type I and II receptors belonging to the TGF-β superfamily. By surface plasmon resonance (SPR), ActRIIB:ALK4-Fc exhibited a ligand binding profile distinctly different from that of its homodimeric variant ActRIIB-Fc, sequestering Act...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jia Li, Maureen Fredericks, Marishka Cannell, Kathryn Wang, Dianne Sako, Michelle C. Maguire, Rosa Grenha, Katia Liharska, Lavanya Krishnan, Troy Bloom, Elitza P. Belcheva, Pedro A. Martinez, Roselyne Castonguay, Sarah Keates, Mark J. Alexander, Hyunwoo C Source Type: research

Paracardial fat remodeling affects systemic metabolism through alcohol dehydrogenase 1
The relationship between adiposity and metabolic health is well established. However, very little is known about the fat depot, known as paracardial fat (pCF), located superior to and surrounding the heart. Here, we show that pCF remodels with aging and a high-fat diet and that the size and function of this depot are controlled by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1), an enzyme that oxidizes retinol into retinaldehyde. Elderly individuals and individuals with obesity have low ADH1 expression in pCF, and in mice, genetic ablation of Adh1 is sufficient to drive pCF accumulation, dysfunction, and global impairments in metabolic fle...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jennifer M. Petrosino, Jacob Z. Longenecker, Srinivasagan Ramkumar, Xianyao Xu, Lisa E. Dorn, Anna Bratasz, Lianbo Yu, Santosh Maurya, Vladimir Tolstikov, Valerie Bussberg, Paul M.L. Janssen, Muthu Periasamy, Michael A. Kiebish, Gregg Duester, Johannes vo Source Type: research

Inhibition of 2-hydroxyglutarate elicits metabolic reprogramming and mutant IDH1 glioma immunity in mice
Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-R132H; mIDH1) is a hallmark of adult gliomas. Lower grade mIDH1 gliomas are classified into 2 molecular subgroups: 1p/19q codeletion/TERT-promoter mutations or inactivating mutations in α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) and TP53. This work focuses on glioma subtypes harboring mIDH1, TP53, and ATRX inactivation. IDH1-R132H is a gain-of-function mutation that converts α-ketoglutarate into 2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). The role of D-2HG within the tumor microenvironment of mIDH1/mATRX/mTP53 gliomas remains unexplored. Inhibition of D-2HG, when used as m...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Padma Kadiyala, Stephen V. Carney, Jessica C. Gauss, Maria B. Garcia-Fabiani, Santiago Haase, Mahmoud S. Alghamri, Felipe J. Núñez, Yayuan Liu, Minzhi Yu, Ayman Taher, Fernando M. Nunez, Dan Li, Marta B. Edwards, Celina G. Kleer, Henry Appelman, Yilun S Source Type: research

Selective glutamine metabolism inhibition in tumor cells improves antitumor T lymphocyte activity in triple-negative breast cancer
Rapidly proliferating tumor and immune cells need metabolic programs that support energy and biomass production. The amino acid glutamine is consumed by effector T cells and glutamine-addicted triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, suggesting that a metabolic competition for glutamine may exist within the tumor microenvironment, potentially serving as a therapeutic intervention strategy. Here, we report that there is an inverse correlation between glutamine metabolic genes and markers of T cell–mediated cytotoxicity in human basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) patient data sets, with increased glutamine metabolism a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Deanna N. Edwards, Verra M. Ngwa, Ariel L. Raybuck, Shan Wang, Yoonha Hwang, Laura C. Kim, Sung Hoon Cho, Yeeun Paik, Qingfei Wang, Siyuan Zhang, H. Charles Manning, Jeffrey C. Rathmell, Rebecca S. Cook, Mark R. Boothby, Jin Chen Source Type: research

Severe insulin resistance syndromes
are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders characterized by profound insulin resistance, substantial metabolic abnormalities, and a variety of clinical manifestations and complications. The etiology of these syndromes may be hereditary or acquired, due to defects in insulin potency and action, cellular responsiveness to insulin, and/or aberrations in adipose tissue function or development. Over the past decades, advances in medical technology, particularly in genomic technologies and genetic analyses, have provided insights into the underlying pathophysiological pathways and facilitated the more precise identification of...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Angeliki M. Angelidi, Andreas Filippaios, Christos S. Mantzoros Source Type: research

Active bacterial modification of the host environment through RNA polymerase II inhibition
Unlike pathogens, which attack the host, commensal bacteria create a state of friendly coexistence. Here, we identified a mechanism of bacterial adaptation to the host niche, where they reside. Asymptomatic carrier strains were shown to inhibit RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in host cells by targeting Ser2 phosphorylation, a step required for productive mRNA elongation. Assisted by a rare, spontaneous loss-of-function mutant from a human carrier, the bacterial NlpD protein was identified as a Pol II inhibitor. After internalization by host cells, NlpD was shown to target constituents of the Pol II phosphorylation complex (RPB1...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Inès Ambite, Nina A. Filenko, Elisabed Zaldastanishvili, Daniel S.C. Butler, Thi Hien Tran, Arunima Chaudhuri, Parisa Esmaeili, Shahram Ahmadi, Sanchari Paul, Björn Wullt, Johannes Putze, Swaine L. Chen, Ulrich Dobrindt, Catharina Svanborg Source Type: research

Regulation and targeting of androgen receptor nuclear localization in castration-resistant prostate cancer
Nuclear localization of the androgen receptor (AR) is necessary for its activation as a transcription factor. Defining the mechanisms regulating AR nuclear localization in androgen-sensitive cells and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells is fundamentally important and clinically relevant. According to the classical model of AR intracellular trafficking, androgens induce AR nuclear import and androgen withdrawal causes AR nuclear export. The present study has led to an updated model that AR could be imported in the absence of androgens, ubiquitinated, and degraded in the...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shidong Lv, Qiong Song, Guang Chen, Erdong Cheng, Wei Chen, Ryan Cole, Zeyu Wu, Laura E. Pascal, Ke Wang, Peter Wipf, Joel B. Nelson, Qiang Wei, Wenhua Huang, Zhou Wang Source Type: research

Bone marrow niche ATP levels determine leukemia-initiating cell activity via P2X7 in leukemic models
How particular bone marrow niche factors contribute to the leukemogenic activities of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that ATP levels were markedly increased in the bone marrow niches of mice with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and LICs preferentially localized to the endosteal niche with relatively high ATP levels, as indicated by a sensitive ATP indicator. ATP could efficiently induce the influx of ions into LICs in an MLL-AF9–induced murine AML model via the ligand-gated ion channel P2X7. P2x7 deletion led to notably impaired homing and self-renewal capacities of LICs and c...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiaoxiao He, Jiangbo Wan, Xiaona Yang, Xiuze Zhang, Dan Huang, Xie Li, Yejun Zou, Chiqi Chen, Zhuo Yu, Li Xie, Yaping Zhang, Ligen Liu, Shangang Li, Yuzheng Zhao, Hongfang Shao, Ye Yu, Junke Zheng Source Type: research

Aberrant AZIN2 and polyamine metabolism precipitates tau neuropathology
We report a unique interaction between polyamine metabolism, behavioral impairment, and tau fate. Polyamines are ubiquitous aliphatic molecules that support neuronal function, axonal integrity, and cognitive processing. Transient increases in polyamine metabolism hallmark the cell’s response to various insults, known as the polyamine stress response (PSR). Dysregulation of gene transcripts associated with polyamine metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains were observed, and we found that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) increased to the greatest extent. We showed that sustained AZIN2 ov...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Leslie A. Sandusky-Beltran, Andrii Kovalenko, Devon S. Placides, Kevin Ratnasamy, Chao Ma, Jerry B. Hunt Jr., Huimin Liang, John Ivan T. Calahatian, Camilla Michalski, Margaret Fahnestock, Laura J. Blair, April L. Darling, Jeremy D. Baker, Sarah N. Fontai Source Type: research

Muscle Krüppel-like factor 15 regulates lipid flux and systemic metabolic homeostasis
Skeletal muscle is a major determinant of systemic metabolic homeostasis that plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. By contrast, despite being a major user of fatty acids, and evidence that muscular disorders can lead to abnormal lipid deposition (e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in myopathies), our understanding of skeletal muscle regulation of systemic lipid homeostasis is not well understood. Here we show that skeletal muscle Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) coordinates pathways central to systemic lipid homeostasis under basal conditions and in response to nutrient overload. Mice...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Liyan Fan, David R. Sweet, Domenick A. Prosdocimo, Vinesh Vinayachandran, Ernest R. Chan, Rongli Zhang, Olga Ilkayeva, Yuan Lu, Komal S. Keerthy, Chloe E. Booth, Christopher B. Newgard, Mukesh K. Jain Source Type: research

Monoclonal antibodies targeting nonstructural viral antigens can activate ADCC against human cytomegalovirus
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes severe disease following congenital infection and in immunocompromised individuals. No vaccines are licensed, and there are limited treatment options. We now show that the addition of anti-HCMV antibodies (Abs) can activate NK cells prior to the production of new virions, through Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), overcoming viral immune evasins. Quantitative proteomics defined the most abundant HCMV proteins on the cell surface, and we screened these targets to identify the viral antigens responsible for activating ADCC. Surprisingly, these were not...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Isa Murrell, Lihui Zhuang, Rebecca J. Aicheler, Eleanor Lim, Kelly L. Miners, Kristin Ladell, Nicolás M. Suárez, David A. Price, Andrew J. Davison, Gavin W.G. Wilkinson, Mark R. Wills, Michael P. Weekes, Eddie C.Y. Wang, Richard Source Type: research

Disrupting the DREAM transcriptional repressor complex induces apolipoprotein overexpression and systemic amyloidosis in mice
DREAM (Dp, Rb-like, E2F, and MuvB) is a transcriptional repressor complex that regulates cell proliferation, and its loss causes neonatal lethality in mice. To investigate DREAM function in adult mice, we used an assembly-defective p107 protein and conditional deletion of its redundant family member p130. In the absence of DREAM assembly, mice displayed shortened survival characterized by systemic amyloidosis but no evidence of excessive cellular proliferation. Amyloid deposits were found in the heart, liver, spleen, and kidneys but not the brain or bone marrow. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by mass spectrom...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pirunthan Perampalam, Haider M. Hassan, Grace E. Lilly, Daniel T. Passos, Joseph Torchia, Patti K. Kiser, Andrea Bozovic, Vathany Kulasingam, Frederick A. Dick Source Type: research

The lung microenvironment shapes a dysfunctional response of alveolar macrophages in aging
Alveolar macrophages orchestrate the response to viral infections. Age-related changes in these cells may underlie the differential severity of pneumonia in older patients. We performed an integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data that revealed homogenous age-related changes in the alveolar macrophage transcriptome in humans and mice. Using genetic lineage tracing with sequential injury, heterochronic adoptive transfer, and parabiosis, we found that the lung microenvironment drove an age-related resistance of alveolar macrophages to proliferation that persisted during influenza A viral infection. Ligand-receptor pair...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alexandra C. McQuattie-Pimentel, Ziyou Ren, Nikita Joshi, Satoshi Watanabe, Thomas Stoeger, Monica Chi, Ziyan Lu, Lango Sichizya, Raul Piseaux Aillon, Ching-I Chen, Saul Soberanes, Zhangying Chen, Paul A. Reyfman, James M. Walter, Kishore R. Anekalla, Jen Source Type: research

Testosterone replacement in aging men: an evidence-based patient-centric perspective
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shalender Bhasin Source Type: research

Research gaps in medical treatment of transgender/nonbinary people
With the growing number of transgender and gender-nonbinary individuals who are becoming visible, it is clear that there is a need to develop a rigorous evidence base to inform care practice. Transgender health research is often limited to HIV/AIDS or mental health research and is typically subsumed in larger studies with general LGBTQ focus. Although the number of knowledgeable health care providers remains modest, the model for the medical approach to transgender health is shifting owing to growing social awareness and an appreciation of a biological component. Gender-affirming medicine facilitates aligning the body of t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joshua D. Safer Source Type: research

Endothelium-derived semaphorin 3G attenuates ischemic retinopathy by coordinating β-catenin–dependent vascular remodeling
Abnormal angiogenesis and regression of the diseased retinal vasculature are key processes associated with ischemic retinopathies, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate vascular remodeling remain poorly understood. Here, we confirmed the specific expression of semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) in retinal endothelial cells (ECs), which was required for vascular remodeling and the amelioration of ischemic retinopathy. We found that Sema3G was elevated in the vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and in the neovascularization regression phase of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Endothelial-speci...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dan-Yang Chen, Ning-He Sun, Xiang Chen, Jun-Jie Gong, Song-Tao Yuan, Zi-Zhong Hu, Nan-Nan Lu, Jakob Körbelin, Kohji Fukunaga, Qing-Huai Liu, Ying-Mei Lu, Feng Han Source Type: research

PD-1 blockade improves Kupffer cell bacterial clearance in acute liver injury
Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) have systemic innate immune suppression and increased susceptibility to infections. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression by macrophages has been associated with immune suppression during sepsis and cancer. We therefore examined the role of the programmed cell death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway in regulating Kupffer cell (KC) inflammatory and antimicrobial responses in acetaminophen-induced (APAP-induced) acute liver injury. Using intravital imaging and flow cytometry, we found impaired KC bacterial clearance and systemic bacterial dissemination in mice with l...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Evangelos Triantafyllou, Cathrin L.C. Gudd, Marie-Anne Mawhin, Hannah C. Husbyn, Francesca M. Trovato, Matthew K. Siggins, Thomas O’Connor, Hiromi Kudo, Sujit K. Mukherjee, Julia A. Wendon, Christine Bernsmeier, Robert D. Goldin, Marina Botto, Wafa Kham Source Type: research

TREM2 sustains macrophage-hepatocyte metabolic coordination in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and sepsis
This study demonstrates that NAFLD is a risk factor for sepsis, providing a basis for precision treatment, and identifies hepatocyte-macrophage metabolic coordination and TREM2 as potential targets for future clinical trials. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jinchao Hou, Jue Zhang, Ping Cui, Yingyue Zhou, Can Liu, Xiaoliang Wu, Yun Ji, Sicong Wang, Baoli Cheng, Hui Ye, Liqi Shu, Kai Zhang, Di Wang, Jielin Xu, Qiang Shu, Marco Colonna, Xiangming Fang Source Type: research

Ovariectomy induces bone loss via microbial-dependent trafficking of intestinal TNF+ T cells and Th17 cells
Estrogen deficiency causes a gut microbiome–dependent expansion of BM Th17 cells and TNF-α–producing T cells. The resulting increased BM levels of IL-17a (IL-17) and TNF stimulate RANKL expression and activity, causing bone loss. However, the origin of BM Th17 cells and TNF+ T cells is unknown. Here, we show that ovariectomy (ovx) expanded intestinal Th17 cells and TNF+ T cells, increased their S1P receptor 1–mediated (S1PR1-mediated) egress from the intestine, and enhanced their subsequent influx into the BM through CXCR3- and CCL20-mediated mechanisms. Demonstrating the functional relevance of T c...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - February 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mingcan Yu, Subhashis Pal, Cameron W. Paterson, Jau-Yi Li, Abdul Malik Tyagi, Jonathan Adams, Craig M. Coopersmith, M. Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici Source Type: research