Integrated transcriptomic analysis of human tuberculosis granulomas and a biomimetic model identifies therapeutic targets
Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent global pandemic, and standard treatment for it has not changed for 30 years. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has undergone prolonged coevolution with humans, and patients can control Mtb even after extensive infection, demonstrating the fine balance between protective and pathological host responses within infected granulomas. We hypothesized that whole transcriptome analysis of human TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection could identify therapeutic targets, and that comparison with a noninfectious granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, would identify disease-specific pathol...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michaela T. Reichmann, Liku B. Tezera, Andres F. Vallejo, Milica Vukmirovic, Rui Xiao, James Reynolds, Sanjay Jogai, Susan Wilson, Ben Marshall, Mark G. Jones, Alasdair Leslie, Jeanine M. D’Armiento, Naftali Kaminski, Marta E. Polak, Paul Elkington Source Type: research

Interpreting and addressing suboptimal immune responses after COVID-19 vaccination in solid-organ transplant recipients
Transplant recipients were excluded from the initial clinical trials determining safety and efficacy of the landmark COVID-19 vaccines. Further, there is increasing evidence that immunosuppressed transplant recipients have a blunted antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination. In a concerning report by Sattler et al. in this issue of the JCI, kidney transplant recipients not only lacked a humoral response following two doses of Pfizer BNT162b2, but also displayed substantial impairment of the cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. This Commentary addresses potential strategies for transplant providers to evaluate and augm...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter G. Stock, Timothy J. Henrich, Dorry L. Segev, William A. Werbel Source Type: research

Targeting the αv integrin/TGF-β axis improves natural killer cell function against glioblastoma stem cells
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive brain cancer, recurs because glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to all standard therapies. We showed that GSCs, but not normal astrocytes, are sensitive to lysis by healthy allogeneic natural killer (NK) cells in vitro. Mass cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing of primary tumor samples revealed that GBM tumor–infiltrating NK cells acquired an altered phenotype associated with impaired lytic function relative to matched peripheral blood NK cells from patients with GBM or healthy donors. We attributed this immune evasion tactic to direct cell-to-cell cont...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hila Shaim, Mayra Shanley, Rafet Basar, May Daher, Joy Gumin, Daniel B. Zamler, Nadima Uprety, Fang Wang, Yuefan Huang, Konrad Gabrusiewicz, Qi Miao, Jinzhuang Dou, Abdullah Alsuliman, Lucila N. Kerbauy, Sunil Acharya, Vakul Mohanty, Mayela Mendt, Sufang Source Type: research

Do monogenic inborn errors of immunity cause susceptibility to severe COVID-19?
The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, has been associated globally with substantial morbidity and mortality. Numerous reports over the past year have described the clinical and immunological profiles of COVID-19 patients, and while some trends have emerged for risk stratification, they do not provide a complete picture. Therefore, efforts are ongoing to identify genetic susceptibility factors of severe disease. In this issue of the JCI, Povysil et al. performed a large, multiple-country study, sequencing genomes from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, along with population controls. Contrary to previous reports...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chris Cotsapas, Janna Saarela, Jocelyn R. Farmer, Vinod Scaria, Roshini S. Abraham Source Type: research

Zonulin as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs during or recently following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and is characterized by persistent fever, inflammation, and severe illness requiring hospitalization. The majority of patients with MIS-C also present with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. In this issue of the JCI, Yonker, Gilboa, and colleagues identified zonulin as a biomarker of GI permeability in children with MIS-C and present the results of an intriguing proof-of-concept study indicating that zonulin may repres...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tiffany Hensley-McBain, Jennifer A. Manuzak Source Type: research

Pathomechanisms and possible interventions in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Øystein Fluge, Karl J. Tronstad, Olav Mella Source Type: research

Foxo1 deletion promotes the growth of new lymphatic valves
Patients with congenital lymphedema suffer from tissue swelling in part due to mutations in genes regulating lymphatic valve development. Lymphatic valve leaflets grow and are maintained throughout life in response to oscillatory shear stress (OSS), which regulates gene transcription in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Here, we identified the first transcription factor, Foxo1, that repressed lymphatic valve formation by inhibiting the expression of valve-forming genes. We showed that both embryonic and postnatal ablation of Foxo1 in LECs induced additional valve formation in postnatal and adult mice in multiple tissues....
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joshua P. Scallan, Luz A. Knauer, Huayan Hou, Jorge A. Castorena-Gonzalez, Michael J. Davis, Ying Yang Source Type: research

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is driven by zonulin-dependent loss of gut mucosal barrier
CONCLUSION These mechanistic data on MIS-C pathogenesis provide insight into targets for diagnosing, treating, and preventing MIS-C, which are urgently needed for this increasingly common severe COVID-19–related disease in children. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lael M. Yonker, Tal Gilboa, Alana F. Ogata, Yasmeen Senussi, Roey Lazarovits, Brittany P. Boribong, Yannic C. Bartsch, Maggie Loiselle, Magali Noval Rivas, Rebecca A. Porritt, Rosiane Lima, Jameson P. Davis, Eva J. Farkas, Madeleine D. Burns, Nicola Young Source Type: research

Monocyte metabolic transcriptional programs associate with resistance to tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion
After extensive exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), most individuals acquire latent Mtb infection (LTBI) defined by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). To identify mechanisms of resistance to Mtb infection, we compared transcriptional profiles from highly exposed contacts who resist TST/IGRA conversion (resisters, RSTRs) and controls with LTBI using RNAseq. Gene sets related to carbon metabolism and free fatty acid (FFA) transcriptional responses enriched across 2 independent cohorts suggesting RSTR and LTBI monocytes have distinct activation states. We compared intra...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason D. Simmons, Phu T. Van, Catherine M. Stein, Violet Chihota, Thobani Ntshiqa, Pholo Maenetje, Glenna J. Peterson, Anthony Reynolds, Penelope Benchek, Kavindhran Velen, Katherine L. Fielding, Alison D. Grant, Andrew D. Graustein, Felicia K. Nguyen, Ch Source Type: research

ALKBH1-demethylated DNA N6-methyladenine modification triggers vascular calcification via osteogenic reprogramming in chronic kidney disease
Vascular calcification (VC) predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). To date, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We detected leukocyte DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) levels in patients with CKD with or without aortic arch calcification. We used arteries from CKD mice infected with vascular smooth muscle cell–targeted (VSMC-targeted) adeno-associated virus encoding alkB homolog 1 (Alkbh1) gene or Alkbh1 shRNA to evaluate features of calcification. We identified that leukocyte 6mA levels were significantly reduced as the severity of VC increased in patients with CKD. Decreased...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Liu Ouyang, Xiaoyan Su, Wenxin Li, Liangqiu Tang, Mengbi Zhang, Yongjun Zhu, Changming Xie, Puhua Zhang, Jie Chen, Hui Huang Source Type: research

TRIP13 modulates protein deubiquitination and accelerates tumor development and progression of B cell malignancies
Multiple myeloma (MM), a terminally differentiated B cell malignancy, remains difficult to cure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of MM may identify therapeutic targets and lead to a fundamental shift in treatment of the disease. Deubiquitination, like ubiquitination, is a highly regulated process, implicated in almost every cellular process. Multiple deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have been identified, but their regulation is poorly defined. Here, we determined that TRIP13 increases cellular deubiquitination. Overexpression of TRIP13 in mice and cultured cells resulted in excess cellular ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Can Li, Jiliang Xia, Reinaldo Franqui-Machin, Fangping Chen, Yanjuan He, Timothy Cody Ashby, Feixiang Teng, Hongwei Xu, Dingxiao Liu, Dongzheng Gai, Sarah K. Johnson, Frits van Rhee, Siegfried Janz, John D. Shaughnessy Jr., Guido Tricot, Ivana Frech, Feng Source Type: research

ALKBH1 reduces DNA N6-methyladenine to allow for vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease
Vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and one of the main risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. In this issue of the JCI, Ouyang and Su et al. report that Alkb homolog 1 (ALKBH1), a DNA demethylase, reduced DNA N6-methyladenine (6mA) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and leukocytes, thus leading to aortic arch calcification in the patients with CKD. During the progression of vascular calcification, increased ALKBH1 expression was linked to decreased 6mA levels, findings that the authors noted in both patients with CKD and CKD...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ke Zhu, Jochen Reiser Source Type: research

Rare loss-of-function variants in type I IFN immunity genes are not associated with severe COVID-19
A recent report found that rare predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants across 13 candidate genes in TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I IFN pathways explain up to 3.5% of severe COVID-19 cases. We performed whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing of 1,864 COVID-19 cases (713 with severe and 1,151 with mild disease) and 15,033 ancestry-matched population controls across 4 independent COVID-19 biobanks. We tested whether rare pLOF variants in these 13 genes were associated with severe COVID-19. We identified only 1 rare pLOF mutation across these genes among 713 cases with severe COVID-19 and observed no enrichment of pLOFs i...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gundula Povysil, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Ning Shang, Chen Wang, Atlas Khan, Manal Alaamery, Tomoko Nakanishi, Sirui Zhou, Vincenzo Forgetta, Robert J.M. Eveleigh, Mathieu Bourgey, Naveed Aziz, Steven J.M. Jones, Bartha Knoppers, Stephen W. Scherer, Lisa Source Type: research

Discriminatory plasma biomarkers predict specific clinical phenotypes of necrotizing soft-tissue infections
CONCLUSIONS This study identifies predictive biomarkers for NSTI clinical phenotypes of potential value for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches in NSTIs.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01790698.FUNDING Center for Innovative Medicine (CIMED); Region Stockholm; Swedish Research Council; European Union; Vinnova; Innovation Fund Denmark; Research Council of Norway; Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development; DLR Federal Ministry of Education and Research; and Swedish Children’s Cancer Foundation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laura M. Palma Medina, Eivind Rath, Sanjeevan Jahagirdar, Trond Bruun, Martin B. Madsen, Kristoffer Strålin, Christian Unge, Marco Bo Hansen, Per Arnell, Michael Nekludov, Ole Hyldegaard, Magda Lourda, Vitor A.P. Martins dos Santos, Edoardo Saccenti, Ste Source Type: research

Sex-dependent compensatory mechanisms preserve blood pressure homeostasis in prostacyclin receptor–deficient mice
Inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) are in the early phase of clinical development. Deletion of mPges-1 in mice confers analgesia, restrains atherogenesis, and fails to accelerate thrombogenesis, while suppressing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but increasing the biosynthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2). In low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice, this last effect represents the dominant mechanism by which mPges-1 deletion restrains thrombogenesis, while suppression of PGE2 accounts for its antiatherogenic effect. However, the effect of mPges-1 depletion on blood pressure ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Soon Y. Tang, Hu Meng, Seán T. Anderson, Dimitra Sarantopoulou, Soumita Ghosh, Nicholas F. Lahens, Katherine N. Theken, Emanuela Ricciotti, Elizabeth J. Hennessy, Vincent Tu, Kyle Bittinger, Aalim M. Weiljie, Gregory R. Grant, Garret A. FitzGerald Source Type: research

FOXA1 overexpression suppresses interferon signaling and immune response in cancer
In this study, we found that FOXA1 overexpression inversely correlated with interferon (IFN) signature and antigen presentation gene expression in PCa and BCa patients. FOXA1 bound the STAT2 DNA-binding domain and suppressed STAT2 DNA-binding activity, IFN signaling gene expression, and cancer immune response independently of the transactivation activity of FOXA1 and its mutations detected in PCa and BCa. Increased FOXA1 expression promoted cancer immuno- and chemotherapy resistance in mice and PCa and BCa patients. These findings were also validated in bladder cancer expressing high levels of FOXA1. FOXA1 overexpression c...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yundong He, Liguo Wang, Ting Wei, Yu-Tian Xiao, Haoyue Sheng, Hengchuan Su, Daniel P. Hollern, Xiaoling Zhang, Jian Ma, Simeng Wen, Hongyan Xie, Yuqian Yan, Yunqian Pan, Xiaonan Hou, Xiaojia Tang, Vera J. Suman, Jodi M. Carter, Richard Weinshilboum, Liewe Source Type: research

Distinct projections from the infralimbic cortex exert opposing effects in modulating anxiety and fear
Anxiety-related disorders can be treated by cognitive therapies and transcranial magnetic stimulation, which involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Subregions of the mPFC have been implicated in mediating different and even opposite roles in anxiety-related behaviors. However, precise causal targets of these top-down connections among diverse possibilities have not been established. Here, we show that the lateral septum (LS) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) represent 2 direct targets of the infralimbic cortex (IL), a subregion of the mPFC that modulates anxiety and fear. Two projections were unexpectedly...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Jian-Lin Wu, Neng-Yuan Hu, Jia-Pai Zhuang, Wei-Peng Li, Sheng-Rong Zhang, Xiao-Wen Li, Jian-Ming Yang, Tian-Ming Gao Source Type: research

Mild COVID-19 despite autoantibodies against type I IFNs in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
We describe 4 patients with APS-1 and preexisting high titers of neutralizing autoantibodies against IFN-α and IFN-ω who contracted SARS-CoV-2, yet developed only mild symptoms of COVID-19. None of the patients developed dyspnea, oxygen requirement, or high temperature. All infected patients with APS-1 were females and younger than 26 years of age. Clinical penetrance of neutralizing autoantibodies against type I IFNs for severe COVID-19 is not complete. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Christian Meisel, Bengisu Akbil, Tim Meyer, Erwin Lankes, Victor M. Corman, Olga Staudacher, Nadine Unterwalder, Uwe Kölsch, Christian Drosten, Marcus A. Mall, Tilmann Kallinich, Dirk Schnabel, Christine Goffinet, Horst von Bernuth Source Type: research

Distinctive features of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is among the most important public health crises of our generation. Despite the promise of prevention offered by effective vaccines, patients with severe COVID-19 will continue to populate hospitals and intensive care units for the foreseeable future. The most common clinical presentation of severe COVID-19 is hypoxemia and respiratory failure, typical of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether the clinical features and pathobiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia differ from those of pneumonia secondary to other path...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: G.R. Scott Budinger, Alexander V. Misharin, Karen M. Ridge, Benjamin D. Singer, Richard G. Wunderink Source Type: research

Impaired humoral and cellular immunity after SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 (tozinameran) prime-boost vaccination in kidney transplant recipients
Novel mRNA-based vaccines have been proven to be powerful tools in combating the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, with BNT162b2 (trade name: Comirnaty) efficiently protecting individuals from COVID-19 across a broad age range. Still, it remains largely unknown how renal insufficiency and immunosuppressive medication affect development of vaccine-induced immunity. We therefore comprehensively analyzed humoral and cellular responses in kidney transplant recipients after the standard second vaccination dose. As opposed to all healthy vaccinees and the majority of hemodialysis patients, only 4 of 39 and 1 of 39 transplant...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 15, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Arne Sattler, Eva Schrezenmeier, Ulrike A. Weber, Alexander Potekhin, Friederike Bachmann, Henriette Straub-Hohenbleicher, Klemens Budde, Elena Storz, Vanessa Proß, Yasmin Bergmann, Linda M.L. Thole, Caroline Tizian, Oliver Hölsken, Andreas Diefenbach, Source Type: research

Targeting the gut to treat multiple sclerosis
The gut-brain axis (GBA) refers to the complex interactions between the gut microbiota and the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, together linking brain and gut functions. Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis and making it a potential therapeutic target. While research in the area is still in its infancy, a number of studies revealed that pwMS are more likely to exhibit altered microbiota, altered levels of short chain fatty acids and secondary bile products, and increased intestinal permeability. However, specific micr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laura Ghezzi, Claudia Cantoni, Gabriela V. Pinget, Yanjiao Zhou, Laura Piccio Source Type: research

Astrocytes propel neurovascular dysfunction during cerebral cavernous malformation lesion formation
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common neurovascular lesions caused by loss-of-function mutations in 1 of 3 genes, including KRIT1 (CCM1), CCM2, and PDCD10 (CCM3), and generally regarded as an endothelial cell-autonomous disease. Here we reported that proliferative astrocytes played a critical role in CCM pathogenesis by serving as a major source of VEGF during CCM lesion formation. An increase in astrocyte VEGF synthesis is driven by endothelial nitric oxide (NO) generated as a consequence of KLF2- and KLF4-dependent elevation of eNOS in CCM endothelium. The increased brain endothelial production of NO stabili...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Miguel Alejandro Lopez-Ramirez, Catherine Chinhchu Lai, Shady Ibrahim Soliman, Preston Hale, Angela Pham, Esau J. Estrada, Sara McCurdy, Romuald Girard, Riya Verma, Thomas Moore, Rhonda Lightle, Nicholas Hobson, Robert Shenkar, Orit Poulsen, Gabriel G. Ha Source Type: research

Dengue vaccine breakthrough infections reveal properties of neutralizing antibodies linked to protection
The 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1–4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect humans. Live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccines are at different phases of clinical testing. DENV vaccine developers have relied on neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) as a correlate of protection. A leading tetravalent vaccine (Dengvaxia) stimulated NAbs to the 4 DENV serotypes, yet overall vaccine efficacy was low in children who were DENV seronegative at baseline before vaccination. We compared the properties of (a) NAbs induced by WT DENV1 or DENV3 infections, which are strongly correlated with protection from repeat infections, an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sandra Henein, Cameron Adams, Matthew Bonaparte, Janice M. Moser, Alina Munteanu, Ralph Baric, Aravinda M. de Silva Source Type: research

Ubiquitin ligase RNF8 suppresses Notch signaling to regulate mammary development and tumorigenesis
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Li Li, Kiran Kumar Naidu Guturi, Brandon Gautreau, Parasvi S. Patel, Amine Saad, Mayako Morii, Francesca Mateo, Luis Palomero, Haithem Barbour, Antonio Gomez, Deborah Ng, Max Kotlyar, Chiara Pastrello, Hartland W. Jackson, Rama Khokha, Igor Jurisica, El B Source Type: research

A randomized double-blind controlled trial of convalescent plasma in adults with severe COVID-19
CONCLUSION In adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19, use of convalescent plasma was not associated with significant improvement in day 28 clinical status. However, convalescent plasma was associated with significantly improved survival. A possible explanation is that survivors remained hospitalized at their baseline clinical status.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04359810.FUNDING Amazon Foundation, Skoll Foundation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Max R. O’Donnell, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Matthew J. Cummings, Jessica E. Justman, Matthew R. Lamb, Christina M. Eckhardt, Neena M. Philip, Ying Kuen Cheung, Vinay Gupta, Esau João, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Maria Pia Diniz, Sandra Wagner Cardoso, Darryl Abra Source Type: research

ETV4 and ETV5 drive synovial sarcoma through cell cycle and DUX4 embryonic pathway control
Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy with no effective treatments for patients with metastasis. The synovial sarcoma fusion SS18-SSX, which recruits the SWI/SNF-BAF chromatin remodeling and polycomb repressive complexes, results in epigenetic activation of FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. In genetic FGFR-knockout models, culture, and xenograft synovial sarcoma models treated with the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398, we show that FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 were crucial for tumor growth. Transcriptome analyses of BGJ398-treated cells and histological and expression analyses of mouse and human synovial sarcoma tumors revealed preval...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joanna DeSalvo, Yuguang Ban, Luyuan Li, Xiaodian Sun, Zhijie Jiang, Darcy A. Kerr, Mahsa Khanlari, Maria Boulina, Mario R. Capecchi, Juha M. Partanen, Lin Chen, Tadashi Kondo, David M. Ornitz, Jonathan C. Trent, Josiane E. Eid Source Type: research

Nasal ciliated cells are primary targets for SARS-CoV-2 replication in the early stage of COVID-19
The upper respiratory tract is compromised in the early period of COVID-19, but SARS-CoV-2 tropism at the cellular level is not fully defined. Unlike recent single-cell RNA-Seq analyses indicating uniformly low mRNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry–related host molecules in all nasal epithelial cells, we show that the protein levels are relatively high and that their localizations are restricted to the apical side of multiciliated epithelial cells. In addition, we provide evidence in patients with COVID-19 that SARS-CoV-2 is massively detected and replicated within the multiciliated cells. We observed these findings du...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ji Hoon Ahn, JungMo Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Sung Yong Choi, Myung Jin Yang, Young Seok Ju, Young Tae Kim, Ho Min Kim, MD Tazikur Rahman, Man Ki Chung, Sang Duk Hong, Hosung Bae, Chang-Seop Lee, Gou Young Koh Source Type: research

Immunostimulatory bacterial antigen–armed oncolytic measles virotherapy significantly increases the potency of anti-PD1 checkpoint therapy
In this study, we sought to reverse local and systemic GBM-induced immunosuppression using the Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), a potent TLR2 agonist, as an immunostimulatory transgene expressed in an oncolytic measles virus (MV) platform, retargeted to allow viral entry through the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). While single-agent murine anti-PD1 treatment or repeat in situ immunization with MV-s-NAP-uPA provided modest survival benefit in MV-resistant syngeneic GBM models, the combination treatment led to synergy with a cure rate of 80% in mice bearing intracranial GL261 tum...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eleni Panagioti, Cheyne Kurokawa, Kimberly Viker, Arun Ammayappan, S. Keith Anderson, Sotiris Sotiriou, Kyriakos Chatzopoulos, Katayoun Ayasoufi, Aaron J. Johnson, Ianko D. Iankov, Evanthia Galanis Source Type: research

Neurodegenerative disorders and gut-brain interactions
Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) affect essential functions not only in the CNS, but also cause persistent gut dysfunctions, suggesting that they have an impact on both CNS and gut-innervating neurons. Although the CNS biology of NDs continues to be well studied, how gut-innervating neurons, including those that connect the gut to the brain, are affected by or involved in the etiology of these debilitating and progressive disorders has been understudied. Studies in recent years have shown how CNS and gut biology, aided by the gut-brain connecting neurons, modulate each other’s functions. These studies underscore the...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alpana Singh, Ted M. Dawson, Subhash Kulkarni Source Type: research

The Israeli study of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine in pregnancy: considering maternal and neonatal benefits
This study provides evidence to support the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy with protection to the neonate against infection, outlining clear vaccine benefits for both maternal and child health. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Irina Burd, Tomoshige Kino, James Segars Source Type: research

Dysregulation of PI3K and Hippo signaling pathways synergistically induces chronic pancreatitis via CTGF upregulation
The role of PI3K and Hippo signaling in chronic pancreatitis (CP) pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the involvement of these pathways in CP by examining the PI3K and Hippo signaling components PTEN and SAV1, respectively. We observed significant decreases in pancreatic PTEN and SAV1 levels in 2 murine CP models: repeated cerulein injection and pancreatic ductal ligation. Additionally, pancreas-specific deletion of Pten and Sav1 (DKO) induced CP in mice. Pancreatic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was markedly upregulated in both CP models and DKO mice, and pancreatic CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-&alph...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Takeshi Tamura, Takahiro Kodama, Katsuhiko Sato, Kazuhiro Murai, Teppei Yoshioka, Minoru Shigekawa, Ryoko Yamada, Hayato Hikita, Ryotaro Sakamori, Hirofumi Akita, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Randy L. Johnson, Hideki Yokoi, Masashi Mukoyama, Tomohide Tatsumi, Tetsuo Source Type: research

From human to mouse and back offers hope for patients with fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a highly prevalent, debilitating disease with heterogeneous symptoms of widespread pain and tenderness, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and impaired cognition. The cause of FMS is unknown, but the clinical constellation of symptoms and abnormalities in the neuroendocrine system, autonomic nervous system, and sleep implicate the nervous system in its pathogenesis. In this issue of the JCI, Goebel, Krock, et al. identified antibodies from patients with FMS that produce FMS in mice by binding to satellite glial cells (SGCs), which envelope sensory neurons. Because antibodies harvested from patients ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kevin J. Tracey Source Type: research

Passive transfer of fibromyalgia symptoms from patients to mice
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread pain and tenderness, and patients typically experience fatigue and emotional distress. The etiology and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia are not fully explained and there are no effective drug treatments. Here we show that IgG from FMS patients produced sensory hypersensitivity by sensitizing nociceptive neurons. Mice treated with IgG from FMS patients displayed increased sensitivity to noxious mechanical and cold stimulation, and nociceptive fibers in skin-nerve preparations from mice treated with FMS IgG displayed an increased responsiveness to cold and mechanical...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andreas Goebel, Emerson Krock, Clive Gentry, Mathilde R. Israel, Alexandra Jurczak, Carlos Morado Urbina, Katalin Sandor, Nisha Vastani, Margot Maurer, Ulku Cuhadar, Serena Sensi, Yuki Nomura, Joana Menezes, Azar Baharpoor, Louisa Brieskorn, Angelica Sand Source Type: research

Influenza vaccination in the elderly boosts antibodies against conserved viral proteins and egg-produced glycans
Seasonal influenza vaccination elicits a diminished adaptive immune response in the elderly, and the mechanisms of immunosenescence are not fully understood. Using Ig-Seq, we found a marked increase with age in the prevalence of cross-reactive (CR) serum antibodies that recognize both the H1N1 (vaccine-H1) and H3N2 (vaccine-H3) components of an egg-produced split influenza vaccine. CR antibodies accounted for 73% ± 18% of the serum vaccine responses in a cohort of elderly donors, 65% ± 15% in late middle-aged donors, and only 13% ± 5% in persons under 35 years of age. The antibody response to non-HA an...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jiwon Jung, Sophia T. Mundle, Irina V. Ustyugova, Andrew P. Horton, Daniel R. Boutz, Svetlana Pougatcheva, Ponraj Prabakaran, Jonathan R. McDaniel, Gregory R. King, Daechan Park, Maria D. Person, Congxi Ye, Bing Tan, Yuri Tanno, Jin Eyun Kim, Nicholas C. Source Type: research

Chronic T cell receptor stimulation unmasks NK receptor signaling in peripheral T cell lymphomas via epigenetic reprogramming
Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent a significant unmet medical need with dismal clinical outcomes. The T cell receptor (TCR) is emerging as a key driver of T lymphocyte transformation. However, the role of chronic TCR activation in lymphomagenesis and in lymphoma cell survival is still poorly understood. Using a mouse model, we report that chronic TCR stimulation drove T cell lymphomagenesis, whereas TCR signaling did not contribute to PTCL survival. The combination of kinome, transcriptome, and epigenome analyses of mouse PTCLs revealed a NK cell–like reprogramming of PTCL cells with expression of NK rece...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sylvain Carras, Dimitri Chartoire, Sylvain Mareschal, Maël Heiblig, Antoine Marçais, Rémy Robinot, Mirjam Urb, Roxane M. Pommier, Edith Julia, Amel Chebel, Aurélie Verney, Charlotte Bertheau, Emilie Bardel, Caroline Fezelot, Lucien Courtois, Camille L Source Type: research

Multiple-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 27 loci associated with measures of hemolysis following blood storage
Background The evolutionary pressure of endemic malaria and other erythrocytic pathogens has shaped variation in genes encoding erythrocyte structural and functional proteins, influencing responses to hemolytic stress during transfusion and disease.Methods We sought to identify such genetic variants in blood donors by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 12,353 volunteer donors, including 1,406 African Americans, 1,306 Asians, and 945 Hispanics, whose stored erythrocytes were characterized by quantitative assays of in vitro osmotic, oxidative, and cold-storage hemolysis.Results GWAS revealed 27 significant ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Grier P. Page, Tamir Kanias, Yuelong J. Guo, Marion C. Lanteri, Xu Zhang, Alan E. Mast, Ritchard G. Cable, Bryan R. Spencer, Joseph E. Kiss, Fang Fang, Stacy M. Endres-Dighe, Donald Brambilla, Mehdi Nouraie, Victor R. Gordeuk, Steve Kleinman, Michael P. B Source Type: research

Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Meenakshi Hegde, Malini Mukherjee, Zakaria Grada, Antonella Pignata, Daniel Landi, Shoba A. Navai, Amanda Wakefield, Kristen Fousek, Kevin Bielamowicz, Kevin K.H. Chow, Vita S. Brawley, Tiara T. Byrd, Simone Krebs, Stephen Gottschalk, Winfried S. Wels, Ma Source Type: research

The US biological sciences faculty gap in Asian representation
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: James Meixiong, Sherita Hill Golden Source Type: research

Healing and repair after myocardial infarction: the forgotten but resurgent basophil
The biphasic wound-healing response in the heart after myocardial infarction involves an initial inflammatory phase followed by a more prolonged period of inflammation resolution, tissue repair, and scar formation. Infiltrating proinflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages are key drivers of the inflammatory phase and are also the source of the locally generated reparative macrophages that promote inflammation resolution. In this issue of the JCI, Sicklinger et al. from the Leuschner laboratory uncover a salutary role for cardiac basophils in this process. The authors demonstrated that basophils promote...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sumanth D. Prabhu Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 viremia is associated with distinct proteomic pathways and predicts COVID-19 outcomes
This study included 300 participants with nucleic acid test–confirmed COVID-19. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 viremia levels at the time of presentation predicted adverse disease outcomes, with an adjusted OR of 10.6 (95% CI 4.4–25.5, P (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yijia Li, Alexis M. Schneider, Arnav Mehta, Moshe Sade-Feldman, Kyle R. Kays, Matteo Gentili, Nicole C. Charland, Anna L.K. Gonye, Irena Gushterova, Hargun K. Khanna, Thomas J. LaSalle, Kendall M. Lavin-Parsons, Brendan M. Lilley, Carl L. Lodenstein, Kasi Source Type: research

Efficient maternal to neonatal transfer of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine
CONCLUSION Antenatal BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination induces a robust maternal humoral response that effectively transfers to the fetus, supporting the role of vaccination during pregnancy.FUNDING Israel Science Foundation and the Weizmann Institute Fondazione Henry Krenter. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ofer Beharier, Romina Plitman Mayo, Tal Raz, Kira Nahum Sacks, Letizia Schreiber, Yael Suissa-Cohen, Rony Chen, Rachel Gomez-Tolub, Eran Hadar, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Yuval Jaffe Moshkovich, Tal Biron-Shental, Gil Shechter-Maor, Sivan Farladansky-Gershnabel Source Type: research

Basophils balance healing after myocardial infarction via IL-4/IL-13
In conclusion, we show that basophils promoted tissue repair after MI by increasing cardiac IL-4 and IL-13 levels. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Florian Sicklinger, Ingmar Sören Meyer, Xue Li, Daniel Radtke, Severin Dicks, Moritz P. Kornadt, Christina Mertens, Julia K. Meier, Kory J. Lavine, Yunhang Zhang, Tim Christian Kuhn, Tobias Terzer, Jyoti Patel, Melanie Boerries, Gabriele Schramm, Norbert Source Type: research

Integrative methylome-transcriptome analysis unravels cancer cell vulnerabilities in infant MLL-rearranged B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. As predicted by its prenatal origin, infant B-ALL (iB-ALL) shows an exceptionally silent DNA mutational landscape, suggesting that alternative epigenetic mechanisms may substantially contribute to its leukemogenesis. Here, we have integrated genome-wide DNA methylome and transcriptome data from 69 patients with de novo MLL-rearranged leukemia (MLLr) and non-MLLr iB-ALL leukemia uniformly treated according to the Interfant-99/06 protocol. iB-ALL methylome signatures display a plethora of common and specific alterations associated with chromatin...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 2, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Juan Ramón Tejedor, Clara Bueno, Meritxell Vinyoles, Paolo Petazzi, Antonio Agraz-Doblas, Isabel Cobo, Raúl Torres-Ruiz, Gustavo F. Bayón, Raúl F. Pérez, Sara López-Tamargo, Francisco Gutierrez-Agüera, Pablo Santamarina-Ojeda, Manuel Ramírez-Orell Source Type: research

Selective androgen receptor modulators activate the canonical prostate cancer androgen receptor program and repress cancer growth
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael D. Nyquist, Lisa S. Ang, Alexandra Corella, Ilsa M. Coleman, Michael P. Meers, Anthony J. Christiani, Cordell Pierce, Derek H. Janssens, Hannah E. Meade, Arnab Bose, Lauren Brady, Timothy Howard, Navonil De Sarkar, Sander B. Frank, Ruth F. Dumpit, Source Type: research

The deacylase SIRT5 supports melanoma viability by influencing chromatin dynamics
Cutaneous melanoma remains the most lethal skin cancer, and ranks third among all malignancies in terms of years of life lost. Despite the advent of immune checkpoint and targeted therapies, only roughly half of patients with advanced melanoma achieve a durable remission. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacylases that regulates metabolism and other biological processes. Germline Sirt5 deficiency is associated with mild phenotypes in mice. Here we showed that SIRT5 was required for proliferation and survival across all cutaneous melanoma genotypes tested, as well as uveal melanoma, a genetica...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: William Giblin, Lauren Bringman-Rodenbarger, Angela H. Guo, Surinder Kumar, Alexander C. Monovich, Ahmed M. Mostafa, Mary E. Skinner, Michelle Azar, Ahmed S.A. Mady, Carolina H. Chung, Namrata Kadambi, Keith-Allen Melong, Ho-Joon Lee, Li Zhang, Peter Sajj Source Type: research

IL-23 reshapes kidney resident cell metabolism and promotes local kidney inflammation
Interstitial kidney inflammation is present in various nephritides in which serum interleukin 23 (IL-23) is elevated. Here we showed that murine and human renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) expressing the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) responded to IL-23 by inducing intracellular calcium flux, enhancing glycolysis, and upregulating calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMK4), which resulted in suppression of the expression of the arginine-degrading enzyme arginase 1 (ARG1), thus increasing in situ levels of free L-arginine. Limited availability of arginine suppressed the ability of infiltrating T cells to proliferate and produce infl...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hao Li, Maria G. Tsokos, Rhea Bhargava, Iannis E. Adamopoulos, Hanni Menn-Josephy, Isaac E. Stillman, Philip Rosenstiel, Jarrat Jordan, George C. Tsokos Source Type: research

HIF-1α and HIF-2α redundantly promote retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic retinal disease
Therapies targeting VEGF have proven only modestly effective for the treatment of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy (PSR), the leading cause of blindness in patients with sickle cell disease. Here, we shift our attention upstream from the genes that promote retinal neovascularization (NV) to the transcription factors that regulate their expression. We demonstrated increased expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the ischemic inner retina of PSR eyes. Although both HIFs participated in promoting VEGF expression by hypoxic retinal Müller cells, HIF-1 alone was sufficient to promote retinal NV in mice, sugges...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jing Zhang, Yaowu Qin, Mireya Martinez, Miguel Flores-Bellver, Murilo Rodrigues, Aumreetam Dinabandhu, Xuan Cao, Monika Deshpande, Yu Qin, Silvia Aparicio-Domingo, Yuan Rui, Stephany Y. Tzeng, Shaima Salman, Jin Yuan, Adrienne W. Scott, Jordan J. Green, M Source Type: research

DNA methylome reveals cellular origin of cell-free DNA in spent medium of human preimplantation embryos
The discovery of embryonic cell–free DNA (cfDNA) in spent embryo culture media (SECM) has brought hope for noninvasive preimplantation genetic testing. However, the cellular origins of SECM cfDNA are not sufficiently understood, and methods for determining maternal DNA contamination are limited. Here, we performed whole-genome DNA methylation sequencing for SECM cfDNA. Our results demonstrated that SECM cfDNA was derived from blastocysts, cumulus cells, and polar bodies. We identified the cumulus-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and oocyte/polar body–specific DMRs, and established an algorithm ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yidong Chen, Yuan Gao, Jialin Jia, Liang Chang, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao, Fuchou Tang, Lu Wen, Jin Huang Source Type: research

A conversation with Jesse Roth, Ron Kahn, and Jeff Flier
(Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ushma S. Neill Source Type: research

First-dose mRNA vaccination is sufficient to reactivate immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in subjects who have recovered from COVID-19
The characterization of the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection may define current and future clinical practice. To determine the effect of the 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination schedule in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19–recovered subjects) compared with naive subjects, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 Spike–specific T and B cell responses, as well as specific IgA, IgG, IgM, and neutralizing antibodies titers in 22 individuals who received the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 11 of whom had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infe...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 16, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alessio Mazzoni, Nicoletta Di Lauria, Laura Maggi, Lorenzo Salvati, Anna Vanni, Manuela Capone, Giulia Lamacchia, Elisabetta Mantengoli, Michele Spinicci, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Seble Tekle Kiros, Arianna Rocca, Filippo Lagi, Maria Grazia Colao, Paola Parronc Source Type: research