Do All Dimensions of Sustainable Consumption Lead to Psychological Well-Being? Empirical Evidence from Young Consumers
This study examines the association between three dimension s of sustainable consumption: purchasing, simplifying and activism, and the six markers of psychological well-being in a sample of 423 young consumers. The findings show that the relationship between sustainable consumption and happiness is more intricate than depicted in previous studies. Happiness is mainly derived from simplifying behaviors, whereas engaging in activist behaviors is associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. Understanding the relationship between SC and well-being may help leverage points of action to support sustainable consumer...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - January 1, 2020 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Predator Free New Zealand and the ‘War’ on Pests: Is it a just War?
AbstractConservation policy in New Zealand is centred around an objective to totally eradicate three invasive species; the ship rat (Rattus rattus), the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and the stoat (Mustela erminea), by 2050. The preferred control method to achieve this is large scale poisoning operations with 1080 and similar toxins. This project is backed up by governmental and non-governmental agencies and surrounded with discourse of ‘war’ and ‘invasion’. The ‘Big Three’ predators are endowed with sinister motives as a means of mobilising support. This self-described &lsquo...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - December 16, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Regan ’s Lifeboat Case and the Additive Assumption
AbstractInthe Case for Animal Rights, Tom Regan considers a scenario where one must choose between killing either a human being or any number of dogs by throwing them from a lifeboat. Regan chooses the human being. His justification for this prescription is that the human being will suffer a greater harm from death than any of the dogs would. This prescription has met opposition on the grounds that the combined intrinsic value of the dogs ’ experiences outweighs those of a human being. This objection assumes that the intrinsic value of a whole is simply the sum of the intrinsic values of its parts. This paper offers ...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - December 16, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Environmental Individual Responsibility for Accumulated Consequences
AbstractClimate change and many environmental problems are caused by the accumulated effects of repeated actions by multiple individuals. Instead of relying on collective responsibility, I argue for a non-atomistic individual responsibility towards such environmental problems, encompassing omissions, ways of life, and consequences mediated by other agents. I suggest that the degree of causal responsibility of the agent must be balanced with  the degree of capacity-responsibility determined by the availability of doable alternatives. Then, the more an agent has powers as a group member, the more she is responsible to d...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - December 14, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Review of James Magrini: Ethical Responses to Nature ’s Call: Reticent Imperatives
(Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Laying Hen Genetics
AbstractDespite societal concerns about the welfare of commercial laying hens, little attention has been paid to the welfare implications of the choices made by the genetics companies involved with their breeding. These choices regarding trait selection and other aspects of breeding significantly affect living conditions for the more than 7 billion laying hens in the world. However, these companies must consider a number of different commercial and societal interests, beyond animal welfare concerns. In this article we map some of the relevant dilemmas faced by genetics companies in order to outline the scope of opportuniti...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Whose Justice is it Anyway? Mitigating the Tensions Between Food Security and Food Sovereignty
AbstractThis paper explores the tensions between two disparate approaches to addressing hunger worldwide: Food security and food sovereignty. Food security generally focuses on ensuring that people have economic and physical access to safe and nutritious food, while food sovereignty (or food justice) movements prioritize the right of people and communities to determine their agricultural policies and food cultures. As food sovereignty movements grew out of critiques of food security initiatives, they are often framed as conflicting approaches within the wider literature. This paper explores this tension, arguing that food ...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 20, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Moral Standing of Animals and Some Problems in Veterinarian Ethics
AbstractThis paper discusses theIndirect Duties View implying that, when our actions have no negative effects on humans, we can treat animals any way we wish. I offer several criticisms of this view. Subsequently, I explore some implications of rejecting this view that rise in the contexts of animal research and veterinarian ethics. (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 19, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Agricultural Big Data Analytics and the Ethics of Power
AbstractAgricultural Big Data analytics (ABDA) is being proposed to ensure better farming practices, decision-making, and a sustainable future for humankind. However, the use and adoption of these technologies may bring about potentially undesirable consequences, such as exercises of power. This paper will analyse Brey ’s five distinctions of power relationships (manipulative, seductive, leadership, coercive, and forceful power) and apply them to the use agricultural Big Data. It will be shown that ABDA can be used as a form of manipulative power to initiate cheap land grabs and acquisitions. Seductive power can be e...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

It ’s Not About Ethical Dilemmas: A Survey of Bavarian Veterinary Officers’ Opinions on Moral Challenges and an e-Learning Ethics Course
AbstractThe presented survey focused on moral challenges of Bavarian veterinary officers in their daily work and their expectations of an (e-learning) ethics module in their training program. The results suggest that Bavarian veterinary officers are confronted with morally challenging situations. However, they do not describe these challenges as dilemmas in which the veterinary officers do not know what the moral right choice would be. They are rather convinced to know what they should do from an ethical point of view but see difficulties with the realization as the crucial moral challenge of their profession. The particip...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - November 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Hsiao on the Moral Status of Animals: Two Simple Responses
AbstractAccording to a common view, animals have moral status. Further, a standard defense of this view is the Argument from Consciousness: animals have moral status because they are conscious and can experience pain and it would be bad were they to experience pain. In a series of papers (J Agric Environ Ethics 28(2):277 –291, 2015a, J Agric Environ Ethics 28(11):11270–1138, 2015b, J Agric Environ Ethics 30(1):37–54, 2017), Timothy Hsiao claims that animals do not have moral status and criticizes the Argument from Consciousness. This short paper defends the Argument from Consciousness by providing two sim...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethical Concerns in Poultry Production: A German Consumer Survey About Dual Purpose Chickens
AbstractThe paper offers insights into the acceptability of ethical issues in poultry production and how this situation provides an opportunity to transform the prevailing system into a more sustainable one. The survey among German consumers reveals that killing day-old chicks is a well-known practice and is rated as “very problematic”. In contrast, dual-purpose chickens are mostly unknown but are considered a positive alternative to killing day-old chicks (after the concept has been explained). Consumer clusters were identified regarding purchasing criteria for dual-purpose chickens, purchasing routines and so...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Responsible Innovation for Life: Five Challenges Agriculture Offers for Responsible Innovation in Agriculture and Food, and the Necessity of an Ethics of Innovation
AbstractIn this special issue we will investigate, from the perspective of agricultural ethics (e.g. animal welfare, agricultural and food ethics, environmental ethics etc.) the potential to develop a Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) approach to agriculture, and the limitations to such an enterprise. RRI is an emerging field in the European research and innovation (R&I) policy context that aims to balance economic, socio-cultural and environmental aspects in innovation processes. Because technological innovations can contribute significantly to the solution of societal challenges like climate change or food se...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Entanglements of Water Management
AbstractThis review essay investigates Andrea Ballestero ’sA Future History of Water (Duke University Press, Durham, 2019), Jeremy Schmidt ’sWater: Abundance, Scarcity, and Security in the Age of Humanity (New York University Press, New York, 2017), and Wade Graham ’s BraidedWaters: Environment and Society in Molokai, Hawai ’i (University of California, Oakland, 2018) within the wider theme of water-human relationships. More specifically, these books provide insight into the human dimensions of water management as they explore the process of how water impacts and drives economic, social, and politic...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Anthropodicy and the Fate of Humanity in the Anthropocene: From the Disenchantment of Evil to the Re-enchantment of Suffering
AbstractThe rise of a collective conscience of a new epoch, the Anthropocene, has brought to the fore scientists ’ predictions of irreversible damage done to the Earth’s ecosystems within barely a decade. The passive attitude worldwide of placing the task of overcoming the evil consequences of human activity on specialized forums (e.g., national governments and international organizations) has already prov ed to be insufficient. In this context, Hamilton seeks to continue Becker’s project of laying down the foundations of an “anthropodicy,” seen as a humanistic science meant to bring a partici...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Precautionary Principle in EU Regulation of GMOs: Socio-Economic Considerations and Ethical Implications of Biotechnology
This article addresses the issue of gap between science, ethics, and socio-economic considerations related to the cultivation and authorisation of GM crops. (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - October 3, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Biblical Gardens in Word Culture: Genesis and History
This study is to show the effects of the 20 years long scientific work to formulate the original genesis of the Biblical garden idea. The characteristics of 64 facilities situated in 14 countries has been presented for the first time so widely. This enabled us to show both the history of these gardens and how they are situated in the cultural and social context. The effect of various factors inspiring people of various professions to create Biblical gardens both near sacral buildings and within the secular areas has been evidenced. Biblical gardens exercise the principle s of gardens of senses and learning gardens. An...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - September 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Fast Food Sovereignty: Contradiction in Terms or Logical Next Step?
This article analyze s existing conceptualizations of fast food, explores fast food historically, and studies how food sovereignty can operationalize its tenets and priorities in situations where fast food is an unquestionable necessity. (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Book Review
(Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Inconsequential Contributions to Global Environmental Problems: A Virtue Ethics Account
AbstractThis paper proposes an answer to what Sandler calls ‘the problem of inconsequentialism’; the problem of providing justification for the claim that individuals should engage in unilateral reductions of their personal consumption, even though doing so will make an inconsequential contribution to mitigating the harmful impacts of the global environm ental problems that the aggregate of such consumption causes. I provide an answer to this problem by developing a virtue ethics-based argument that a limited but significant class of consumption actions performed by typical consumers in rich, industrialised eco...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Individuals ’ Contributions to Harmful Climate Change: The Fair Share Argument Restated
AbstractIn the climate ethics debate, scholars largely agree that individuals should promote institutions that ensure the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to establish that there are individual duties beyond compliance with and promotion of institutions. Duties of individuals to reduce their emissions are often objected to by arguing that an individual ’s emissions do not make a morally relevant difference. We challenge this argument from inconsequentialism in two ways. We first show why the argument also seems to undermine the case for duties to promote institutions that the arguments’ pr...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Individual Environmental Responsibility
Human beings are the cause of many current environmental problems. This poses the question of how to respond to these problems at the national and international level. However, many people ask themselves whether they should personally contribute to solving these problems and how they could (best) do so. This is the focus of this Special Issue on Individual Environmental Responsibility. The introduction proposes a way to structure this complex debate by distinguishing three broad clusters of arguments. The first cluster tackles the kind of ethical theory we need to properly address different aspects of individual responsibi...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Climate Ethics with an Ethnographic Sensibility
AbstractWhat responsibilities does each of us have to reduce or limit our greenhouse gas emissions? Advocates of individual emissions reductions acknowledge that there are limits to what we can reasonably demand from individuals. Climate ethics has not yet systematically explored those limits. Instead, it has become popular to suggest that such judgements should be ‘context-sensitive’ but this does not tell us what role different contextual factors should play in our moral thinking. The current approach to theory development in climate ethics is not likely to be the most effective way to fill this gap. In exist...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Individuals ’ Contributions to Harmful Climate Change: The Fair Shιιare Argument Restated
AbstractIn the climate ethics debate, scholars largely agree that individuals should promote institutions that ensure the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to establish that there are individual duties beyond compliance with and promotion of institutions. Duties of individuals to reduce their emissions are often objected to by arguing that an individual ’s emissions do not make a morally relevant difference. We challenge this argument from inconsequentialism in two ways. We first show why the argument also seems to undermine the case for duties to promote institutions that the arguments’ pr...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Individual Compensatory Duties for Historical Emissions and the Dead-Polluters Objection
AbstractDebates about individual responsibility for climate change revolve mainly around individual mitigation duties. Mitigation duties concern future impacts of climate change. Unfortunately, climate change has already caused important harms and it is foreseeable that it will cause more in the future, in spite of our best efforts. Thus, arguably, individuals might also have duties related to those harms. In this paper, I address the question of whether individuals are obligated to provide compensation for climate related harms that have already occurred. I explore two possible strategies to answer that question. Thestrai...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - August 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Why Be Cautious with Advocating Private Environmental Duties? Towards a Cooperative Ethos and Expressive Reasons
This article start from two opposing intuitions in the environmental duties debate. On the one hand, if our lifestyle causes environmental harm, then we have a duty to reduce that impact through lifestyle changes (lifestyle-matters intuition). On the other hand, many people share the intuition that environmental duties cannot demand to alter our lifestyle radically for environmental reasons. These two intuitions underlie the current dualism in the environmental duties debate: those arguing for lifestyle changes (private duties) and those arguing that our duties are limited to promoting just environmental institutions (prom...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

How New are New Harms Really? Climate Change, Historical Reasoning and Social Change
AbstractClimate change and other contemporary harms are often depicted asNew Harms because they seem to constitute unprecedented challenges. ThisNew Harms Discourse rests on two important premises, both of which we criticise on empirical grounds. First, we argue that thePremise of changed conditions of human interaction—according to which the conditions regarding whom people affect (and how) have changed recently and which emphasises the difference with past conditions of human interaction—risks obfuscating how humanity’s current predicament is merely the transient result of long-term, gradual processes a...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 26, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Veganism and Children: A Response to Marcus William Hunt
AbstractIn this paper I respond to Marcus William Hunt ’s argument that vegan parents have pro tanto reasons for not raising their children on a vegan diet because such a diet is potentially harmful to children’s physical and social well-being. In my rebuttal, first I show that in practice all vegan diets, with the exception of wacky diets, are bene ficial to children’s well-being (and adults as well); and that all animal-based diets are potentially unhealthful. Second, I show that vegan children are no more socially outcast than any other group. In other words, veganism does not harm the lives of ch...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Is Animal Suffering Really All That Matters? The Move from Suffering to Vegetarianism
AbstractThe animal liberation movement, among other goals, seeks an end to the use of animals for food. The philosophers who started the movement agree on the goal but differ in their approach: deontologists argue that rearing animals for food infringes animals ’ inherent right to life. Utilitarians claim that ending the use of animals for food will result in the maximization of utility. Virtue-oriented theorists argue that using animals for food is callus, self-indulgent, and unjust, in short, it’s an unvirtuous practice. Despite their different appro aches, arguments for vegetarianism or veganism have a commo...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Patel, Raj and Stephen Moore: A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet
AbstractThis work reviews and relates relevant information from the book.A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet. In this book the authors trace how seven essential ‘things” were made cheap by capitalism, pushing the closer to environmental catastrophe. The seven ‘things’ investigated by Patel and Moore are nature, money, work, care, food, energy and lives. The authors examine the history of each ‘cheap’ thing and way capitalism has rendered it a co mmodity and then cheap. The authors employ the term ‘cheap not in a ...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 9, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Genome Editing and Responsible Innovation, Can They Be Reconciled?
AbstractGenome editing is revolutionising the field of genetics, which includes novel applications to food animals. Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has been advocated as a way of ensuring that a wider-range of stakeholders and publics are able to engage with new and emerging technologies to inform decision making from their perspectives and values. We posit that genome editing is now proceeding at such a fast rate, and in so many different directions, such as to overwhelm attempts to achieving a more reflective pace. An alternative location for reflection is during the much slower process of taking products from ...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - July 8, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Glitters as a Source of Primary Microplastics: An Approach to Environmental Responsibility and Ethics
AbstractThis paper is about “glitters”, one of the sources of primary microplastics, which, in turn, are deemed an emerging source of pollutants affecting the environment. Today, most glitters available on the market are essentially microplastics, as they are made of polyesters and are of a size smaller than 5 mm. The tin y, shiny, decorative and colorful glitters are used in a wide range of products including but not limited to make-up or craft materials, clothing, shoes, bags, ornaments, and various objects. The marketing of micron-sized plastic materials, the environmental risks of which are no longer d...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 28, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethics in the Anthropocene: Moral Responses to the Climate Crisis
AbstractThis review essay looks at Andrew Brei ’s edited volume,Ecology,ethics and hope (Rowman& Littlefield, London,2016), Candis Callison ’sHow climate change comes to matter: The communal life of facts (Duke University Press, Durham,2014), Randall Curren and Ellen Metzger ’sLiving well now and in the future: Why sustainability matters (MIT Press, Cambridge,2017), Willis Jenkins ’The future of ethics: Sustainability,social justice,and religious creativity (Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C.,2013), and Byron Williston ’sThe Anthropocene project: Virtue in the age of climate cha...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 25, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Carlo Alvaro: Ethical Veganism, Virtue Ethics, and the Great Soul
(Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Conceptualization of Ecological Management: Practice, Frameworks and Philosophy
AbstractThis paper investigates practice, frameworks and philosophy in the field of ecological management, a novel integrative approach to closing the gap between ecological and economic theoretical models and ecological and economic behavior. First, I will present the current status in this emerging field and discuss management in relation to various sub-disciplines, including agroecology, circular economy, industrial ecology, and urban sustainability. This provides a basis to analyze the theoretical frameworks found in profitable, ecologically-based businesses and identify key general features that characterize this appr...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 21, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Is Speciesism Wrong by Definition?
AbstractOscar Horta has argued that speciesism is wrong by definition. In his view, there can be no more substantive debate about the justification of speciesism than  there can be about the legality of murder, for it stems from the definition of “speciesism” that speciesism is unjustified just as it stems from the definition of “murder” that murder is illegal. The present paper is a case against this conception. I distinguish two issues: one is descript ive (Is speciesism wrong by definition?) and the other normative (Should speciesism be wrong by definition?). Relying on philosophers&rsq...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 20, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Pain in Pig Production: Text Mining Analysis of the Scientific Literature
This study reviewed the interest of the scientific research on the pain issue in pig production to assess if the societal instances may be a driving force for the research activity. A li terature search protocol was set up to identify the peer-reviewed papers published between 1970 and 2017 that covered the topic of ‘pain in pigs’ using Scopus®, database of Elsevier ©. One hundred and thirty papers were selected and they were mainly focused on the practice of castration (64%) followed by tail docking (24%). The scientific community first focused on these painful practices as a way to improve production...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Moral Complexity of Agriculture: A Challenge for Corporate Social Responsibility
AbstractOver the past decades, the modernization of agriculture in the Western world has contributed not only to a rapid increase in food production but also to environmental and societal concerns over issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality and biodiversity loss. Many of these concerns, for example those related to animal welfare or labor conditions, are stuck in controversies and apparently deadlocked debates. As a result we observe a paradox in which a wide range of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, originally seeking to reconnect agriculture and society, frequently provoke debate, conflic...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

How Farm Animal Welfare Issues are Framed in the Australian Media
AbstractTopics related to ethical issues in agricultural production, particularly farm animal welfare, are increasingly featured in mainstream news media. Media representations of farm animal welfare issues are important because the media is a significant source of information, but also because the way that the issues are represented, or framed, defines these issues in particular ways, suggests causes or solutions, and provides moral evaluations. As such, analysis of media frames can reveal how issues are being made public and identify the cues that audiences are given to help them make sense of complex ethical issues. Pre...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - June 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“That’s the Way We’ve Always Done It”: A Social Practice Analysis of Farm Animal Welfare in Alberta
AbstractAlthough beef and dairy production in Alberta, Canada, enjoys strong public support, there are enduring public concerns, including farm animal welfare. Evolving codes of practice and animal care councils prescribe changes and improvements to many areas of farm management, and may be seen by farmers as an appropriate response to public animal welfare concerns. However, codes of practice do not address every animal welfare concern, and new concerns can arise over time. Drawing on social practice theory and in-depth field research with 36 cattle and dairy farmers, this paper explores the materials, competencies, and m...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 28, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Varieties of the Cruelty-Based Objection to Factory Farming
AbstractTimothy  Hsiao defends industrial animal agriculture (hereafter, factory farming) from the “strongest version of the cruelty objection” (J Agric Environ Ethics 30(1):37–54,2017). The cruelty objection, following Rachels (in: Sapontzis S (ed) Food for thought: the debate over eating meat, Prometheus, Amherst,2004), is that, because it is wrong to cause pain without a morally good reason, and there is no morally good reason for the pain caused in factory farming (e.g., people do not need to eat meat in order to live healthy, flourishing lives), factory farming is morally indefensible.In this pa...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 28, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Progress and Absurdity in Animal Ethics
AbstractThe development of animal ethics has been characterized by both progress and absurdity. More activity in animal welfare has occurred in the past 50  years than in the previous 500, with large numbers of legislative actions supplanting the lone anti-cruelty laws. Nonetheless, there remains a tendency to confuse animal ethics with human ethics. I found this to be the case when my colleagues and I were drafting federal law requiring control of pa in in invasive research. The history of animal ethics vacillates between Descartes’ denial of thought and feeling in animals and British empiricism, including the ...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 28, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Aristotle ’s Ethics and Farm Animal Welfare
AbstractAlthoughtelos has been important in farm animal ethics for several decades, clearer understanding of it may be gained from the close reading of Aristotle ’s primary texts on animals. Aristotle observed and classified animals informally in daily life and through planned evidence gathering and collection development. During this work he theorized his concept oftelos, which includes species flourishing and a good life, and drew on extensive and detailed assessments of animal physiology, diet and behaviour. Aristotle believed that animals, like humans, have purpose, and thattelos is natural and unchanging. Moreov...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Biosurveillance
AbstractGovernments must keep agricultural systems free of pests that threaten agricultural production and international trade. Biosecurity surveillance already makes use of a wide range of technologies, such as insect traps and lures, geographic information systems, and diagnostic biochemical tests. The rise of cheap and usable surveillance technologies such as remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS)  presents value conflicts not addressed in international biosurveillance guidelines. The costs of keeping agriculture pest-free include privacy violations and reduced autonomy for farmers. We argue that physical and dig...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Trade-Off Between Chicken Welfare and Public Health Risks in Poultry Husbandry: Significance of Moral Convictions
AbstractWelfare-friendly outdoor poultry husbandry systems are associated with potentially higher public health risks for certain hazards, which results in a dilemma: whether to choose a system that improves chicken welfare or a system that reduces these public health risks. We studied the views of citizens and poultry farmers on judging the dilemma, relevant moral convictions and moral arguments in a practical context. By means of an online questionnaire, citizens (n  = 2259) and poultry farmers (n = 100) judged three practical cases, which illustrate the dilemma of improving chicken welfare or...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - May 2, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Rethinking the Ethical Challenge in the Climate Deadlock: Anthropocentrism, Ideological Denial and Animal Liberation
AbstractAs critical research has revealed, climate change scepticism and inaction are not about science but ideas, and specifically the ideas that conform our worldview. Drawing on key theoretical approaches to climate change denial from the social sciences and humanities, this paper discusses the ideological dimension and, more especially, the anthropocentric denial underlying our failure to respond to climate change. We argue that the speciesist anthropocentrism inherent in the current dominant ethics is what prevents humanity from reacting to the main human-induced drivers of global warming. Encouraged to do so by curre...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - April 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Veganism and Children: Physical and Social Well-Being
AbstractI claim that there is pro tanto moral reason for parents to not raise their child on a vegan diet because a vegan diet bears a risk of harm to both the physical and the social well-being of children. After giving the empirical evidence from nutrition science and sociology that supports this claim, I turn to the question of how vegan parents should take this moral reason into account. Since many different moral frameworks have been used to argue for veganism, this is a complex question. I suggest that, on some of these moral frameworks, the moral reason that some parents have for not raising their child on a vegan d...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - April 26, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Doctrine of Double Effect and Killing Animals for Food
AbstractProducing food on a large scale without killing any animals seems currently impossible. This poses a challenge for deontological positions that involve a prohibition against killing sentient creatures: it seems that according to these positions omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan diets all rely on food produced in impermissible ways. In order to meet this challenge, deontologists might introduce consequentialist considerations into their theories, for example some principles that effectively require to kill as few animals as possible. This is the kind of strategy Tom Regan has pursued. However, we argue that the chall...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - April 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Biodiversity? Yes, But What Kind? A Critical Reassessment in Light of a Challenge from Microbial Ecology
AbstractBiodiversity has become one of the most important conservation values that drive our ecological management and directly inform our environmental policy. This paper highlights the dangers of strategically appropriating concepts from ecological sciences and also of uncritically inserting them into conservation debates as unqualified normative landmarks. Here, I marshal evidence from a cutting-edge research program in microbial ecology, which shows that if species richness is our major normative target, then we are faced with extraordinary ethical implications. This example challenges our well-received beliefs about b...
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - April 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correction to: Is There a Relation Between Ecological Practices and Spirituality? The Case of Benedictine Monasteries
In the original publication of this article, the equally contributed article note was missed. (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics)
Source: Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics - April 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research