A natural compound derivative P-13 inhibits STAT3 signaling by covalently inhibiting Janus kinase 2
SummaryWe investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of 2-desoxy-4 β-propylcarbamate-pulchellin (P-13), a sesquiterpene lactone derivative of 2-desoxy-4-epi-pulchellin from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Carpesium abrotanoides L, in regulating STAT3 signaling and cancer cell growth. We found that P-13 inhibited the IL-6-induced, as well as the constitutive , STAT3 activation in a dose and time-dependent manner. In vitro kinase activity analyses demonstrated that P-13 directly inhibited JAK2 kinase activity. The inhibitory effects of P-13 on JAK2/STAT3 signaling could be blocked by reducing agents dithi...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - August 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sarcoid-like reaction mimicking disease progression in an ALK-positive lung cancer patient receiving lorlatinib
SummaryThe administration of target inhibitors is paramount to grant the longest survival in patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The eventual resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is monitored clinically and radiologically for prompt molecule shift to further generation TKI, if available. However, the early radiological detection of progression pattern (e.g. nodule onset) should be regarded with caution because overlaps exist with non-tumor cell proliferation and/or accumulation. Here we report the case of a stage IVALK-rearranged NSCLC patient exposed to serial crizotinib, brigatinib, c...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

MET-targeting antibody (emibetuzumab) and kinase inhibitor (merestinib) as single agent or in combination in a cancer model bearing MET exon 14 skipping
Conclusions Data in this study support a clinical evaluation of merestinib in patients with MET exon 14 skipping (NCT02920996). As a type II MET kinase inhibitor, merestinib may provide a therapeutic option to treatment na ïve patients or to patients who progress on type I MET inhibitor treatment. Data also support clinical evaluation of the sequential combination of merestinib with emibetuzumab when patients progress on single agent merestinib. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of the antiemetic rolapitant, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, in healthy male subjects
SummaryRolapitant is a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist that is approved in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including but not limited to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Here, we assessed the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of14C-labeled rolapitant in healthy male subjects. Rolapitant was administered as a single 180-mg oral dose containing approximately 100  μCi of total radioactivity, with plasma, urine, and fecal samples collected at defined intervals afte...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemosensitivity of various peritoneal cancer cell lines to HIPEC and PIPAC: comparison of an experimental duplex drug to standard drug regimens in vitro
SummaryWe performed an in-vitro study testing the chemosensitivity of peritoneal cancer cell lines (SW620, HCT116, MKN45, 23,132/87, OAW42) to various cytostatic drug regimens. A duplex drug, characterized by reversible linking of the antimetabolites 2 ′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5-FdU) and 3’-C-ethynylcytidine (ECyd), was compared to oxaliplatin or to cisplatin plus doxorubicin. The experiments were designed to reflect the conditions of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. CASY® (Cell Analysis System) technology was used to compare the impact of incub ation temperature/duration and drug concentration on the viabilit...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hand-foot-skin reaction of grade  ≥ 2 within sixty days as the optimal clinical marker best help predict survival in sorafenib therapy for HCC
SummaryBackground& Aims Sorafenib-related adverse events have been reported as clinical surrogates for treatment response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, no consensus has been reached regarding the definition of responders. We evaluated the predictive abilities of different definitions for sorafenib response based on treatment-emergent adverse events, aiming to identify the most discriminatory one as a clinical marker.Methods From January 2010 to December 2014, 435 consecutive HCC patients treated with sorafenib were enrolled. Considering the type, severity and timing of adverse events, twelve different cat...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Design, synthesis and antiproliferative evaluation of novel sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole derivatives as tubulin polymerization inhibitors
SummaryMicrotubule as an important target in the cancer therapy was used to design novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors. Sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids were designed by a molecular hybridization strategy and their antiproliferative activity against three selected cancer cell lines (BGC-823, MGC-803 and SGC-7901) were evaluated. All sulfanilamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids displayed potent inhibitory activity against all cell lines. In particular, compound10b showed the most excellent inhibitory effect against MGC-803 cells, with an IC50 value of 0.4 μM. Cellular mechanism studies elucidated that10b induced apoptosi...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phase Ib trial combining capecitabine, erlotinib and bevacizumab in pancreatic adenocarcinoma - REBECA trial
Conclusions The study met the primary objective. RP2D was capecitabine 800  mg/m2 bid continuously, erlotinib 150  mg daily, and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg q 2 weeks. The regimen could be applied safely, but demonstrated limited efficacy. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The marine natural product Scalarin inhibits the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and autophagy in the PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell lines
SummaryPancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Although combination therapies are showing improvements in treatment, the survival rate for pancreatic cancer five years post diagnosis is only 8%, stressing the need for new treatments. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has recently emerged as a chemotherapeutic target in KRAS driven pancreatic cancers both for treatment and in chemoprevention. RAGE appears to be an important regulator of inflammatory, stress and survival pathways that l...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phase I study of resminostat, an HDAC inhibitor, combined with S-1 in patients with pre-treated biliary tract or pancreatic cancer
In conclusion, regimen 3 was well tolerated by patients with pre-treated biliary tract or pancreatic cancer. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase 1b study of transforming growth factor-beta receptor I inhibitor galunisertib in combination with sorafenib in Japanese patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma
Conclusions These data are consistent with the known safety profile for galunisertib and sorafenib and confirm tolerability of the recommended dose of galunisertib (150  mg twice daily for 14 days) in combination with sorafenib in Japanese patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase 1, first-in-human study of AMG 900, an orally administered pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, in adult patients with advanced solid tumors
Conclusions AMG 900 40  mg/day with G-CSF had manageable toxicity and demonstrated single-agent activity in patients with heavily pretreated, chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Leptomeningeal recurrence after long-term alectinib therapy for non-small cell lung cancer harboring an EML4-ALK fusion protein
SummaryThe recent approval of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors for the treatment ofALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically transformed cancer therapy. However, leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are frequent and often devastating complications ofALK-rearranged NSCLC, and treatment against LM remains challenging. Herein we report a case of a 19-year-old male diagnosed withALK-rearranged NSCLC with LM. He experienced heavy treatment before introduction of alectinib therapy, which continued for approximately 5.5  years with marked efficacy. However, he experienced recurrence of a bulbar ...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - July 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oral Metronomic Vinorelbine (OMV) in elderly or pretreated patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer: outcome and pharmacokinetics in the real world
Conclusions OMV produced non-negligible survival in patients and also showed stable long-term blood concentrations. The schedule of 20 –30 mg every other day without interruption gave good tolerability and clinical benefit. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cabozantinib-induced serum creatine kinase elevation and musculoskeletal complaints
SummaryCabozantinib is a multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer and advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients who have received prior anti-angiogenic therapy. While associations between serum creatine kinase (CK) elevations and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for the treatment of solid malignancies have been previously reported, we report a case of cabozantinib-associated CK elevation that was associated with musculoskeletal complaints by an RCC patient. Nine days following initiation of cabozantinib, the patient reported muscle cramps and serum CK had increased ...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibition of SHP2 by new compounds induces differential effects on RAS/RAF/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways in different cancer cell types
SummaryKinases and phosphatases are important players in growth signaling and are involved in cancer development. For development of targeted cancer therapy, attention is given to kinases rather than phosphatases inhibitors. Src homology region 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase2 (SHP2) is overexpressed in different types of cancers. We investigated the SHP2-inhibitory effects of two new 5-aminosalicylate –4-thiazolinones in human cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF-7& MDA-MB-231) cancer cells.In-silico molecular docking showed preferential affinity of the two compounds towards the catalytic over the al...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Proliferative CD8(+) PD-1(+) T-cell infiltration in a pembrolizumab-induced cutaneous adverse reaction
SummaryPembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 antibody that is directed against the human cell surface receptor PD-1, is a PD-1 pathway inhibitor that has been approved to treat various malignant diseases, including advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PD-1 is the major inhibitory receptor regulating T-cell exhaustion, and T-cells with high PD-1 expression lose their ability to eliminate cancer. PD-1 pathway blockade by pembrolizumab reinvigorates exhausted T-cells and restores their antitumor immune responses. However, reinvigorated T-cells also evoke immune-related adverse effects (irAEs), w...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Alteration of benzo(a)pyrene biotransformation by resveratrol in Apc Min/+ mouse model of colon carcinogenesis
In this study we investigated to ascertain whether the preventive effects of RVT on BaP-induced colon carcinogenesis is a result of altered BaP biotransformation by RVT. For the first group of mice, 100  μg BaP/kg bw was administered in peanut oil via oral gavage over a 60 day period. For the second group, 45 μg RVT/kg bw was co-administered with BaP. For the third group, RVT was administered for 1 week prior to BaP exposure. Blood, colon and liver were collected from control and BaP/RVT-trea ted mice at 60 days post-BaP& RVT exposure. We have assayed activities and expression (protein&am...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Euphol, a tetracyclic triterpene, from Euphorbia tirucalli induces autophagy and sensitizes temozolomide cytotoxicity on glioblastoma cells
In conclusion, euphol exerted in vitro and i n vivo cytotoxicity against glioma cells, through several cancer pathways, including the activation of autophagy-associated cell death. These findings provide experimental support for further development of euphol as a novel therapeutic agent for GBM, either alone or in combination chemotherapy. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dual targeting of bromodomain-containing 4 by AZD5153 and BCL2 by AZD4320 against B-cell lymphomas concomitantly overexpressing c-MYC and BCL2
This study examined triple targeting of c-MYC, BCL2 and the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway for DHL and DEL. We first used AZD5153, a novel bivalent inhibitor for bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4), in DHL- and DEL-derived cell lines, because BRD4 regulates disease type-oriented key molecules for oncogenesis. AZD5153 was more effective than conventional monovalent BRD4 inhibitors, JQ1 and I-BET151, in inhibiting cell proliferation of a DHL-derived cell line and two DEL-derived cell lines, with at least 10-fold lower half growth inhibitory concentrations. AZD5153 caused G1/S cell cycle blockade, while the apoptosis-ind...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Methionine gamma lyase from Clostridium sporogenes increases the anticancer effect of doxorubicin in A549 cells and human cancer xenografts
SummaryThe anti-cancer efficacy of methionine γ-lyase (MGL) fromClostridium sporogenes (C. sporogenes) is described. MGL was active against cancer models in vitro and in vivo. The calculated EC50 values for MGL were 4.4  U/ml for A549, 7.5 U/ml for SK-BR3, 2.4 U/ml for SKOV3, and 0.4 U/ml for MCF7 cells. The combination of doxorubicin (DOX) and MGL was more effective for A549 human lung cancer growth inhibition than either agent alone in vitro and in vivo. MGL reduced the EC50 of doxorubicin from 35.9 μg/mL t o 0.01–0.265 μg/mL. The growth inhibitory effect of DOX +&th...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Survival and tolerance to sorafenib in Child-Pugh B patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study
SummarySorafenib has been widely used to treat unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but most studies have been done in Child-Pugh A (CP-A) patients with well-preserved liver function. We evaluated the overall survival (OS) and tolerance to sorafenib in a large cohort of Child-Pugh B (CP-B) HCC patients as compared to CP-A HCC patients. We prospectively studied 130 patients with advanced HCC who started sorafenib between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients were classified as CP-A (n = 65) or CP-B (n = 65). The average OS for all 130 patients was 10 months. CP-A patients had a med...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phase II study of DFP-10917, a deoxycytidine analog, given by 14-day continuous intravenous infusion for chemotherapy-refractory advanced colorectal cancer
SummaryBackground DFP-10917 is a cytotoxic deoxycytidine analogue that causes DNA fragmentation, G2/M –phase arrest, and apoptosis. This agent has been shown to have antitumor activity against colorectal cancer (CRC) in preclinical studies and to be tolerable in patients. The purpose of our phase II trial was to evaluate the safety, efficacy and pharmacogenomics of DFP-10917 as well as DNA damage studies in patients with advanced CRC refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy.Methods In this single-arm, Simon two-stage, phase II trial, patients with chemotherapy-refractory advanced CRC received 2.0  mg/m2/day DFP-1091...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase Ib study of sonidegib (LDE225), an oral small molecule inhibitor of smoothened or Hedgehog pathway, in combination with docetaxel in triple negative advanced breast cancer patients: GEICAM/2012 –12 (EDALINE) study
SummaryUp-regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is implicated in the genesis of a wide range of tumors including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Sonidegib is a potent and selective oral inhibitor of Smo, a key component of the Hh signaling pathway. We designed a phase I clinical study to explore the combination of sonidegib plus docetaxel (fixed dose at 75  mg/m2) in advanced TNBC patients. The primary objective was to ascertain the combination ’s maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), based on dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) in the first 2 cycles. A standard “3&thins...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib suppresses proliferation and serves as an effective radiosensitizer in cervical cancer
Conclusions Rucaparib exerts significant anti-proliferative effects and can serve as an effective radiosensitizer in cervical cancer, suggesting its candidacy in cervical cancer treatment and worthiness for further investigation. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Preclinical study of the antitumor effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 antibody (S1PR 1 -antibody) against human breast cancer cells
In this study, we evaluated whether a monoclonal antibody against S1PR1 (S1PR1-antibody) could impose any effect on cell growth of human breast cancer SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The S1PR1-antibody exhibited cytostatic effect against both cell lines at the concentration of 4000  ng/mL. Co-administration of 4000 ng/mL of the S1PR1-antibody not only potentiated the cytotoxicity of carboplatin towards the MDA-MB-231 cells but also increased the anti-proliferative effect of S1P towards the SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we showed that co-administration of S1P did not sensitize the SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells towards ...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hepatic safety analysis of trabectedin: results of a pharmacokinetic study with trabectedin in patients with hepatic impairment and experience from a phase 3 clinical trial
Conclusion Trabectedin treatment of patients with HI results in higher plasma exposures. Hepatotoxicity in patients with normal liver function can be effectively addressed through dose reductions and delays. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Translational PK-PD modeling analysis of MCLA-128, a HER2/HER3 bispecific monoclonal antibody, to predict clinical efficacious exposure and dose
Conclusions This analysis predicts that a flat dose of 10 to 480  mg q3wk is suitable as starting dose for a First-in-Human study with MCLA-128. Flat doses ≥360 mg q3wk are expected to be efficacious in human, based on receptor occupancies and PK-PD model simulations. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A multicentre, open-label phase II study of I rinotecan, capecitabine ( X eloda ®), and O xaliplatin (IXO) as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma
Conclusion mIXO demonstrates promising ORR, PFS, OS, and acceptable toxicity compared to standard triplet regimens. IXO should be evaluated in phase III trials. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Crizotinib-induced simultaneous multiple cardiac toxicities
SummaryCrizotinib is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has several targets, including c-ros oncogene 1 and the MET proto-oncogene. Considering its known cardiac toxicity, bradycardia is often investigated following treatment with crizotinib. Our patients had bradycardia, QT prolongation, ventricular rhythm, ventricular fibrillation, and pericarditis simultaneously. The cardiotoxicity of crizotinib can sometimes be simultaneous; thus, intensive observation is needed. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Successful oral desensitization with osimertinib following osimertinib-induced fever and hepatotoxicity: a case report
In conclusion, oral desensitization may be a useful method in treating hepatotoxicity and drug fever caused by osimertinib. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Human acute myeloid leukemia cells express Neurokinin-1 receptor, which is involved in the antileukemic effect of Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists
SummaryThe substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor system has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation. Neurokinin-1 receptor has been identified in different solid tumors but not frequently in hematopoietic malignant cells. We investigated the presence of the Neurokinin-1 receptor in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (KG-1 and HL-60), demonstrating that acute myeloid leukemia cell lines overexpress the truncated Neurokinin-1 receptor isoform compared with lymphocytes from healthy donors. Using the MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) method, we demonstrated that subst...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - May 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibiting IL-2 signaling and the regulatory T-cell pathway using computationally designed peptides
Conclusions We conclude that structure-based peptide design can be used to identify novel peptide inhibitors that block IL-2/sIL-2R α signaling and inhibit Treg cell development. We anticipate that these peptides will have therapeutic potential in B-cell NHL and other malignancies. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Two phase I, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies of DFP-10917, a novel nucleoside analog with 14-day and 7-day continuous infusion schedules
Conclusion Continuous infusion of DFP-10917 is feasible and well tolerated with myelosuppression as main DLT. The recommended doses are 2.0  mg/m2/day and 3.0  mg/m2/day on the 14-day and 7-day continuous infusion schedules, respectively. Preliminary activity was suggested. Pharmacodynamic data demonstrate biological activity at the tested doses. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Optimising intratumoral treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma models with the diterpene ester Tigilanol tiglate
This study confirmed that TT in 40% PG given intratumorally as a single bolus dose was the most efficacio us treatment for a tongue SCC mouse model. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Unique characteristics of regulatory approval and pivotal studies of orphan anticancer drugs in Japan
SummaryThe approval of orphan anticancer drugs has increased, with the number exceeding that of non-orphan drugs in Japan in recent years. Although orphan anticancer drugs may have unique characteristics due to their rarity, these have not been fully characterized. We investigated anticancer drugs approved in Japan between April 2004 and November 2017 to reveal the characteristics of regulatory approval and pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs compared to non-orphan drugs. The median regulatory review time and number of patients in pivotal studies on orphan anticancer drugs (281.0  days [interquartile range, 263...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A multi-arm phase I dose escalating study of an oral NOTCH inhibitor BMS-986115 in patients with advanced solid tumours
Conclusion The daily oral dosing of BMS-986115 is safe and tolerable with biological activity demonstrated by continuous target engagement and Notch signalling inhibition. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nivolumab-induced acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with gastric cancer
SummaryWe here report a case of nivolumab-induced acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with gastric cancer. A 68-year-old woman with recurrent gastric cancer developed acute kidney injury associated with kidney enlargement and urinary leukocytes after 38  cycles of nivolumab treatment. A diagnosis of acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis was made based on kidney biopsy findings. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of programmed cell death–ligand 1 (PD-L1) in degenerated epithelial cells of collecting tubules. Among infiltrating im mune cells, aggregation of T cells was mo...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase I, open-label, two-stage study to investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the oral AKT inhibitor GSK2141795 in patients with solid tumors
Conclusion GSK2141795 was safe and well-tolerated, with clinical activity seen as monotherapy at the RP2D of 75  mg daily. NCT00920257. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nab -paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus FOLFIRINOX as the first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: retrospective analysis
Conclusion Both AG and FOLFIRINOX showed comparable efficacy outcomes in daily practice setting. AG might be preferentially considered in patients with peritoneal metastasis, comorbid medical conditions or old age. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sirolimus enhances remission induction in patients with high risk acute myeloid leukemia and mTORC1 target inhibition
Conclusions Fixed, whole blood pS6 by flow cytometry may be a predictive biomarker for clinical response to mTORC1 inhibitor-based regimens. These data provide clinical confirmation that mTORC1 activation mediates chemotherapy resistance in patients with AML. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New NO- and H2S-releasing doxorubicins as targeted therapy against chemoresistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer: in vitro and in vivo evaluations
SummaryChemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is only temporarily effective due to the onset of chemoresistance. We investigated the efficacy of NO- and H2S-releasing doxorubicins (NitDox and H2SDox) in overcoming drug resistance and evaluated their safety. New and innovative NO- and H2S-releasing doxorubicins (NitDox and H2SDox) showed a good intracellular accumulation and high cytotoxic activity in vitro in an androgen-independent and doxorubicin-resistant DU-145 prostate cancer cell line. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with 4*106 DU-145 cells and treated once a week for 3 weeks with 5  ...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Autophagy inhibition improves the chemotherapeutic efficacy of cruciferous vegetable-derived diindolymethane in a murine prostate cancer xenograft model
In conclusion, we have conf irmed that DIM and 4,4'-Br2DIM are effective agents against prostate cancer in vivo and shown that inhibition of autophagy with CQ enhances the anticancer efficacy of DIM. Our results suggest that including selective autophagy inhibitors as adjuvants may improve the efficacy of existing and novel drug therapies against prostate cancer. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - April 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antitumor activity of raloxifene-targeted poly(styrene maleic acid)-poly (amide-ether-ester-imide) co-polymeric nanomicelles loaded with docetaxel in breast cancer-bearing mice
Discussion All studies in this work showed the potential of DTX-loaded SMA-PAEEI-PEG-RA micelles in the treatment of GPER-positive receptor breast cancer tumors. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A phase I/II trial of pemetrexed plus radiotherapy in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer
Conclusions Combination PEM and RT shows promising efficacy but relatively severe RT-related toxicities. Therefore, this treatment should be prescribed to elderly patients with caution.Trial registration UMIN 000005036. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Post-progression survival following second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer previously treated with gemcitabine: a meta-analysis
This study aimed to improve the understanding of the impact of PPS on OS in this setting.Methods Databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the salvage setting. We evaluated relationships between OS and PFS, PPS, and other variables.Results Totally, 17 RCTs with 3253 patients were identified. Median OS was strongly and moderately associated with median PPS and PFS, respectively (r = 0.913;p 
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The molecular mechanism of anticancer action of novel octahydropyrazino[2,1-a:5,4-a ′]diisoquinoline derivatives in human gastric cancer cells
Conclusion These data strongly support compound 2 as a promising molecule for treatment of gastric cancer. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Successful treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Afatinib in a patient with combined small-cell lung Cancer with EGFR mutation
SummarySmall-cell lung cancer (SCLC) combined with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations is extremely rare, and standard chemotherapeutic strategies have not yet been established. In the present study, we report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with combined SCLC withEGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion). Systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan was initiated as first-line chemotherapy, and computed tomography findings revealed tumor shrinkage after two cycles of chemotherapy. However, after the third cycle of the treatment, disease progression was observed including the appearance of pleural and...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Clinical predictors of bevacizumab-associated intestinal perforation in non-small cell lung cancer
Conclusions Among patients with NSCLC, BAP was associated with deteriorating PS during the first cycle of chemotherapy, grade  ≥ 3 diarrhea, febrile neutropenia, and stomatitis. Therefore, careful observation is needed for patients with NSCLC who receive Bev in any line of treatment, especially if they develop serious side effects that affect their PS or mucous membrane. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phase II trial of ifosfamide in combination with the VEGFR inhibitor sorafenib in advanced soft tissue sarcoma: a Spanish group for research on sarcomas (GEIS) study
Conclusion Treatment with sorafenib plus ifosfamide achieved a significant clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma resistant to anthracyclines, which warrants a more detailed study in randomized clinical trials. (Source: Investigational New Drugs)
Source: Investigational New Drugs - March 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research