Immunopathogenesis and immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):167-180.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multipl...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Anupam A Sule Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohamed Fawzy Javed Muhammad Amjad Khan Abdulkarim Hasan Dhan Bahadur Shrestha Ranjit Sah Manish Dhawan Ruchi Tiwari Muhammad Bilal Tauseef Ahmad Kuldeep Dha Source Type: research

Molecular and serological prevalence of Coronavirus in Chiropterans: A systematic review with meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):181-190.ABSTRACTIn recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D Katterine Bonilla-Aldana Dom énica Acevedo-López Brayan Stiven Aristiz ábal-Carmona Fabio Andr és Díaz-García Cristian Camilo Sarmiento-Cano Samuel Guti érrez-Soleibe Mar ía Del Mar España-Cerquera Diego Mauricio Obando-Cardona Laura Paulina Ca Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis: an overview of the cases reported in Europe and in Italy
We present a brief review of clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis, as well as its treatment. Sporotrichosis is rarely reported in Europe and the European Centre of Disease Control does not track its infection rate. To fill this gap, we report a survey of clinical cases described over the past forty years in Europe and in Italy.PMID:34061783 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosa Monno Giorgia Giannelli Luciana Fumarola Source Type: research

Human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence by different diagnostic methods in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):199-208.ABSTRACTVisceral leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans in different tropical and subtropical regions and even beyond, with variable prevalence among infected hosts. To date, there have been no systematic reviews on human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence in Latin America. We therefore performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using six databases to assess prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in human patients in Latin American countries. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects mo...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Estefan ía Gutiérrez-Ocampo Rhuvi Villamizar-Pe ña Isabella Cortes-Bonilla Luisa M Garc ía-Zuluaga Yeimer Holguin-Rivera Harrison D Ospina-Arzuaga Maria Camila Cardona-Trujllo Adri án E Trejos-Mendoza Soffia Perez-Vargas Kovy Arteaga-Livias Lysien I Source Type: research

Use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and clinical predictors of COVID-19 severity in a tertiary hospital in the city of Buenos Aires
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):209-215.ABSTRACTInformation regarding predictors of a worse COVID-19 prognosis in the South American population is scarce. We aimed to determine whether the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with a worse clinical course of COVID-19, and to evaluate what clinical variables are associated with COVID severity in our population. We included adult subjects with rtPCR-confirmed COVID-19. The use of renin system inhibitors was defined according to its registration in the electronic medical record or the hospital pharmacy registry during the previous three months. Our endpoint was a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jessica Barochiner Roc ío Martínez Patricia Roxana Conti Marcos Jos é Marín Ery Ayel én Ko Mar ía Sol Osorno Source Type: research

Long-term clinical and serological follow-up of paediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):216-223.ABSTRACTStudies concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in paediatrics are limited to children mainly selected from hospitals, where patients with complications and co-morbidities are managed. We aimed to describe the course of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a population of children enrolled by place of residence, from diagnosis to recovery, with a long-term clinical and serological follow-up. We identified patients aged
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carmelina Calitri Francesca Fantone Stefania Benetti Maria Maddalena Lupica Maria Giovanna Ignaccolo Elena Banino Alice Viano Mariella Pace Annalisa Castella Flavio Gaido Franco Garofalo None AslTorinoTre Study Group Paediatric Covid Source Type: research

Vitamin D plasma levels in patients with COVID-19: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):224-228.ABSTRACTVitamin D deficiency has been associated to respiratory tract infections. We aimed to investigate vitamin D plasma levels in patients with chest infection with and without COVID-19 in a hospitalized population during the second pandemic wave. A prospective study was conducted in a Mediterranean tertiary center referring to 80 patients suffering from chest infection, who were divided into two groups according to a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hospitalized COVID-19 patients had a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and these patients also exhibited higher levels...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Lagadinou Basileios Zorbas Dimitrios Velissaris Source Type: research

QuantiFERON-TB and tuberculin skin test in patients with active tuberculosis: the experience of a single medium-sized Italian University Hospital
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):229-235.ABSTRACTInterferon-γ releasing assays (IGRAs) are currently widely employed in the initial work up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as in suspected tuberculosis (TB). These assays are commonly utilized over the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in high resource and low TB burden settings, despite the unclear benefits shown in such contexts. The debate on the use of TST and IGRAs is of current interest also in Italy due to the increasing presence of immigrants from countries with a high incidence of TB and the rising attention of health care institutions to economic costs. ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Bruna Pasticci Chiara Papalini Nicola Murgia Rita Papili Giampaolo Bucaneve Lisa Malincarne Silvia Bozza Daniela Francisci Elio Cenci Source Type: research

Outcome of HBV screening and vaccination in a migrant population in southern Italy
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):236-241.ABSTRACTChronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Although Italy is considered a low prevalence setting for HBV infection, following significant migration in recent years there has been an increase in the occurrence of the disease. Italian guidelines recommend that all migrants be screened, vaccinated and treated for HBV, as required. Unfortunately, screening and vaccination in this population can be challenging for several reasons. We therefore conducted an analysis to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of the pathways of care (from screening to treat...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Mazzitelli Giuseppe Greco Francesca Serapide Vincenzo Scaglione Helen Morrone Nadia Marascio Aida Giancotti MariaCarla Liberto Giovanni Matera EnricoMaria Trecarichi Carlo Torti Source Type: research

Prevalence of resistance-associated substitutions to NS3, NS5A and NS5B inhibitors at DAA-failure in hepatitis C virus in Italy from 2015 to 2019
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):242-251.ABSTRACTDespite the high efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), the selection of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after virological failure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) DAAs can impair the cure of chronic HCV. The aim of the study was to characterize RASs after virological failure of DAAs in Italy over the years. Within the Italian network VIRONET-C, the change in prevalence of NS3/4A-NS5A-NS5B RASs was retrospectively evaluated in patients who failed a DAA regimen over the years 2015-2019. NS3, NS5A and NS5B Sanger sequencing was performed using homemade protocols and the ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barbara Rossetti Lorenzo Paglicci Velia C Di Maio Chiara Cassol Silvia Barbaliscia Stefania Paolucci Bianca Bruzzone Nicola Coppola Francesca Montagnani Valeria Micheli Laura Monno Giacomo Zanelli Teresa Santantonio Nunzia Cuomo Cinzia Caudai Maurizio Zaz Source Type: research

Lesson learned from the 2017 measles outbreak in Italy: report from an emergency department
In this study we described the rate, clinical features and severity of measles complications in patients admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care teaching hospital during the outbreak that took place in 2017. Some insights into the impact on the health care system are reported as well. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Medical records of adults discharged from January to December 2017 with diagnosis of "measles" were collected and analyzed. Out of 58,579 of ED admissions, 162 measles cases were enrolled. Acute measles infection was laboratory confirmed in 71.6% and deemed as possible/probable in 24.0% of c...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ornella Spagnolello Alessandro Russo Cristian Borrazzo Gabriella d'Ettorre Giancarlo Ceccarelli Source Type: research

Severe systemic thrombosis in a young COVID-19 patient with a rare homozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation
We describe a patient with COVID-19, carrying a rare homozygous mutation of the prothrombin gene, who developed a severe systemic vein thrombosis. In COVID-19 patients with hypercoagulability disorders the most common inherited and acquired risk factors should be investigated.PMID:34061792 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jose Ramon Fiore Marianna Ciarallo Mariantonietta Di Stefano Salvatore Sica Mariagrazia Scarale Maria D'Errico Fabio Corallo Sergio Lo Caputo Maurizio Margaglione Teresa Santantonio Source Type: research

Cutaneous tuberculosis on the scalp: a case report
We report the case of a 76-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital in Brazil with a 3-week history of a painful, enlarging ulcer on the scalp and cough. His medical history was notable for non-metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. On physical examination, the ulcer measured 10 cm in diameter and was tender, with a firm border and yellow crusts. A punch-biopsy specimen of the edge of the ulcer showed acute and chronic non-specific inflammation and neutrophilic infiltrates. Acid-fast bacilli were seen on microscopic examination, molecular testing detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bruno Hassunuma Carneiro Andr é Gama Palone Carine Andrade Celeira Zanlorenzi Jo ão Guilherme Bochnia Küster Marcelo Abreu Ducroquet Jo ão Adriano de Barros Source Type: research

Oligosymptomatic diphtheria infection in adults: two contacts of the Peruvian index case after 20 years without disease report
We report two more cases of this outbreak (in the index case parents) with confirmed diphtheria infection and tox gene identified by molecular assay, who were in close contact with the index case and never presented any symptoms. Both parents had a congestive pharynx with erythematous plaques at the back of it. In adults, diphtheria infection can be oligosymptomatic or mimic viral pharyngitis, which could lead to misdiagnosis and, furthermore, an increased risk of transmission in regions with lower immunization rates.PMID:34061794 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Juan Jos é Montenegro-Idrogo Cristhian Resurrecci ón-Delgado C ésar Sánchez-Álvarez Marcelo Villarreal-Zerpa Freddy Morales-L ópez Iv án Vargas-Matos Alfredo Juan Chiappe-Gonzalez Source Type: research

Elbasvir/Grazoprevir combination therapy in a B-NHL patient with HCV genotype 1 infection
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):277-279.ABSTRACTPatients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) may often be followed up only with observation, reserving chemotherapy in case of spread. Patients with chronic HCV infection and B cell NHL frequently undergo regression of lymphoproliferative disease once HCV infection is eradicated by treatment. Interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been the treatment of choice for years, remaining unclear whether it is effective in B cell NHL directly or through HCV eradication, since IFN is effective in both HCV infection and B cell NHL. IFN therapy for HCV infection became obsolete with the ad...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonello Sica Alessandro Spada Caterina Sagnelli Pasquale Verolino Annalisa Mazzocca Evangelista Sagnelli Giuseppe Colella Salvatore Guastafierro Aldo Marrone Source Type: research

Historical pearls of HPV research: from condyloma to cervical cancer
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):278-283.ABSTRACTThe oldest discovered human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in an ancient Egyptian mummy testifies that there is still much to unearth in its history. The Graeco-Roman world recognized venereal infections, and its nomenclature is still valid concerning HPV lesions. Western Europeans, eons later, created various theories for HPV evolution. Animal experiments during the 19th century had a profound impact for the understanding of HPV. In the late 20th century the arcinogenic properties of the virus had been clarified. This historical review presents the most important figures and di...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Evangelos Mavrommatis Pavlos Lytsikas-Sarlis Theodoros Troupis Source Type: research

Controversies and lessons from the history of smallpox: the case of massive vaccination in British Corfu (1852)
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):284-291.ABSTRACTThe study presents an anti-vaccination action in the 19th century involving both scientific and political motivation. The research is based on an unpublished archive, namely the registries of the British Executive Police during the massive vaccination campaign in Corfu, the capital of the British possession in the Ionian Islands-Greece (1815-1864), after the smallpox outbreak of 1852. The archival material provides information about the number of vaccinated people, namely their sex, age, nationality, the year of the previous vaccination, along with the last year when a citizen &q...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costas Tsiamis Georgia Vrioni Chryssa Dimopoulou Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou Dimitrios Anoyatis-Pele Athanassios Tsakris Source Type: research

Covid-19 pandemic and bats: a lucky symbol of evil fortune
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):192-293.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061798 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gregory Tsoucalas SpyrosN Michaleas TheodoreG Papaioannou Marianna Karamanou Source Type: research

Universal screening for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women using a combination of antigen and RT-PCR testing
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):294-296.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061799 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kumar Radhamany Kunjukutty Ameena Thaha Saranya Srikumar Haritha Madhusoodanan Sachin David Lalitha Biswas Dipu Sathyapalan Source Type: research

How could Italy reach the HCV elimination by 2030?
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):297-298.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061800 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Loreta A Kondili Source Type: research

Valacyclovir for prevention and treatment of fetal CMV infection: inclusion in the Law 648/96 list and launch of the Italian multicentre observational prospective study "MEGAL-ITALI"
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):299-303.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061801 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenzo Zammarchi Tiziana Lazzarotto Mariarosaria Di Tommaso Lina Tomasoni Lucia Pasquini Luisa Galli Giuliana Simonazzi Francesco Castelli Beatrice Borchi Irene Campolmi Sara Ornaghi Alessandro Bartoloni Massimo Andreoni Immacolata Pagano Sandra Petragli Source Type: research

Immunopathogenesis and immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):167-180.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multipl...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Anupam A Sule Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohamed Fawzy Javed Muhammad Amjad Khan Abdulkarim Hasan Dhan Bahadur Shrestha Ranjit Sah Manish Dhawan Ruchi Tiwari Muhammad Bilal Tauseef Ahmad Kuldeep Dha Source Type: research

Molecular and serological prevalence of Coronavirus in Chiropterans: A systematic review with meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):181-190.ABSTRACTIn recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D Katterine Bonilla-Aldana Dom énica Acevedo-López Brayan Stiven Aristiz ábal-Carmona Fabio Andr és Díaz-García Cristian Camilo Sarmiento-Cano Samuel Guti érrez-Soleibe Mar ía Del Mar España-Cerquera Diego Mauricio Obando-Cardona Laura Paulina Ca Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis: an overview of the cases reported in Europe and in Italy
We present a brief review of clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis, as well as its treatment. Sporotrichosis is rarely reported in Europe and the European Centre of Disease Control does not track its infection rate. To fill this gap, we report a survey of clinical cases described over the past forty years in Europe and in Italy.PMID:34061783 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosa Monno Giorgia Giannelli Luciana Fumarola Source Type: research

Human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence by different diagnostic methods in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):199-208.ABSTRACTVisceral leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans in different tropical and subtropical regions and even beyond, with variable prevalence among infected hosts. To date, there have been no systematic reviews on human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence in Latin America. We therefore performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using six databases to assess prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in human patients in Latin American countries. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects mo...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Estefan ía Gutiérrez-Ocampo Rhuvi Villamizar-Pe ña Isabella Cortes-Bonilla Luisa M Garc ía-Zuluaga Yeimer Holguin-Rivera Harrison D Ospina-Arzuaga Maria Camila Cardona-Trujllo Adri án E Trejos-Mendoza Soffia Perez-Vargas Kovy Arteaga-Livias Lysien I Source Type: research

Use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and clinical predictors of COVID-19 severity in a tertiary hospital in the city of Buenos Aires
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):209-215.ABSTRACTInformation regarding predictors of a worse COVID-19 prognosis in the South American population is scarce. We aimed to determine whether the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with a worse clinical course of COVID-19, and to evaluate what clinical variables are associated with COVID severity in our population. We included adult subjects with rtPCR-confirmed COVID-19. The use of renin system inhibitors was defined according to its registration in the electronic medical record or the hospital pharmacy registry during the previous three months. Our endpoint was a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jessica Barochiner Roc ío Martínez Patricia Roxana Conti Marcos Jos é Marín Ery Ayel én Ko Mar ía Sol Osorno Source Type: research

Long-term clinical and serological follow-up of paediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):216-223.ABSTRACTStudies concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in paediatrics are limited to children mainly selected from hospitals, where patients with complications and co-morbidities are managed. We aimed to describe the course of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a population of children enrolled by place of residence, from diagnosis to recovery, with a long-term clinical and serological follow-up. We identified patients aged
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carmelina Calitri Francesca Fantone Stefania Benetti Maria Maddalena Lupica Maria Giovanna Ignaccolo Elena Banino Alice Viano Mariella Pace Annalisa Castella Flavio Gaido Franco Garofalo None AslTorinoTre Study Group Paediatric Covid Source Type: research

Vitamin D plasma levels in patients with COVID-19: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):224-228.ABSTRACTVitamin D deficiency has been associated to respiratory tract infections. We aimed to investigate vitamin D plasma levels in patients with chest infection with and without COVID-19 in a hospitalized population during the second pandemic wave. A prospective study was conducted in a Mediterranean tertiary center referring to 80 patients suffering from chest infection, who were divided into two groups according to a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hospitalized COVID-19 patients had a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and these patients also exhibited higher levels...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Lagadinou Basileios Zorbas Dimitrios Velissaris Source Type: research

QuantiFERON-TB and tuberculin skin test in patients with active tuberculosis: the experience of a single medium-sized Italian University Hospital
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):229-235.ABSTRACTInterferon-γ releasing assays (IGRAs) are currently widely employed in the initial work up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as in suspected tuberculosis (TB). These assays are commonly utilized over the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in high resource and low TB burden settings, despite the unclear benefits shown in such contexts. The debate on the use of TST and IGRAs is of current interest also in Italy due to the increasing presence of immigrants from countries with a high incidence of TB and the rising attention of health care institutions to economic costs. ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Bruna Pasticci Chiara Papalini Nicola Murgia Rita Papili Giampaolo Bucaneve Lisa Malincarne Silvia Bozza Daniela Francisci Elio Cenci Source Type: research

Outcome of HBV screening and vaccination in a migrant population in southern Italy
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):236-241.ABSTRACTChronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Although Italy is considered a low prevalence setting for HBV infection, following significant migration in recent years there has been an increase in the occurrence of the disease. Italian guidelines recommend that all migrants be screened, vaccinated and treated for HBV, as required. Unfortunately, screening and vaccination in this population can be challenging for several reasons. We therefore conducted an analysis to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of the pathways of care (from screening to treat...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Mazzitelli Giuseppe Greco Francesca Serapide Vincenzo Scaglione Helen Morrone Nadia Marascio Aida Giancotti MariaCarla Liberto Giovanni Matera EnricoMaria Trecarichi Carlo Torti Source Type: research

Prevalence of resistance-associated substitutions to NS3, NS5A and NS5B inhibitors at DAA-failure in hepatitis C virus in Italy from 2015 to 2019
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):242-251.ABSTRACTDespite the high efficacy of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), the selection of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after virological failure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) DAAs can impair the cure of chronic HCV. The aim of the study was to characterize RASs after virological failure of DAAs in Italy over the years. Within the Italian network VIRONET-C, the change in prevalence of NS3/4A-NS5A-NS5B RASs was retrospectively evaluated in patients who failed a DAA regimen over the years 2015-2019. NS3, NS5A and NS5B Sanger sequencing was performed using homemade protocols and the ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barbara Rossetti Lorenzo Paglicci Velia C Di Maio Chiara Cassol Silvia Barbaliscia Stefania Paolucci Bianca Bruzzone Nicola Coppola Francesca Montagnani Valeria Micheli Laura Monno Giacomo Zanelli Teresa Santantonio Nunzia Cuomo Cinzia Caudai Maurizio Zaz Source Type: research

Lesson learned from the 2017 measles outbreak in Italy: report from an emergency department
In this study we described the rate, clinical features and severity of measles complications in patients admitted to the ED of a tertiary-care teaching hospital during the outbreak that took place in 2017. Some insights into the impact on the health care system are reported as well. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Medical records of adults discharged from January to December 2017 with diagnosis of "measles" were collected and analyzed. Out of 58,579 of ED admissions, 162 measles cases were enrolled. Acute measles infection was laboratory confirmed in 71.6% and deemed as possible/probable in 24.0% of c...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ornella Spagnolello Alessandro Russo Cristian Borrazzo Gabriella d'Ettorre Giancarlo Ceccarelli Source Type: research

Severe systemic thrombosis in a young COVID-19 patient with a rare homozygous prothrombin G20210A mutation
We describe a patient with COVID-19, carrying a rare homozygous mutation of the prothrombin gene, who developed a severe systemic vein thrombosis. In COVID-19 patients with hypercoagulability disorders the most common inherited and acquired risk factors should be investigated.PMID:34061792 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jose Ramon Fiore Marianna Ciarallo Mariantonietta Di Stefano Salvatore Sica Mariagrazia Scarale Maria D'Errico Fabio Corallo Sergio Lo Caputo Maurizio Margaglione Teresa Santantonio Source Type: research

Cutaneous tuberculosis on the scalp: a case report
We report the case of a 76-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital in Brazil with a 3-week history of a painful, enlarging ulcer on the scalp and cough. His medical history was notable for non-metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. On physical examination, the ulcer measured 10 cm in diameter and was tender, with a firm border and yellow crusts. A punch-biopsy specimen of the edge of the ulcer showed acute and chronic non-specific inflammation and neutrophilic infiltrates. Acid-fast bacilli were seen on microscopic examination, molecular testing detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bruno Hassunuma Carneiro Andr é Gama Palone Carine Andrade Celeira Zanlorenzi Jo ão Guilherme Bochnia Küster Marcelo Abreu Ducroquet Jo ão Adriano de Barros Source Type: research

Oligosymptomatic diphtheria infection in adults: two contacts of the Peruvian index case after 20 years without disease report
We report two more cases of this outbreak (in the index case parents) with confirmed diphtheria infection and tox gene identified by molecular assay, who were in close contact with the index case and never presented any symptoms. Both parents had a congestive pharynx with erythematous plaques at the back of it. In adults, diphtheria infection can be oligosymptomatic or mimic viral pharyngitis, which could lead to misdiagnosis and, furthermore, an increased risk of transmission in regions with lower immunization rates.PMID:34061794 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Juan Jos é Montenegro-Idrogo Cristhian Resurrecci ón-Delgado C ésar Sánchez-Álvarez Marcelo Villarreal-Zerpa Freddy Morales-L ópez Iv án Vargas-Matos Alfredo Juan Chiappe-Gonzalez Source Type: research

Elbasvir/Grazoprevir combination therapy in a B-NHL patient with HCV genotype 1 infection
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):277-279.ABSTRACTPatients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) may often be followed up only with observation, reserving chemotherapy in case of spread. Patients with chronic HCV infection and B cell NHL frequently undergo regression of lymphoproliferative disease once HCV infection is eradicated by treatment. Interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been the treatment of choice for years, remaining unclear whether it is effective in B cell NHL directly or through HCV eradication, since IFN is effective in both HCV infection and B cell NHL. IFN therapy for HCV infection became obsolete with the ad...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Antonello Sica Alessandro Spada Caterina Sagnelli Pasquale Verolino Annalisa Mazzocca Evangelista Sagnelli Giuseppe Colella Salvatore Guastafierro Aldo Marrone Source Type: research

Historical pearls of HPV research: from condyloma to cervical cancer
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):278-283.ABSTRACTThe oldest discovered human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in an ancient Egyptian mummy testifies that there is still much to unearth in its history. The Graeco-Roman world recognized venereal infections, and its nomenclature is still valid concerning HPV lesions. Western Europeans, eons later, created various theories for HPV evolution. Animal experiments during the 19th century had a profound impact for the understanding of HPV. In the late 20th century the arcinogenic properties of the virus had been clarified. This historical review presents the most important figures and di...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Evangelos Mavrommatis Pavlos Lytsikas-Sarlis Theodoros Troupis Source Type: research

Controversies and lessons from the history of smallpox: the case of massive vaccination in British Corfu (1852)
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):284-291.ABSTRACTThe study presents an anti-vaccination action in the 19th century involving both scientific and political motivation. The research is based on an unpublished archive, namely the registries of the British Executive Police during the massive vaccination campaign in Corfu, the capital of the British possession in the Ionian Islands-Greece (1815-1864), after the smallpox outbreak of 1852. The archival material provides information about the number of vaccinated people, namely their sex, age, nationality, the year of the previous vaccination, along with the last year when a citizen &q...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costas Tsiamis Georgia Vrioni Chryssa Dimopoulou Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou Dimitrios Anoyatis-Pele Athanassios Tsakris Source Type: research

Covid-19 pandemic and bats: a lucky symbol of evil fortune
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):192-293.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061798 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gregory Tsoucalas SpyrosN Michaleas TheodoreG Papaioannou Marianna Karamanou Source Type: research

Universal screening for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women using a combination of antigen and RT-PCR testing
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):294-296.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061799 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anil Kumar Radhamany Kunjukutty Ameena Thaha Saranya Srikumar Haritha Madhusoodanan Sachin David Lalitha Biswas Dipu Sathyapalan Source Type: research

How could Italy reach the HCV elimination by 2030?
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):297-298.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061800 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Loreta A Kondili Source Type: research

Valacyclovir for prevention and treatment of fetal CMV infection: inclusion in the Law 648/96 list and launch of the Italian multicentre observational prospective study "MEGAL-ITALI"
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):299-303.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:34061801 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenzo Zammarchi Tiziana Lazzarotto Mariarosaria Di Tommaso Lina Tomasoni Lucia Pasquini Luisa Galli Giuliana Simonazzi Francesco Castelli Beatrice Borchi Irene Campolmi Sara Ornaghi Alessandro Bartoloni Massimo Andreoni Immacolata Pagano Sandra Petragli Source Type: research

Immunopathogenesis and immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):167-180.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multipl...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Anupam A Sule Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohamed Fawzy Javed Muhammad Amjad Khan Abdulkarim Hasan Dhan Bahadur Shrestha Ranjit Sah Manish Dhawan Ruchi Tiwari Muhammad Bilal Tauseef Ahmad Kuldeep Dha Source Type: research

Molecular and serological prevalence of Coronavirus in Chiropterans: A systematic review with meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):181-190.ABSTRACTIn recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D Katterine Bonilla-Aldana Dom énica Acevedo-López Brayan Stiven Aristiz ábal-Carmona Fabio Andr és Díaz-García Cristian Camilo Sarmiento-Cano Samuel Guti érrez-Soleibe Mar ía Del Mar España-Cerquera Diego Mauricio Obando-Cardona Laura Paulina Ca Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis: an overview of the cases reported in Europe and in Italy
We present a brief review of clinical and epidemiological aspects of sporotrichosis, as well as its treatment. Sporotrichosis is rarely reported in Europe and the European Centre of Disease Control does not track its infection rate. To fill this gap, we report a survey of clinical cases described over the past forty years in Europe and in Italy.PMID:34061783 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rosa Monno Giorgia Giannelli Luciana Fumarola Source Type: research

Human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence by different diagnostic methods in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):199-208.ABSTRACTVisceral leishmaniasis is a neglected zoonotic disease that affects animals and humans in different tropical and subtropical regions and even beyond, with variable prevalence among infected hosts. To date, there have been no systematic reviews on human visceral leishmaniasis prevalence in Latin America. We therefore performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using six databases to assess prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in human patients in Latin American countries. Observational studies were included but analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects mo...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Estefan ía Gutiérrez-Ocampo Rhuvi Villamizar-Pe ña Isabella Cortes-Bonilla Luisa M Garc ía-Zuluaga Yeimer Holguin-Rivera Harrison D Ospina-Arzuaga Maria Camila Cardona-Trujllo Adri án E Trejos-Mendoza Soffia Perez-Vargas Kovy Arteaga-Livias Lysien I Source Type: research

Use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and clinical predictors of COVID-19 severity in a tertiary hospital in the city of Buenos Aires
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):209-215.ABSTRACTInformation regarding predictors of a worse COVID-19 prognosis in the South American population is scarce. We aimed to determine whether the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is associated with a worse clinical course of COVID-19, and to evaluate what clinical variables are associated with COVID severity in our population. We included adult subjects with rtPCR-confirmed COVID-19. The use of renin system inhibitors was defined according to its registration in the electronic medical record or the hospital pharmacy registry during the previous three months. Our endpoint was a...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jessica Barochiner Roc ío Martínez Patricia Roxana Conti Marcos Jos é Marín Ery Ayel én Ko Mar ía Sol Osorno Source Type: research

Long-term clinical and serological follow-up of paediatric patients infected by SARS-CoV-2
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):216-223.ABSTRACTStudies concerning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in paediatrics are limited to children mainly selected from hospitals, where patients with complications and co-morbidities are managed. We aimed to describe the course of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a population of children enrolled by place of residence, from diagnosis to recovery, with a long-term clinical and serological follow-up. We identified patients aged
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carmelina Calitri Francesca Fantone Stefania Benetti Maria Maddalena Lupica Maria Giovanna Ignaccolo Elena Banino Alice Viano Mariella Pace Annalisa Castella Flavio Gaido Franco Garofalo None AslTorinoTre Study Group Paediatric Covid Source Type: research

Vitamin D plasma levels in patients with COVID-19: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):224-228.ABSTRACTVitamin D deficiency has been associated to respiratory tract infections. We aimed to investigate vitamin D plasma levels in patients with chest infection with and without COVID-19 in a hospitalized population during the second pandemic wave. A prospective study was conducted in a Mediterranean tertiary center referring to 80 patients suffering from chest infection, who were divided into two groups according to a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hospitalized COVID-19 patients had a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and these patients also exhibited higher levels...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Lagadinou Basileios Zorbas Dimitrios Velissaris Source Type: research

QuantiFERON-TB and tuberculin skin test in patients with active tuberculosis: the experience of a single medium-sized Italian University Hospital
Infez Med. 2021 Jun 1;29(2):229-235.ABSTRACTInterferon-γ releasing assays (IGRAs) are currently widely employed in the initial work up of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, as well as in suspected tuberculosis (TB). These assays are commonly utilized over the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in high resource and low TB burden settings, despite the unclear benefits shown in such contexts. The debate on the use of TST and IGRAs is of current interest also in Italy due to the increasing presence of immigrants from countries with a high incidence of TB and the rising attention of health care institutions to economic costs. ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - June 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maria Bruna Pasticci Chiara Papalini Nicola Murgia Rita Papili Giampaolo Bucaneve Lisa Malincarne Silvia Bozza Daniela Francisci Elio Cenci Source Type: research