COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: a concise review on pathogenesis and clinical implications
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):1-9.ABSTRACTIn this review, we summarize the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and compare its features to other similar conditions. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has caused enormous mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is important to note that COVID-19-associated thrombotic events play a huge role in the morbidity of this disease. Interestingly, it has been observed that this complication may occur despite prophylactic anticoagulant therapy. Recent studies on COVID-19-associated coagulopathy revealed that the COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability is more frequently obser...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Memar Montazerin Homa Najafi Fahimehalsadat Shojaei Gerald Chi Sogand Goudarzi Sadaf Sharfaei Farima Kahe Shakiba Hassanzadeh Source Type: research

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is the dominant route of transmission: droplets and aerosols
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):10-19.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneez...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Maysaa Al-Malkey Roua Alsubki Sayeh Ezzikouri Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi Ranjit Sah Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq Awad Al-Omari Ayman M Al-Qaaneh Manaf Al-Qahtani Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohammad A Al Hamad Nad Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic: from origins to outcomes. A comprehensive review of viral pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and management
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):20-36.ABSTRACTSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen for the COVID-19, first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and by March 2020, it was declared a pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened healthcare systems in most countries and has led to massive economic losses. SARS-CoV-2 transmission typically occurs by respiratory droplets. The average incubation period is 6.4 days and presenting symptoms typically include fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia or fatigue. While the majority of patients tend to have a mild illness, a minority of patients de...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: RohanKumar Ochani Ameema Asad Farah Yasmin Shehryar Shaikh Hiba Khalid Simran Batra Muhammad Rizwan Sohail Syed Faisal Mahmood Rajkumar Ochani Mohammad Hussham Arshad Arjan Kumar Salim Surani Source Type: research

Alopecia and severity of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Peru
In conclusion, the severity of infection was statistically significant in patients over 60 years old and those with alopecia.PMID:33664171 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miguel Ángel Salazar Arenas Agueda Mu ñoz Del Carpio-Toia Johan Aybar Galdos Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales Source Type: research

Role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, lymphocyte-to-monocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios as predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):46-53.ABSTRACTDirect viral damage and uncontrolled inflammation contribute to disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte [NLR], lymphocyte-to-monocyte [LMR] and platelet-to-lymphocyte [PLR] ratios in COVID-19 patients. All 184 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in our institution between March - April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into intubated and non-intubated, and subgrouped into survived and deceased. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, and ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aleksandr Kalabin Vishnu Raj Kumar Mani Sebastian Cristobal Valdivieso Brian Donaldson Source Type: research

Psychological distress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in an Italian population living with HIV: an online survey
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):54-64.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to explore the psychological impact of the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on people living with HIV (PLWH), a population at increased risk of psychological distress. PLWH participated in an online survey exploring demographic and clinical data, physical symptoms, contact history, knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures and additional information about COVID-19 during the first phase of the pandemic in Italy. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (identifying the COVID-19 pandemic as a specific traumatic life event) and...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valentina Delle Donne Nicoletta Ciccarelli Valentina Massaroni Francesca Lombardi Silvia Lamonica Alberto Borghetti Massimiliano Fabbiani Roberto Cauda Simona Di Giambenedetto Source Type: research

Clinical profile and treatment outcomes of patients with brucellosis: a hospital-based cohort study from Southern India
In conclusion, brucellosis should be suspected in patients with fever and osteoarticular involvement in endemic areas. Early identification and prompt initiation of treatment are associated with high cure rates.PMID:33664174 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sindhu Pericherla Nitin Gupta Kavitha Saravu Source Type: research

Diagnostic and infection control strategies for Clostridioides difficile infections in a setting of high antimicrobial resistance prevalence
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):70-78.ABSTRACTClostridioides difficile (CD) is a major nosocomial pathogen and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. In light of the strong association between antimicrobial use and CD infections (CDI), it may be hypothesised that areas at higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, like the region of Campania in southern Italy, could also have a higher rate of CDI. In this multicentre, region-based, prospective study, we analysed such issues, exploiting CDI incidence data collected from local hospitals. In 2016, the Italian National Centre for Disease Control supported a proj...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenzo Bertolino Fabian Patauner Massimo Gagliardi Fabiana D'Amico Valeria Crivaro Mariano Bernardo Isabella Scherillo Filomena Bellitti Caterina Cusano Rita Greco Vittorio Panetta Adriana Durante Alfonsina Di Caterino Angelo Frieri Grazia Cioffi Maria N Source Type: research

Rapid identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):79-84.ABSTRACTRapid and accurate identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is important for a prompt start to antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to obtain accurate identification of NTM quickly by analyzing the performance of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) system VITEK® MS in identifying various NTM species from solid medium and MGIT 960 liquid medium. The study was performed in two phases: preliminary and perspective. Overall, 41/42 species and 33/34 species were correctly identified from the MGIT medium in the preliminary and perspective phases, respectively. Th...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ester Oliva Marco Arosio Ester Mazzola Miriam Mascheroni Annarosa Cerro Marina Cuntr ó Francesca Vailati Marco Cavallini Claudio Farina Source Type: research

A study of group B streptococcus in pregnant women in Lebanon: prevalence, risk factors, vaginal flora and antimicrobial susceptibility
This study determines the prevalence of GBS among pregnant women in Lebanon and assesses the association between risk factors and vaginal flora in this patient population and antibiotic resistance pattern of the GBS isolates. Vaginal samples from women between 35-37 weeks of gestation were obtained and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar (BA), colistin nalidixic acid agar, Strep B Select chromogenic agar and Lim enrichment broth. Also, vaginal flora was evaluated on Gram-stained smears. Colonies on BA suggestive of GBS were identified by Gram staining, catalase test and agglutination in group B antiserum. Antimicrobial suscept...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wadha Alfouzan Nahed Gaddar Rita Dhar Ali A Rabaan Source Type: research

Prevalence of respiratory viruses by Multiplex PCR: a four-and-a-half year retrospective study in an Italian general hospital
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):94-101.ABSTRACTViruses are frequent causal agents of acute respiratory infections and the most common are influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV) and the four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) -229E, -NL63, -OC43, -HKU1. Multiplex real-time PCR platforms are becoming increasingly common in laboratories mostly in relation to the increased diagnostic sensitivity and reduced turnaround time. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses in a population of pati...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christian Leli Luigi Di Matteo Franca Gotta Daria Vay Andrea Piceghello Elisa Cornaglia Valeria Cavallo Simone Busso Laura Carrabba Roberta Mazzeo Andrea Rocchetti Source Type: research

Prophylactic letermovir decreases cytomegalovirus reactivation after stem cell transplantation: a single-center real-world evidence study
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):102-113.ABSTRACTCytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Letermovir (LTV) is a novel antiviral agent approved for CMV prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation. In this single-center real-world study, we evidenced the efficacy and safety of LTV for CMV prophylaxis in allogeneic HSCT recipients. A total of 133 consecutive patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT were included in the study, and a subgroup of 13 allogeneic HSCT recipients received CMV prophylaxis with LTV 240 mg/daily...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bianca Serio Valentina Giudice Roberto Guariglia Raffaele Fontana Luca Pezzullo Maria Carmen Martorelli Idalucia Ferrara Laura Mettivier Matteo D'Addona Emilia Vaccaro Maddalena Langella Carmine Selleri Source Type: research

The importance of anamnesis in differential diagnosis: a case of SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus co-infection
We describe a 40-year-old man diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and dengue fever during the COVID-19 outbreak in Milan, Italy.PMID:33664180 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrea Giacomelli Gabriele Pagani Alice Covizzi Spinello Antinori Dario Cattaneo Cristina Gervasoni Source Type: research

A case series of vestibular symptoms in positive or suspected COVID-19 patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):117-122.ABSTRACTRespiratory symptoms are the most common presentation of an acute COVID-19 infection, but thromboembolic phenomena, encephalopathy and other neurological symptoms have been reported. With these case series, we present multiple presentations of COVID-19 induced vestibular symptoms namely dizziness, vertigo and nystagmus. The patients reported in this case series are from different parts of the world, belong to different age groups and had manifested these symptoms in different periods of the pandemic. The pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis induced by COVID-19 is similar to any...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Srikrishna Varun Malayala Gisha Mohan Deepa Vasireddy Paavani Atluri Source Type: research

Clinical use of BCG and its complications: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):123-129.ABSTRACTBacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the essential constituent of the vaccine against tuberculosis and the gold-standard adjuvant treatment for urothelial cancer of the bladder. Being a live, attenuated strain with a potential pathogenic action, bacilli can cause several complications, both locally near the inoculation site and remotely through blood dissemination. BCG-related disease can represent a side effect of anti-TB vaccination in patient with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency or a complication of the therapeutic...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Colomba Raffaella Rubino Gabriele Mantia Federica Guida Marascia Michelle Abbott Andrea Gizzi Antonio Anastasia Gabriele Palermo Manlio Tolomeo Antonio Cascio Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative post-neurosurgical meningitis and the role of intraventricular colistin: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):130-137.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to report the clinical experience of intraventricular colistin for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative post-surgical meningitis in a tertiary hospital. Post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM) is one of the life-threatening complications of neurosurgical procedures, and is frequently sustained by Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we describe our experience of five cases of PNM caused by gram-negative multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, treated with intraventricular (IVT) colistin, admitted to the Neurosurgery Unit of A.R.N.A....
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiara Iaria Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva Daria Spicola Anna Maria Fimognari Claudia Imburgia Francesco Di Lorenzo Antonio Ficalora Adriana Sanfilippo Vincenzo Mazzarese Antonio Scafidi Francesco Cim ó Antonio Capodicasa Grazia Laura Marsala Antonella Sapo Source Type: research

A case of Corynebacterium striatum endocarditis successfully treated with an early switch to oral antimicrobial therapy
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):138-144.ABSTRACTPatients with Corynebacterium striatum endocarditis are usually managed with long-term intravenous antibiotic therapy and hospitalization. Here we describe a case of a 76-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis who developed endocarditis due to Corynebacterium striatum associated with severe aortic regurgitation. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be successfully treated with an early switch to oral linezolid after three weeks of vancomycin. We performed a literature review using the PubMed database and found 27 cases which showed the enhanced virul...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Simona Biscarini Marta Colaneri Bianca Mariani Teresa Chiara Pieri Raffaele Bruno Elena Seminari Source Type: research

The plague which hit the city of Bologna in the year 1630
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):145-156.ABSTRACTIn the year 1630, similarly to other cities of Northern Italy, Bologna was affected by a plague epidemic. It occurred after the arrival of Lansquenet troops, engaged by the Emperor Frederick II in the siege of Mantua city. The human losses have been calculated by the historian demographer Bellettini in the terms of around 15,000 people, so that the number of inhabitants in Bologna declined from 62,000 to 47,000 units in the time span of 7-8 months. Initially, during the winter and the early spring, although the plague epidemic had been known after that it involved many cities clo...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergio Sabbatani Sirio Fiorino Roberto Manfredi Source Type: research

The Greek physician and politician Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831) and the plague of 1828 in Greece
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):157-159.ABSTRACTCount Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias was an important political figure of the 19th century. He was a pioneer in the fight against epidemics and used his medical experience in Italy to protect Greeks from the 1828 plague. As a renowned diplomat and leader, Kapodistrias helped forge the federal state structure of Switzerland and formed the first organized administrative state in the Hellenic peninsula.PMID:33664186 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gregory Tsoucalas Spyros N Michaleas Marianna Karamanou Source Type: research

Finnish sauna and COVID-19
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):160-162.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664187 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Setor K Kunutsor Carl J Lavie JariA Laukkanen Source Type: research

Determinants of SARS-COV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of recovered patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):163-164.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664188 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arturo Ciccullo Matteo Tosato Alberto Borghetti Davide Moschese Massimo Fantoni Simona Di Giambenedetto Francesco Landi Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine: Challenges in developing countries and India's initiatives
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):165-166.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664189 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiranjib Chakraborty Ashish Ranjan Sharma Manojit Bhattacharya Sang-Soo Lee Govindasamy Agoramoorthy Source Type: research

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: a concise review on pathogenesis and clinical implications
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):1-9.ABSTRACTIn this review, we summarize the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and compare its features to other similar conditions. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has caused enormous mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is important to note that COVID-19-associated thrombotic events play a huge role in the morbidity of this disease. Interestingly, it has been observed that this complication may occur despite prophylactic anticoagulant therapy. Recent studies on COVID-19-associated coagulopathy revealed that the COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability is more frequently obser...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Memar Montazerin Homa Najafi Fahimehalsadat Shojaei Gerald Chi Sogand Goudarzi Sadaf Sharfaei Farima Kahe Shakiba Hassanzadeh Source Type: research

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is the dominant route of transmission: droplets and aerosols
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):10-19.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneez...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Maysaa Al-Malkey Roua Alsubki Sayeh Ezzikouri Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi Ranjit Sah Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq Awad Al-Omari Ayman M Al-Qaaneh Manaf Al-Qahtani Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohammad A Al Hamad Nad Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic: from origins to outcomes. A comprehensive review of viral pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and management
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):20-36.ABSTRACTSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen for the COVID-19, first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and by March 2020, it was declared a pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened healthcare systems in most countries and has led to massive economic losses. SARS-CoV-2 transmission typically occurs by respiratory droplets. The average incubation period is 6.4 days and presenting symptoms typically include fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia or fatigue. While the majority of patients tend to have a mild illness, a minority of patients de...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: RohanKumar Ochani Ameema Asad Farah Yasmin Shehryar Shaikh Hiba Khalid Simran Batra Muhammad Rizwan Sohail Syed Faisal Mahmood Rajkumar Ochani Mohammad Hussham Arshad Arjan Kumar Salim Surani Source Type: research

Alopecia and severity of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Peru
In conclusion, the severity of infection was statistically significant in patients over 60 years old and those with alopecia.PMID:33664171 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miguel Ángel Salazar Arenas Agueda Mu ñoz Del Carpio-Toia Johan Aybar Galdos Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales Source Type: research

Role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, lymphocyte-to-monocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios as predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):46-53.ABSTRACTDirect viral damage and uncontrolled inflammation contribute to disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte [NLR], lymphocyte-to-monocyte [LMR] and platelet-to-lymphocyte [PLR] ratios in COVID-19 patients. All 184 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in our institution between March - April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into intubated and non-intubated, and subgrouped into survived and deceased. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, and ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aleksandr Kalabin Vishnu Raj Kumar Mani Sebastian Cristobal Valdivieso Brian Donaldson Source Type: research

Psychological distress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in an Italian population living with HIV: an online survey
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):54-64.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to explore the psychological impact of the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on people living with HIV (PLWH), a population at increased risk of psychological distress. PLWH participated in an online survey exploring demographic and clinical data, physical symptoms, contact history, knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures and additional information about COVID-19 during the first phase of the pandemic in Italy. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (identifying the COVID-19 pandemic as a specific traumatic life event) and...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valentina Delle Donne Nicoletta Ciccarelli Valentina Massaroni Francesca Lombardi Silvia Lamonica Alberto Borghetti Massimiliano Fabbiani Roberto Cauda Simona Di Giambenedetto Source Type: research

Clinical profile and treatment outcomes of patients with brucellosis: a hospital-based cohort study from Southern India
In conclusion, brucellosis should be suspected in patients with fever and osteoarticular involvement in endemic areas. Early identification and prompt initiation of treatment are associated with high cure rates.PMID:33664174 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sindhu Pericherla Nitin Gupta Kavitha Saravu Source Type: research

Diagnostic and infection control strategies for Clostridioides difficile infections in a setting of high antimicrobial resistance prevalence
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):70-78.ABSTRACTClostridioides difficile (CD) is a major nosocomial pathogen and the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. In light of the strong association between antimicrobial use and CD infections (CDI), it may be hypothesised that areas at higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, like the region of Campania in southern Italy, could also have a higher rate of CDI. In this multicentre, region-based, prospective study, we analysed such issues, exploiting CDI incidence data collected from local hospitals. In 2016, the Italian National Centre for Disease Control supported a proj...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lorenzo Bertolino Fabian Patauner Massimo Gagliardi Fabiana D'Amico Valeria Crivaro Mariano Bernardo Isabella Scherillo Filomena Bellitti Caterina Cusano Rita Greco Vittorio Panetta Adriana Durante Alfonsina Di Caterino Angelo Frieri Grazia Cioffi Maria N Source Type: research

Rapid identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):79-84.ABSTRACTRapid and accurate identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is important for a prompt start to antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study was to obtain accurate identification of NTM quickly by analyzing the performance of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) system VITEK® MS in identifying various NTM species from solid medium and MGIT 960 liquid medium. The study was performed in two phases: preliminary and perspective. Overall, 41/42 species and 33/34 species were correctly identified from the MGIT medium in the preliminary and perspective phases, respectively. Th...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ester Oliva Marco Arosio Ester Mazzola Miriam Mascheroni Annarosa Cerro Marina Cuntr ó Francesca Vailati Marco Cavallini Claudio Farina Source Type: research

A study of group B streptococcus in pregnant women in Lebanon: prevalence, risk factors, vaginal flora and antimicrobial susceptibility
This study determines the prevalence of GBS among pregnant women in Lebanon and assesses the association between risk factors and vaginal flora in this patient population and antibiotic resistance pattern of the GBS isolates. Vaginal samples from women between 35-37 weeks of gestation were obtained and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar (BA), colistin nalidixic acid agar, Strep B Select chromogenic agar and Lim enrichment broth. Also, vaginal flora was evaluated on Gram-stained smears. Colonies on BA suggestive of GBS were identified by Gram staining, catalase test and agglutination in group B antiserum. Antimicrobial suscept...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wadha Alfouzan Nahed Gaddar Rita Dhar Ali A Rabaan Source Type: research

Prevalence of respiratory viruses by Multiplex PCR: a four-and-a-half year retrospective study in an Italian general hospital
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):94-101.ABSTRACTViruses are frequent causal agents of acute respiratory infections and the most common are influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus (RV), adenovirus (AdV) and the four endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) -229E, -NL63, -OC43, -HKU1. Multiplex real-time PCR platforms are becoming increasingly common in laboratories mostly in relation to the increased diagnostic sensitivity and reduced turnaround time. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of respiratory viruses in a population of pati...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christian Leli Luigi Di Matteo Franca Gotta Daria Vay Andrea Piceghello Elisa Cornaglia Valeria Cavallo Simone Busso Laura Carrabba Roberta Mazzeo Andrea Rocchetti Source Type: research

Prophylactic letermovir decreases cytomegalovirus reactivation after stem cell transplantation: a single-center real-world evidence study
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):102-113.ABSTRACTCytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Letermovir (LTV) is a novel antiviral agent approved for CMV prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation. In this single-center real-world study, we evidenced the efficacy and safety of LTV for CMV prophylaxis in allogeneic HSCT recipients. A total of 133 consecutive patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HSCT were included in the study, and a subgroup of 13 allogeneic HSCT recipients received CMV prophylaxis with LTV 240 mg/daily...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bianca Serio Valentina Giudice Roberto Guariglia Raffaele Fontana Luca Pezzullo Maria Carmen Martorelli Idalucia Ferrara Laura Mettivier Matteo D'Addona Emilia Vaccaro Maddalena Langella Carmine Selleri Source Type: research

The importance of anamnesis in differential diagnosis: a case of SARS-CoV-2 and dengue virus co-infection
We describe a 40-year-old man diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and dengue fever during the COVID-19 outbreak in Milan, Italy.PMID:33664180 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrea Giacomelli Gabriele Pagani Alice Covizzi Spinello Antinori Dario Cattaneo Cristina Gervasoni Source Type: research

A case series of vestibular symptoms in positive or suspected COVID-19 patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):117-122.ABSTRACTRespiratory symptoms are the most common presentation of an acute COVID-19 infection, but thromboembolic phenomena, encephalopathy and other neurological symptoms have been reported. With these case series, we present multiple presentations of COVID-19 induced vestibular symptoms namely dizziness, vertigo and nystagmus. The patients reported in this case series are from different parts of the world, belong to different age groups and had manifested these symptoms in different periods of the pandemic. The pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis induced by COVID-19 is similar to any...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Srikrishna Varun Malayala Gisha Mohan Deepa Vasireddy Paavani Atluri Source Type: research

Clinical use of BCG and its complications: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):123-129.ABSTRACTBacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a live, attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is the essential constituent of the vaccine against tuberculosis and the gold-standard adjuvant treatment for urothelial cancer of the bladder. Being a live, attenuated strain with a potential pathogenic action, bacilli can cause several complications, both locally near the inoculation site and remotely through blood dissemination. BCG-related disease can represent a side effect of anti-TB vaccination in patient with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency or a complication of the therapeutic...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Claudia Colomba Raffaella Rubino Gabriele Mantia Federica Guida Marascia Michelle Abbott Andrea Gizzi Antonio Anastasia Gabriele Palermo Manlio Tolomeo Antonio Cascio Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative post-neurosurgical meningitis and the role of intraventricular colistin: a case series
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):130-137.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to report the clinical experience of intraventricular colistin for the treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative post-surgical meningitis in a tertiary hospital. Post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM) is one of the life-threatening complications of neurosurgical procedures, and is frequently sustained by Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we describe our experience of five cases of PNM caused by gram-negative multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, treated with intraventricular (IVT) colistin, admitted to the Neurosurgery Unit of A.R.N.A....
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiara Iaria Giuseppe Roberto Giammalva Daria Spicola Anna Maria Fimognari Claudia Imburgia Francesco Di Lorenzo Antonio Ficalora Adriana Sanfilippo Vincenzo Mazzarese Antonio Scafidi Francesco Cim ó Antonio Capodicasa Grazia Laura Marsala Antonella Sapo Source Type: research

A case of Corynebacterium striatum endocarditis successfully treated with an early switch to oral antimicrobial therapy
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):138-144.ABSTRACTPatients with Corynebacterium striatum endocarditis are usually managed with long-term intravenous antibiotic therapy and hospitalization. Here we describe a case of a 76-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis who developed endocarditis due to Corynebacterium striatum associated with severe aortic regurgitation. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be successfully treated with an early switch to oral linezolid after three weeks of vancomycin. We performed a literature review using the PubMed database and found 27 cases which showed the enhanced virul...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Simona Biscarini Marta Colaneri Bianca Mariani Teresa Chiara Pieri Raffaele Bruno Elena Seminari Source Type: research

The plague which hit the city of Bologna in the year 1630
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):145-156.ABSTRACTIn the year 1630, similarly to other cities of Northern Italy, Bologna was affected by a plague epidemic. It occurred after the arrival of Lansquenet troops, engaged by the Emperor Frederick II in the siege of Mantua city. The human losses have been calculated by the historian demographer Bellettini in the terms of around 15,000 people, so that the number of inhabitants in Bologna declined from 62,000 to 47,000 units in the time span of 7-8 months. Initially, during the winter and the early spring, although the plague epidemic had been known after that it involved many cities clo...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sergio Sabbatani Sirio Fiorino Roberto Manfredi Source Type: research

The Greek physician and politician Ioannis Kapodistrias (1776-1831) and the plague of 1828 in Greece
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):157-159.ABSTRACTCount Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias was an important political figure of the 19th century. He was a pioneer in the fight against epidemics and used his medical experience in Italy to protect Greeks from the 1828 plague. As a renowned diplomat and leader, Kapodistrias helped forge the federal state structure of Switzerland and formed the first organized administrative state in the Hellenic peninsula.PMID:33664186 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gregory Tsoucalas Spyros N Michaleas Marianna Karamanou Source Type: research

Finnish sauna and COVID-19
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):160-162.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664187 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Setor K Kunutsor Carl J Lavie JariA Laukkanen Source Type: research

Determinants of SARS-COV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of recovered patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):163-164.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664188 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Arturo Ciccullo Matteo Tosato Alberto Borghetti Davide Moschese Massimo Fantoni Simona Di Giambenedetto Francesco Landi Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine: Challenges in developing countries and India's initiatives
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):165-166.ABSTRACTNot available.PMID:33664189 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chiranjib Chakraborty Ashish Ranjan Sharma Manojit Bhattacharya Sang-Soo Lee Govindasamy Agoramoorthy Source Type: research

COVID-19-associated coagulopathy: a concise review on pathogenesis and clinical implications
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):1-9.ABSTRACTIn this review, we summarize the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and compare its features to other similar conditions. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has caused enormous mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is important to note that COVID-19-associated thrombotic events play a huge role in the morbidity of this disease. Interestingly, it has been observed that this complication may occur despite prophylactic anticoagulant therapy. Recent studies on COVID-19-associated coagulopathy revealed that the COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability is more frequently obser...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahar Memar Montazerin Homa Najafi Fahimehalsadat Shojaei Gerald Chi Sogand Goudarzi Sadaf Sharfaei Farima Kahe Shakiba Hassanzadeh Source Type: research

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is the dominant route of transmission: droplets and aerosols
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):10-19.ABSTRACTCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneez...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali A Rabaan Shamsah H Al-Ahmed Maysaa Al-Malkey Roua Alsubki Sayeh Ezzikouri Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi Ranjit Sah Abbas Al Mutair Saad Alhumaid Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq Awad Al-Omari Ayman M Al-Qaaneh Manaf Al-Qahtani Raghavendra Tirupathi Mohammad A Al Hamad Nad Source Type: research

COVID-19 pandemic: from origins to outcomes. A comprehensive review of viral pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and management
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):20-36.ABSTRACTSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative pathogen for the COVID-19, first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and by March 2020, it was declared a pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic has overburdened healthcare systems in most countries and has led to massive economic losses. SARS-CoV-2 transmission typically occurs by respiratory droplets. The average incubation period is 6.4 days and presenting symptoms typically include fever, cough, dyspnea, myalgia or fatigue. While the majority of patients tend to have a mild illness, a minority of patients de...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: RohanKumar Ochani Ameema Asad Farah Yasmin Shehryar Shaikh Hiba Khalid Simran Batra Muhammad Rizwan Sohail Syed Faisal Mahmood Rajkumar Ochani Mohammad Hussham Arshad Arjan Kumar Salim Surani Source Type: research

Alopecia and severity of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study in Peru
In conclusion, the severity of infection was statistically significant in patients over 60 years old and those with alopecia.PMID:33664171 (Source: Infezioni in Medicina)
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miguel Ángel Salazar Arenas Agueda Mu ñoz Del Carpio-Toia Johan Aybar Galdos Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales Source Type: research

Role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, lymphocyte-to-monocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios as predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):46-53.ABSTRACTDirect viral damage and uncontrolled inflammation contribute to disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte [NLR], lymphocyte-to-monocyte [LMR] and platelet-to-lymphocyte [PLR] ratios in COVID-19 patients. All 184 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in our institution between March - April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were grouped into intubated and non-intubated, and subgrouped into survived and deceased. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, and ...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aleksandr Kalabin Vishnu Raj Kumar Mani Sebastian Cristobal Valdivieso Brian Donaldson Source Type: research

Psychological distress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in an Italian population living with HIV: an online survey
Infez Med. 2021 Mar 1;29(1):54-64.ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to explore the psychological impact of the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on people living with HIV (PLWH), a population at increased risk of psychological distress. PLWH participated in an online survey exploring demographic and clinical data, physical symptoms, contact history, knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures and additional information about COVID-19 during the first phase of the pandemic in Italy. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (identifying the COVID-19 pandemic as a specific traumatic life event) and...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - March 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valentina Delle Donne Nicoletta Ciccarelli Valentina Massaroni Francesca Lombardi Silvia Lamonica Alberto Borghetti Massimiliano Fabbiani Roberto Cauda Simona Di Giambenedetto Source Type: research