How do children aged 6 to 11 stabilize themselves on an unstable sitting device? The progressive development of axial segment control.
This study aimed to assess the development of the postural stabilization of axial body segments during middle childhood. Thirty-six children (in three age groups: 6-7yo, 8-9yo, and 10-11yo) and 11 adults sat on the unstable sitting device and had to stabilize their axial segments under several conditions: a moderate vs. high level of balance challenge, and eyes open vs. eyes closed. Upper-body postural sway (area, mean velocity and root mean square (RMS) of the center of pressure (CoP) displacement) decreased progressively with age (6-7yo > 8-9yo > 10-11yo > adults), and this effect w...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pierret J, Beyaert C, Paysant J, Caudron S Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Effects of age, speed, and step length on lower extremity net joint moments and powers during walking.
Abstract During walking older adults' gait is slower, they take shorter steps, and rely less on ankle and more on knee and hip joint moments and powers compared to young adults. Previous studies have suggested that walking speed and step length are confounds that affect joint moments and powers. Our purpose was to examine the effects of walking speed and step length manipulation on net joint moments and powers in young and older adults. Sixteen young and 18 older adults completed walking trials at three speeds under three step length conditions as marker position and force platform data were captured synchronously...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Buddhadev HH, Smiley AL, Martin PE Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Autonomy support and reduced feedback frequency have trivial effects on learning and performance of a golf putting task.
Abstract Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) Theory proposes that choices of any kind support an individual's need for autonomy, motivating them to learn and perform motor skills more effectively. Notably, the authors suggest asking learners to choose when to receive feedback in order to increase autonomy. Conversely, the guidance hypothesis predicts an impact of feedback schedule independent of motivational influences. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the relative and combined effects of autonomy and feedback schedule for the acquisition of a golf ...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McKay B, Ste-Marie DM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Quantifying lower limb inter-joint coordination and coordination variability after four-month wearing arch support foot orthoses in children with flexible flat feet" [Human Movement Science 70 (2020) 102593].
Corrigendum to "Quantifying lower limb inter-joint coordination and coordination variability after four-month wearing arch support foot orthoses in children with flexible flat feet" [Human Movement Science 70 (2020) 102593]. Hum Mov Sci. 2020 Jun;71:102613 Authors: Jafarnezhadgero AA, Mousavi SH, Madadi-Shad M, Hijmans JM PMID: 32452430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jafarnezhadgero AA, Mousavi SH, Madadi-Shad M, Hijmans JM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Smaller muscle mass is associated with increase in EMG-EMG coherence of the leg muscle during unipedal stance in elderly adults.
Abstract Age-induced decline in the ability to perform daily activities is associated with a deterioration of physical parameters. Changes occur in neuromuscular system with age; however, the relationship between these changes and physical parameters has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between neuromuscular system evaluated using a coherence analysis of the leg muscles and physical parameters in community-dwelling healthy elderly adults. The participants were required to stand still in bipedal and unipedal stances on a force plate. Then, electromyography ...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nojima I, Suwa Y, Sugiura H, Noguchi T, Tanabe S, Mima T, Watanabe T Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Gaze behaviour during walking in young adults with developmental coordination disorder.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Despite adequate walking performance in daily situations in young adults with DCD, fundamental control deficits persist into adulthood. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: This paper is the first to demonstrate differences in gaze behaviour between young adults with DCD and typically developing individuals in a task that resembles a task of daily living, as previous research focused on laboratory tasks. This is a valuable finding as DCD has a clear impact on the daily life. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the fundamental control deficits of DCD persist into adulthood despite frequent performance ...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Warlop G, Vansteenkiste P, Lenoir M, Van Causenbroeck J, Deconinck FJA Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Physical and perceptual measures of walking surface complexity strongly predict gait and gaze behaviour.
This study used a multimethod approach to measure surface complexity in order to try to characterise surfaces with respect to locomotor stability. METHODS: We assessed how physical measurements of walking surface complexity compared to participant's perceptual ratings of the effect of complexity on stability. Physical measurements included local slope measures from the surfaces themselves and shape complexity measured using generated surface models. Perceptual measurements assessed participants' perceived stability and surface roughness using Likert scales. We then determined whether these measurements were indicative...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Thomas NDA, Gardiner JD, Crompton RH, Lawson R Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Trajectory evolution and changes in the structure of movement amplitude time series.
Abstract With increases in the index of difficulty [ID = log2(2A/W)], the time-series structure of movement amplitude values shift from pink to white noise. The appearance of pink noise at low-ID levels may be attributed to the dominance of feedforward control processes, while the appearance of white noise at high-ID levels may be attributed to increased reliance on visuomotor feedback processes needed to guide movement into the target region. Such within-movement corrections may disrupt the pink-noise time-series correlations that exist in the absence of feedback processing. In our prior work, movement ...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Slifkin AB, Eder JR Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The influence of time constraints on posture choices during an end-state comfort task.
Abstract People adopt comfortable postures for the end states of motor actions (end-state comfort; Rosenbaum & Jorgensen, 1992). The choice to end comfortably often elicits adoption of uncomfortable beginning states, demonstrating that a sequence of movement is planned in advance of movement onset. Many factors influence the choice of comfortable end-state postures including the greater precision and speed afforded by postures at joint angle mid-ranges (Short & Cauraugh, 1999). To date, there has been little evaluation of the hypothesis that postures are chosen based on minimizing the time spent in uncomfo...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Modersitzki R, Studenka BE Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Dual-task costs of texting while walking forward and backward are greater for older adults than younger adults.
Abstract Cognitive-motor dual-tasking involves concurrent performance of two tasks with distinct cognitive and motor demands and is associated with increased fall risk. In this hypothesis-driven study, younger (18-30 years, n = 24) and older (60-75 years, n = 26) adults completed six walking tasks in triplicate. Participants walked forward and backward along a GAITRite mat, in isolation or while performing a verbal fluency task. Verbal fluency tasks involved verbally listing or typing on a smartphone as many words as possible within a given category (e.g., clothes). Using repeated measures MANOVA model...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Belur P, Hsiao D, Myers PS, Earhart GM, Rawson KS Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Motor imagery during action observation enhances imitation of everyday rhythmical actions in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.
Abstract Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) exhibit deficits both in imitation and motor imagery (MI) compared to typically developing children. Combined action observation and motor imagery (AO + MI) instructions can however enhance automatic imitation in both groups. In the present study we investigated the effects of AO + MI instructions on intentional imitation in children both with (n = 13) and without DCD (n = 12). On each trial participants observed and/or imagined before executing a familiar rhythmical pantomime action. These target actions were ...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scott MW, Emerson JR, Dixon J, Tayler MA, Eaves DL Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Enhanced visuomotor learning and generalization in expert surgeons.
Abstract Although human motor learning has been intensively studied for many decades, it remains unknown whether group differences are present in expert cohorts that must routinely cope with and learn new visuomotor mappings such as expert minimally invasive surgeons. We found that expert surgeons compensate for a visuomotor perturbation more rapidly than naive controls. Modelling indicates that these differences in expert behavioural performance reflects greater trial-to-trial retention, as opposed to greater trial-to-trial learning rate. We also found that surgeons generalize to novel reach directions more broad...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hewitson CL, Crossley MJ, Kaplan DM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Beyond visual fixations and gaze behaviour. Using pupillometry to examine the mechanisms in the planning and motor performance of a golf putt.
Abstract The present study assessed the potential value of using pupillometry to explore skill level differences in the allocation of attention during planning and performance of a golf putt across three putting conditions of varying complexity. Although numerous studies have reported on skill level differences in performers' visual search behaviours, performance accuracy and quiet eye duration (QE) across a range of performance settings, few have provided an objective measure of the allocation of attention during task performance. Fourteen participants were assigned to two groups [low handicap (LHG) and high hand...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Carnegie E, Marchant D, Towers S, Ellison P Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Leg-amplitude differentiation guided by haptic and visual feedback to detect alterations in motor flexibility due to Total Knee Replacement.
Abstract Following total knee replacement (TKR), patients often persist in maladaptive motor behavior which they developed before surgery to cope with symptoms of osteoarthritis. An important challenge in physical therapy is to detect, recognize and change such undesired movement behavior. The goal of this study was to measure the differences in clinical status of patients pre-TKR and post-TKR and to investigate if differences in clinical status were accompanied by differences in the patients'' motor flexibility. Eleven TKR participants were measured twice: pre-TKR and post-TKR (twenty weeks after TKR). In order t...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Roelofsen EGJ, van Cingel R, Pronk Y, Staal JB, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MWG, Meulenbroek RGJ Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Grasping a 2D virtual target: The influence of target position and movement on gaze and digit placement.
Abstract While much has been learned about the visual pursuit and motor strategies used to intercept a moving object, less research has focused on the coordination of gaze and digit placement when grasping moving stimuli. Participants grasped 2D computer generated square targets that either encouraged placement of the index finger and thumb along the horizontal midline (Control targets) or had narrow "notches" in the top and bottom surfaces of the target, intended to discourage digit placement near the midline (Experimental targets). In Experiment 1, targets remained stationary at the left, middle, or ri...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Langridge RW, Marotta JJ Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Sensorimotor synchronization during gait is altered by the addition of variability to an external cue.
Abstract Sensorimotor synchronization has been used in the rehabilitation of gait, yet much remains unknown regarding the optimal use of this technique. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adding small amounts of variability to the motion of a vertically oscillating treadmill would affect the behavior of healthy walkers. Sixteen young adults walked on a treadmill and pneumatically actuated platform for one control trial (no oscillation) and eight trials in which the walking surface oscillated in the vertical direction under different conditions of variability. During the oscillation trials, t...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tackett E, Nessler J Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The informational properties of the throwing arm for anticipation of goal-directed action.
We examined the informational value of biological motion from the arm in predicting the location of a thrown ball. In three experiments, participants were classified as being skilled and less skilled based on their actual performance on the task (i.e., using a within-task criterion). We then presented participants with a range of stick figure representations and required them to predict throw direction. In Experiment 1, we presented stick figure movies of a full body throwing action, right throwing arm plus left shoulder and throwing arm only. Participants were able to anticipate throw direction above chance under all cond...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Smeeton NJ, Bennett SJ, Hayes SJ, Bourne M, Williams AM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Kinematic gait parameters for older adults with Parkinson's disease during street crossing simulation" [Human Movement Science 70 (2020) 102599].
Corrigendum to "Kinematic gait parameters for older adults with Parkinson's disease during street crossing simulation" [Human Movement Science 70 (2020) 102599]. Hum Mov Sci. 2020 Jun;71:102628 Authors: Amaral-Felipe KMD, Yamada PA, Abreu DCC, Freire Júnior RC, Stroppa-Marques AEZ, Hallal CZ, Faganello-Navega FR PMID: 32452444 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Amaral-Felipe KMD, Yamada PA, Abreu DCC, Freire Júnior RC, Stroppa-Marques AEZ, Hallal CZ, Faganello-Navega FR Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Maximum isokinetic familiarization of the knee: Implication on bilateral assessment.
CONCLUSIONS: Practically, familiarization for bilateral isokinetic strength assessment for knee extension and flexion at 60o/s should begin with the dominant limb for 3 sets to obtain accurate and reliable measurements. PMID: 32452445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chan JPY, Krisnan L, Yusof A, Selvanayagam VS Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Functional variability in the takeoff phase of one metre springboard forward dives.
Abstract In springboard diving consistency of body orientation at water entry is necessary for a good dive and is likely to be dependent on the consistency of conditions at takeoff. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a diver modifies his technique from dive to dive during the board contact phase in order to be more consistent at takeoff in one metre springboard forward dives. Two-dimensional video analysis was used to calculate orientation and configuration angles of 12 forward pike dives and 12 forward 2½ somersault pike dives, performed by an international diver. A computer simulation...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sayyah M, King MA, Hiley MJ, Yeadon MR Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of upper limb kinematics in two activities of daily living with different handling requirements.
CONCLUSION: The different target formats and hand contact in DRINK and LIGHT seem to be responsible for differences in velocity profile, efficiency, smoothness, joint angles and trunk displacement. Results suggest that the real hand trajectory was smaller in LIGHT and that interaction with the switch seems to be less demanding than with the glass. Accordingly, LIGHT could be a good option for the assessment of poststroke patients without grasping ability. Age and sex seem to be the main factors to be considered in future studies for a better match between healthy and poststroke adults. PMID: 32452388 [PubMed - as supp...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mesquita IA, Fonseca PFPD, Borgonovo-Santos M, Ribeiro E, Pinheiro ARV, Correia MV, Silva C Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

How does normal variability in trunk flexion affect lower limb muscle activity during walking?
Abstract A large proportion of the mass of the body is contained within the trunk segment. Therefore, small changes in the inclination of this segment have the potential to influence the direction of the ground reaction force and alter lower limb joint moments and muscle activation patterns during walking. The aim of this study was to investigate if variability in sagittal trunk inclination in healthy participants is associated with differences in lower limb biomechanics. Gait analysis data was collected on 41 healthy participants during walking. Two groups were defined based on habitual trunk flexion angle during...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alghamdi W, Preece SJ Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Attentional focus influences sample entropy in a balancing task.
Abstract An external focus of attention has consistently been associated with improved balance (Wulf, 2013). Recent work has considered whether changes in postural control entropy, a measure of repeated movement patterns, could be a factor influencing this benefit. Rheaet al. (2019) reported that during quiet standing sample entropy when using an external focus was increased relative to baseline, whereas an internal focus did not differ from baseline. External and internal focus conditions did not differ from each other, but the authors speculated this difference may emerge with more complex balance tasks. The pur...
Source: Human Movement Science - May 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Becker KA, Hung CJ Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Kinematic gait parameters for older adults with Parkinson's disease during street crossing simulation.
ga FR Abstract Safe street crossing is important for older adults' social inclusion. We assessed gait kinematic adaptation under different simulated street crossing conditions in older adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) and made comparisons with older adults without PD to understand how PD interferes in outdoor task performance, helping in the development of strategies to reduce road traffic accident risk. In 20 older adults without PD (control group - CG) and 20 with PD (GPD), we assessed usual gait (C1), gait during street crossing simulation (C2), and gait during reduced-time street crossing simulation (C3). ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Amaral-Felipe KMD, Yamada PA, Abreu DCC, Freire Júnior RC, Stroppa-Marques AEZ, Faganello-Navega FR Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Basketball players minimize the effect of motor noise by using near-minimum release speed in free-throw shooting.
Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the strategy used by basketball players during free-throw shooting to improve performance in the presence of motor noise. Two possible hypotheses were examined: the players minimize the release speed to decrease signal-dependent noise or the players maximize the shot success probability by accounting for their variability. Eight collegiate players and one professional player participated in this study by attempting shots from the free-throw line using a motion capture system. The solution manifold consisting of ball parameters at release was calculated and the optimal ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Nakano N, Inaba Y, Fukashiro S, Yoshioka S Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The Human Body Model versus conventional gait models for kinematic gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy.
This study evaluated differences between HBM and two commonly used models for clinical gait analysis: the Newington Model, also known as Plug-in-Gait (PiG), and the calibrated anatomical system technique (CAST). Twenty-five children with cerebral palsy participated. 3D instrumented gait analyses were performed in three laboratories across Europe, using a comprehensive retroreflective marker set comprising three models: HBM, PiG and CAST. Gait kinematics from the three models were compared using statistical parametric mapping, and RMSE values were used to quantify differences. The minimal clinically significant difference w...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Flux E, van der Krogt MM, Cappa P, Petrarca M, Desloovere K, Harlaar J Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Gait control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Abstract The current profile of gait control in children with ADHD is incomplete and predominately based on children walking forward at a self-selected pace. There are no studies of potential gait deficits in this clinical population when walking in different directions in combination with varying rates of stepping that are freely selected and entrained to an external stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to address this lack of information by assessing gait of children aged 7-17 years with (n = 17) and without (n = 26) ADHD. Participants walked forward and backward along an elect...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Simmons RW, Taggart TC, Thomas JD, Mattson SN, Riley EP Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The role of different directions of attention on the extent of implicit perception in soccer penalty kicking.
t M Abstract The role of different directions of attention on the extent of the off-center effect (penalty takers kick to the bigger side of the goal more often, although they explicitly perceive the goalkeeper in the center of the goal) was investigated for soccer penalty kicking. Regarding the directions of attention of the striker, two conflicting assumptions (attention is paid to the goalkeeper vs. attention is only spent on target) were directly contrasted. Participants viewed a goalkeeper standing either in the middle of the goal or being displaced by different distances to the left or right. In the goal-sid...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Memmert D, Noël B, Machlitt D, van der Kamp J, Weigelt M Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Unveilling the cerebral and sensory contributions to automatic postural control during dual-task standing.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the simultaneous performance of a difficult cognitive task and posture yields automatic postural behaviour, and provides insight into the neural correlates of automaticity. PMID: 32217205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: St-Amant G, Rahman T, Polskaia N, Fraser S, Lajoie Y Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Lower limb muscle fatigability is not associated with changes in movement strategies for balance control in the upright stance.
CONCLUSIONS: Lower limb muscle fatigability increases postural instability, but it is not associated with changes in movement strategies for balance control in the upright stance. PMID: 32217206 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sant'Anna do Carmo Aprigio P, Ramathur Telles de Jesus I, Porto C, Lemos T, de Sá Ferreira A Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The effect of head and gaze orientation on spine kinematics during forward flexion.
Abstract Compound, or awkward, spine postures have been suggested as a biomechanical risk factor for low back injury. This experiment investigates the influence of head (i.e. head-on-torso) and gaze (i.e. eye-in-head) orientation on three-dimensional (3D) neck and spine range of motion (ROM) during forward flexion movements. To emulate previous experimental protocols and replicate real-world scenarios, a sample of ten young, healthy males (mean ± standard deviation: age: 20.8 ± 1.03 years, height: 180.2 ± 7.36 cm, and mass: 81.9 ± 6.47&n...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Beaudette SM, Briar KJ, Mavor MP, Graham RB Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Gaze behavior of trampoline gymnasts during a back tuck somersault.
r H Abstract In trampolining, gymnasts perform a variety of rotational jumping elements and have to demonstrate perfect control of the body during the flying phase. The performance of a somersault should include an opening phase, i.e. the legs are fully extended pointing vertically at 180° called "kick-out". As previous studies have shown, gaze behavior is essential for the controlling during the flight phase and to prepare for a perfect landing. Gymnasts supposedly use the trampoline bed as orientation and differences in gaze behavior can be expected, depending on how a somersault is performed. The ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Natrup J, Bramme J, de Lussanet MHE, Boström KJ, Lappe M, Wagner H Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Everyday tasks impair spatiotemporal variables of gait in older adults with Parkinson's disease.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although it is known that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties performing dual-task activities, most of the studies have verified the effect of dual tasks on gait using tasks that are uncommon to perform while walking. However, the realization of tasks involving gait that really represents the daily activities carried out by the participants, allow us to detect real fall risk situations of individuals with PD during their gait. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to verify the influence of daily-life dual-tasks on gait spatiotemporal variables of the older adults with PD. ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Yamada PA, Amaral-Felipe KM, Spinoso DH, Abreu DCC, Stroppa-Marques AEZ, Faganello-Navega FR Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Performance among different types of myocontrolled tasks is not related.
We examined whether a general myocontrol skill exists in myocontrolled tasks with and without a prosthesis. Unimpaired, right-handed adults used the sEMG of wrist flexors and extensors to perform several tasks in two experiments. In Experiment 1, twelve participants trained a myoelectric prosthesis-simulator task and a myocontrolled serious game for five consecutive days. Performance was compared between tasks and over the course of the training period. In Experiment 2, thirty-one participants performed five myocontrolled tasks consisting of two serious games, two prosthesis-simulator tasks and one digital signal matching ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Heerschop A, van der Sluis CK, Otten E, Bongers RM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Quantifying lower limb inter-joint coordination and coordination variability after four-month wearing arch support foot orthoses in children with flexible flat feet.
CONCLUSION: The long-term use of arch support FOs proved to be effective to alter lower limb coordination and coordination variability during walking in children with flexible flat feet. This new insight into coordinative function may be useful for improving corrective exercise strategies planned for children with flat feet. PMID: 32217211 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jafarnezhadgero A, Mousavi SH, Madadi-Shad M, Hijmans JM Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Effects of toe length, foot arch length and toe joint axis on walking biomechanics.
This study provides further insights regarding toe joint function; knowledge which may benefit the design/integration of toe joints into prostheses, exoskeletons and legged robots. PMID: 32217212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Honert EC, Bastas G, Zelik KE Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Multiplicative-cascade dynamics supports whole-body coordination for perception via effortful touch.
Abstract Effortful touch by the hand is essential to engaging with and perceiving properties of objects. The temporal structure of whole-body coordination must reflect the prospective control that provides for both the engagement with and perception of properties of the hefted objects. In the present study, we found signatures of multifractality in the time series of fluctuations in Euclidean displacement in the participants' center of pressure (CoP) as they hefted weighted objects to perceive their heaviness and length. Comparisons of widths of the multifractal spectrums of CoP series with 32 Iterative Amplitude ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mangalam M, Kelty-Stephen DG Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Knee joint kinematics and neuromuscular responses in female athletes during and after multi-directional perturbations.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate weight-bearing knee joint kinematic and neuromuscular responses during lateral, posterior, rotational, and combination (simultaneous lateral, posterior, and rotational motions) perturbations and post-perturbations phases in 30° flexed-knee and straight-knee conditions. Thirteen healthy female athletes participated. Knee joint angles and muscle activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and medial gastrocnemius (MD) muscles were computed. Knee abducted during lateral perturba...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Damavandi M, Mahendrarajah L, Dixon PC, DeMont R Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The effects of enhanced abdominal activation on quadriceps muscle activity levels during selected unilateral lower extremity exercises.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Abdominal Enhancement (AE) on the muscle activation of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscle activation levels during eccentric, isometric and concentric phases of single leg raise (SLR), single leg wall squat (SLWS) and forward lunge (FL) exercises. Sixteen healthy individuals (Age: 24.6 ± 1.7 years) were included in the study. Internal Obliques/Transversus Abdominis (IO/TA), VMO, RF and VL muscle activation levels were measured by surface EMG during the exercises in two conditi...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Harput G, Calık M, Erdem MM, Sarı N, Gunduz S, Cınar N Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Teachers' perceptions of children's sport learning capacity predicts their fundamental movement skill proficiency.
In this study, we set out to determine whether in teachers' perceptions, higher sport-learning capacity (SLC) is associated with the level of fundamental movement skills, and the changes therein over 24 weeks in 7-year-olds. We assessed 170 children from eight primary schools in the Netherlands twice (T1, T2) in 24 weeks, using a tool to assess their FMS in applied settings (Platvoet, Elferink-Gemser, & Visscher, 2018). The schools' eight PE teachers used a digital questionnaire to score their perceptions of children's SLC (Platvoet, Elferink-Gemser, Baker, & Visscher, 2015). Based on their SLC, each chil...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Platvoet S, Pion J, de Niet M, Lenoir M, Elferink-Gemser M, Visscher C Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Bilateral asymmetry of running gait in competitive, recreational and novice runners at different speeds.
Abstract The mechanisms and underlying causes of bilateral asymmetry among healthy runners of different levels remain unclear. This cross-sectional laboratory study aimed to investigate the effects of running speed and running experience or competitive level on bilateral symmetry during running. Eleven competitive runners, 9 recreational runners and 11 novice runners were recruited in this study. They ran on an instrumented treadmill for 3 min at each of 5 fixed speeds (8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 km/h) in a randomized order. Bilateral asymmetry was evaluated and quantified using symmetry index (SI) of temporal ...
Source: Human Movement Science - March 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mo S, Lau FOY, Lok AKY, Chan ZYS, Zhang JH, Shum G, Cheung RTH Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Comparative study of the differences in shoulder muscle activation according to arm rotation angle.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Scapular muscle exercise is important for patients with shoulder disorders. Distal variance leads to changes in shoulder muscle activation. Here, we aimed to determine whether scapular muscle activation is affected by different arm rotation angles. METHODS: Overall, 30 healthy men participated in this study. The subjects were asked to keep their arms at 120 degrees of shoulder flexion while holding a 1.0-kg dumbbell in palms down (pronation) and palms up (supination) positions. Electromyography was used to measure anterior, middle, posterior deltoid, serratus anterior, upper, and lower tr...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ijiri T, Urabe Y, Maeda N, Sasadai J, Suzuki T Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Review of balance recovery in response to external perturbations during daily activities.
The objectives of this work were to point out which areas of perturbation based research are well covered and not well covered and to extract which coping mechanisms humans use to respond to external perturbations. A literature review was performed to analyze mechanisms in response to external perturbations such as pushes to the body or ground level changes during standing, walking, running and hopping. To get a well-structured overview on the two dimensions, the perturbation type and the task, the Perturbation Matrix (PMA) was designed. We found that multiple studies exist for the tasks walking and standing, while hopping...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tokur D, Grimmer M, Seyfarth A Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

The role of working memory capacity in implicit and explicit sequence learning of children: Differentiating movement speed and accuracy.
This study investigated the role of working memory capacity on implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in young children. To this end, a task was utilized that required a gross motor response (flexing the elbow) and that could differentiate between movement speed (i.e., reaction time and movement time) and movement accuracy. Children aged 7-9 years practiced a serial reaction time task that involved the production of a fixed sequence of elbow flexions of prescribed magnitude across two consecutive days. Children in the explicit group were informed about the presence of the sequence and were shown this sequence, ...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: van Abswoude F, Buszard T, van der Kamp J, Steenbergen B Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of gait transitional phases using neuromechanical outputs and somatosensory inputs in an overground walk.
This study introduces Nyquist and Bode methods to quantify stability gait transitional stabilities using the neuromechanical output (CoP) and somatosensory input (GRF) responses. These methods are implemented for five different walking conditions grouped into walking speed and imitated rotational impairments. The trials were recorded with eleven healthy subjects using motion cameras and force platforms. The time rate of change in O/Is illustrated impulsive responses and modelled in the frequency domain. Nyquist and Bode stability methods are applied to quantify stability margins. Stability margins from outputs illustrated ...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mahmood I, Martinez-Hernandez U, Dehghani-Sanij AA Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Individuals with stroke improve anticipatory postural adjustments after a single session of targeted exercises.
Abstract Impairment of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is an important source of postural instability in older adults and individuals with neurological disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate whether APAs could be improved in people with stroke as a result of targeted exercise involving their unaffected upper extremity. Nine individuals with stroke and five healthy control individuals participated in the laboratory tests before and after a single session of practice consisting of pushing a medicine ball attached to the ceiling and stopping the ball with their palm when it returns. The tests inc...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Curuk E, Lee Y, Aruin AS Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Effects of contextual interference on feeding training in patients with stroke.
This study investigated the CI effect on spooning training in such patients. Fourteen right hemiparetic patients with stroke were assigned to one of two groups: a group with a random practice schedule or a group with a blocked practice schedule. The spooning task involved scooping go stones from a bowl 30 cm away in 3 different directions to a bowl in front of the patient. We evaluated the acquisition, retention, and transfer of motor learning for spooning. The transfer was evaluated while participants ate cereal in a bowl with a spoon. Upper extremity function, defined as far-transfer, was also evaluated using the bo...
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jo EJ, Noh DH, Kam KY Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

A scoping review of non-linear analysis approaches measuring variability in gait due to lower body injury or dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-linear analysis is a potentially useful tool in both diagnosis and evaluation of injury, and this should inform future clinical processes when dealing with injury and movement variability. Despite numerous studies evaluating neurological conditions and ageing, focus on injury is limited, with notable gaps in terms of considering other joints and joint actions, so this should be a promising area of research to develop our understanding of injury and rehabilitation and how this affects gait variability. PMID: 31989953 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Strongman C, Morrison A Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairments show subtle visual attention costs when descending stairs.
CONCLUSION: The present cohort of community-dwelling older adults with MCI were functional, but appeared to prioritize locomotor demands over the simultaneous cognitive task in a possible "posture first" strategy to descend stairs. The present findings should be considered for developing more ecologically based clinical assessments of mobility deficits following cognitive impairments, with the approach and transition phases during stair descent as key points of focus. PMID: 31989954 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Charette C, Blanchet S, Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V, McFadyen BJ Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Ankle muscles activation and postural stability with Star Excursion Balance Test in healthy individuals.
CONCLUSIONS: The neuromuscular control of the ankle joint and the associated postural stability during SEBT was highly depended upon the activation level of TA and PB, which should be considered by clinicians and sports specialists when using this test for screening and/or rehabilitation purposes. PMID: 31989955 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Human Movement Science)
Source: Human Movement Science - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Karagiannakis DN, Iatridou KI, Mandalidis DG Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research