Preface.
Authors: PMID: 31220827 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Anatomical Error of Pierre Marie's "Zone Lenticulaire".
Anatomical Error of Pierre Marie's "Zone Lenticulaire". Front Neurol Neurosci. 2019;44:23-29 Authors: Iwata M Abstract In a series of papers which appeared in 1906, Pierre Marie advanced a new concept of aphasiology against the classical view based on functional localization of cerebral cortex. He denied the role of Broca's area in language function and proposed as the center for articulation "zone lenticulaire," the lesion of which causes anarthria. But his illustration of "zone lenticulaire" which appears repeatedly in his papers dealing with aphasia, is anatomically inc...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Gogi (Word Meaning) Aphasia and Its Relation with Semantic Dementia.
Authors: Yamadori A Abstract In 1943, Tsuneo Imura, a neuropsychiatrist at Tokyo University, proposed a new aphasic syndrome and designated it as Gogi (word meaning) aphasia. According to Imura, it is characterized by (1) difficulty in comprehending spoken words despite good perception of sound, (2) disorders of expression due to loss of vocabulary and verbal paraphasia, (3) preserved ability of repetition, and (4) selective difficulty in reading and writing kanji (Japanese logographic character) with preserved ability of reading and writing kana (Japanese syllabic character). To be more specific, the difficulty in...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Shining a Light on Some of the Most Famous 19th and 20th Century's Neuropsychologists.
Authors: Walusinski O, Boller F, Henderson VW Abstract This chapter pays homage to the masters who made neuropsychology an esteemed and legitimate field in the 19th and 20th centuries. Here we offer a brief biography for each of them and an analysis of their discoveries: Théophile Alajouanine (1890-1980), Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915), Arthur L. Benton (1909-2006), Julian de Ajuriaguerra (1911-1993), Ennio De Renzi (1924-2016), Norman Geschwind (1926-1984), Kurt Goldstein (1878-1965), Henry Head (1861-1940), Henry Hécaen (1912-1983), Pierre Janet (1859-1947), François Lhermitte (1921-1998)...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of Subcortical Cognitive Impairment.
Authors: Filley CM Abstract The representation of cognitive function in the cerebral cortex has a long and cherished history, but much evidence also supports a critical role of subcortical structures in the operations of cognition. The idea of subcortical dementia, first proposed in 1932 and substantially expanded in the 1970s, is the most prominent formulation intended to capture the phenomenology of cognitive impairment attributable to subcortical involvement. Despite criticism highlighting its imprecision, subcortical dementia has endured as a useful general concept assisting the classification of dementia syndr...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Developmental Cognitive Deficits: A Historical Overview of Early Cases.
Authors: Eling P Abstract In this chapter, I will present an overview of early case descriptions of specific isolated cognitive deficits in children for which no clear brain impairment could be demonstrated and which were therefore considered to be congenital or developmental in nature. Three kinds of syndromes will be discussed. First, more general deficits like the attention and hyperactivity disorder and congenital aphasia will be presented. The second category relates to the more specific cognitive deficits, like developmental prosopagnosia, that have been reported, especially from the early 1980s onwards. In p...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of Anosognosia.
Authors: Gainotti G Abstract Even if Babinski (1914) is usually considered as the discoverer of anosognosia, other authors before him contributed to the development of this construct. Von Monakow (1885) and Dejerine and Vialet (1893) gave the first descriptions of patients with cortical blindness who were unaware of their disability, but did not distinguish this unawareness from the rest of the clinical description. Anton (1999) described patients with cortical deafness and cortical blindness, considering these defects of awareness as a symptom independent from the neurological dysfunction. He conceptualized them a...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of Amusia.
Authors: Kawamura M, Miller MW Abstract We live in a world surrounded by sound. Throughout life, we are exposed to music: from lullabies and songs taught at school to instrumental music both heard and played for pleasure. Every nation, along with its own language, has unique forms of music and dance. "Music knows no boundaries," as the saying goes. Just as language impairment is known as "aphasia," impairment of the perception of music is called "amusia." In this article, we will first classify the types of amusia. This will be followed by an introduction to the classical research of S...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Alexia and Agraphia from 1861 to 1965.
Authors: Henderson VW Abstract Studies of alexia and agraphia have played historically important roles in efforts to understand the relation between brain and behavior. In the second half of the 19th century, works by Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke led to the concept of delimited cortical centers in the left cerebral hemisphere concerned with discrete aspects of spoken and written language. These specialized centers were linked by white matter pathways. Charlton Bastian, Jean-Martin Charcot, Sigmund Exner, and Jules Dejerine championed center-pathway models of reading and writing. Dejerine played a dominant role, rej...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Kanji (Morphogram) and Kana (Phonogram) Problem in Japanese Alexia and Agraphia.
Authors: Sakurai Y Abstract The kanji and kana (or kanji vs. kana) problem in the Japanese language denotes the dissociation between kanji (morphograms) and kana (phonograms) in reading/comprehension and writing. Since paragraphia of kana in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was first reported in 1893, kanji-kana dissociation has been the central topic in Japanese aphasiology. Recent advancements in lesion-to-symptom analyses and functional imaging studies have identified some areas whose damage causes dissociative disturbances of reading or writing between kanji and kana. That is, (1) angular alexia wit...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of "Frontal" Syndromes and Executive Dysfunction.
History of "Frontal" Syndromes and Executive Dysfunction. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2019;44:100-107 Authors: DeRight J Abstract Elements of "frontal" syndromes and executive dysfunction have been pondered by humans since ancient times, perhaps because executive dysfunction often threatens the very characteristics that make us human. This chapter provides a historical account of scientific advancements related to frontal lobe functioning and how the term has transformed over time. From ancient Greek philosophy to early neuroscientific animal studies to the default mode network, knowledg...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The Discovery of Cerebral Specialization.
Authors: Harris LJ Abstract Of the main principles of human neuropsychology, the best known may be cerebral specialization: the left and right hemispheres play different roles in language and other higher-order functions. This chapter discusses when and how and by whom the differences were found. It begins with an account of Gall's cortical localization theory, which set the stage. It then describes the discoveries themselves, reviews how the differences were explained, and concludes with a summary of further developments. PMID: 31220844 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Hemineglect and Attentional Dysfunction.
Authors: Langer KG, Piechowski-Jozwiak B, Bogousslavsky J Abstract Tracing the history of neglect is intriguing, as diverse terminologies have been used to characterize a multi-factorial disorder with rather startling manifestations. In part, heterogeneous terms may have hinted at distinct subtypes. Thus, different variants of hemi-inattention and neglect relate conceptually, but may be functionally dissociable. Patients with neglect, acting as if the world-space they perceive is full, do not phenomenally experience the omissions or absences so patently obvious to an observer. From the late 19th century, hemi-inatt...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of Dementia.
Authors: Assal F Abstract The term dementia derives from the Latin root demens, which means being out of one's mind. Although the term "dementia" has been used since the 13th century, its mention in the medical community was reported in the 18th century. Even though the Greeks postulated a cerebral origin, the concept was not restricted to senile dementia and included all sorts of psychiatric and neurological conditions leading to psychosocial consequences. In the 19th century, individuals with dementia were recognized as patients, deserving medical care from specialists called alienists, and senile demen...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Early History of Amnesia.
Authors: Langer KG Abstract Memory and forgetfulness have been viewed since antiquity from perspectives of physical, emotional, and spiritual states of well-being, and conceptualized philosophically. Numerous discussions of memory loss, or case reports, existed, but a fundamental advance in conceptualization of memory loss as a pathological clinical phenomenon originated when Sauvages classified "amnesia" as a medical disorder, in 1763. Originally, amnesia was recognized as a weakening or dissolution of memory, according to a taxonomy that ascribed known causes to the disorder. Etiologic factors included ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The Introduction of Emotions and Behavior in the Assessment of Neurological Patients.
Authors: Genetti Gatfield M, Colombo F, Annoni JM Abstract In neurology and neuropsychology, behavior refers to the way human beings act and make decisions in contact with their environment. Behavioral impairment is therefore defined as a pathology, following brain lesion, that impacts the interactions between the brain-lesioned individual and his/her surrounding social world. First descriptions of behavioral disorders, including neuroanatomical correlates, date back to the mid-19th century. However, attempts towards their systematic identification and analysis only began at the turn of the 19th to 20th century. In...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

History of Neuropsychological Assessment.
Authors: Eling P Abstract This chapter presents a historical overview of observations, instruments, and approaches in the area of neuropsychological assessment. In the 17th and 18th century literature dealing especially with language disorders following a brain disorder, one finds observations of physicians of striking dissociations of mental faculties that were impaired while others remained intact. Around the middle of the 19th century, neuropsychiatrists like Carl Wernicke began to develop procedures for assessing more specific components of mental functioning. German physicians, Conrad Rieger and Theodor Ziehen...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Historical Pathway from Description of Cognitive Recovery to Formal Neuropsychological Rehabilitation.
Authors: Magnin E, Ryff I, Brun B, Decavel P, Hague S, Moulin T Abstract Neuropsychological rehabilitation is one of the subspecialties of neuropsychology, along with neuropsychological assessment, cognitive process descriptions, and anatomo-functional correlation, but it is still frequently underrecognized, even from a historical point of view. In this chronological review, we propose following some of the historical descriptions of cognitive recovery, and the suggested procedures and therapies to improve this recovery from mythological periods and the antiquity to recent contemporary periods and the birth of form...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurology versus Psychiatry? Hallucinations, Delusions, and Confabulations.
Authors: Carota A, Bogousslavsky J Abstract Hallucinations, delusions, and confabulations are common symptoms between neurology and psychiatry. The neurological diseases manifesting with such symptoms (dementia, epilepsy, Korsakoff's disease, brain tumors, Parkinson's disease, migraine, right hemisphere stroke and others) would be the key to understand their biological mechanisms, while the cognitive sciences, neuropharmacology and functional neuroimaging would be the tools of such researches. It is possible to understand the perceptive rules of the mind and the mechanisms of the human consciousness based on these ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - June 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Machado de Assis' Original Sin.
Authors: de Freitas GR Abstract Machado de Assis (1839-1908) suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy, probably with origin in the non-dominant hemisphere. The evidence for this is provided by the detailed reports of the characteristics of his seizures by his contemporaries and by his correspondence with other writers. He was treated with bromides and homeopathy. It is unclear whether his neurological disorder influenced his artistic performance. What is evident is that he was deeply ashamed of the disease - he avoided the word "epilepsy" and just wrote about it in his personal correspondence with friends in ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Letter to His Father by Franz Kafka: Literary Reconstruction of a Traumatic Childhood?
We present evidence about the relationship between trauma and the construction of self-image. Furthermore, we discuss the subjectivity of Kafka's recollections from the perspective of recent advances in neurobiology. Memory is shown to be dynamic, selective, inherently malleable and dependent on perception, which is a subjective construction, in which the brain interprets and gives coherence to experienced stimuli. We consider the inaccuracy of memory, which is related to neuroplastic changes in the brain that take place over time: consolidation, reconsolidation and transformation. Finally, the relationship between literat...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Édouard Manet's Tabes Dorsalis: From Painful Ataxia to Phantom Limb.
Édouard Manet's Tabes Dorsalis: From Painful Ataxia to Phantom Limb. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2018;43:59-75 Authors: Bogousslavsky J, Tatu L Abstract Édouard Manet (1832-1883) is considered the "father" of impressionism and even of twentieth century modern art. Manet's genius involved getting away from the classical narrative or historical topics and replacing them by the banality of daily life. Technically, he erased volumes into flat two-dimensional coloured planes, and distorted conventional perspective with often gross brushstrokes intentionally giving an "unfinished"...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Joan Mir ó and Cyclic Depression.
Joan Miró and Cyclic Depression. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2018;43:1-7 Authors: Delgado MG, Bogousslavsky J Abstract Psychopathology has been closely related with artists. A link between creativity and a tendency to affective disorders has become widely accepted. Several studies have shown that artists suffer disproportionately high rates of mood disorders, particularly manic depression and major depression. The famous twentieth century Spanish artist Joan Miró suffered from depression during the entirety of his life, as was recognized by some authors in private letters. The artist worked us...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Thomas Mann and Neurology.
We describe some of the neurological cases portrayed in Mann's work, and particularly epilepsy described in The Buddenbrooks, Felix Krull and The Magic Mountain, meningitis, neurosyphilis and migraines depicted in Doctor Faustus, and essential tremor described in The Magic Mountain and Doctor Faustus. We conclude with reflections about Mann's interest in diseases and particularly in neurology. PMID: 30336458 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Travelling into Alienation and Neurology with a Painter: Georges Moreau (1848-1901).
Authors: Walusinski O Abstract Georges Moreau (1848-1901) was a painter and the son of the famous psychiatrist Jacques-Joseph Moreau de Tours. Early in his career, his paintings aspired toward figurative perfection, exalting patriotic and historical themes. His prolific production includes numerous paintings for which he drew inspiration from psychology and certain mental pathologies. At the age of 45 years he suffered right hemiplegia which forced him to set aside large-scale subjects and focus instead on intimist, almost pointillistic works, which brought him closer to the Impressionists, as his portrait of Paul ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Dementia and Change of Style: Willem de Kooning - Obliteration of Disease Patterns?
Authors: Piechowski-Jozwiak B, Bogousslavsky J Abstract The studies on the relation between artistic production, especially visual art, and brain function gave a basis to the development of neuroesthetics. Most of the information on brain artistic creativity comes from studies on brain disease in well-established visual artists. Brain disease may cause change, dissolution, or emergence of artistic creativity. The visual artistic production may become impaired in individuals with a variety of brain diseases, including focal and generalised disorders of sudden and slowly progressive onset. In addition to that, neurol...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Henrik Ibsen's Battle with Cerebrovascular Disease.
Authors: Frich JC Abstract Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is a Norwegian playwright and poet who is known as the father of modern drama. Ibsen was in good health when he announced at his 70th birthday celebration that he intended to continue writing. His last play, When We Dead Awaken, was published in 1899. Why did Ibsen's dramatic writing come to an end? This chapter presents a medical account of Ibsen's health condition during the last 6 years of his life. It is based on a review of a document written by one of his doctors, Edvard Bull (1845-1925), letters, biographic information, and Ibsen's death certificate. The hi...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cesare Pavese: The Laboratory of Loneliness - A study of Among Women Only.
This article discusses one of the novels in that trilogy, Among Women Only (Tra donne sole), presenting it as a psychological "laboratory" in which the intensely private Pavese explores the rationale for suicide on the very public stage of the novel. The author argues that the writing of Tra donne sole was one of the self-willed steps that made it not just possible for Pavese to commit suicide, but impossible not to. PMID: 30336462 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Dissociation, Delusion and the Splitting of the Self in The Trial by Franz Kafka: Phenomenology and Neurobiology of Schizophrenia.
Authors: Castelon Konkiewitz E, Ziff EB Abstract In this essay, we propose an association between Franz Kafka's novel, The Trial, and phenomenological and neurobiological processes in schizophrenia. We begin by presenting a summary of the plot, pointing to some of its remarkable literary aspects. We next compare the mental processes of dissociation, disorientation and delusion as represented in the novel with phenomenological processes that take place in the prodromal states of schizophrenia. We discuss how such disorders of the self and disorders of thought, both crucial aspects of the schizophrenic experience, ap...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurology in Russian Writers: Tolstoy and Turgenev.
Authors: Altavilla R, Paciaroni M Abstract The personal and bibliographical histories of the two Russian writers, Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy and Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev, are strictly connected to social and scientific developments in nineteenth century Russia. In particular, in the field of medicine and of neurology, these two authors had personal issues and interests, kindled by Russia's opening to Western European thought. Neurology at the beginning of the nineteenth century was not developed in Russia, and in the second half of the century the new generation of neurologists trained abroad, in particular in France,...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Creative Minds in the Aftermath of the Great War: Four Neurologically Wounded Artists.
Authors: Maingon C, Tatu L Abstract Many artists were involved in the First World War. Some of them were mobilized, like millions of soldiers, others enlisted to fight on the battlefield. The stories of writers who returned neurologically wounded from the war, such as Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) or Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), are well-known. The cases of painters and sculptors who suffered from First World War neurological wounds are scarce. Nevertheless, their injuries led to intense modifications of artistic practice. We detail four examples of artists whose creative mind was impacted by their First World ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Louis-Ferdinand C éline: From First World War Neurological Wound to Mythomania.
We present the history of his radial nerve lesion and surgery, and confirm that Céline was never trepanned. Two other controversial neurological points, his left ear disease and his possible shell shock, are also discussed. PMID: 30336472 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Preliminaries.
Authors: PMID: 30336476 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Writers as Shell Shock Witnesses during World War I.
Authors: Tatu L, Bogousslavsky J Abstract The issue of First World War shell shock has been documented mainly from a medical perspective. Many medical texts dealing with war psychoneuroses and their aggressive treatments, such as electrotherapy, were published during the war. Accounts from shell-shocked soldiers are rare. Nevertheless, shell shock was described from a non-medical point of view by a few writers who had undergone or witnessed this pathology. Their texts deal mainly with the psychiatric forms, the most striking ones, but also with the more common concepts of commotion, emotion and pathological fear. T...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Arthur Rimbaud: "The Man with Wind Soles" - Riders' Osteosarcoma with Postamputation Stump Pain.
Arthur Rimbaud: "The Man with Wind Soles" - Riders' Osteosarcoma with Postamputation Stump Pain. Front Neurol Neurosci. 2018;43:85-92 Authors: Bogousslavsky J, Tatu L Abstract The famous poet Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891) stopped writing poetry at 21 years and subsequently had a rather adventurous life mainly in the Arabic peninsula and Ethiopia. He died at 37 years, only a few months after the amputation of his right lower limb due to a developing tumor in the knee, which probably was an osteosarcoma in the lower third of the femur. His letters to his sister Isabelle suggest that he suffered fr...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Abstract Expressionists and Brain Disease.
Authors: Piechowski-Jozwiak B, Bogousslavsky J Abstract Visual art is one of the means of non-verbal communication that bypasses cultural, societal, language and, more importantly, time differences. It allows for establishing a multilevel connection between the artist and art receiver. Production of visual art is a form of expression of emotions. Art reception involves the initiation of a cascade of emotions and thoughts based on visual input. One of the ways to express artistic content is through abstraction. Abstract visual art is based on portraying elements that do not represent any real, objective shapes, with...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Raymond Roussel's Cure with Pierre Janet.
Authors: Luauté JP Abstract Raymond Roussel (1877-1933) was an eccentric writer whose strange novelistic and theatrical work was launched by the surrealists and is still worshipped by the French intelligentia. While writing his first text at the age of 19 years, he presented a delusional episode marked by the conviction that he was shining like a sun and that he had acquired universal glory. He "fell back to earth" when the book was published and he realized that no one was stopping to gaze at him. He later led a ritualized life, continuing to write and eventually achieving success - glory even - w...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Possessions Including Poltergeist: "Are You There, Madness?"
Possessions Including Poltergeist: "Are You There, Madness?" Front Neurol Neurosci. 2018;42:59-71 Authors: Walusinski O Abstract Beliefs involving the devil and possession figured in the nosography of mental illness that alienists gradually established during the 19th century. The description of this form of cenesthetic hallucination resulted in "the possessed" being viewed as patients, which protected them from the trials and punishments they so frequently faced in earlier centuries. According to psychologists, this illusion of mental duality is linked to impairment of introspectiv...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - December 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Ganser Syndrome.
Authors: Dieguez S Abstract Ganser's syndrome is a rare and controversial condition, whose main and most striking feature is the production of approximate answers (or near misses) to very simple questions. For instance, asked how many legs a horse has, Ganser patients will reply "5", and answers to plain arithmetic questions will likewise be wrong, but only slightly off the mark (e.g., 2 + 2 = 3). This symptom was originally described by Sigbert Ganser in 1897 in prisoners on remand and labeled Vorbeigehen ("to pass by"), although the term Vorbeireden ("to talk beside the point") is al...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cotard Syndrome.
Authors: Dieguez S Abstract Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Cotard himself provided a taxonomy and several explanations for the condition, focusing on it...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Capgras Syndrome and Other Delusional Misidentification Syndromes.
Authors: Barrelle A, Luauté JP Abstract The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) are a group of disorders, characterized by patients mistaking the identity of people they know, although they recognize them physically. The term DMS is an umbrella term which may cover disorders whose definition extends to objects other than people, such as animals, places, or familiar material objects. The most common and best known DMS is Capgras syndrome. In this disorder, the misidentification leads to the delusional conviction that a close friend or relative has been replaced by an identical - or almost identical -...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

De Cl érambault Syndrome, Othello Syndrome, Folie à Deux and Variants.
We present here 2 main delusional disorders, the De Clérambault syndrome and the Othello syndrome, and another closely related to the previous ones - Folie à deux. In the De Clérambault syndrome, the main delusional theme is erotomanic type, related to passional delirium where the patient has strong sexual feelings towards another person and has the belief that this other person is deeply in love with him or her. Patients with the Othello syndrome present a delusional disorder of jealous type, a pathological delusion that the partner is unfaithful. In Folie à deux, 2 individuals shared the same ...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Couvade Syndrome - Custom, Behavior or Disease?
Authors: Piechowski-Jozwiak B, Bogousslavsky J Abstract The custom of Couvade and Couvade syndrome is a phenomenon observed since ancient times. Whether it constitutes a disease entity or it should be considered a ritual or custom remains a matter of debate. Historical transcripts shed light into the distinct origins and inclinations of couvade behaviors, some of them having religious inclinations. Currently, there are several views on this phenomenon including medical, psychoanalytic, and psychological. Some explain this syndrome as part of men's preparation and participation in pregnancy and post-partum period. O...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Conversion, Factitious Disorder and Malingering: A Distinct Pattern or a Continuum?
Authors: Galli S, Tatu L, Bogousslavsky J, Aybek S Abstract This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultatio...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Munchausen Syndrome and the Wide Spectrum of Factitious Disorders.
Authors: Tatu L, Aybek S, Bogousslavsky J Abstract Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians. All medical special...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Glossolalia and Aphasia: Related but Different Worlds.
Authors: Chouiter L, Annoni JM Abstract The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the langua...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Violent Behavior.
Authors: Sopromadze S, Tsiskaridze A Abstract Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Males are more affected than females. Violence is...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Jumping Frenchmen, Miryachit, and Latah: Culture-Specific Hyperstartle-Plus Syndromes.
Authors: Lanska DJ Abstract In the late 19th century, jumping (French Canadians in Maine, USA), miryachit (Siberia), and latah (Southeast Asia) were among a group of similar disorders described around the world, each of which manifests as an exaggerated startle response with additional late-response features that were felt by some to overlap with hysteria or tics. The later features following the exaggerated startle reaction variably include mimesis (e.g., echopraxia, echolalia) and automatic obedience. These reaction patterns tended to persist indefinitely in affected individuals. Because of their dramatic stimulu...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The Dancing Manias: Psychogenic Illness as a Social Phenomenon.
Authors: Lanska DJ Abstract The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The Alice-in-Wonderland Syndrome.
Authors: Lanska DJ, Lanska JR Abstract In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (...
Source: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience - November 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Front Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research