Tumor deposit versus extra nodal extension: a differential evaluation of prognostic relevance
We read with great interest the meta-analysis by Amy C. Lord et  al. assessing the current evidence on the origin of extranodal tumour deposits (ENTDs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and their effect on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) [1]. ENTDs were clearly defined as tumour nodules without histological evidence of residual lymph node or iden tifiable vascular or neural structures [2]. The results showed that the pooled hazard ratio (HR) for adverse OS in patients with ENTD was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–1.61), P  (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Hao Chen, Zhaoqing Tang, Fenglin Liu Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Access to innovative medicines for metastatic melanoma worldwide: Melanoma World Society and European Association of Dermato-oncology survey in 34 countries
According to data from recent studies from Europe, a large percentage of patients have restricted access to innovative medicines for metastatic melanoma. Melanoma World Society and European Association of Dermato-oncology conducted a Web-based survey on access to first-line recommended treatments for metastatic melanoma by current guidelines (National Comprehensive Center Network, European Society for Medical Oncology [ESMO] and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/European Association of Dermato-oncology/European dermatology Forum) among melanoma experts from 27 European countries, USA, China, Austra...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: L. Kandolf Sekulovic, J. Guo, S. Agarwala, A. Hauschild, G. McArthur, G. Cinat, A. Wainstein, C. Caglevic, P. Lorigan, H. Gogas, M. Alvarez, R. Duncombe, C. Lebbe, K. Peris, P. Rutkowski, A. Stratigos, A.-M. Forsea, L. De La Cruz Merino, M. Kukushkina, R. Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Cabozantinib for the treatment of patients with metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A retrospective analysis
Cabozantinib prolongs overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that progressed on first-line vascular endothelial growth factor receptor –tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR-TKI). The role of cabozantinib has not been established in non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (nccRCC). (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew T. Campbell, Mehmet A. Bilen, Amishi Y. Shah, Emily Lemke, E. Jonasch, A.M. Venkatesan, E. Altinmakas, C. Duran, Pavlos Msaouel, N.M. Tannir Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Parenchymal sparing surgery brings treatment of colorectal liver metastases into the precision medicine era
The treatment of advanced colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) follows the biphasic pattern characteristic of oncological surgery. A phase of escalation —the therapeutic aggressiveness—is followed by a phase of de-escalation aimed at decreasing the morbidity, while preserving the gains in survival. From a maximum of three lesions, the rule no longer limits the number, provided the intervention does not cause lethal liver failure. Technically fea sible non-anatomical resections, two-stage hepatectomies, portal vein obliteration and so forth, have pushed the boundaries of surgery far. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Serge Evrard, Guido Torzilli, Carmela Caballero, Benjamin Bonhomme Tags: Current Perspective Source Type: research

Hypothalamitis and severe hypothalamic dysfunction associated with anti –programmed cell death ligand 1 antibody treatment
Novel agents targeting immune inhibitory checkpoints, cytotoxic T lymphocyte –associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), are revolutionising the treatment of many malignancies including urothelial cancers [1]. However, in conjunction with restoring immune activity in the tumour microenvironment, these systemic agents may provoke immune respon ses against a variety of normal tissues including endocrine organs [2]. The observation that immune checkpoint inhibitors can induce hypophysitis is of particular clinical importance. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: N. Tshuma, N. Glynn, J. Evanson, T. Powles, W.M. Drake Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of prognostic and predictive factors: Towards  individual participant data?
In this issue of EJC, Emil ter Veer et  al. [1] performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) of randomised trials to identify prognostic and predictive factors of response to treatment in patients with metastatic oesophagogastric cancer, which gives an interesting overview of the various findings in this area. Notably, Lauren's classification is confirmed as a prognostic factor in most of the studies. With the development of personalised medicine, interest in prognostic and predictive factors has strongly increased. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthieu Faron, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Xavier Paoletti Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of prognostic and predictive factors: Towards individual participant data?
In this issue of EJC, Emil ter Veer et  al. [1] performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) of randomised trials to identify prognostic and predictive factors of response to treatment in patients with metastatic oesophagogastric cancer, which gives an interesting overview of the various findings in this area. Notably, Lauren's classification is confirmed as a prognostic factor in most of the studies. With the development of personalised medicine, interest in prognostic and predictive factors has strongly increased. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthieu Faron, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Xavier Paoletti Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Immunotherapy with ipilimumab plus nivolumab in a stage IV melanoma patient during pregnancy
We report the case of a 34-year-old, 18-week pregnant female who presented to our department with vastly metastasized melanoma in January 2017. Beforehand, an alleged Spitz nevus was diagnosed in 2005, followed by a single subcutaneous melanoma metastasis in the same location in mid-2016. Follow-ups were unremarkable. In January 2017, complaints of the right flank pain and increasing dyspnoea led to sonography from her primary care physician, revealing pleural effusion and suspicious nodules in her spleen. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christian Menzer, Bernd Beedgen, Joachim Rom, Christin M. Duffert, Anna-Lena Volckmar, Oliver Sedlaczek, Erika Richtig, Alexander Enk, Dirk J äger, Jessica C. Hassel Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Autoimmune pancreatitis after nivolumab anti –programmed death receptor-1 treatment
Anti –programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) represent an effective treatment for a variety of tumours, including metastatic melanoma [1]. These mAbs belong to a more general group of immune checkpoint inhibitors, acting via a blockade of PD-1, thereby releasing the inhibitory effect of these receptors on the T-cell effector mechanisms and boosting antitumour immune responses [2]. These treatments can induce immune-related adverse events [3]. Among them, several endocrine autoimmune disorders have been reported, including insulin-requiring diabetes in a small fraction of treated patients (&si...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lea Dehghani, Nidaa Mikail, Nora Kramkimel, Philippe Soyer, Rachida Lebtahi, Roberto Mallone, Etienne Larger Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Influenza vaccination in patients with lung cancer receiving anti –programmed death receptor 1 immunotherapy does not induce immune-related adverse events
Influenza vaccination in patients with lung cancer receiving anti –PD-1 immunotherapy does not induce irAEs in our cohort. With this result, influenza vaccination should not be deterred from this group of patients. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dirk H. Wijn, Geert H. Groeneveld, Albert M. Vollaard, Mirte Muller, Jacco Wallinga, Hans Gelderblom, Egbert F. Smit Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Letter comments on a published article in the New England Journal of Medicine
We appreciate the positive comments of Drs. Shanbhag and Prasad concerning the ECHELON-1 study and this opportunity to address several issues they raised. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joseph M. Connors, John Radford Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Quality of life with talazoparib after platinum or multiple cytotoxic non-platinum regimens in patients with advanced breast cancer and germline BRCA1/2 mutations: patient-reported outcomes from the ABRAZO phase 2 trial
Talazoparib (1  mg/day) exhibited promising efficacy and safety in patients with advanced breast cancer during ABRAZO (NCT02034916); this study evaluated patient-reported outcomes (PROs). (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: S.A. Hurvitz, R.G.W. Quek, N.C. Turner, M.L. Telli, H.S. Rugo, A. Mailliez, J. Ettl, E. Grischke, L.A. Mina, J. Balma ña, P.A. Fasching, H. Bhattacharyya, A.L. Hannah, M.E. Robson, A.M. Wardley Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Interpreting European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire core 30 scores as minimally importantly different for patients with malignant melanoma
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly recognised as an important end-point in cancer clinical trials. The concept of minimally important difference (MID) enables interpreting differences and changes in HRQOL scores in terms of clinical meaningfulness. We aimed to estimate MIDs for interpreting group-level change of European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) scores in patients with malignant melanoma. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jammbe Z. Musoro, Andrew Bottomley, Corneel Coens, Alexander MM. Eggermont, Madeleine T. King, Kim Cocks, Mirjam AG. Sprangers, Mogens Groenvold, Galina Velikova, Hans-Henning Flechtner, Yvonne Brandberg, the EORTC Melanoma Group and EORTC Quality of Life Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Standard fluoropyrimidine dosages in chemoradiation therapy result in an increased risk of severe toxicity in DPYD variant allele carriers
Prospective DPYD genotyping prevents severe fluoropyrimidine (FP)-induced toxicity by decreasing dosages in DPYD variant allele carriers. FP dosages in chemoradiation therapy (CRT) are lower than those in other FP-containing regimens. Pharmacogenetic guidelines do not distinguish between regimens, leaving physicians in doubt to apply dose reductions. Our aim was to investigate severe toxicity in DPYD variant allele carriers receiving CRT. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Carin A.T.C. Lunenburg, Linda M. Henricks, Eva Dreussi, Femke P. Peters, Marta Fiocco, Didier Meulendijks, Giuseppe Toffoli, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Jesse J. Swen, Erika Cecchin, Jan H.M. Schellens, Hans Gelderblom Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Mapping cancer research across Central and Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation and Central Asia: Implications for future national cancer control planning
Cancer research is an essential part of national cancer control programmes, and the emerging economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Russian Federation and Central Asia (R-CA) (Commonwealth of Independent States) remain relatively understudied. Here, we map the cancer research activity from the 29 countries across these regions over a 10-year period (2007 –2016), using a standard scientometric approach. Research activity was compared with the countries' wealth and with the disease burden from different cancers, and analyses were also performed by the research domain (e.g. fundamental cancer bi...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mursheda Begum, Grant Lewison, Jacek Jassem, Vlad Mixich, Tanja Cufer, Talgat Nurgozhin, Pavel Shabalkin, Tezer Kutluk, Zoltan Voko, Davorin Radosavljevic, Eduard Vrdoljiak, Alexandru Eniu, Jan Walewski, Ajay Aggarwal, Mark Lawler, Richard Sullivan Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

To accelerate cancer prevention in Europe: Challenges for cancer registries
The availability of population-based cancer registry (CR) data is paramount in the development of modern oncology. Major contributions consisted in accurately measuring cancer burden (incidence, survival and prevalence, beside mortality), identifying and quantifying risk factors (case control and cohort studies that, in the last two decades, included gene variant assessment) and evaluating outcomes of treatments and preventive interventions, including mass screening. Cancer registration coverage of European populations progressed slowly since 1940  and is now almost 50%. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: R. Zanetti, L. Sacchetto, J.W. Coebergh, S. Rosso Tags: Review Source Type: research

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy in patients with solid organ transplant, HIV  or hepatitis B/C infection
We examined the safety outcomes of these populations treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatment in a multicentre retrospective study. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Martin Tio, Rajat Rai, Ogochukwu M. Ezeoke, Jennifer L. McQuade, Lisa Zimmer, Chloe Khoo, John J. Park, Lavinia Spain, Samra Turajlic, Luke Ardolino, Desmond Yip, Simone M. Goldinger, Justine V. Cohen, Michael Millward, Victoria Atkinson, Alisa Y. Kane, P Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Toxicity-induced modification of treatment: what is in a name?
Severe treatment-induced toxicities can have clinical consequences such as hospitalisation or treatment modifications, which in turn may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with cancer. Identification of determinants of treatment-induced toxicities is essential to develop strategies that promote therapy compliance and enhance the quality of life. Whereas toxicities are systematically recorded and graded per protocol in most clinical trials, observational studies often depend on retrospective data collection from medical records collected as standard care. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dieuwertje E. Kok, Renate M. Winkels, Carla ML. van Herpen, Ellen Kampman Tags: Current Perspective Source Type: research

Strong excess risk of pancreatic cancer for low frequency and duration of cigarette smoking: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis
Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer  but an updated quantification of the association is lacking. Our aim is to provide the most accurate and updated estimate of the dose–response relationships between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alessandra Lugo, Giulia Peveri, Cristina Bosetti, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Alessio Crippa, Nicola Orsini, Matteo Rota, Silvano Gallus Tags: Review Source Type: research

FOLFIRINOX as induction treatment in rectal cancer patients with synchronous metastases: Results of the FFCD 1102 phase II trial
The optimal therapeutic strategy in patients with rectal cancer and synchronous unresectable metastases remains unknown. We evaluated the efficacy of FOLFIRINOX induction therapy in this setting. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: J.B. Bachet, O. Lucidarme, C.B. Levache, E. Barbier, J.L. Raoul, T. Lecomte, C. Desauw, F. Brocard, S. Pernot, G. Breysacher, J.P. Lagasse, F. Di Fiore, P.L. Etienne, O.J.M. Dupuis, A. Aleba, C. Lepage, J. Taieb, for FFCD 1102 investigators Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A man with recurrent hypovolemic shock on anti –programmed cell death protein 1 treatment: Immune-related protein-losing enteropathy
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been recently incorporated in the standard clinical practice for patients with cancer. ICI treatment occasionally causes side-effects related to their mode of action, called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Recently, major oncology societies have provided grading systems and treatment guidelines for irAEs in patients treated with ICIs [1]. However, immunotherapy has been introduced in clinical practice for less than a decade. Therefore, insufficient clinical data have been accumulated for their acute complications, and the long-term side-effects have not been sufficiently eval...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seo Young Lee, Min Hwan Kim, Mi Jang, Yehyun Park, Byoung Chul Cho Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Screening and surveillance in hereditary gastrointestinal cancers: Recommendations from the European Society of Digestive Oncology (ESDO)  expert discussion at the 20th European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)/World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, Barcelona, June 2018
Patients with hereditary gastrointestinal (GI) cancers represent a substantial fraction of the overall affected population. Although awareness for hereditary GI cancer syndromes is on the rise, identification of patients and measures of surveillance are often unclear in everyday clinical routine. Therefore, the European Society of Digestive Oncology expert discussion 2018 at the World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer focussed on screening and surveillance of hereditary colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Deepak B. Vangala, Estelle Cauchin, Judith Balma ña, Lucian Wyrwicz, Eric van Cutsem, Ulrich Güller, Antoni Castells, Fatima Carneiro, Pascal Hammel, Michel Ducreux, Jean-Luc van Laethem, Tamara Matysiak-Budnik, Wolff Schmiegel Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Brentuximab vedotin for frontline Hodgkin lymphoma: How much will a successful trial cost patients and payers?
The combination of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) has been the mainstay of frontline treatment for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) for more than 30 years. Brentuximab vedotin (BV), an antibody –drug conjugate targeting CD30, has been approved for use in patients with relapsed/refractory HL since 2011 and has gained widespread use in the salvage or consolidation after autotransplant setting. Recently, Connors et al. reported the results of ECHELON-1, an open-label, randomised phase 3 tr ial of patients with previously untreated advanced-stage HL comparing AAVD (BV, doxorubicin, vinblas...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Satish Shanbhag, Vinay Prasad Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical management of spinal metastases —The Dutch national guideline
This article is a summary of the revised Dutch multidisciplinary evidence-based guideline ‘Spinal metastases’ (English translation available at: https://www.oncoline.nl/spinal-metastases) that was published at the end of 2015. This summary provides an easy-to-use overview for physicians to use in their daily practice. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Laurens Bollen, Sander P.D. Dijkstra, Ronald H.M.A. Bartels, Alexander de Graeff, Davey L.H. Poelma, Thea Brouwer, Paul R. Algra, Jos M.A. Kuijlen, Monique C. Minnema, Claudia Nijboer, Christa Rolf, Tebbe Sluis, Michel A.M.B. Terheggen, Alexandra C.M. van Tags: Review Source Type: research

Observational health research in Europe: understanding the General Data Protection Regulation and underlying debate
Insights into the incidence and survival of cancer, the influence of lifestyle and environmental factors  and the interaction of treatment regimens with outcomes are hugely dependent on observational research, patient data derived from the healthcare system and from volunteers participating in cohort studies, often non-selective. Since 25th May 2018, the European General Data Protection Regulation (G DPR) applies to such data. The GDPR focusses on more individual control for data subjects of ‘their’ data. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 15, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Evert-Ben van Veen Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of the prognostic value of the new AJCC 8th edition staging system for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; a need to subclassify stage III?
There have been several proposed changes for the 8th edition of the American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the new staging system for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially in stage III patients. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Meiying Song, Seung Bae Yoon, In Seok Lee, Tae Ho Hong, Ho Joong Choi, Moon Hyung Choi, Myung Ah Lee, Eun Sun Jung, Myung-Gyu Choi Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A meta-analysis assessing the survival implications of subclassifying T3 rectal tumours
This article focusses on the survival outcomes in patients with T3 rectal cancer according to extramural spread beyond the muscularis propria. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M.R.S. Siddiqui, C. Simillis, J. Bhoday, N.J. Battersby, J. Mok, S. Rasheed, P. Tekkis, A.M. Abulafi, G. Brown Tags: Review Source Type: research

Pembrolizumab-induced dermatomyositis in a patient with metastatic melanoma
We report herein the case of an 83-year-old patient who presented a dermatomyositis under treatment with pembrolizumab. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mathilde Berger, Anne-Lise Legeay, Sabrine Souci, Nathalie Streichenberger, Luc Thomas, St éphane Dalle Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Synergistic activity of dasatinib in combination with β-catenin blockade in colorectal cancer cells
I would like to comment on a recent article published in the European Journal of Cancer by Guanhua Rao et  al., who described a very interesting synergistic combination of dasatinib and trametinib in KRAS-dependent cancer cells [1]. According to their data, dasatinib sensitises KRAS-mutant cells to MEK inhibition via suppression of SRC kinases and downregulation of the YAP/TAZ signalling pathway. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luca Mologni Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A prospective comparative trial of adjunct screening with tomosynthesis or ultrasound in women with mammography-negative dense breasts (ASTOUND-2)
Increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and increased risk of an interval BC at mammography screening are associated with high mammographic density. Adjunct imaging detects additional BCs not detected at mammography screening in women with dense breasts. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alberto S. Tagliafico, Giovanna Mariscotti, Francesca Valdora, Manuela Durando, Jacopo Nori, Daniele La Forgia, Ilan Rosenberg, Francesca Caumo, Nicoletta Gandolfo, Maria Pia Sormani, Alessio Signori, Massimo Calabrese, Nehmat Houssami Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Which grade is of clinical benefit in the randomised controlled trials? The example of 54th American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting, 2018
Recently, Sobrero et  al. [1] remarked the presence of controversies in the assessment of the benefit, value and sustainability of cancer drugs, stressing the importance of adopting validated and reproducible tool, such as European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS), to assess the magnitude of clinical benefit of anticancer interventions [2]. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jacopo Giuliani, Andrea Bonetti Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Unexpected response to cisplatin rechallenge after immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma refractory to platinum regimen
Metastatic urothelial carcinoma (MUC) has poor outcomes with a median survival of 14 months with cisplatin combination –based chemotherapy [1]. Immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) are approved in platinum-pretreated MUC. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab are also approved in chemotherapy-naive patients who are ineligible for cisplatinum-based chemotherapy, [2] but the majority of these patients will progress and som e of them receive chemotherapy. For the time being, the optimal sequence with immunotherapy and chemotherapy remains unclear. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gwena ëlle Gravis, Emilien Billon, Capucine Baldini, Christophe Massard, Werner Hilgers, Remy Delva, Jochen Walz, Geraldine Pignot, Stanislas Rybikowski, Slimane Dermeche, Jeanne Thomassin, Serge Brunelle, Pernelle Lavaud, Yohann Loriot, the French Genit Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A study of 1088 consecutive cases of electrolyte abnormalities in oncology phase I trials
The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence and severity of EAs, graded according to CTCAE, v4.03, to identify variables associated with EAs and their prognostic significance in a phase I population. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alvaro H. Ingles Garces, Joo Ern Ang, Malaka Ameratunga, Maxime Ch énard-Poirier, David Dolling, Nikolaos Diamantis, Satyanarayana Seeramreddi, Raghav Sundar, Johann de Bono, Juanita Lopez, Udai Banerji Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Predictors of prolonged benefit from palbociclib plus fulvestrant in women with endocrine-resistant hormone receptor –positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative metastatic breast cancer in PALOMA-3
The addition of palbociclib to fulvestrant improved clinical outcomes over placebo-fulvestrant in endocrine-pretreated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients in PALOMA-3. Here, we examined factors predictive of long-term benefit. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Massimo Cristofanilli, Angela DeMichele, Carla Giorgetti, Nicholas C. Turner, Dennis J. Slamon, Seock-Ah Im, Norikazu Masuda, Shailendra Verma, Sherene Loi, Marco Colleoni, Kathy Puyana Theall, Xin Huang, Yuan Liu, Cynthia Huang Bartlett Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Perspectives on window of opportunity trials in head and neck cancer: lessons from the EORTC 90111-24111-NOCI-HNCG study
Assessing tumour response using a traditional phase I, II and III trial approach is not without limitations, particularly when targeted therapies are involved. Window of opportunity trials, performed presurgically but differing from neoadjuvant studies, were developed in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the traditional approach. A recent window of opportunity trial, the EORTC 90111-24111-NOCI-HNCG study, evaluated afatinib in treatment-naive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sandra Schmitz, Carmela Caballero, Laura D. Locati Tags: EORTC Clinical Trial in Perspective Source Type: research

Comparative efficacy and safety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukaemia: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Our results suggest that nilotinib should be upgraded to first-line therapy for CML, although further cost-effectiveness analyses, including the new TKI (i.e., ponatinib, radotinib), are needed. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mariana M. Fachi, Fernanda S. Tonin, Leticia P. Leonart, Karina S. Aguiar, Luana Lenzi, Bonald C. Figueiredo, Fernando Fernandez-Llimos, Roberto Pontarolo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The Fast Real-time Assessment of Combination Therapies in Immuno-ONcology (FRACTION) program: innovative, high-throughput clinical screening of immunotherapies
The unprecedented success of immuno-oncology (I-O) agents targeting the cytotoxic T lymphocyte –associated antigen 4 and programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 pathways has stimulated the rapid development of other I-O agents against novel immune targets. Bristol-Myers Squibb has designed a novel phase II platform trial, the Fast Real-time Assessment of Combination Therapies in Immu no-ONcology (FRACTION) Program, to efficiently identify promising combinations for patients with specific malignancies. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Katy L. Simonsen, Paula M. Fracasso, Steven H. Bernstein, Megan Wind-Rotolo, Manish Gupta, Adriana Comprelli, Timothy P. Reilly, Jim Cassidy Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

A phase 1b study of afatinib in combination with standard-dose cetuximab in patients with advanced solid tumours
This phase 1b, open-label trial assessed the combination of afatinib, an ErbB family blocker, with cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, in heavily pretreated patients with unselected/EGFR wild-type, advanced solid tumours.In Part A, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of afatinib  + cetuximab was evaluated using a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design; the starting dose was afatinib 30 mg/day plus cetuximab 250 mg/m2/week (after cetuximab 400 mg/m2 loading dose), escalating to afatinib 40 mg/day. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Anas Gazzah, Valentina Boni, Jean-Charles Soria, Antonio Calles, Caroline Even, Bernard Doger, Linda Mahjoubi, Rastislav Bahleda, Mahmoud Ould-Kaci, Anne Esler, Serge Nazabadioko, Emiliano Calvo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of cochlear-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus conventional radiotherapy in patients with parotid cancer (COSTAR; CRUK/08/004)
About 40 –60% of patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy for parotid cancer experience ipsilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to the cochlea. COSTAR, a phase III trial, investigated the role of cochlear-sparing IMRT (CS-IMRT) in r educing hearing loss. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christopher M. Nutting, James P. Morden, Matthew Beasley, Shreerang Bhide, Audrey Cook, Emma De Winton, Marie Emson, Mererid Evans, Lydia Fresco, Simon Gollins, Dorothy Gujral, Kevin Harrington, Mano Joseph, Catherine Lemon, Linda Luxon, Qurrat van den Bl Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The PanCareSurFup consortium: research and guidelines to improve lives for survivors of childhood cancer
Second malignant neoplasms and cardiotoxicity are among the most serious and frequent adverse health outcomes experienced by childhood and adolescent cancer survivors (CCSs) and contribute significantly to their increased risk of premature mortality. Owing to differences in health-care systems, language and culture across the continent, Europe has had limited success in establishing multi-country collaborations needed to assemble the numbers of survivors required to clarify the health issues arising after successful cancer treatment. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julianne Byrne, Daniela Alessi, Rodrigue S. Allodji, Francesca Bagnasco, Edit B árdi, Andrea Bautz, Chloe J. Bright, Morven Brown, Ibrahima Diallo, Elizabeth A.M. (Lieke) Feijen, Miranda M. Fidler, Eva Frey, Stanislaw Garwicz, Desiree Grabow, Thorgerdur Tags: Position Paper Source Type: research

A case of pembrolizumab-induced autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with polymyalgia rheumatica
We report the case of a patient treated with pembrolizumab, who developed autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bertrand Robilliard, Erik Arnaud, Lauris Gastaud, Jonathan Broner Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

PanCareLIFE: The scientific basis for a European project to improve long-term care regarding fertility, ototoxicity and health-related quality of life after cancer occurring among children and adolescents
This article describes the scientific basis of PanCareLIFE's studies. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Julianne Byrne, Desiree Grabow, Helen Campbell, Kylie O'Brien, Stefan Bielack, Antoinette am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Gabriele Calaminus, Leontien Kremer, Thorsten Langer, Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, Katja Baust, Andrea Bautz, Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Prognostic and predictive factors for overall survival in metastatic oesophagogastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Consistent evidence on prognostic and predictive factors for advanced oesophagogastric cancer is lacking. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emil ter Veer, Jessy Joy van Kleef, Sandor Schokker, Stephanie O. van der Woude, Marety Laarman, Nadia Haj Mohammad, Mirjam A.G. Sprangers, Martijn G.H. van Oijen, Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven Tags: Review Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus –associated oropharyngeal cancer among patients aged 70 and older: Dramatically increased prevalence and clinical implications
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in incidence among older adults. However, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in driving this trend  and its prognostic significance in this population have not been established. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Diana J. Lu, Michael Luu, Alain Mita, Kevin Scher, Stephen L. Shiao, Emi P. Yoshida, Mark P. Sittig, Jon Mallen-St Clair, Allen S. Ho, Zachary S. Zumsteg Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Clinicopathological differences and survival outcomes with first-line therapy in patients with left-sided colon cancer and rectal cancer: Pooled analysis of 2879 patients from AGITG (MAX), COIN, FOCUS2, OPUS, CRYSTAL  and COIN-B trials in the ARCAD database
Patients with left-sided colon tumours have better survival and respond differently to biologics compared with patients with right-sided tumours. Left-sided colon tumours and rectal cancers are often grouped together. Herein, we examined the clinicopathological differences and outcomes between left-sided colon and rectal cancers. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mohamed E. Salem, Jun Yin, Benjamin A. Weinberg, Lindsay A. Renfro, Levi D. Pederson, Timothy S. Maughan, Richard A. Adams, Eric Van Cutsem, Alfredo Falcone, Niall C. Tebbutt, Matthew T. Seymour, Eduardo D íaz-Rubio, Enrique Aranda, Carsten Bokemeyer, Vo Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Letter comments on EJC published article: Phase I feasibility study for intrathecal administration of trastuzumab in patients with HER2 –positive breast carcinomatous meningitis
In their recent report of a phase I trial of intrathecal (IT) trastuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive leptomeningeal disease (LD), Bonneau et al. have shown feasibility and recommend a maximum tolerated dose of weekly IT trastuzumab of 150 mg [1]. (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Silvia Hofer, Stefan Aebi Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Corrigendum to ‘Cabozantinib versus sunitinib as initial therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma of intermediate or poor risk (Alliance A031203 CABOSUN randomised trial): Progression-free survival by independent review and overall survival update’ [Eur J Cancer 94 (May 2018) 115–125]
The authors regret there was an error on page 120. The paragraph should read as follows (the correction has been underlined):As of the July 01, 2017, data cutoff date for OS with a median follow-up of 34.5 months (IQR 31.4 –40.4), 90 deaths had occurred (43 of 79 patients in the cabozantinib group and 47 of 78 patients in the sunitinib group). (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 27, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Toni K. Choueiri, Colin Hessel, Susan Halabi, Ben Sanford, M. Dror Michaelson, Olwen Hahn, Meghara Walsh, Thomas Olencki, Joel Picus, Eric J. Small, Shaker Dakhil, Darren R. Feldman, Milan Mangeshkar, Christian Scheffold, Daniel George, Michael J. Morris Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

UCBG 2-08: 5-year efficacy results from the UNICANCER-PACS08 randomised phase III trial of adjuvant treatment with FEC100 and then either docetaxel or ixabepilone in patients with early-stage, poor prognosis breast cancer
UNICANCER-PACS08 compared adjuvant FEC (5-FU; epirubicin; cyclophosphamide) then docetaxel to FEC then ixabepilone in poor prognosis early breast cancer (BC). We evaluated whether replacing docetaxel with ixabepilone would increase 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). (Source: European Journal of Cancer)
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mario Campone, Magali Lacroix-Triki, Lise Roca, Marc Spielmann, Hans Wildiers, Paul Cottu, Pierre Kerbrat, Christelle Levy, Isabelle Desmoulins, Thomas Bachelot, Tan Winston, Jean-Christophe Eymard, Lionel Uwer, Francois P. Duhoux, Didier Verhoeven, Domin Tags: Clinical Trial Source Type: research

Bullous pemphigoid and nivolumab: Dermatologic management to support and continue oncologic therapy
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are new drugs approved for the treatment of many types of malignancies, such as lung cancer, melanoma and renal cancer. These monoclonal antibodies are directed against inhibitory immune receptors Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) (ipilimumab) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and can improve the immune function of T-cells, resulting in significant clinical benefit in multiple cancer types. Despite their wide use and unquestionable clinical benefits, these agents have been also associated with a unique spectrum of side-effects known as immune-related advers...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Luigia Panariello, Davide Fattore, Maria Carmela Annunziata, Francovito Piantedosi, Marina Gilli, Gabriella Fabbrocini Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Author response to comment on ‘significance of extranodal tumour deposits in colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis’
We thank Chen et  al. for their comments on our meta-analysis [1], which we have read with interest. We strongly agree that there are numerous other prognostic factors which are currently ignored by the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) system [2] and warrant further attention. The differentiation between lymph node met astases (LNMs) with extranodal extension (ENE) and extranodal tumour deposits (ENTDs) is extremely problematic when analysing retrospective data as this is often based on earlier TNM editions which used imprecise size or contour criteria to distinguish between LNM (with or without ENE) and ENTD [3,4 ]. (Sou...
Source: European Journal of Cancer - September 25, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Amy C. Lord, Nigel D'Souza, Philip H. Pucher, Brendan J. Moran, A Muti Abulafi, Andrew Wotherspoon, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Gina Brown Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research