APOA1: a Protein with Multiple Therapeutic Functions
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewApolipoprotein (APO) A1, the main apolipoprotein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), has several well documented cardioprotective functions. A number of additional potentially beneficial functions of APOA1 have recently been identified. This review is concerned with the therapeutic potential of all of these functions in multiple disease states.Recent FindingsKnowledge of the beneficial functions of APOA1 in atherosclerosis, thrombosis, diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders is increasing exponentially. These insights have led to the development of clinically relevant peptides and ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 16, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Truth About Fish (Oil) in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo discuss the effect of fish oils on dyslipidemias and associated disorders.Recent FindingsThe most important lipid effect of fish oils is reducing plasma triglycerides and the main potential protection against cardiovascular events is very probably mediated also through other mechanisms including anti-inflammatory ones. The best results are available for omega-3 fatty acids, namely, eicosapentaenoic acid. Less evidence is available for the impact of ω-3 fatty acids on liver steatosis/steatohepatitis and acute pancreatitis. In addition, particular fish oils have variable content of saturated...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 4, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Phospholipid Transfer Protein in the Development of Atherosclerosis
This article reviews recent PLTP research progresses, involving lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis.Recent FindingsPLTP activity influences atherogenic and anti-atherogenic lipoprotein levels. Human serum PLTP activity is a risk factor for human cardiovascular disease and is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. PLTP deficiency reduces VLDL and LDL levels and attenuates atherosclerosis in mouse models, while PLTP overexpression exerts an opposite effect. Both PLTP deficiency and overexpression result in reduction of HDL which has different size, inflammatory index, and lipid composition. Moreover, although ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 26, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diabetes, Lipids, and CV Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDiabetes is often associated with diabetic dyslipidemia. Both hyperglycemia and disorders of lipid metabolism strongly contribute to development of atherosclerosis, the crucial factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the manuscript is to summarize possible treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk.Recent FindingsMaximal cardiovascular risk reduction is maintained by targeting more pathologic disturbances together. While antihypertensive treatment has not changed much recently, novel PCSK9 inhibitors have significantly improved management of dyslipidemia. Similarly, modern antihyperglycemic agent...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 19, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

High-Density Lipoproteins and Serum Amyloid A (SAA)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSerum amyloid A (SAA) is a highly sensitive acute phase reactant that has been linked to a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. During a systemic inflammatory response, liver-derived SAA is primarily found on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The purpose of this review is to discuss recent literature addressing the pathophysiological functions of SAA and the significance of its association with HDL.Recent FindingsStudies in gene-targeted mice establish that SAA contributes to atherosclerosis and some metastatic cancers. Accumulating evidence indicates that the lipidation state of SAA profoundly a...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 15, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Novel Functions of Endothelial Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I
AbstractPurpose of ReviewScavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) serves a key role in the reverse cholesterol transport in the liver as the high-affinity receptor for HDL. SR-BI is abundantly expressed in endothelium, and earlier works indicate that the receptor mediates anti-atherogenic actions of HDL. However, more recent studies uncovered novel functions of endothelial SR-BI as a lipoprotein transporter, which regulates transcellular transport process of both LDL and HDL. This brief review focuses on the unique functions of endothelial SR-BI and how they influence atherogenesis.Recent FindingsEarlier studies indicate ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 9, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

High HDL-Cholesterol Paradox: SCARB1 - LAG3 -HDL Axis
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewTo evaluate recent studies related to the paradox of high HDL-C with mortality and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk.Recent FindingsTwo observational studies (Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team [CANHEART] and Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study [Copenhagen Heart Studies]) of adults without pre-existing ASCVD have shown a significant U-shaped association of HDL-C with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Both studies showed that low HDL-C levels consistently increased hazard risk (HR) for all-cause and cause-specific mo...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 5, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Selective Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Modulators (SPPARM α) in the Metabolic Syndrome: Is Pemafibrate Light at the End of the Tunnel?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdoption of poor lifestyles (inactivity and energy-dense diets) has driven the worldwide increase in the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Of the defining features of the metabolic syndrome, an atherogenic dyslipidaemia characterised by elevated triglycerides (TG) and low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a major driver of risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Beyond lifestyle intervention and statins, targeting the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) is a thera...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Highlights from Studies Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Session 2020: Navigating New Roads in Prevention
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review highlights late-breaking science presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Session 2020 that demonstrated advancements in preventative cardiology and introduced novel treatment approaches for the management of chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and/or heart failure.Recent FindingsThe studies reviewed include clinical trials that assessed the use of omecamtiv in the treatment of heart failure with reduced heart failure (GALACTIC-HF); effects of sotagliflozin in patients with diabetes and recent heart failure exacerbation; cardiovascular outcomes with the use of ome...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Should We Target Global Risk or Risk Factors?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent evidence has shaped the new guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia. The importance of accurate risk estimation, subclinical disease detection, and contemporary dyslipidemia management approaches are discussed in this review.Recent FindingsRisk prediction helps determine the intensity of management strategies and identify high-risk patients. To overcome the pitfalls of the current risk prediction systems, incorporating genetic scores, biomarkers, and imaging is being explored. Key initiating event in atherogenesis is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) retention in the arterial...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 3, 2021 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

AIBP, Angiogenesis, Hematopoiesis, and Atherogenesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this manuscript is to summarize the current understanding of the secreted APOA1 binding protein (AIBP), encoded byNAXE, in angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. The studies on AIBP illustrate a critical connection between lipid metabolism and the aforementioned endothelial and immune cell biology.Recent FindingsAIBP dictates both developmental processes such as angiogenesis and hematopoiesis, and pathological events such as inflammation, tumorigenesis, and atherosclerosis.SummaryAlthough cholesterol efflux dictates AIBP-mediated lipid raft disruption in many of the cell types, ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Coronary Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on recent evidence examining the role gut microbiota play in coronary heart disease. It also provides a succinct overview of current and future therapies targeting the gut microbiota for coronary heart disease risk reduction.Recent FindingsA consensus has been reached that differences exist in the gut microbiotas of patients with coronary heart disease. Studies have shown that the gut microbiota is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for coronary heart disease. The gut microbiota is involved in mediating basic metabolic proce...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Inflammatory Cytokines and Atherosclerotic Plaque Progression. Therapeutic Implications
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewInflammatory cytokines play a major role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. This review summarizes the rationale for personalized anti-inflammatory therapy.Recent FindingsSystemic inflammatory parameters may be used to follow the clinical outcome in primary and secondary prevention. Medical therapy, both in patients with stable cardiovascular disease, or with acute events, may be tailored taking into consideration the level and course of systemic inflammatory mediators. There is significant space for improvement in primary prevention and in the treatment of patients who have suffered from s...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Intra-coronary Imaging for the Evaluation of Plaque Modifications Induced by Drug Therapies for Secondary Prevention
This article aims to review potential application of intra-coronary imaging for the evaluation of plaque modifications, induced by medications for secondary prevention for CAD.Recent FindingsIntra-coronary imaging provides detailed information on the atherosclerotic plaque which is the primary pathological substrate for the recurrent ischemic cardiovascular events. These modalities can detect features associated with high risk and allow serial in vivo imaging of lesions. Therefore, intravascular imaging tools have been used in landmark studies and played a role in improving our understanding of the disease processes.Summar...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

State of the Art in Noninvasive Imaging of Ischemic Heart Disease and Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Women: Indications, Performance, and Limitations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEstablishing a diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women, including assessment for coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) when indicated, can be challenging. Access to performance of invasive testing when appropriate may be limited, and noninvasive imaging assessments have evolved. This review will summarize the various noninvasive imaging modalities available for the diagnosis of IHD and CMD in women, outlining indications, performance modalities, advantages, and limitations.Recent FindingsWhile stress echocardiography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial pe...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Digital Health Innovations to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current evidence supporting the use of digital health technologies in cardiovascular disease (CVD) care.Recent FindingsStudies have evaluated the impact of the use of digital health technologies to improve CVD outcomes through several modalities: text-messaging programmes, smartphone applications (apps) and wearable devices. Text-messaging programmes are to date the most studied type of digital health interventions, and studies have demonstrated reduced CVD risk and improved medication adherence. Literature supporting the use of smartphone apps is also growing but remains limited, wit...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Omega n-3 Supplementation: Exploring the Cardiovascular Benefits Beyond Lipoprotein Reduction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHypertriglyceridaemia is a highly prevalent disorder worldwide. Genetic and Mendelian randomization studies have suggested that triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins are causal risk factors for coronary heart disease and contribute to the residual cardiovascular risk observed in patients optimally treated with statins. However, clinical trials failed to show cardiovascular benefits of TG-lowering; in this context, trials with omega-3 fatty acids provided contrasting results. Few trials have tested the supplementation of EPA alone rather than the combination of EPA + DHA. The JELIS study showed that E...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Highlights from Studies in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Presented at the Digital 2020 European Society of Cardiology Congress: Prevention Is Alive and Well
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review highlights selected studies related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention that were presented at the 2020 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress —The Digital Experience.Recent FindingsThe studies reviewed include clinical trials on novel RNA interference-based lipid-lowering therapies AKCEA-APOCIII-LRx and vupanorsen (AKCEA-ANGPTL3-LRx); the EVAPORATE trial assessing the effects of icosapent ethyl on coronary plaque volume progression; the LoDoCo2 trial evaluating the efficacy of low-dose colchicine in cardiovascular disease risk reduction among patients with chronic co...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Biological Factors Linking ApoE ε4 Variant and Severe COVID-19
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Structural Basis for Vital Function and Malfunction of Serum Amyloid A: an Acute-Phase Protein that Wears Hydrophobicity on Its Sleeve
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review addresses normal and pathologic functions of serum amyloid A (SAA), an enigmatic biomarker of inflammation and protein precursor of AA amyloidosis, a life-threatening complication of chronic inflammation. SAA is a small, highly evolutionarily conserved acute-phase protein whose plasma levels increase up to one thousand-fold in inflammation, infection, or after trauma. The advantage of this dramatic but transient increase is unclear, and the complex role of SAA in immune response is intensely investigated. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the structure-funct...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Apheresis for Management of Lp(a) Hyperlipoproteinemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHigh lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) level is an independent cardiovascular risk factor with higher prevalence among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The actual problem is that most currently available lipid-lowering drugs are unable to abolish Lp(a) pathogenicity. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is an effective method for elimination of atherogenic lipoproteins, but it is approved only in some countries for treatment of elevated Lp(a) level in the presence of progressive ASCVD. In recent years, new studies on LA were published and the purpose of this review is to present the informa...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Nutraceuticals in the Optimization of Lipid-Lowering Therapy in High-Risk Patients with Dyslipidaemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aimed to summarize recent guidelines, position papers, and high-quality clinical research relating the use of nutraceuticals in the management of individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Recent FindingsIt is essential that individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease receive guideline-directed evidence-based therapies to reduce their risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. Compared with conventional therapeutics, nutraceuticals have undergone relatively little investigation in randomized controlled trials. Thus, recommendations for nutraceutica...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Targeting Inflammation to Reduce Residual Cardiovascular Risk
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with established cardiovascular disease are at high risk for recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. The termresidual risk refers to this risk that persists, even after optimal treatment. Considerable progress has been made to understand the biological basis of residual risk and to devise therapies that can safely and effectively reduce risk. The presence of ongoing subclinical vascular inflammation is known to be a marker of elevated residual risk, and reductions in measures of vascular inflammation predict improved outcome in these patients.Recent FindingsRecen...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Residual Risk Factors for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Following ACS and How to Bridge the Gap
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review aims to describe the differences between men and women in those factors that can influence a worse prognosis in women after an acute cardiovascular event.Recent FindingsWomen adequately treated with current evidence-based medications for acute myocardial infarction and for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia, still have an extra risk of death compared with men. Additional factors that increase the risk of poor prognosis for the index event have been identified.SummaryThe residual risk can be due to factors affecting the prog...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Knowns and Unknowns of Contemporary Statin Therapy for Familial Hypercholesterolemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStatins are first-line therapy for lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), particularly in heterozygous patients. We review advances and new questions on the use of statins in FH.Recent FindingsCumulative evidence from registry data and sub-analyses of clinical trials mandates the value of statin therapy for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in FH. Statins are safe in children and adolescents with FH, with longer term cardiovascular benefits. The potentially toxic effects of statins in pregnancy need to be considered, but ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 31, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome (FCS): Recent Data on Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFamilial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) is a rare recessive genetic disorder often underdiagnosed with potentially severe clinical consequences. In this review, we describe the clinical and biological characteristics of the disease together with its main complication, i.e., acute pancreatitis. We focused the paper on new diagnostic tools, progress in understanding the role of two key proteins (apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII) and angiopoietin-like3 (ANGPTL-3)), and new therapeutic options.Recent FindingsRecently, a new diagnostic tool has been proposed by European experts to help identify these patie...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Is Any Cardiovascular Disease-Specific DNA Methylation Biomarker Within Reach?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewA detailed understanding of the epigenome of cardiovascular disease (CVD) should broaden current insights into mechanisms of atherogenesis and help identify suitable biomarkers for disease risk and progression. This review addresses the question whether a consensus has been reached on identifying the main aberrant DNA methylation profile in CVD. Additionally, it presents advances and setbacks in the search for specific CVD biomarkers.Recent FindingsAlthough the literature points to DNA hypermethylation as an epigenetic landmark of CVD, inconsistencies are significant. In particular, the DNA methylo...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 28,872 Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, notably angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), in the COVID-19 pandemic has not been fully evaluated. With an increasing number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, it is imperative to better understand the impact of RAAS inhibitors in hypertensive COVID patients. PubMed, Embase and the pre-print database Medrxiv were searched, and studies with data on patients on ACEi/ARB with COVID-19 were included. Random effects models were used to estimate the pooled mean difference with 95% confidence...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Women Living with Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Challenges and Considerations Surrounding Their Care
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight the gender-based differences in presentation and disparities in care for women with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).Recent FindingsWomen with FH experience specific barriers to care including underrepresentation in research, significant underappreciation of risk, and interrupted therapy during childbearing. National and international registry and clinical trial data show significant healthcare disparities for women with FH. Women with FH are less likely to be on guideline-recommended high-intensity statin medications and those placed on statins are more likely to discontinue them wi...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Exosomes: Multifaceted Messengers in Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to the development of coronary artery disease, which has become a leading health burden worldwide. Though several strategies such as pharmacological treatment, exercise intervention, and surgery have been used in clinical practice, there is still no effective strategy to cure AS. Exosomes are extensively studied both as diagnostic markers as well as for therapeutic purposes due to their role in pathological processes related to AS. To elucidate the role of exosomes in AS and thus provide a new insight into AS therapy, we review...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Preventive Cardiology and Risk Assessment: Beyond LDL
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRisk assessment is the foundational cornerstone for cardiovascular prevention. The goal of this review is to apprise the reader of the latest evidence and guideline-based stepwise method for clinical risk assessment for future atherosclerotic events. We also discuss caveats to the current approach and review future directions including the promise of precision medicine.Recent FindingsThe most recent cholesterol and prevention guidelines improve upon the widely used pooled cohort equations by incorporating risk-enhancing factors to further personalize risk assessment. For those in whom uncertainty r...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genetics of Arterial-Wall-Specific Mechanisms in Atherosclerosis: Focus on Mitochondrial Mutations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes are associated with the development of atherosclerotic lesions in arteries and may provide a partial explanation to the focal nature of lesion distribution in the arterial wall. This review is aimed to discuss the genetic aspects of atherogenesis with a special focus on possible pro-atherogenic variants (mutations) of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that may be implicated in atherosclerosis development and progression.Recent FindingsMutations in the nuclear genes generally do not cause a phenotype restricted to a specific vascular wall cell an...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Association Between Periodontitis and Cardiovascular Disease: an Update
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an update on the data regarding periodontitis and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as a closer look at the connection between periodontitis and valvular heart disease.Recent FindingsThe body of literature that demonstrates an association between periodontitis and CVD is growing, and there is increasing evidence that periodontal disease (PD) can have negative cardiovascular effects. Far less data is available for the management of periodontitis specifically in those with valvular heart disease. However, recent studies suggest tha...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

CD36 in Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by lipid retention and inflammation in the artery wall. The retention and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in sub-endothelial space play a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque formation and destabilization. Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and other modified LDL particles are avidly taken up by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages mainly through several scavenger receptors, including CD36 which is a class B scavenger receptor and membrane glycoprotein.Recent FindingsAnimal studies performed on CD36-deficient mice suggest that d...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Long Non-coding Road to Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize recent insights into long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) involved in atherosclerosis. Because atherosclerosis is the main underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the world ’s deadliest disease, finding novel therapeutic strategies is of high interest.Recent FindingsLncRNAs can bind to proteins, DNA, and RNA regulating disease initiation and plaque growth as well as plaque stability in different cell types such as endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and macrophages. A number of lncRNAs have been implicated in cholesterol homeostasis and foam ce...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Impact of Psychological Functioning on Cardiovascular Disease
We report on recent findings pertaining to the relationship of both negative and positive indicators of psychological functioning with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and briefly describe possible mechanistic pathways to account for these relationships.Recent FindingsA body of observational literature suggests that (1) depression is predictive of CVD and is a consequence of CVD; (2) anxiety is related to CVD but the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear; and (3) negative affectivity and Type D personality are constructs that combine aspects of negative psychological functioning that have shown relationships with...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Vulnerable Plaque: Recent Advances in Computed Tomography Imaging to Identify the Vulnerable Patient
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to summarize the role of coronary computed tomography plaque analysis in identifying high-risk patients and plaques.Recent FindingsIn this review, we will describe the histopathological features of a vulnerable plaque as well as the coronary computed tomography characteristics including spotty calcification, low-attenuation fatty core, positive remodeling, and thin fibrous cap. We will also review several studies that assessed features of a vulnerable plaque on non-invasive imaging and evaluated them as risk predictors of future acute coronary events.SummaryMultiple recent studies ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Immunogenetics of Atherosclerosis —Link between Lipids, Immunity, and Genes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis is a complex disease process with lipid as a traditional modifiable risk factor and therapeutic target in treating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Recent evidence indicates that genetic influence and host immune response also are vital in this process. How these elements interact and modify each other and if immune response may emerge as a novel modifiable target remain poorly understood.Recent FindingsNumerous preclinical studies have clearly demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia is essential for atherogenesis, but genetic variations and host immune-inflammatory res...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Statins in Current Guidelines
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe causal association of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been demonstrated in robust experimental, epidemiological, genetic, and interventional randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The goal of this review is to show how the knowledge acquired from statin RCTs influenced and was recommended on guidelines for prevention of ASCVD during the last three decades.Recent FindingsGuideline recommendations have evolved with accruing information derived mostly from statin RCTs, and as decades passed, more intensive LDL-C lowering was recommended according to a ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Latest Developments and New Frontiers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSpontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an increasingly recognized entity leading to myocardial infarction especially in women. Multiple observational studies have been published in the recent years. This review summarizes the current body of knowledge and recent developments in SCAD epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management.Recent FindingsContemporary series have estimated the incidence of SCAD to be up to ~  4% of all patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Fibromuscular dysplasia, hormonal therapy, multiparity, connective tissue disorders, and systemic...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lipoprotein(a) and Its Potential Association with Thrombosis and Inflammation in COVID-19: a Testable Hypothesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe COVID-19 pandemic has infected over> 11 million as of today people worldwide and is associated with significant cardiovascular manifestations, particularly in subjects with preexisting comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. Recently, a predisposition for arterial and venous thromboses has been reported in COVID-19 infection. We hypothesize that besides conventional risk factors, subjects with elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) may have a particularly high risk of developing cardiovascular complications.Recent FindingsThe Lp(a) molecule has the propensity for inhibiting endogenous fibrin...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 24, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Microbial-Derived Secondary Bile Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal is to review the connection between gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease, with specific emphasis on bile acids, and the influence of diet in modulating this relationship.Recent FindingsBile acids exert a much broader range of biological functions than initially recognized, including regulation of cardiovascular function through direct and indirect mechanisms. There is a bi-directional relationship between gut microbiota modulation of bile acid –signaling properties, and their effects on gut microbiota composition. Evidence, primarily from rodent models and limited human trials, ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Role of Sex-Specific Risk Factors in the Risk Assessment of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease for Primary Prevention in Women
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRobust evidence is emerging regarding the contribution of sex-specific risk factors to a woman ’s unique risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This review summarizes the available literature regarding the association of sex-specific risk factors and ASCVD in women.Recent FindingsThe American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Guidelines recommend estimation of 10-year risk of a first ASCVD event using the 2013 Pooled Cohort Equations. This can be further personalized by identifying sex-specific risk factors present in a woman ’s history. There are mul...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Impact of Different Doses of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Outcomes: a Pairwise and Network Meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOmega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation has shown conflicting evidence regarding its benefit in cardiovascular events. We performed a pairwise and network meta-analysis to elucidate the benefit of different doses of O3FA supplementation in cardiovascular prevention.Recent FindingsFourteen studies were identified providing data on 125,763 patients. A prespecified cut-off value of  1 g per day for high-dose (HD) O3FA. The efficacy outcomes of interest were total death, cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, unstable angina, and ma...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Premature Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: What Have We Learned Recently?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn contrast to patients with non-premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), patients with premature ASCVD have not observed a similar decline in cardiovascular mortality and recurrent adverse events. We sought to review the underlying risk factors, potential gaps in medical management, associated outcomes, and tools for risk prognostication among patients with premature ASCVD.Recent FindingsIn addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia), non-traditional risk factors such as chronic inflammatory conditions, recreational drug use,...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The State of Percutaneous Intervention in Stable Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines trials of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with optimal medical therapy (OMT) in order to inform clinical decision-making regarding the role of PCI in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD).Recent FindingsSeveral large, randomized, controlled trials published in recent years suggest that OMT should be the initial treatment strategy for symptomatic SIHD, but there is a role for PCI in patients who continue to be symptomatic despite OMT. Additionally, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) techniques may help to identify physiol...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Selective Peroxisome Proliferator –Activated Receptor Alpha Modulators (SPPARMα): New Opportunities to Reduce Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a major global challenge, which is exacerbated by aging populations and the pandemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Much of the escalating burden of CKD is due to cardiovascular complications. Current treatment guidelines for dyslipidemia in CKD prioritize low-density lipoprotein cholesterol management, but still leave a high residual cardiovascular risk. Targeting elevated triglycerides and low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a common feature of CKD, could offer additional benefit. There are, however, safety issues with current fibrates (peroxisome pro...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Lomitapide – a Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Inhibitor for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Due to errors during galley proofing, the original version of this article has been corrected. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Does 24-h Activity Cycle Influence Plasma PCSK9 Concentration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Due to typesetting mistake, an unknown image was accidentally captured as graphical abstract. This should be removed. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 6, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex-Based Considerations in the Evaluation of Chest Pain and Management of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and poses a threat to both men and women across their lifespans. There is accumulating evidence to support that CAD may present differently in women and men, ranging from the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the disease to underlying differences in the biological and pathophysiological mechanisms. This has called for an expansion of our conventional tools used in the diagnosis and management of obstructive CAD. Understanding these key sex differences will potentially help tailor our diagnostic and ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 22, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research