Emerging Research on the Implications of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Coronary Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be an increasing cause of mortality among women, particularly postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a topic that has been investigated over the past decade for its known impact on the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the evidence and current opinion on the associations between HRT and CVD, evidence both supporting and against HRT use as a prevention to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD).Recent FindingsThe majority of the new data available suggests the use of HRT has the potential to be more beneficial in the pr...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Emergency Department (ED) Triage for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) have a higher risk for stroke and vascular events. Specialized and organized management, if rapidly initiated in the emergency department (ED), reduces the vascular burden of TIA. This review summarizes the rationale for optimal triage of patients suspected with TIA in the ED, focusing on early diagnosis confirmation, individual risk stratification, and management.Recent FindingsNew evidence is emerging on the yield of integrating clinical scales with advanced neuroimaging of the vessels and brain for improved diagnosis and risk stratification in pati...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 25, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How Heart Rate Should Be Controlled in Patients with Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure.Recent FindingsAs a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are contraindicated in patients ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

T-Wave Indices and Atherosclerosis
AbstractTpeak-Tend interval, the time difference between the peak and the end of the T-wave, reflects the degree of dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation has been associated with higher risks of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in different pro-arrhythmic conditions such as Brugada and long QT syndromes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how Tpeak-Tend is altered in different atherosclerotic conditions such as hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary obstruction, and coronary slow flow as well as inflammatory diseases affecting the arterial t...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How Heart Rate Should Be Controlled in Patients with Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure.Recent FindingsAs a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are contraindicated in patients ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

T-Wave Indices and Atherosclerosis
AbstractTpeak-Tend interval, the time difference between the peak and the end of the T-wave, reflects the degree of dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation has been associated with higher risks of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in different pro-arrhythmic conditions such as Brugada and long QT syndromes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how Tpeak-Tend is altered in different atherosclerotic conditions such as hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary obstruction, and coronary slow flow as well as inflammatory diseases affecting the arterial t...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Examining the Role of and Treatment Directed at IL-1 β in Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this review was to examine the role of IL-1 β in the inflammatory process central to the development of atherosclerosis and to discuss current clinical evidence for treatments targeting IL-1β in coronary artery disease.Recent FindingsIL-1 β has been shown to modulate atherosclerotic plaque progression by upregulating the synthesis of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, as well increasing activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Animal studies have further suggested that alterations in the balance between ag onists and antagonists of IL-1β are impor...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Associations of 26 Circulating Inflammatory and Renal Biomarkers with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Long-term Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography (ATHEROREMO-NIRS Substudy)
In conclusion, we found that IL-8 was independently associated with clinical outcome, but altogether, the multiplex panel we investigated here did not render a useful blood biomarker of high LCBI. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 14, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Disparities in CAD: Women and Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this article is to review the disparities that exist for women who present for treatment of ischemic heart disease.Recent FindingsIt is well known that women are more likely to present with ischemic heart disease at an advanced age with more comorbidities when compared to male counterparts. Despite correction of risk factors, women experience worse outcomes, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. A review of the literature highlights the importance of a thoughtful approach to medical therapy and revascularization.SummaryWhile most recommendations applied to women ar...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 4, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among women globally, majority of which are due to ischemic heart disease. Despite the recent advances in the overall management of CVD, there are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of women as well as poorer outcomes.Recent FindingsWomen with ischemic cardiomyopathy experience significant morbidity and mortality. Differences in underlying pathology, delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the under-representation of women in clinical trials contribute to these poor outcomes.SummaryIn this review, we discus...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mobile Stroke Units - Cost-Effective or Just an Expensive Hype?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute stroke is a treatable disease. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients obtain guideline-adjusted therapy. One major reason is the small time window in which therapies have to be administered in order to reverse or mitigate brain injury and prevent disability. The Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU) concept, available for a decade now, is spreading worldwide, comprising ambulances, fully equipped with computed tomography, laboratory unit and telemedicine connection to the stroke centre and staffed with a specialised stroke team. Besides its benefits, this concept adds a relevant amount of costs to heal...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe review recent epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the consumption of tree nuts and peanuts and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality as well as CVD risk factors.Recent FindingsA greater consumption of tree nuts and peanuts is associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, as well as lower CVD events. Furthermore, risk factors associated with the development of CVD such as dyslipidemia, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are improved with regular tree nut and peanut consumption through a range of mechanism associated with their nutrient-rich profiles. There is weak inc...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 9, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Coronary Artery Disease: Recent Progress and Challenges Ahead
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been the primary tool for unbiased assessment of the genetic basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) for more than a decade. We summarize successes as well as shortcomings of recent studies in this context.Recent FindingsThe number of CAD-associated loci has more than doubled in the past year to 161. This rapid progress has been in large part due to the release of genome-wide genotyping data for the largely European participants of the UK Biobank study which has been combined with existing GWAS from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. Additional discoveries ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Psammomys obesus : a Natural Diet-Controlled Model for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review specifically summarises and reports terrestrial mammals of the gerbil subfamily, known as Israeli sand rats orPsammomys obesus (P.obesus) as a diet-controlled, unique, polygenic rodent model for research in the areas of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The animal model closely mimics phenotypic and pathophysiological resemblance with human populations.Recent FindingsThe physiological status and biochemical composition inP.obesus can be manipulated effectively by controlling its nutritional intake, making it a natural model for cardiovascular and diabetic research. ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Commentary on: “Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region”
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 9, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Advances in Coronary No-Reflow Phenomenon —a Contemporary Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary artery no-reflow phenomenon is an incidental outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Despite advances in pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, coronary no-reflow phenomenon occurs more commonly than desired. It often results in poor clinical outcomes and remains as a relevant consideration in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In this systematic review, we have sought to discuss the topic in detail, and to relay the most recent discoveries and data on management of this condition.Recent FindingsWe discuss several ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Stroke Risk and Vascular Dementia in South Asians
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSouth Asians (SA) are at a higher risk for stroke and vascular dementia due to the disproportionate burden of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the rationale for screening, early detection, and aggressive control of metabolic factors, and critically examines the published literature on primary and secondary stroke prevention.Recent FindingsSouth Asians have a higher prevalence of diabetes than non-SA. SA with diabetes are at a higher risk of recurrent ischemic stroke and have a higher incidence of stroke-related dementia compared to non-South Asians.SummarySouth Asian...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Advances in Coronary No-Reflow Phenomenon —a Contemporary Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary artery no-reflow phenomenon is an incidental outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Despite advances in pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies, coronary no-reflow phenomenon occurs more commonly than desired. It often results in poor clinical outcomes and remains as a relevant consideration in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. In this systematic review, we have sought to discuss the topic in detail, and to relay the most recent discoveries and data on management of this condition.Recent FindingsWe discuss several ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Stroke Risk and Vascular Dementia in South Asians
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSouth Asians (SA) are at a higher risk for stroke and vascular dementia due to the disproportionate burden of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review summarizes the rationale for screening, early detection, and aggressive control of metabolic factors, and critically examines the published literature on primary and secondary stroke prevention.Recent FindingsSouth Asians have a higher prevalence of diabetes than non-SA. SA with diabetes are at a higher risk of recurrent ischemic stroke and have a higher incidence of stroke-related dementia compared to non-South Asians.SummarySouth Asian...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Training Opportunities, the Challenges, and Future Directions
The original version of this article contains errors in Table  3. “At least 1 project/publication in the year” and “> 1 publication per year ” have been switched under the titles of “Clinical Track” and “Physician-Scientist track”. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Vascular Access-Related Complications in Women: Temporal Trends, Emerging Data, and the Current State of Interventional Cardiology Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWomen undergoing cardiac catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and other structural heart interventions have a significantly higher risk of vascular complications and bleeding than men, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. This review highlights the importance of recognizing female sex as a specific and independent risk factor, and focuses on mechanisms of increased risk and strategies to minimize that risk.Recent Findings and SummarySmaller caliber peripheral vessels, low body weight, variations in platelet reactivity, and inappropr...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 8, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Peripheral Arterial Disease in Women: an Overview of Risk Factor Profile, Clinical Features, and Outcomes
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the third most common manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD), following coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. PAD remains underdiagnosed and under-treated in women.Recent FindingsWomen with PAD experience more atypical symptoms and poorer overall health status. The prevalence of PAD in women increases with age, such that more women than men have PAD after the age of 40  years. There is under-representation of PAD patients in clinical trials in general and women in particular. In this article, we address the lack of women participants in PAD trial...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 2, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anticoagulation Resumption After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractPurpose of reviewDecision-making on resuming oral anticoagulant (OAC) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evokes significant debate among clinicians. Such patients have been excluded from randomized clinical trials. This review article provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence on anticoagulation resumption after ICH.Recent findingsOAC resumption does not increase the risk of recurrent ICH and can also reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. OAC cessation exposes patients to a significantly higher risk of thromboembolism, which could be reduced by resumption. The optimal timing of anticoagulation resumption ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cerebral Autoregulation in Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCerebral autoregulation (CA) is a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow constant despite fluctuations in systemic arterial blood pressure. This review will focus on recent studies that measured CA non-invasively in acute cerebrovascular events, a feature unique to the transcranial Doppler ultrasound. We will summarize the rationale for CA assessment in acute cerebrovascular disorders and specifically evaluate the existing data on the value of CA measures in relation to clinical severity, guiding management decisions, and prognostication.Recent FindingsExisting data suggest that CA is general...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Training Opportunities, the Challenges, and Future Directions
AbstractPurposeCardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, necessitating major efforts in prevention. This review summarizes the currently available training opportunities in CVD prevention for fellows-in-training (FITs) and residents. We also highlight the challenges and future directions for CVD prevention as a field and propose a structure for an inclusive CVD prevention training program.Recent FindingsAt present, there is a lack of centralized training resources for FITs and residents interested in pursuing a career in CVD prevention. Training in CVD prevention is not an acc...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Survey on Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Tissue Characterization in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerotic plaque deposition within the coronary vessel wall leads to arterial stenosis and severe catastrophic events over time. Identification of these atherosclerotic plaque components is essential to pre-estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stratify them as a high or low risk. The characterization and quantification of coronary plaque components are not only vital but also a challenging task which can be possible using high-resolution imaging techniques.Recent FindingAtherosclerotic plaque components such as thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), fibrous cap, macrophage infiltrati...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mindset and Communication Barriers in the Diffusion of Bariatric Surgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCumulating evidence is available to demonstrate the efficacy of bariatric surgery (BS) in achieving weight loss and optimizing comorbidities. However, currently, only a minority of eligible patients approaches bariatric centers. The underuse of BS can no longer be explained by the lack of evidence supporting its beneficial outcomes along with its favorable safety-profile, rather, by the supporting infrastructure, insurance coverage, and mindset of society, including potential patients and allied healthcare professionals. As a framework to approach mindset barriers in the diffusion of BS, we used th...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Prehospital Prediction of Large Vessel Occlusion in Suspected Stroke Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent advances in endovascular thrombectomy have made acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel occlusion more treatable than ever. Rapid access to treatment remains paramount and multiple large vessel occlusion prediction scales have been created to enhance prehospital identification and triage of these patients. This review summarizes the current state of large vessel occlusion prediction scales, proposes a set of ideal scale features, and discusses the future of these scales and prehospital neurological emergency response systems.Recent FindingsA meta-analysis of the available data concluded ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antioxidants in the Fight Against Atherosclerosis: Is This a Dead End?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to focus on the outcome of recent antioxidant interventions using synthetic and naturally occurring molecules established as adjuvant strategies to lipid-lowering or anti-inflammatory therapies designed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.Recent FindingsTo date, accumulated evidence regarding oxidation as a pro-atherogenic factor indicates that redox biochemical events involved in atherogenesis are indeed a very attractive target for the management of cardiovascular disease in the clinic. Nevertheless, although evidence indicates that redox reactions are impor...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anticoagulation Resumption After Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractPurpose of reviewDecision-making on resuming oral anticoagulant (OAC) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evokes significant debate among clinicians. Such patients have been excluded from randomized clinical trials. This review article provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence on anticoagulation resumption after ICH.Recent findingsOAC resumption does not increase the risk of recurrent ICH and can also reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. OAC cessation exposes patients to a significantly higher risk of thromboembolism, which could be reduced by resumption. The optimal timing of anticoagulation resumption ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cerebral Autoregulation in Stroke
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCerebral autoregulation (CA) is a mechanism that maintains cerebral blood flow constant despite fluctuations in systemic arterial blood pressure. This review will focus on recent studies that measured CA non-invasively in acute cerebrovascular events, a feature unique to the transcranial Doppler ultrasound. We will summarize the rationale for CA assessment in acute cerebrovascular disorders and specifically evaluate the existing data on the value of CA measures in relation to clinical severity, guiding management decisions, and prognostication.Recent FindingsExisting data suggest that CA is general...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: Training Opportunities, the Challenges, and Future Directions
AbstractPurposeCardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, necessitating major efforts in prevention. This review summarizes the currently available training opportunities in CVD prevention for fellows-in-training (FITs) and residents. We also highlight the challenges and future directions for CVD prevention as a field and propose a structure for an inclusive CVD prevention training program.Recent FindingsAt present, there is a lack of centralized training resources for FITs and residents interested in pursuing a career in CVD prevention. Training in CVD prevention is not an acc...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Why Weight? An Analytic Review of Obesity Management, Diabetes Prevention, and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we examine one of the ironies of American health care —that we pay more for disease management than disease prevention. Instead of preventing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by treating its precursor, obesity, we fail to provide sufficient insurance coverage for weight management only to fund the more costly burden of overt T2DM.Recent FindingsThere is a vital need for expanded insurance coverage to help foster a weight-centric approach to T2DM management. This includes broader coverage of anti-diabetic medications with evidence of cardiovascular risk reduction and mortality benefit, a...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Present and the Future of Genetic Testing in Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Opportunities and Caveats
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize recent advances in the understanding of genetic testing in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the use of expanded FH next-generation sequencing panels, and directions for future research.Recent FindingsThe uptake of massively parallel sequencing in research and diagnostic laboratories has enabled expanded testing for FH and its phenocopies, with the added advantage that copy number variants can be detected. However, increasing the number of genes tested increases the number of variants detected, which may or may not be pathogenic. Guidelines for assessing variant pathogenicity will as...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 19, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Triad of the Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease in People Living with HIV? Association Between Risk Factors, HIV Infection, and Use of Antiretroviral Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected people.Recent FindingsAntiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased the life expectancy of HIV-infected people. Thus, this population has experienced non-HIV-related diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases. Thus, in our review, we intend to understand the cardiovascular risk factors that trigger this situation.SummaryWe have demonstrated that both ART and traditional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected people. Thus, it becomes important to stratify the ri...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 18, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Recent Developments in the Role of Coenzyme Q10 for Coronary Heart Disease: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines recent randomized clinical trials evaluating the role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the management of coronary heart disease.Recent FindingsCoQ10 is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in the USA. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 has been studied extensively for possible use in managing coronary heart disease. One of the most common applications of CoQ10 is to mitigate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) based on the theory that SAMS are caused by statin depletion of CoQ10 in the muscle. Although previous studies of CoQ10 for SAMS have...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 16, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPopulations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits.Recent FindingsIn the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 4, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research