Correction to: Does 24-h Activity Cycle Influence Plasma PCSK9 Concentration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Due to typesetting mistake, an unknown image was accidentally captured as graphical abstract. This should be removed. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - July 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex-Based Considerations in the Evaluation of Chest Pain and Management of Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCoronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally and poses a threat to both men and women across their lifespans. There is accumulating evidence to support that CAD may present differently in women and men, ranging from the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the disease to underlying differences in the biological and pathophysiological mechanisms. This has called for an expansion of our conventional tools used in the diagnosis and management of obstructive CAD. Understanding these key sex differences will potentially help tailor our diagnostic and ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nutrient Profiling Systems, Front of Pack Labeling, and Consumer Behavior
AbstractPurpose of ReviewGuiding consumers toward more healthful food choices may help address the high prevalence of poor dietary quality and diet-related diseases. The use of front-of-package labels (FOPL) on food items is expanding to provide focused nutritional information or representations, often based upon nutrient profiling systems.Recent FindingsFOPL provide a source of nutrition and health information that is readily understood by consumers, including those with limited literacy. There is evidence that FOPL can shift consumer behavior toward more nutritious and healthful choices. However, assessments of the effec...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Even “WISE-R?”—an Update on the NHLBI-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFor over 20  years, the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), a program sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, has explored diverse and important aspects of ischemic heart disease in women.Recent FindingsWomen with symptoms and signs of ischemia but no significant epicardial obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) were documented to be at elevated risk for recurrent angina hospitalization, major adverse cardiac events, death, and health resource consumption rivaling those with obstructive coronary disease.SummaryWISE investigators have advanced our underst...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Menopausal Hormone Therapy: a Comprehensive Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewFor decades the medical community recommended menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and osteoporosis in addition to relieving unpleasant vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms. These recommendations were largely based on observational studies. Several large randomized placebo-controlled trials led to the surprising finding that postmenopausal women were at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events compared with women in the placebo group. For the next decade, women were less frequently prescribed MHT and more often declined MHT.Rece...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Highlights of Studies in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Presented at the 2020 American College of Cardiology Annual Scientific Session
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review highlights selected studies related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention that were presented at the American College of Cardiology 2020 Virtual Scientific Session (ACC.20)/World Cardiology Congress (WCC).Recent FindingsThe studies reviewed include clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of alirocumab (Study in Participants with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia [ODYSSEY HoFH]) and evinacumab in the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH); Evaluating the Efficacy of E-cigarettes for Smoking Cessation (E3); the use of renal denervation in the treatment ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Is There Still a Role for Aspirin in Primary Prevention in Women in 2020?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAspirin ’s place in primary prevention for females has not been well delineated and has been under increased scrutiny in light of recent literature and guideline recommendations. The purpose of this review is to discuss current literature reviewing aspirin use for primary prevention in women and to discus s when use is appropriate.Recent FindingsThe Women ’s Health Study found no differences in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in women randomized to aspirin vs. placebo, though a significant reduction was observed in women ≥ 65 years. More recent literature evalu...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Statins in a Distorted Mirror of Media
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStatins have proven efficacy with a favorable safety profile yet, despite being widely affordable, remain profoundly underutilized. Statins have acquired a bad reputation, which is likely contributing to high rates of nonadherence and discontinuation. The degree to which negative media perceptions contribute to underutilization is unclear.Recent FindingsThe media has a key role in informing discussion on the public agenda but also on how issues are framed. In this context, the majority of studies evaluating news coverage suggest that the content on statins is predominantly negative and focused on p...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lomitapide –a Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Inhibitor for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHomozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare, genetic condition characterized by high levels of Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); overt, early-onset atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD); and premature cardiovascular events and mortality. Lomitapide is a first-in-class microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor for the treatment of HoFH. This review provides an update on data emerging from real-world studies of lomitapide following on from its pivotal phase 3 clinical trial in HoFH.Recent FindingsRecent registry data have confirmed that HoFH is characterized...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

New Classification of Macrophages in Plaques: a Revolution
AbstractPurposeMacrophages play vital roles in the development of atherosclerosis in responding to lipid accumulation and inflammation. Macrophages were classified as inflammatory (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophage types based on results of in vitro experiments. On the other hand, the composition of macrophages in vivo is more complex and remains unresolved. This review summarizes the transcriptional variations of macrophages in atherosclerosis plaques that were discovered by single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to better understand their contribution to atherosclerosis.Recent FindingsScRNA-seq provides a m...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Does 24-h Activity Cycle Influence Plasma PCSK9 Concentration? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHigher plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) concentration has been associated with a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Animal and human studies have examined the relationship between 24-h activity cycles (24-HAC) and PCSK9, but conflicting results exist. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the relationship between 24-HAC and plasma PCSK9 concentration in animals and humans.Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science) were searched for eligible articles. Descriptive data were summarized using network meta-analysis. The effect size was ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Management of Structural Heart Disease and Acute Coronary Syndromes in the COVID-19 Pandemic
AbstractTranscatheter interventions for structural heart disease (SHD) now represent an effective alternative to surgery in selected patients. A clear premise is that delay in or neglect of treating patients in need of SHD intervention is associated with unavoidable morbidity and mortality because many of them have life-threatening conditions. However, the recent outbreak of coronavirus-associated disease-2019 (COVID-19) is placing an unprecedented strain on patients, physicians and world healthcare systems that resulted in deferral of elective and semi-elective procedures, such as SHD, and delay in the treatment of patien...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 10, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Periodontal Inflammation and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe role of oral bacteremia and periodontal inflammation driving atherosclerosis is still under investigation. This review article highlights the role of periodontal inflammation and oral microorganisms in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.Recent FindingsAssociation between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases has been well characterized, but causal correlation is yet to be established. For instance, untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. Periodontal disease has been associated with several systemic diseases one of which is atherosclerosi...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Statin Intolerance in Clinical Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn our pilot study, we aimed to determine how many patients with the statin intolerance history referred to the specialized center for the diagnostics and treatment of lipoprotein metabolism disorders really suffer from a complete statin intolerance. The purpose of the study was to prove that complete statin intolerance is overestimated and overdiagnosed, and with the detailed knowledge of the issue and patient approach, it is possible to find an appropriate statin treatment for the most of patients.Recent FindingsWith the increasing number of statin users worldwide, the issue of statin intolerance...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

New Pharmacological Approaches to Target PCSK9
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) plays a crucial role in regulating circulating levels of LDL-C as a consequence of its ability to inhibit LDL receptor recycling in the liver. Loss of function variants in thePCSK9 gene result in low LDL-C levels and associate with reduced cardiovascular risk, whereas gain of-function variants associate with hypercholesterolemia and increased risk of early cardiovascular events. Thus, PCSK9 inhibition has been established as an additional approach for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of curr...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical Pharmacology of Statins: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStatins represent the cornerstone for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although muscle-related side effects and dysregulation of glucose metabolism have strongly limited their adherence and compliance especially in primary prevention therapy. The purpose of the present review is to provide the most recent evidence of the efficacy and safety of statins in monotherapy or combination with new lipid-lowering drugs.Recent FindingsRecent “life-long” analysis conducted on young familial hypercholesterolemia patients, elderly hypocholesterolemic subjects, and from a 20-year follow-up of r...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Triglycerides and ASCVD Risk Reduction: Recent Insights and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review focuses on recent evidence examining the role triglycerides (TG) and triglyceride-enriched lipoproteins (TGRL) play in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). It also provides a succinct overview of current and future TG-lowering therapies for ASCVD risk reduction.Recent FindingsEpidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies have consistently shown that TGRL are strongly associated with ASCVD. REDUCE-IT demonstrated cardiovascular benefit with icosapent ethyl in high-risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia on statin therapy. Polymorphisms inAPOC3 andANGPTL3 are associated w...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - June 3, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effects of Carbohydrate-Restricted Dietary Patterns and Physical Activity on Body Weight and Glycemic Control
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCarbohydrate (CHO)-restricted dietary patterns (very-low-CHO
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Review of the Relationship Between CTRP Family and Coronary Artery Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn recent years, a family of adiponectin paralogs designated as C1q/TNF-related protein (CTRP) has attracted increasing attention. They are inflammatory adipocytokines mostly secreted from epicardial adipose tissue, which modulate the development and prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review summarizes the pathophysiological roles of individual members of the CTRP superfamily in the development of CAD.Recent FindingsRecent studies have revealed how members of the CTRP family, CTRP1, CTRP3, CTRP5, CTRP9, CTRP12, and CTRP13, can influence both development and progression of CAD by modul...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Microparticles (Exosomes) and Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the effects of microparticles and exosomes in the progression of atherosclerosis and the prospect for their diagnostic and therapeutic potentials.Recent FindingsMicroparticles and exosomes can induce endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, coagulation, thrombosis, and calcification via their components of proteins and noncoding RNAs, which may promote the progression of atherosclerosis. The applications of microparticles and exosomes become the spotlight of clinical diagnosis and therapy.SummaryMicroparticles and exosomes are members of extracellular vesicles, which a...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Acute Coronary Syndrome with Non-ruptured Plaques (NONRUPLA): Novel Ideas and Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review article, we focus on the mechanisms and features of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with no ruptured plaque (NONRUPLA) highlighting the uncertainties over diagnostic evaluation and treatment.Recent FindingsThe most common cause of ACS is obstruction due to atherosclerotic plaque ruptured or erosion. In 14% of patients who present in the Emergency Department as myocardial infarction, the final diagnosis is ACS with NONRUPLA. Although the clinical presentation of NONRUPLA may mimic myocardial infarction, the underlying pathogenesis is different, and it may guide therapeutic approaches a...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 28, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Volanesorsen (ISIS 304801): the Evidence from Phase 2 and 3 Clinical Trials
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo revise the clinical evidence supporting the use of volanesorsen as new lipid-lowering drug and to assess the efficacy and safety of volanesorsen (ISIS 304801) through a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of the available phase 2 and phase 3 clinical studies.Recent FindingsThe meta-analysis of three clinical studies comprising 11 arms (N = l 156 subjects, with 95 in the active-treated arm and 61 in the control one) shows that volanesorsen significantly affects plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) [MD = − 67.90%, 95%CI = − 85....
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Degenerative Severe Aortic Stenosis and Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease: What Is Changing in the Era of the “Transcatheter Revolution”?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognostic relevance, and treatment options of coronary artery disease (CAD) when coupled with severe aortic stenosis (SAS). In regard to treatment options, we focused on the most recently adopted therapeutic approaches and on the future perspectives in light of the latest percutaneous and surgical technical improvements in the field of both CAD and SAS management.Recent FindingsNowadays, SAS is the most common valve disease requiring intervention, either surgical or percutaneous. On the other side, CAD is one of the leading causes of death in the develop...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Statins through Mast Cells in the Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the effects of statins on mast cells (MCs) in atherosclerosis and their molecular mechanism of action.Recent FindingsStatins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are known for their lipid-lowering properties and are widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. There is growing evidence that statins have an inhibitory effect on MCs, which contributes to the pleiotropic effect of statins in various diseases. MCs are one of the crucial effectors of the immune system which play an essential role in the pathogenesis of multiple dis...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 26, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nutrition Disparities and Cardiovascular Health
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review is an assessment of the state of the science on nutrition disparities and their contribution to disparities in cardiovascular health.Recent FindingsNutrition disparities remain pervasive by race/ethnicity, sex/gender, socioeconomic status, and geography. They are rooted in differences in social, cultural, and environmental determinants of health, behavioral and lifestyle factors, and the impact of policy interventions. Systematic differences in diet quality, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes contribute to cardiovascular disparities and are mediated by microbiota, and CVD risk facto...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Excessive Supraventricular Ectopic Activity and Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExcessive supraventricular ectopic activity (ESVEA), in the form of frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) and runs of PACs, is commonly observed in clinical practice and is frequently considered to be benign. Yet, recent studies have demonstrated a link between ESVEA and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the association between ESVEA and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke, and mortality.Recent FindingsA systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to December 2017 to identify studies assessing adverse ca...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Association Between Caliber of Retinal Vessels and Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this study to is report the findings of a systemic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the association between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular diseases.Recent FindingsThe caliber of retinal vessels has been recognized as an important biomarker for risk stratification in various cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and mortality.SummaryNon-invasively quantifying retinal vasculature may be useful in screening individuals who are at risk of cardiovascular disease. Further evaluating the role of retinal vessel anatomy and inco...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIntracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) is the most common cause of stroke throughout the world. It also increases the risk of recurrent stroke and dementia. As a complex and multifactorial disease, ICAS is influenced by multiple genetic, biological, and environmental factors. This review summarizes the candidate gene and genome-wide studies aimed at discovering genetic risk factors of ICAS.Recent FindingsNumerous studies have focused on the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of atherosclerosis-related genes and the risk of ICAS. Variants in adiponectin Q (ADIPOQ), ring finger p...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

2019-Novel Coronavirus-Related Acute Cardiac Injury Cannot Be Ignored
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has reached a pandemic status. Although SARSCoV-2 causes primarily respiratory problems, concurrent cardiac injury cannot be ignored since it may be an independent predictor for adverse outcomes. To resolve these issues, we aim to summarize the prevalence and its underlying mechanisms of acute cardiac injury in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Recent FindingsThe main clinical manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection is pneumonia, cardiovascular complications have...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mechanical Circulatory Support: a Comprehensive Review With a Focus on Women
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThe purpose of this review is to analyze the evidence for use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) with a focus on women, namely, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), Impella, ventricular assist devices (VAD), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).Recent FindingsThere is paucity of data examining management options for cardiogenic shock (CS) in women specifically. In published data, although only a minority of MCS recipients (33%) were women, there is a trend toward even lower use in women relative to men over time. Women presenting with CS tend to have a higher risk profile including ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Birth Weight and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in Adulthood: a Dose-Response Meta-analysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies have revealed a relation between birth weight (BW) and later risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This meta-analysis aimed to report the dose-response relationship between BW and risk of CVDs.Recent FindingsThe relation of BW to CVD subtypes was found to be U-shaped as BW below ~  2500 g and above ~ 4000 g affected positively CVD risk (OR = 1.14 = 95%CI 1.03–1.27 and OR = 1.08; 95%CI 0.99–1.18, respectively). Regarding CVD subtypes, low BW was directly linked to greater risk of CHD (OR = 1.15; 95%...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Analyzing Preeclampsia as the Tip of the Iceberg Represented by Women with Long-Term Cardiovascular Disease, Atherosclerosis, and Inflammation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular and endothelial dysfunction is recognized nowadays as an important etiological factor contributing to the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.Recent FindingsPreeclampsia is considered a specific disease of pregnancy, but recent theories suggest that women suffering from the condition have greater propensity to develop atherosclerosis, heart disease, and stroke over the years.SummaryIt is possible that transient but severe endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia potentiates a cascade of events that progresses to atherosclerosis. Preeclampsia offers a unique win...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Nucleic Acid –Based Therapies for Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerosis is characterized by accumulation of lipids and chronic inflammation in medium size to large arteries. Recently, RNA-based antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are being developed, along with small molecule-based drugs and monoclonal antibodies, for the treatment of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis.. The purpose of this review is to describe nucleic acid –based therapeutics and introduce novel RNAs that might become future tools for treatment of atherosclerosis.Recent FindingsRNA-based inhibitors for PCSK9, Lp(a), ApoCIII, and ANGPTL...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mitral Annular Calcification: Association with Atherosclerosis and Clinical Implications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the pathophysiology of mitral annular calcification (MAC) with recent findings and current strategies for diagnosis and treatment.Recent FindingsMajor factors in MAC development seem to be shear stress of the flow past the mitral valve, local inflammation, and dysregulation in regulators of mineral metabolism. MAC itself poses daunting technical challenges. Implanting a valve on top of the calcium bar might lead to paravalvular leak (PVL) that is less likely to heal. Annular decalcification allows for better valve seating and potentially better healing and less PVL. This, how...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Profiling the Acute Effects of Modified Risk Products: Evidence from the SUR-VAPES (Sapienza University of Rome-Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking) Cluster Study
AbstractPurpose of ReviewModified risk products (MRP) are promoted as a safer alternative to traditional combustion cigarettes (TCC) in chronic smokers. Evidence for their lower hazardous profile is building, despite several controversies. Yet, it is unclear whether individual responses to MRP differ among consumers. We hypothesized that different clusters of subjects exist in terms of acute effects of MRP.Recent FindingsPooling data from a total of 60 individuals, cluster analysis identified at least three clusters (labelled 1 to 3) of subjects with different electronic vaping cigarettes (EVC) effects and at least two clu...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Links with Inflammation and Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe summarize best data of the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD).Recent FindingsNAFLD has been linked with insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, conditions known to be associated with CVD and subclinical atherosclerosis. The rising evidence of the association between NAFLD and subclinical CVD may suggest that NAFLD is not only a marker but also may be actively involved in pathogenesis of CVD.SummaryIt is an overview of previous studies assessing relationships between NAFLD and markers of cardiovascular disease, as the presen...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 4, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Atherothrombosis Prevention and Treatment with Anti-interleukin-1 Agents
The original version of this article unfortunately contained typo in the 2nd author ’s family name. Instead of “Garmenda”, it should be “Garmendia”. The original version has been corrected. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pemafibrate, a New Selective PPAR α Modulator: Drug Concept and Its Clinical Applications for Dyslipidemia and Metabolic Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReduction of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by statins, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular events risk. However, fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia as well as reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remain as residual risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). To treat patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL-C, drugs such as fibrates, nicotinic acids, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been used. However, fibrates w...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Atherothrombosis Prevention and Treatment with Anti-interleukin-1 Agents
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDespite major advances in terms of prevention, diagnosis, risk-stratification, management and rehabilitation, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis continue to have major morbidity and mortality implications worldwide. Since the unraveling of the pivotal role of inflammation in atherothrombosis pathophysiology, several focused treatments have been proposed with the ultimate goal of preventing or treating myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. In particular, given the centrality of interleukin-1 (IL-1), targeted anti-IL-1 agents have attracted substantial attention and efforts....
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Focus: Highlights from the 2019 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewThis review highlights selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention studies presented at the 2019 American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions.Recent FindingsSeveral important cardiovascular prevention studies were presented at the 2019 AHA Scientific Sessions. Results from the Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) showed that low-dose colchicine reduces the risk of recurrent CVD events among patients with recent myocardial infarction. A prospective analysis from the UK Biobank cohort demonstrated that the increased CVD risk associated with clonal hematopoiesis of indete...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis and Atherosclerotic Calcification
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the pathophysiology of calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) and surveys relevant clinical data and basic research that explain how CAVS arises.Recent FindingsLipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), autotaxin, and genetic driving forces such as mutations in LPA gene and NOTCH gene seem to play a major role in the development of CAVS. These factors might well become targets of medical therapy in the coming years.SummaryCVAS seems to be a multifactorial disease that has much in common with coronary artery disease...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Due to typesetting mistake, the image of Fig.  1 got corrupted. The original version has been corrected. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - December 10, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to explore the relationship between AF and carotid atherosclerosis, and the impact on the outcomes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Also, our aim is to critically review current knowledge and delineate future directions for effective treatment or prevention as well as strategies for improvement of the quality of life and survival.Recent FindingsAtrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia, increasing the risk of stroke and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality representing a significant worldwide public health problem. On the other hand, carotid artery ather...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Current Literature on Bioabsorbable Stents: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to explore the evolution of the coronary stent, from the advent of bare-metal stents, to the newest adopted technology of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) used in bioresorbable stents. To date, there have been conflicting data regarding the safety and efficacy of BVS stents, especially when compared to current-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). This review will cover the data that exist regarding current BVS stents, as well as the active clinical trials for future iterations of BVS.Recent FindingsThe ABSORB BVS, the most widely circulated stent of its class, w...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of Coronary Calcium Score to Identify Candidates for ASCVD Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we describe the mechanism behind coronary artery calcification formation and detection, as well as its implication in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification, intervention, and prognosis in asymptomatic individuals.Recent FindingsMultiple cohort and population studies have shown that coronary artery calcium scoring is effective and reproducible in predicting the risk for cardiovascular disease. The updated 2018 ACC/AHA guideline has incorporated consideration of coronary artery calcification testing into cardiovascular disease risk stratification and therapy guidance.Summar...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anatomical References to Evaluate Thoracic Aorta Calcium by Computed Tomography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThoracic aortic calcium (TAC) has received some interest in recent studies as an important subclinical marker of atherosclerosis. Besides that, using computed tomography (CT) scans performed with cardiac or chest protocols, ECG-gated, or non-gated, TAC can be easily evaluated with no addition in radiation dose. This review discusses the particularities of the aortic wall calcium formation, as well as the differences between the aortic segments and summarizes the current status of TAC evaluation, mainly concerning the anatomical references used in the studies.Recent FindingsThe studies have evaluate...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risk of Hemorrhagic Stroke: a Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo systematically examine the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk of hemorrhagic stroke.Recent FindingsA previous meta-analysis of prospective studies published in 2013 showed that higher concentrations of LDL-C were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Recently, seven large cohort studies were published examining LDL-C and risk of hemorrhagic stroke in different populations.SummaryTwelve prospective studies with 476,173 participants and 7587 hemorrhagic stroke cases were included in the current meta-analysis. The results showed that a 10 mg/dL incr...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Non-nutritive Sweeteners and Glycaemic Control
In conclusion, long-term studies of NNS consumption are required to draw a firm conclusion abou t the role of NNS consumption on glycaemic control. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lomitapide and Mipomersen —Inhibiting Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP) and apoB100 Synthesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to evaluate the role of inhibiting the synthesis of lipoproteins when there is no or little residual LDL-receptor function as in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lomitapide is administered orally once a day while mipomersen is given by subcutaneous injection once a week. Lomitapide inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein while mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide directed against apoB100.Recent FindingsThe pivotal registration trials for lomitapide and mipomersen were published in 2013 and 2010, respectively. More recently published...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Coronary Atherosclerosis: from Biology to Imaging Phenotyping
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPerivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has a complex, bidirectional relationship with the vascular wall. In disease states, PVAT secretes pro-inflammatory adipocytokines which may contribute to atherosclerosis. Recent evidence demonstrates that pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) may also function as a sensor of coronary inflammation. This review details PVAT biology and its clinical translation to current imaging phenotyping.Recent FindingsPCAT attenuation derived from routine coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is a novel noninvasive imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. Pro-inflammato...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 19, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research