Major Randomized Clinical Trials in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Presented at the 2019 American College of Cardiology Annual Scientific Session
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAt the 2019 American College of Cardiology annual scientific sessions, major randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention were presented.Recent FindingsThe CLEAR Wisdom trial examined the safety and efficacy of adding bempedoic acid to maximally tolerated statin for reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Post hoc analyses from the REDUCE-IT trial evaluated the efficacy of icosapent ethyl for lowering risk of total (first time and recurrent) CVD events. A sub-analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES examined the effect of alirocumab on lipoprotein(a) lowering for reducing CVD ris...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Anticoagulation Resumption After Stroke from Atrial Fibrillation
AbstractThe goal of this paper is to review literature on the topic of anticoagulation resumption after stroke from atrial fibrillation. Following ischemic stroke, the average annual risk of recurrent stroke in a patient with a CHADS2 score of 9 is 12.2%%, translating to an average daily risk of 0.03%%. Oral anticoagulant therapy provides a 75% relative risk reduction. However, in the 2-week period immediately following an acute stroke, this daily risk appears to be elevated. The same period is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke due to reperfusion, impaired autoregulation, an...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Emerging Evidence that ApoC-III Inhibitors Provide Novel Options to Reduce the Residual CVD
AbstractPurpose of ReviewApolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and function as an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism. In addition, apoC-III has also more recently been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which apoC-III induces hypertriglyceridemia and promotes atherogenesis, as well as the findings from recent clinical trials using novel strategies for lowering apoC-III.Recent FindingsGenetic studies have identified subjects with heterozygote loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in APOC3, the gene coding f...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of Statin Therapy in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Elderly Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHypercholesterolemia and statin treatment are nowadays common among people older than 75  years, but clinical heterogeneity in this increasing age group is wide, and treatment decisions may differ from those in younger patients. Aim is to discuss the presentation, modifying factors, and treatment decisions of hypercholesterolemia (usually with statins) in older persons and focusing on primary prevention.Recent FindingsThere are no randomized controlled trials in persons older than 80  years at baseline. Randomized controlled trial findings in younger patients and 75+ subgroups and in obse...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Lipoprotein(a)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHigh lipoprotein(a) levels are observationally and causally, from human genetics, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction and aortic valve stenosis. The European Atherosclerosis Society recommends screening for elevated lipoprotein(a) levels in high-risk patients. Different therapies have been suggested and some are used to treat elevated lipoprotein(a) levels such as niacin, PCSK9 inhibitors, and CETP inhibitors; however, to date, no randomized controlled trial has demonstrated that lowering of lipoprotein(a) leads to lower risk of cardiovascular di...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Current Role of Lipoprotein Apheresis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewLipoprotein apheresis is a very efficient but time-consuming and expensive method of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein(a)) and other apoB containing lipoproteins, including triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. First introduced almost 45  years ago, it has long been a therapy of “last resort” for dyslipidaemias that cannot otherwise be managed. In recent years new, very potent lipid-lowering drugs have been developed and the purpose of this review is to define the role of lipoprotein apheresis in the current setting.Recent FindingsLipoprotein apheresis s...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A Special Report on Changing Trends in Preventive Stroke/Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Via B-Mode Ultrasonography
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke risk assessment have been largely based on the success of traditional statistically derived risk calculators such as Pooled Cohort Risk Score or Framingham Risk Score. However, over the last decade, automated computational paradigms such as machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) techniques have penetrated into a variety of medical domains including CVD/stroke risk assessment. This review is mainly focused on the changing trends in CVD/stroke risk assessment and its stratification from statistical-based models to ML-based paradigms using non-invasive car...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Copper Nutriture, a Hidden Variable in Cardiovascular Epidemiology
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - May 1, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Diabetogenic Action of Statins: Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewObservational studies and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials data have revealed a 10 –12% increased risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD) associated with statin therapy; the risk is increased with intensive treatment regimens and in people with features of the metabolic syndrome or prediabetes. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of what is known about the poten tial mechanisms for the diabetogenic effect of statins.Recent FindingsHydroxyl methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) is the target of statin therapy and the activity of this key enzyme in cholester...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Optimal Antithrombotic Therapy for Patients with STEMI Undergoing PCI at High Risk of Bleeding
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn the review, we briefly describe antithrombotic drugs and the use evidence from evidence-based medicine to elucidate the optimal antithrombotic management for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary stenting (PCI) at high risk of bleeding.Recent FindingsMandatory use of intravenous anticoagulants and dual antiplatelet agents is the cornerstone strategy in acute and long-term antithrombotic management to optimize the clinical benefit of patients with STEMI undergoing PCI. Nevertheless, with the increasing occurrence of STEMI in old populati...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cannabis and Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe use of recreational drugs has increased globally, with the most commonly used recreational drug being cannabis. As of 2019, 10 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for recreational use, with more states potentially joining this movement. With the increased legalization of cannabis, leading to even greater recreational and medicinal use, it is important to recognize its effect on cardiovascular health. We propose to review the current literature regarding the pathophysiology of endocannabinoids, their hemodynamic effects, and their association with acute and chronic cardio...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The 2018 Cholesterol Management Guidelines: Topics in Secondary ASCVD Prevention Clinicians Need to Know
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe 2018 ACC/AHA Multisociety blood cholesterol guidelines provide updated recommendations based on contemporary evidence on the management of serum cholesterol for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. This review discusses clinically important topics in the new guidelines related to secondary ASCVD prevention.Recent FindingsSince the 2013 ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guidelines, several large randomized control trials involving ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors (evolocumab and alirocumab) have been published. The trials ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Atrial Fibrillation: Friend or Foe?
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - April 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Plant-Based Diets for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: All Plant Foods Are Not Created Equal
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPlant-based diets have been widely promoted for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. This review discusses the various definitions of plant-based diets and summarizes their associations with CVD risk, specifically distinguishing between healthy and unhealthy plant-based diets.Recent FindingsDespite wide variation in definition, most studies suggest that plant-based diets are generally beneficial for cardiovascular health. Many previous studies have defined plant-based diets by the complete exclusion of meat or animal products, while others have accounted for plant-based diets including mode...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Recent Updates on the Use of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is caused by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins significantly reduce ASCVD risk, there remains a high degree of residual risk in statin-treated patients. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition has emerged as a significant therapeutic target for further lowering of LDL-C when used in combination with statins. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent evidence supporting the use of PCSK9 inhibitors in patients with ASCVD.Recent FindingsAlirocumab and evolocumab wer...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

E-cigarettes and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: What Clinicians and Researchers Need to Know
AbstractPurpose of ReviewElectronic cigarettes, commonly known as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), e-cigarettes, or vapes, are growing in use and popularity. E-cigarettes are not one distinct type of product. These devices have evolved from the initial “cigarette-alike” designs to larger tank-style devices and most recently, smaller “mod-pods” that can be easily hidden. E-cigarettes can deliver nicotine at levels similar to conventional cigarettes.Recent FindingsAs with conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes expose users to chemicals and particulates that affect many biological systems in...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

2018 Cholesterol Guidelines: Key Topics in Primary Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe 2018 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) cholesterol guidelines are a comprehensive update providing recommendations for management of patients with high blood cholesterol based on the best available evidence. This review highlights key topics clinicians need to know for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) based on the 2018 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines.Recent FindingsThe guidelines include a broad framework for risk estimation and management for primary prevention of ASCVD. Additional tools to refine risk assessment an...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - March 16, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Can Lp(a) Lowering Against Background Statin Therapy Really Reduce Cardiovascular Risk?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe association between elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been discussed for many years. Recent genetic findings have confirmed that elevated Lp(a) similar to elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) might be causally related to premature ASCVD. Lp(a) is relatively refractory to lifestyle interventions. The results of studies with statins and their possible effect on Lp(a) are conflicting. Specific Lp(a) apheresis is used as a treatment against background statin therapy and can decrease Lp(a). The purpose of this review is to discuss wh...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - March 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Herbal Approach for Management of Atherosclerosis: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSummarize of the reports on antioxidants especially from herbal sources which battle oxidative stress might be proficient to forestall and repair the free radical –prompted vascular damages in overseeing of atherosclerosis.Recent FindingsAtherosclerosis is the one of the fundamental reason for hypertension, stroke, myocardial localized necrosis, and numerous other cardiovascular illnesses. Atherosclerosis associated path physiological factors like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking actuates oxidative stress which are characterized by excessive oxidation and imp...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Strategies to Fill the Gaps in Nutrition Education for Health Professionals through Continuing Medical Education
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRecent studies have documented that diet quality in the US is poor and linked to higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), other non-communicable diseases, and total mortality. As a result, nutrition counseling in clinical practice is an evidence-based strategy endorsed by numerous stakeholders. However, medical nutrition education (MNE) in the US has been inadequate, and physician knowledge, competencies, and practices related to diet counseling have been documented to be insufficient. National scientific meetings and conferences offer opportunities to translate new scientific evidence, guidel...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Reciprocal Roles of Sleep and Diet in Cardiovascular Health: a Review of Recent Evidence and a Potential Mechanism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review investigates the potential bi-directional relation between sleep and diet in considering their contribution to cardiovascular health. We further explore the involvement of the gut microbiome in the relationships between poor sleep and dietary intakes and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.Recent FindingsThere is strong evidence that sleep restriction leads to unhealthy food choices and increased energy intake. The diet may impact sleep, as well. Epidemiological studies show that higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern predicts healthier sleep. One factor that could ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Health Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Wellness
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we discuss a new paradigm for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention that is focused on cultivating cardiovascular wellness through the promotion of “health factors.”Recent FindingsCardiovascular prevention efforts have contributed to falling rates of ASCVD over the past five decades. However, contemporary increases in obesity and diabetes have led to a recent slowing in the annual decline of ASCVD death rates. This slowing represents an opportunity for new thinking to change the current ASCVD prevention paradigm, i.e., the identification and treatment...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease: Insights and Challenges for Considering Food Groups and Nutrient Sources
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease has been the subject of much research, but an important methodological consideration is the interdependence between the nutrient composition of foods and the recognition of healthy dietary patterns. This review considers some of the challenges in researching dietary patterns with implications for translation to public health promotions.Recent FindingsA number of statistical methods have emerged for analysing dietary patterns using population dietary data. There are limitations in the assumptions underpinning food categorisation, b...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHigh-intensity exercise may beneficially impact on insulin sensitivity. However, there is still uncertainty on the actual impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on chronic physiologic adaptations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to systematically search and appraise the evidence base on the effects of HIIT in comparison to mild- or moderate-intensity interval training (MMIIT) on glycemic control inT2DM.Recent FindingsA total of 5 RCT met the inclusion criteria. Most studies presented significant differences for weight and BMI with HIIT, and with both interven...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - February 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Rheumatoid Arthritis: Atherosclerosis Imaging and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Using Machine and Deep Learning –Based Tissue Characterization
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, autoimmune disease which may result in a higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and stroke. Tissue characterization and risk stratification of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are a challenging problem. Risk stratification of RA patients using traditional risk factor –based calculators either underestimates or overestimates the CV risk. Advancements in medical imaging have facilitated early and accurate CV risk stratification compared to conventional cardiovascular risk calculators.Recent FindingIn recent years, a link between carotid atheroscl...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

In response to Mobile Stroke Units - Cost-Effective or Just an Expensive Hype?
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Role of C-Reactive Protein in Contributing to Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Metabolic Syndrome
A portion of this article was previously published as part of an article titled “Human C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome” in the following journal: Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009 Jun;20(3):182–9. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e32832ac03e. https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00041433-200906000-00007 (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Response to the Letter to the Editor by the Authors of: Mobile Stroke Units —Cost-Effective or Just an Expensive Hype?
(Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Statin Therapy in Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension Post-JUPITER: What is the Value of CRP?
A portion of this article was previously published as part of an article titled “Human C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome” in the following journal: Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009 Jun;20(3):182-9. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

New Insights into Mechanisms of Action for Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment of hypercholesterolemia with statins results in significant reductions in cardiovascular risk; however, individuals with well-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, but persistent high triglycerides (TG), remain at increased risk. Genetic and epidemiologic studies have shown that elevated fasting TG levels are associated with incident cardiovascular events. At effective doses, omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), lower TG levels but may have additional atheroprotective properties compared to other TG-lowering ther...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Cardiovascular Outcomes: Insights From Recent Clinical Trials
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOmega-3 fatty acids ( ω-3 FA) are among the most well-recognized health supplements but their cardiovascular benefits have long been controversial owing to inconsistent results from previous cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOT). In this article, we provide a short review of existing literature followed by recent random ized clinical trial data, with a discussion of the potential clinical implications of these new findings.Recent FindingsData from the randomized, controlled trial REDUCE-IT, when viewed within the context of other recently published trials ASCEND and VITAL, add to a growing bo...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - January 10, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sex-Based Differences in Chronic Total Occlusion Management
AbstractᅟChronic total occlusions (CTOs) are an important and increasingly recognized subgroup of coronary lesions, documented in at least 30%, but up to 52% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary angiography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of these lesions is increasingly pursued, with excellent success rates.Purpose of ReviewIt is known that gender differences exist in the presentation of CAD, as well as in clinical outcomes after routine PCI; however, it is not well described how these differences pertain to management of CTOs. This review summarizes the available data regarding s...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 7, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Reconstituted Discoidal High-Density Lipoproteins: Bioinspired Nanodiscs with Many Unexpected Applications
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSummarize the initial discovery of discoidal high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human plasma and review more recent innovations that span the use of reconstituted nanodisc HDL for membrane protein characterization to its use as a drug carrier and a novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease.Recent FindingsUsing a wide variety of biophysical techniques, the structure and composition of endogenous discoidal HDL have now largely been solved. This has led to the development of new methods for the in vitro reconstitution of nanodisc HDL, which have proven to have a wide variety of biomedical appl...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - November 5, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: an Overview
AbstractSpontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that, by definition, is not iatrogenic or due to trauma. It is a condition that predominantly affects pre- or perimenopausal women without the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Purpose of ReviewIn this review, we will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this condition, with an emphasis on the ongoing research needed to better understand how to care for patients with SCAD.Recent FindingsThere is a paucity of data related to this condition. However, a...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Emerging Research on the Implications of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Coronary Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be an increasing cause of mortality among women, particularly postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a topic that has been investigated over the past decade for its known impact on the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the evidence and current opinion on the associations between HRT and CVD, evidence both supporting and against HRT use as a prevention to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD).Recent FindingsThe majority of the new data available suggests the use of HRT has the potential to be more beneficial in the pr...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Emergency Department (ED) Triage for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPatients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) have a higher risk for stroke and vascular events. Specialized and organized management, if rapidly initiated in the emergency department (ED), reduces the vascular burden of TIA. This review summarizes the rationale for optimal triage of patients suspected with TIA in the ED, focusing on early diagnosis confirmation, individual risk stratification, and management.Recent FindingsNew evidence is emerging on the yield of integrating clinical scales with advanced neuroimaging of the vessels and brain for improved diagnosis and risk stratification in pati...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 25, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How Heart Rate Should Be Controlled in Patients with Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure.Recent FindingsAs a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are contraindicated in patients ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

T-Wave Indices and Atherosclerosis
AbstractTpeak-Tend interval, the time difference between the peak and the end of the T-wave, reflects the degree of dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation has been associated with higher risks of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in different pro-arrhythmic conditions such as Brugada and long QT syndromes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how Tpeak-Tend is altered in different atherosclerotic conditions such as hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary obstruction, and coronary slow flow as well as inflammatory diseases affecting the arterial t...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How Heart Rate Should Be Controlled in Patients with Atherosclerosis and Heart Failure
AbstractPurpose of ReviewResting heart rate is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. The main objectives are to discuss the prognosis of heart rate, its association with coronary atherosclerosis, and the modalities of control of the heart rate in sinus rhythm and in the rhythm of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure.Recent FindingsAs a therapeutic option for control heart rate, medications such as beta-blockers, digoxin, and finally ivabradine have been studied. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are contraindicated in patients ...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

T-Wave Indices and Atherosclerosis
AbstractTpeak-Tend interval, the time difference between the peak and the end of the T-wave, reflects the degree of dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation has been associated with higher risks of developing ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in different pro-arrhythmic conditions such as Brugada and long QT syndromes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview on how Tpeak-Tend is altered in different atherosclerotic conditions such as hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, acute coronary obstruction, and coronary slow flow as well as inflammatory diseases affecting the arterial t...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Examining the Role of and Treatment Directed at IL-1 β in Atherosclerosis
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this review was to examine the role of IL-1 β in the inflammatory process central to the development of atherosclerosis and to discuss current clinical evidence for treatments targeting IL-1β in coronary artery disease.Recent FindingsIL-1 β has been shown to modulate atherosclerotic plaque progression by upregulating the synthesis of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, as well increasing activation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Animal studies have further suggested that alterations in the balance between ag onists and antagonists of IL-1β are impor...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 15, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Associations of 26 Circulating Inflammatory and Renal Biomarkers with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Long-term Cardiovascular Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography (ATHEROREMO-NIRS Substudy)
In conclusion, we found that IL-8 was independently associated with clinical outcome, but altogether, the multiplex panel we investigated here did not render a useful blood biomarker of high LCBI. (Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports)
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 14, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Disparities in CAD: Women and Ischemic Heart Disease
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this article is to review the disparities that exist for women who present for treatment of ischemic heart disease.Recent FindingsIt is well known that women are more likely to present with ischemic heart disease at an advanced age with more comorbidities when compared to male counterparts. Despite correction of risk factors, women experience worse outcomes, even in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. A review of the literature highlights the importance of a thoughtful approach to medical therapy and revascularization.SummaryWhile most recommendations applied to women ar...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 4, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among women globally, majority of which are due to ischemic heart disease. Despite the recent advances in the overall management of CVD, there are unique challenges in the diagnosis and management of women as well as poorer outcomes.Recent FindingsWomen with ischemic cardiomyopathy experience significant morbidity and mortality. Differences in underlying pathology, delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the under-representation of women in clinical trials contribute to these poor outcomes.SummaryIn this review, we discus...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mobile Stroke Units - Cost-Effective or Just an Expensive Hype?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAcute stroke is a treatable disease. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients obtain guideline-adjusted therapy. One major reason is the small time window in which therapies have to be administered in order to reverse or mitigate brain injury and prevent disability. The Mobile Stroke Unit (MSU) concept, available for a decade now, is spreading worldwide, comprising ambulances, fully equipped with computed tomography, laboratory unit and telemedicine connection to the stroke centre and staffed with a specialised stroke team. Besides its benefits, this concept adds a relevant amount of costs to heal...
Source: Current Atherosclerosis Reports - August 29, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research