One factor? Two factor? Bi-factor? A psychometric evaluation of the Frost Multidimensional Scale and the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire.
Abstract The construct of perfectionism has been argued to consist of two factors, perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings. Though perfectionistic concerns are consistently associated with adverse outcomes, the evidence for perfectionistic strivings is mixed. Item cross-loadings of the two-factor model of perfectionism raise questions about whether the two factors assess both common and distinct aspects of perfectionism. The present study aimed to clarify the structure of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Clinical Perfectionism Scale, by comparing single-factor, two-factor, and ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Howell J, Anderson R, Egan S, McEvoy P Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The explanatory role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between effortful control and child anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Abstract The present study examined the underlying role of anxiety sensitivity in the association between effortful control and anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of clinically anxious children. It was hypothesized that effortful control would exert an indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity in relation to child anxiety and depressive symptoms. Clinically anxious children (N= 105; M age = 10.09 years, SD = 1.22; 56.7% female; 61% ethnic minority) and their mothers completed a diagnostic interview and a battery of questionnaires that included self- and mother-ratings of ch...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Raines EM, Viana AG, Trent ES, Conroy HE, Woodward EC, Zvolensky MJ, Storch EA Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Exploring positive expectancies and quit status among adult electronic cigarette users.
Abstract Initial research on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use suggests differences exist in levels of use, beliefs, and cessation difficulties among users. However, little research has explored how these factors interact to confer worse e-cigarette outcomes. The current study examined the association between positive expectancies of e-cigarette use and e-cigarette processes among 544 (51.1% female; Mage = 35.4 years, SD = 10.12) adult e-cigarette users who had and had not attempted to quit e-cigarettes, a defining characteristic believed to distinguish those with and without greater ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Peraza N, Mayorga NA, Garey L, Nizio P, Smit T, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The dose-response curve in cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders.
Abstract Previous studies examining the dose-response curve in psychotherapy have suggested that 11-19 sessions may be necessary for at least 50% of individuals to show clinically significant improvement. However, this curve has not been examined specifically for cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, for which a more rapid recovery curve may be expected. Survival analysis was used to assess the dose-response curve for 201 patients with anxiety disorders who received weekly CBT at an anxiety specialty clinic. The primary outcome measure was the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, which patients complete...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Levy HC, Worden BL, Davies CD, Stevens K, Katz BW, Mammo L, Diefenbach GJ, Tolin DF Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety among Arabic-speaking individuals in Sweden: a pilot randomized controlled trial.
Abstract Arabic-speaking immigrants and refugees constitute one of the largest immigrant groups in Sweden. Previous research on Arabic-speaking immigrants indicates elevated levels of psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the efficacy of an internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (ICBT) in an Arabic-speaking immigrant population. The intervention was individually tailored based on self-described problems and consisted of nine modules targeting areas such as depression, anxiety and insomnia. In total, 59 individuals were included and ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lindegaard T, Seaton F, Halaj A, Berg M, Kashoush F, Barchini R, Ludvigsson M, Sarkohi A, Andersson G Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Emotional response to autobiographical memories in depression: less happiness to positive and more sadness to negative memories.
We examined whether the intensity of emotions experienced from recalling the happiest, saddest, and most anxious autobiographical memories differed between individuals with MDD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 46). Participants retrieved their happiest, saddest, and most anxious autobiographical memories and rated the emotional intensity experienced at the time of the event and at the time of recall. For all memory types, emotional intensity at the time of the event did not differ between MDD and CTL groups. However, the MDD (vs. CTL) group experienced less happiness recalling their happiest memories, more sadn...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kim D, Yoon KL Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A randomized controlled pilot study evaluating Worry Less, Live More: The Mindful Way Through Anxiety Workbook.
This study compared self-reported change in generalized anxiety symptomology and associated problems between community members with excessive worry who were randomly assigned to receive the Worry Less, Live More: The Mindful Way through Anxiety Workbook (n = 35) and those in a delayed condition (n = 29). Participants in the workbook condition reported significantly greater reductions between baseline and 11-week follow-up in self-reported worry (η 2 =.15), general anxiety/tension (η 2 =.13), and anxiety (η 2 =.24) than those in the delayed condition, although no statistically significant differences across cond...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Serowik KL, Roemer L, Suvak M, Liverant G, Orsillo SM Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A multiple mediation model of trait worry and hazardous drinking among treatment-seeking smokers: the roles of coping and conformity drinking motives.
Abstract Alcohol use is associated with poorer smoking cessation-related outcomes, and smokers with elevated levels of worry experience greater smoking cessation problems. Yet, little is known about the explanatory mechanisms that may underlie the relationship between trait worry and hazardous drinking among smokers. Therefore, this study explored the explanatory roles of coping and conformity drinking motives in the relationship between trait worry and hazardous drinking outcomes including alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, maximum number of drinks, and the number of prior alcohol quit attempts among treatmen...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - April 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hallford G, Bakhshaie J, Rodriguez-Cano R, Shepherd JM, Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Age and pre quit-day attrition during smoking cessation treatment.
Abstract The present study aimed to replicate the finding that younger age predicts higher pre quit-day attrition. Our second aim was to explain this relation by examining empirically and theoretically informed age-related risk factors for low smoking cessation treatment engagement. 136 participants (Mage = 44.2 years, SD = 11.3 years; age = 22-64 years) were randomized to 15-weeks of either 1) an exercise intervention (n = 72) or 2) a wellness education control condition (n = 64). First, a logistic regression analysis was employed to test whether younger adul...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - April 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Conroy HE, Jacquart J, Baird SO, Rosenfield D, Davis ML, Powers MB, Frierson GM, Marcus BH, Otto MW, Zvolensky MJ, Smits JAJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and cigarette smoking: an initial cross-sectional test of mechanisms of co-occurrence.
Abstract Tobacco addiction and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS; intrusive thoughts or impulses that cause distress and rituals) are both mediated by compulsivity and negative reinforcement. Little evidence exists to guide theory, research, treatment, and population-based prevention of this co-occurrence. We propose a conceptual model of OCS-smoking co-occurrence in which smokers with elevated OCS capitalize on smoking to assuage OCS. This secondary analysis examined associations between OCS levels and self-reported smoking motives that are model-concordant: i) negative reinforcement-smoking for relief; ii) sens...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - April 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: S Chasson G, R Guillot C, J Zvolensky M, M Liautaud M, B Schmidt N, M Leventhal A Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Clinical supervision in cognitive behavior therapy improves therapists' competence: a single-case experimental pilot study.
Abstract Clinical supervision is a cornerstone in psychotherapists' training but there are few empirical evaluations on the effects of supervision on therapists' competencies. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of standardized supervision on rater-assessed competency in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Six therapists with basic training in CBT were provided with protocol-based clinical supervision in CBT in a single-case experimental multiple baseline design. The supervision focused on specific CBT competencies and used experiential learning methods such as role-play. Each therapist recor...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - March 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Alfonsson S, Lundgren T, Andersson G Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A pragmatic approach to measuring adherence in treatment delivery in psychotherapy.
In conclusion the TCC provides a quick and cost effective way of evaluating the components of therapy delivered. This approach could be applied to other psychological treatments and may help with linking therapeutic interventions with outcome. PMID: 32114905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy)
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - March 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Serfaty M, Shafran R, Vickerstaff V, Aspden T Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for mental health problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract There is no comprehensive meta-analysis of randomised trials examining the effects of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no systematic review at all of the effects of EMDR on other mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 76 trials. Most trials examined the effects on PTSD (62%). The effect size of EMDR compared to control conditions was g = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.67-.18), with high heterogeneity (I2= 72%). Only four of 27 studies had low risk of bias, and there were indications for publication bias. EMDR was more...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cuijpers P, Veen SCV, Sijbrandij M, Yoder W, Cristea IA Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Evaluating approaches to marketing cognitive behavioral therapy: does evidence matter to consumers?
Abstract Direct-to-consumer marketing initiatives may improve utilization of evidence-based therapy.  An important decision in such marketing efforts is how to effectively present scientific evidence supporting these treatments to potential consumers (if at all). This OSF preregistered study experimentally tested whether the language used to describe research evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders affected consumer treatment attitudes and intentions. Adult participants (N = 303) recruited via mTurk were first assessed for their understanding of the term "evidence-bas...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - January 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schofield CA, Ponzini GT, Becker SJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Smoking and social anxiety: the role of false safety behaviors.
Abstract Despite the negative health consequences associated with smoking, most smokers find it difficult to quit. This is especially true for smokers with elevated social anxiety. One factor that may play a role in maintaining smoking with elevated anxiety is false safety behavior (FSB), behaviors geared toward decreasing anxiety short-term but that maintain or increase anxiety long-term. The present study tested whether FSB explained the relation of social anxiety severity with smoking among 71 current smokers. Avoidance-related FSB was the only type of FSB related to cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and it was r...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - December 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Buckner JD, Zvolensky MJ, Lewis EM Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Predictors of outcome in guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for common mental disorders in primary care.
n-Lagerlöf E Abstract Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can effectively treat common mental disorders (CMDs), but access to treatment is insufficient. Guided self-help (GSH) CBT has shown effects comparable to face-to-face CBT and may be a resource-efficient treatment alternative. However, not all patients respond to GSH. Learning more about predictors of outcome may increase knowledge regarding which patients respond to GSH. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of outcome for GSH CBT for patients with CMDs in primary care. Consecutive patients (N = 396) with a principal disorder of depressio...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Salomonsson S, Santoft F, Lindsäter E, Ejeby K, Ingvar M, Öst LG, Lekander M, Ljótsson B, Hedman-Lagerlöf E Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A systematic review of internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol misuse: study characteristics, program content and outcomes.
m C Abstract Alcohol misuse is a common, disabling and costly issue worldwide. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has the potential to reduce the harms of alcohol misuse, particularly for individuals who are unable or unwilling to access face-to-face therapy. A systematic review was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases for all relevant articles published from 1980 to January 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if (i) an ICBT intervention targeting alcohol misuse was delivered; (ii) participants were aged 18 years or older; and (iii) primary outco...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hadjistavropoulos HD, Mehta S, Wilhelms A, Keough MT, Sundström C Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Evaluation of The Practitioner Online Referral and Treatment Service (PORTS): the first 18 months of a state-wide digital service for adults with anxiety, depression, or substance use problems.
Abstract The Practitioner Online Referral and Treatment Service (PORTS) is a new digital mental health service (DMHS) providing assessment, treatment, and consultation across Western Australia, for adults with anxiety, depression, or substance use problems, and experiencing financial hardship or geographical disadvantage. From July 2017 to December 2018, a total of 2,527 individuals were referred to PORTS. Of these, 150 (6%) did not give consent for their results to be analysed. Of the remaining 2,377 patients, 615 (26%) could not be contacted to confirm the referral, 596 (25%) received assessment or information f...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - September 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Titov N, Rock D, Bezuidenhout G, Webb N, Kayrouz R, Nielssen O, Williams L, Purtell C, Dear BF, Staples LG Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

An expert consensus on the most effective components of cognitive behavioural therapy for adults with depression: a modified Delphi study.
This study aimed to establish an expert consensus on the effective components of CBT for depressed adults. An international panel of 120 CBT experts was invited to participate in a modified Delphi study. Thirty-two experts participated in round 1; 21 also provided data in round 2. In round 1, experts rated the effectiveness of 35 content and process components. A priori rules identified components carried forward to round 2, in which experts re-rated items and final consensus items were identified. Consensus was achieved for nine content components (ensuring understanding; developing and maintaining a good therapeutic alli...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - August 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Taylor A, Tallon D, Kessler D, Peters TJ, Shafran R, Williams C, Wiles N Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy evaluation of exercise as an augmentation strategy to brief behavioral activation treatment for depression: a randomized pilot trial.
Abstract Exercise is an efficacious intervention for mental and physical health, but few studies have identified the additive benefits of exercise prescriptions for those undergoing empirically supported psychosocial treatment. Behavioral activation (BA) involves completing activities to improve mood, an ideal format for exercise augmentation. The purpose of this study was to examine the credibility and exploratory effect size estimates of augmenting BA with exercise. Thirty-one sedentary, depressed patients were randomized to receive nine sessions of BA+exercise or BA+stretching over 12 weeks. Monthly assessments...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Szuhany KL, Otto MW Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The current systematic review and meta-analysis examined the efficacy and effectiveness of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) on panic disorder and agoraphobia symptom severity. Twenty-seven studies were identified. Results from nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) showed that iCBT outperformed waiting list and information controls for panic (g = 1.22) and agoraphobia (g = .91) symptoms, but the quality of RCTs varied and heterogeneity was high. Results from three RCTs suggested iCBT may have similar outcomes to face-to-face CBT in reducing panic and agoraphobia symptoms....
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stech EP, Lim J, Upton EL, Newby JM Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Trajectory of change in anxiety sensitivity in relation to anxiety, depression, and quality of life among persons living with HIV/AIDS following transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy.
Abstract Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) disproportionately suffer from anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders. Although past work has examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression, and to a lesser extent anxiety, among PLHIV, little is known regarding potential mechanisms underlying improvement in anxiety/depression among this group. Anxiety sensitivity is a well-established risk/maintenance factor for anxiety and depressive disorders and is hypothesized to play an important role in maintaining anxiety among PLHIV. Past work has identified anxiety sensitivity as a mechanis...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Paulus DJ, Brandt CP, Lemaire C, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Assessing treatment integrity in personalized CBT: the inventory of therapeutic interventions and skills.
Abstract The third wave of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has increased the heterogeneity of today's CBT practice, while developments in patient-focused research are paving the road to the empirical personalization of CBT. This paper presents the development and psychometric properties of a therapy video rating instrument, which was designed to adequately assess the treatment integrity (adherence and competence) of modern, personalized CBT. The Inventory of Therapeutic Interventions and Skills (ITIS) was developed based on two existing CBT adherence and competence scales and augmented with third wave content a...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - July 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Boyle K, Deisenhofer AK, Rubel JA, Bennemann B, Weinmann-Lutz B, Lutz W Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Predictors of treatment outcome for youth receiving intensive residential treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
This study aimed to examine age, gender, and baseline OCD severity, as well as measures of comorbid anxiety and depressive, internalizing/externalizing, and inattention symptoms, as predictors of treatment outcome in adolescents receiving intensive residential treatment for OCD. The sample comprised 314 adolescents aged 13-17 years with treatment-resistant OCD and a Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Self-Report (CY-BOCS-SR) total score ≥16. Bivariate and multiple regression models were used to evaluate the predictors of continuous OCD severity outcome and treatment response. Results of the bivariate regre...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Højgaard DRMA, Schneider SC, La Buissonnière-Ariza V, Kay B, Riemann BC, Jacobi D, Eken S, Lake P, Nadeau J, Goodman WK, McIngvale E, Storch EA Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of dropout rates from dialectical behaviour therapy in randomized controlled trials.
Abstract Dropout is an important factor that may compromise the validity of findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT). We conducted a targeted meta-analytic review of dropout from RCTs of DBT, with the aims of (1) calculating average rates of dropout from DBT; (2) investigating factors that moderate dropout; (3) examining whether dropout rates from DBT differ to control interventions; (4) synthesising reasons for dropout. Forty RCTs of DBT met full inclusion criteria. The weighted mean dropout rate was 28.0% (95% CI = 23.6, 32.9). Dropout rates were not rela...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Dixon LJ, Linardon J Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Experiential avoidance in adolescents with borderline personality disorder: comparison with a non-BPD psychiatric group and healthy controls.
Abstract Previous research has identified experiential avoidance (EA) as related to a host of adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as borderline personality disorder, suggesting that it is a crosscutting factor for adolescent psychopathology. It remains unclear whether EA differs among adolescents with BPD compared to adolescents with other psychiatric disorders and healthy adolescents. The aims of this study were to 1) examine EA in adolescents with BPD compared to non-BPD inpatient adolescents and healthy adolescents, and 2) to evaluate whether EA has a unique relationship to borderline p...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - June 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jones J, Penner F, Schramm AT, Sharp C Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The development and validation of the Beliefs About Losing Control Inventory (BALCI).
e; JP Abstract Cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) proposes that maladaptive beliefs play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of symptoms. Clinical reports as well as recent psychometric and experimental investigations suggest that control-related beliefs in OCD may benefit from expansion to include aspects of losing control. However, currently available measures either focus on other facets of control (e.g., sense of control) or do not put emphasis on beliefs about losing control (e.g., beliefs about control over thoughts). The current study aimed to develop and validate the Beli...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - May 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Radomsky AS, Gagné JP Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Anxiety sensitivity and daily cigarette smoking in relation to sleep disturbances in treatment-seeking smokers.
This study evaluated the main and interactive effects of AS and cigarettes/day on sleep quality among smokers. Participants (n = 190) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers who completed a baseline assessment as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. Sleep quality was self-reported. Results indicated that AS was significantly correlated with greater disturbance in sleep duration, subjective sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep disturbance, daytime dysfunction, and sleep medication use. There was a significant interaction between AS and cigarettes/day in terms of sleep onset latency, but not other slee...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - April 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Farris SG, Matsko SV, Uebelacker LA, Brown RA, Price LH, Abrantes AM Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Catastrophizing Scale (ICS) in a large community sample.
IK Abstract The purpose was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Insomnia Catastrophizing Scale (ICS) including factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative and convergent validity. Associations with sleep parameters and daytime impairment are also examined. Drawn from a randomly selected sample of the general population, 1615 participants completed a survey on insomnia-related nighttime and daytime symptoms, health outcomes and psychological processes, including the ICS. A one-factor solution was supported for both the nighttime catastrophizing (11 items) and daytime catastr...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - March 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Jansson-Fröjmark M, Harvey AG, Flink IK Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Predictors of treatment attendance and adherence to treatment recommendations among individuals receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.
Abstract Insomnia disorders affect up to 10% of adults and are associated with other health problems and poor quality of life. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective treatment; however, its effectiveness is hindered by poor attendance and adherence to treatment recommendations. The present study sought to identify predictors of attendance and adherence in CBT-I. Participants were 108 adults with insomnia disorder. Participants were primarily female (71.3%), middle aged (mean age = 50.5), and Caucasian (92.6%). Demographic variables, physical health problems, Beck Anxiety Invent...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - March 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cui R, Fiske A Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Clinicians' perspectives of interfering behaviors in the treatment of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders in adults and children.
ch EA Abstract Patient behaviors that may interfere with the process and outcome of therapy have been examined in the context of dialectical behavior therapy, but no measures exist to systematically characterize patient (or caregiver) treatment interfering behaviors (TIBs) in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Accordingly, the primary aims of this study were to develop preliminary measures of TIBs, asking clinicians who provide CBT for anxiety disorders and/or OCD to adults and/or children to retrospectively reflect on the presence of TIBs in a recent ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - March 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Davis ML, Fletcher T, McIngvale E, Cepeda SL, Schneider SC, La Buissonnière Ariza V, Egberts J, Goodman W, Storch EA Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mental health training, attitudes toward support, and screening positive for mental disorders.
Abstract Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police) are frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Several mental health training program categories (e.g. critical incident stress management (CISM), debriefing, peer support, psychoeducation, mental health first aid, Road to Mental Readiness [R2MR]) exist as efforts to minimize the impact of exposures, often using cognitive behavioral therapy model content, but with limited effectiveness research. The current study assessed PSP perceptions of access to professional (i.e. physicians, psycho...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carleton RN, Afifi TO, Turner S, Taillieu T, Vaughan AD, Anderson GS, Ricciardelli R, MacPhee RS, Cramm HA, Czarnuch S, Hozempa K, Camp RD Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The effects of safety behavior availability versus utilization on inhibitory learning during exposure.
This study re-analyzes data from Sy and colleagues (2011; Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49, 305-314) comparing safety behavior availability (SBA) to safety behavior utilization (SBU) during exposure therapy for claustrophobic concerns. The present investigation assessed differential rates of inhibitory learning (i.e. change in danger expectancy and coping self-efficacy) between SBA and SBU before, during, and after a single-session treatment. Thirty-nine participants with marked claustrophobic fear completed six consecutive 5-minute exposure trials in a claustrophobia chamber. Participants in the SBA condition exhibited ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kemp JJ, Blakey SM, Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Sy JT, Deacon BJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Emotion regulation and motives for illicit drug use in opioid-dependent patients.
Abstract Refining the mechanisms behind illicit drug use is an important factor for improving the quality of clinical care. Research in alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine use disorders have linked coping motives (e.g. using substances to ameliorate negative emotional states) to problematic substance use. We evaluated the link between emotion regulation difficulties (as assessed via the difficulties in emotion regulation scale [DERS]) and motives for drug use (as assessed via the Drug Use Motives Questionnaire) among individuals (n = 68) with opioid use disorders who were in methadone maintenance treatment. We f...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gold AK, Stathopoulou G, Otto MW Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Psychological and pharmacological treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide updated pooled effect sizes of evidence-based psychotherapies and medications for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and to investigate potential moderators of outcomes. Seventy-nine randomized controlled trials (RCT) including 11,002 participants with a diagnosis of GAD were included in a meta-analysis that tested the efficacy of psychotherapies or medications for GAD. Psychotherapy showed a medium to large effect size (g = 0.76) and medication showed a small effect size (g = 0.38) on GAD outcomes. Psychotherapy also showed a medium eff...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Carl E, Witcraft SM, Kauffman BY, Gillespie EM, Becker ES, Cuijpers P, Van Ameringen M, Smits JAJ, Powers MB Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for the treatment of current depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Abstract Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) appears to be a promising intervention for the prevention of relapse in major depressive disorder, but its efficacy in patients with current depressive symptoms is less clear. Randomized clinical trials of MBCT for adult patients with current depressive symptoms were included (k = 13, N = 1046). Comparison conditions were coded based on whether they were intended to be therapeutic (specific active controls) or not (non-specific controls). MBCT was superior to non-specific controls at post-treatment (k = 10, d = 0.71, 95% confidence interval [C...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Goldberg SB, Tucker RP, Greene PA, Davidson RJ, Kearney DJ, Simpson TL Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Identifying change-dropout patterns during an Internet-based intervention for depression by applying the Muthen-Roy model.
oritz S Abstract To date, only few studies have attempted to investigate non-ignorable dropout during Internet-based interventions by applying an NMAR model, which includes missing data indicators in its equations. Here, the Muthen-Roy model was used to investigate change and dropout patterns in a sample of patients with mild-to-moderate depression symptoms (N = 483) who were randomized to a 12-week Internet-based intervention (deprexis, identifier: NCT01636752). Participants completed the PHQ-9 biweekly during the treatment. We identified four change-dropout patterns: Participants showing high impairment, im...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - February 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Arndt A, Lutz W, Rubel J, Berger T, Meyer B, Schröder J, Späth C, Hautzinger M, Fuhr K, Rose M, Hohagen F, Klein JP, Moritz S Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Web-based CBT for the prevention of anxiety symptoms among medical and health science graduate students.
Abstract Medical and health science graduate students report greater anxiety problems than the general population, but they are less likely to seek treatment due to cultural and logistical barriers. One preventative approach that overcomes these barriers is web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (webCBT). It is unknown whether webCBT is effective for preventing anxiety escalation within this population. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing the effects of webCBT versus a control group (CG). Medical university students (n=594; Mage=27; 67% female; 80% Caucasian) completed online baseline measures a...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - December 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Howell AN, Rheingold AA, Uhde TW, Guille C Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Dose response effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in a school mental health program.
Abstract School mental health (SMH) programs have been shown to be effective in providing evidence-based interventions to underserved youth. However, limitations of SMH programs are that they can entail holiday breaks, typically do not operate through summer, and often require pulling students from class to receive therapy. These limitations suggest that treatment must be expeditious and potent. Although researchers have investigated dose response to treatment, no studies were located that addressed dose response to treatment in SMH programs. The present study addressed this gap by evaluating the dose response to ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - December 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kirk A, Michael K, Bergman S, Schorr M, Jameson JP Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Materials used to support cognitive behavioural therapy for depression: a survey of therapists' clinical practice and views.
Abstract Use of supporting materials in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is widely advocated, and homework increases effectiveness. The study aimed to identify materials most frequently used by CBT therapists to support CBT for depression, and those perceived clinically most effective. Questionnaires were sent to 3665 accredited CBT therapists asking about their use of resources commonly described in CBT manuals, and their views on effectiveness. Of 3665 approached by post/email, 994 (27%) responded. Another 33 completed the questionnaire via the study website. 818/1027 (80%) of respondents were accredited prac...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - December 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tallon D, McClay CA, Kessler D, Lewis G, Peters TJ, Shafran R, Williams C, Wiles N Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Examining experiential avoidance as a mediator of the relation between anxiety sensitivity and depressive symptoms.
We examined the AS-EA-depression pathway, examining both concurrent, and prospective (cross-lag), mediation models. Utilizing data from a study that examined the effects of exercise on AS (N = 60), we modeled depressive symptoms, EA, and AS over four time points. Time-varying predictors were disaggregated into between-subjects (each person's mean level of the predictor) and within-subjects change (each person's deviations, at each time point, from their mean level on the predictor) components. Tests of the concurrent relations were partially consistent with predictions, with mean EA levels, but not within-subjects cha...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - December 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Stein AT, Medina JL, Rosenfield D, Otto MW, Smits JAJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Task-shifting to improve the reach of mental health interventions for trauma patients: findings from a pilot study of trauma nurse training in patient-centered activity scheduling for PTSD and depression.
Abstract Despite high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among traumatically injured patients, engagement in session-based psychotherapy early after trauma is limited due to various service utilization and readiness barriers. Task-shifting brief mental health interventions to routine trauma center providers is an understudied but potentially critical part of the continuum of care. This pilot study assessed the feasibility of training trauma nurses to engage patients in patient-centered activity scheduling based on a Behavioral Activation paradigm, which is designed to counteract dysfuncti...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - November 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Darnell DA, Parker LE, Wagner AW, Dunn CW, Atkins DC, Dorsey S, Zatzick DF Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The development and initial validation of the Fatigue Sensitivity Questionnaire.
Abstract Currently, there is poor understanding of fatigue and the possible psychological conditions that may underlie chronic fatigue. Although substantial work has been directed to better clinically address fatigue, no work has explored individual differences in expectations or perceptions of the negative consequences associated with fatigue-related symptoms. The goals of this study were to (a) develop and (b) validate a measure of expectations or perceptions of the negative consequences associated with fatigue-related symptoms (e.g. fatigue sensitivity) across two independent samples (N = 1,827; 73.1%...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - November 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kauffman BY, Garey L, Nordan A, Jardin C, Mayorga NA, Robles Z, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

The relationship between emotional clarity and suicidal ideation among trauma-exposed adolescents in inpatient psychiatric care: does distress tolerance matter?
Abstract The present investigation examined associations between low emotional clarity (the extent to which individuals are confused about the specific emotions they are experiencing) and suicidal ideation in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents, as well as the moderating role of distress tolerance (DT) in this association. Participants (N = 50; 52.0% female; M = 15.1 years, SD = .51; 44% White) completed measures of emotion dysregulation, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation/attempts, as well as a behavioral measure of DT. Controlling f...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - November 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Viana AG, Raines EM, Woodward EC, Hanna AE, Walker R, Zvolensky MJ Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Better with age? A comparison of geriatric and non-geriatric trauma patients' psychological outcomes 6 months post-injury.
Abstract This is the first study to compare both physical and psychological outcomes in geriatric and non-geriatric patients (n = 268) at baseline and 6 months post-trauma. Demographic, clinical, and psychological data, including screens for alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were collected from 67 geriatric patients (70.7 ± 8.0 years) and 201 non-geriatric patients (40.2 ± 12.8 years) admitted to a Level I trauma center for ≥ 24 h. Geriatric patients were significantly less likely to screen positive fo...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - November 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Culp BL, Roden-Foreman JW, Thomas EV, McShan EE, Bennett MM, Martin KR, Powers MB, Foreman ML, Petrey LB, Warren AM Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Working alliance as a predictor of change in depression during blended cognitive behaviour therapy.
Abstract Blended Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (bCBT) is a new form of treatment, mixing internet-based modules and face-to-face therapist sessions. How participants rate the therapeutic alliance in bCBT has not yet been thoroughly explored, and neither is it clear whether therapist- and patient-rated alliances are predictors of change in depression during treatment. Depression and alliance ratings from 73 participants in a treatment study on bCBT (part of the E-COMPARED project) were analysed using growth curve models. Alliance, as rated by both patients and therapists, was high. The therapist-rated working allianc...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Vernmark K, Hesser H, Topooco N, Berger T, Riper H, Luuk L, Backlund L, Carlbring P, Andersson G, E-COMPARED consortium Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Worry and anxiety account for unique variance in the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and depression.
Abstract The evidence supporting the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU), a cognitive construct well established in the anxiety literature, and depression is mixed. Some research has demonstrated a direct association between IU and depression, whereas other studies suggest that IU is either unrelated or indirectly related to depression through other pathways, including anxiety. The present study aimed to further elucidate the relationship between IU and depression in an undergraduate sample (N = 221). We posited a model in which worry and anxiety account for unique variance in the associ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Swee MB, Olino TM, Heimberg RG Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

A meta-analytic review of cognitive processing therapy for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder.
Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two prior meta-analyses of studies are available but used approaches that limit conclusions that can be drawn regarding the impact of CPT on PTSD outcomes. The current meta-analysis reviewed outcomes of trials that tested the efficacy of CPT for PTSD in adults and evaluated potential moderators of outcomes. All published trials comparing CPT against an inactive control condition (i.e. psychological placebo or wait-list) or other active treatment for PTSD in adults were i...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Asmundson GJG, Thorisdottir AS, Roden-Foreman JW, Baird SO, Witcraft SM, Stein AT, Smits JAJ, Powers MB Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Mediation analyses of Internet-facilitated cognitive behavioral intervention for maternal depression.
This study evaluated the putative mediating mechanisms of an Internet-facilitated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for depression tailored to economically disadvantaged mothers of preschool-age children. The CBT mediators were tested across two previously published randomized controlled trials which included the same measures of behavioral activation, negative thinking, and savoring of positive events. Trial 1 included 70 mothers with elevated depressive symptoms who were randomized to either the eight-session, Internet-facilitated intervention (Mom-Net) or to treatment as usual. Trial 2 included 266 mothers...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Seeley JR, Sheeber LB, Feil EG, Leve C, Davis B, Sorensen E, Allan S Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of the effects of third-wave behavioural interventions on disordered eating and body image concerns: implications for eating disorder prevention.
Abstract Third-wave behavioural interventions are increasingly popular for treating and preventing mental health conditions. Recently, researchers have begun testing whether these interventions can effectively targeting eating disorder risk factors (disordered eating, body image concerns). This meta-analysis examined whether third-wave behavioural interventions (acceptance and commitment therapy; dialectical behaviour therapy; mindfulness-based interventions; compassion-focused therapy) show potential for being effective eating disorder prevention programs, by testing their effects on eating disorder risk factors ...
Source: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy - October 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Linardon J, Gleeson J, Yap K, Murphy K, Brennan L Tags: Cogn Behav Ther Source Type: research