Internal thoracic artery pseudoaneurysm after redo aortic root replacement.
Abstract Pseudoaneurysm of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) or bleeding from the ITA is an extremely rare complication after cardiovascular surgery via a median sternotomy. Early treatment is needed in the case of massive haemorrhage or a rapidly enlarging pseudoaneurysm. Herein, we present a rare case of a delayed large pseudoaneurysm of the right ITA in a 49-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome who underwent redo aortic root replacement via re-median sternotomy and pacemaker implantation. Diagnostic selective angiography revealed the origin of the pseudoaneurysm, and simultaneous transcatheter embolisation of t...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kuroda Y, Uchida T, Hamasaki A, Sadahiro M Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Tricuspid valve vegetation related to leaflet injury: a unique problem of catheter malposition.
Abstract The use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) has expanded substantially for drug delivery in clinical practice in recent years. However, PICC lines expose patients to potential complications associated with an increasing incidence of infective endocarditis. We herein report a case of a 57-year-old woman who was diagnosed with tricuspid valve endocarditis by echocardiography. The most probable cause was direct injury to the tricuspid valve by the tip of a PICC line with excessive length in the right heart. The vegetation disappeared with conservative treatment after removal of the PICC line. ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 1, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chen Y, Wang H, Mou Y, Hu S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and simultaneous acute anteroseptal and inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently recognised pandemic spreading rapidly from Wuhan, Hubei, to other provinces in China and to many countries around the world. The number of COVID-19-related deaths is steadily increasing. Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates, and primary percutaneous coronary intervention is usually recommended for the treatment. A patient with diabetes mellitus and hypertension for five years was admitted to the emergency unit with symptoms of fever, cough and dyspnoea. These symptoms were consistent ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - May 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yolcu M, Gunesdogdu F, Bektas M, Bayirli DT, Serefhanoglu K Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction in HIV-positive patients with acute coronary syndromes.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive investigations such as FMD, CIMT and PWV did not identify patients with HIV who were at high risk of ACS. Endothelial biomarkers may be more useful markers to identify HIV-positive patients who have endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of ACS. PMID: 32191257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 19, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vachiat A, Dix-Peek T, Duarte R, Manga P Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Treatment of atrial fibrillation: a comprehensive review and practice guide.
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an ectopic rhythm originating in the atrium. AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and it is an enormous burden worldwide because of the high rates of morbidity, disability and mortality. Treatment of AF has become a hot spot in the field of cardiovascular medicine. Recently, increasing evidence and advancements in medical technology have helped us gain a better understanding of AF. As a result, management of AF has evolved in the past few years, so that we can better prevent and control AF. Current therapy for AF mainly includes drug therapy, ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 18, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Li J, Gao M, Zhang M, Liu D, Li Z, Du J, Hou Y Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Early Supera stent fracture in the femoropopliteal artery.
We report on a case of Supera peripheral stent fracture in the early period after the index procedure in a patient with femoropopliteal artery disease. An individualised approach, considering the lesion location, patient's age and exercise capacity is important for the treatment of femoropopliteal artery disease. PMID: 32181793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 17, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kim HT, Cho JH, Lee JH, Kim U Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors for thromboembolism and major bleeding in patients with mechanical heart valves: a tertiary hospital-based study in Botswana.
CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding and thromboembolic complications were common in MHV prosthesis patients in this study. Long duration of anticoagulation, albeit sub-optimal control, was a risk factor for bleeding and thromboembolic complications in these patients. Therefore, long-term efforts are necessary to address these complications and possibly improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID: 32181794 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Botsile E, Mwita JC Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Impact of metabolic and inflammatory changes on glomerular function beyond conventional risk factors in an urban South Africa community with prevalent obesity.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which metabolic and inflammatory changes are associated with renal damage beyond conventional risk factors in a community sample with a high prevalence of obesity in urban South Africa. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, community-based study in 1 010 (n = 872 without diabetes mellitus, DM) randomly selected participants over 16 years of age in an urban, developing community (Soweto, Johannesburg) with a high prevalence of obesity (41.8%). We assessed estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), conventional risk factors including adiposity indices, and metabo...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Norman G, Woodiwiss AJ, Peterson V, Gomes M, Sareli P, Norton GR Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Family screening in black patients with isolated left ventricular non-compaction: the Chris Hani Baragwanath experience.
CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic screening detected DCMO in 10.8% of subjects. A strategy of clinical screening that included electrocardiography was sub-optimal as a screening strategy compared to echocardiographic screening. PMID: 32159583 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 11, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Basson AL, Essop MR, Libhaber E, Peters F Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Effect of heroin on right ventricular cardiac performance.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heroin addiction, which is an important social and health problem, on right cardiac function. METHODS: A total of 85 individuals were included in the study. The study group comprised 45 patients smoking heroin and the control group was 40 healthy individuals with no drug addiction. Patients injecting heroin were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients using heroin was performed and compared with those in the control group. RESULTS: The right ventricle and pulmonary artery diameters in the heroin group were found to be ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - March 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Selcuk M, Yildirim E, Saylik F, Deniz O, Mutluer FO Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) protects against nicotineinduced vascular injury and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we have shown that rooibos co-treatment exerted beneficial vascular effects in nicotine-exposed rats, and that this was associated with increased antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID: 32031565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - February 7, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Smit-Van Schalkwyk M, Windvogel S, Strijdom H Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Association between galectin-3 levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia.
kan M Abstract BACKGROUND: Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is a well-recognised disorder characterised by abnormal dilation of the coronary arteries. Underlying mechanisms associated with abnormal luminal dilation in CAE remain to be elucidated. However, histopathological features resemble those of coronary atherosclerosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a valuable biomarker for both progression and destabilisation of atherosclerotic lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the literature examining serum Gal-3 levels in patients with isolated CAE. In the present study, therefore, we aimed to investigate th...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - February 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Aciksari G, Uygun T, Atici A, Aciksari K, Toprak AE, Onur I, Yilmaz Y, Cekin ME, Yalçinkaya E, Aydin E, Caliskan M Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Echocardiographic abnormalities in children and adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus on highly active antiretroviral treatment.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The availability and use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a chronic disease, allowing patients to live much longer. OBJECTIVES: To report asymptomatic cardiac abnormalities in children and adolescents based on both conventional and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) echocardiography. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one patients on HAART were recruited. Demographic and clinical variables were collected through patient interviews and medical record reviews. Conventional echocardiography and TDI were performed on each patient....
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - February 5, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wubayehu T, Abebe W, Tefera E Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Large left ventricular non-infectious vegetation in patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
Abstract Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare form of systemic vasculitis in which cardiac involvement is relatively common and accounts for half of EGPA-related deaths. Cardiac involvement is more frequent in patients with an absence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and those with higher eosinophil counts. Clinical manifestations are various, including myocarditis, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular insufficiencies and intra-cardiac thrombus formation. The pathology of cardiac involvement in EGPA is usually endomyocardial and pericardial eosin...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - January 29, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Song YS, Seol SH, Park J, Kim DK, Song YJ, Kim S, Kim KH, Kim DI, Park CS, Kim YM Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Cardiac pacing in sub-Saharan Africa.
PMID: 31995114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - January 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bonny A, Ajijola OA, Jeilan M, Sani M, Yousef Z, Yuyun MF, Karaye K, Nahib MA, Aoudia Y, Akinyi L, Ngantcha M, Subahi S, Sogade F, Chin A Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Cardiovascular assessment after treatment for retinopathy of prematurity: a comparative study between anti-VEGF agent (aflibercept) and laser.
CONCLUSIONS: Although favourable and promising outcomes were obtained with intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for the treatment of ROP, concerns have been raised about potential systemic side effects, including potential cardiovascular side effects caused by these agents. The small reduction in right ventricular Doppler velocities could probably be explained by the use of anti-angiogenic or laser treatment in infants. PMID: 31995115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - January 13, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cilsal E, Sukgen EA Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitophagy in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion: effects of chloroquine.
CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemia/reperfusion-induced changes in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function occurred concomitantly with changes in mitophagic flux. Pre-treatment with chloroquine profoundly affected mitochondrial function as well as the pattern of mitophagy during ischaemia/reperfusion. PMID: 31995116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - December 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Dhanabalan K, Huisamen B, Lochner A Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

A 31-year-old pericardial textiloma.
Abstract Gossypibomas are uncommon but important complications of surgery. This case report is of a gossypiboma found accidentally 31 years after heart surgery. A 41-year-old man had lost 5 kg in the previous three months and suffered from intermittent epigastric discomfort. A computed tomography scan incidentally revealed a well-defined mass in the right lower anterior mediastinum. Given his history of previous cardiac surgery to repair a ventricular septal defect, the possibility of gossypiboma could not be excluded. Elective excision of the mass was performed through a median sternotomy, and a 5-cm ovoid mass c...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - December 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kim DK, Hwang SK, Lee SC, Lee YJ, Jung JP, Park CR, Kim GS Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Healthy Heart Africa: a prospective evaluation of programme outcomes on individuals' hypertension awareness, screening, diagnosis and treatment in rural Kenya at 12 months.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Healthy Heart Africa (HHA), a comprehensive hypertension intervention programme, on hypertension awareness, knowledge, screening and diagnosis among rural communities in Kenya. METHODS: Individuals from rural households near intervention and matched control healthcare facilities were randomly surveyed at baseline and the end point (after 12 months). A difference-in-differences analysis estimated the impact of HHA. RESULTS: This analysis included 838 individuals (intervention, n = 432; control, n = 406) at baseline and 698 (n = 364 and n = 334, respectively) a...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - November 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yonga G, Okello FO, Herr JL, Mulvaney A, Ogola EN Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Prevalence of hypertension and selected cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents in selected rural and urban secondary schools in Botswana.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Adolescent hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors tend to track into adulthood. Consequently, there is a need to determine the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension, and its co-existence with glycaemia, obesity, tobacco and alcohol use among senior secondary school students in Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between December 2015 and March 2016 among students in selected rural and urban senior secondary schools in Botswana. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, measurements and fasting blood glucose testing. Particip...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - November 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mokgwathi M, Mwita JC Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

A primary aldosteronism-like phenotype identified with the aldosterone-to-angiotensin II ratio in black men: the SABPA study.
CONCLUSIONS: The AA2 ratio, a novel screening test that is currently being validated for PA case detection, was used to identify a PA-like phenotype in black men. Excess aldosterone was associated with endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of blood pressure. PMID: 31781716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - November 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: van Rooyen JM, Poglitsch M, Huisman HW, Gafane-Matemane LF, Breet Y, Malan L Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

The effect of beta-blockers on foetal birth weight in pregnancies in women with structural heart disease: a prospective cohort study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine whether treatment with beta-blockers (BBs) in pregnant women with structural heart disease (SHD) resulted in a decrease in foetal birth weight (FBW) in a South African cohort. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in Cape Town from 2010 to 2016. Of the 178 pregnant women with SHD, 24.2% received BBs for a minimum of two weeks. Adverse foetal outcomes and mean FBW were compared between the BB groups and subgroups (congenital, valvular, cardiomyopathy and other). Adverse foetal outcome was defined as: low birth weight (LBW)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - November 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Baard J, Azibani F, Osman A, Dowling W, Rayner B, Sliwa K Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

The effects of aquatic and land exercise on resting blood pressure and post-exercise hypotension response in elderly hypertensives.
CONCLUSIONS: Elderly hypertensive people trained in AE had lower baseline BP during the daytime. SBP and DBP values were lower for individuals trained in AE, and their PEH was more rapid and longer lasting after AE. PMID: 31651927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - October 25, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Júnior FA, Gomes SG, da Silva FF, Souza PM, Oliveira EC, Coelho DB, Nascimento-Neto RM, Lima W, Becker LK Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Salidroside protects the cardiac function of exhausted rats by inducing Nrf2 expression.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether salidroside (Sal) protected the rat heart from exhaustive exercise-induced injury by inducing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. METHODS: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 rats per group): the control, the exhaustive swimming (ES) group, the low-dose Sal plus acute exhaustive swimming (SLE) group, and the high-dose Sal plus acute exhaustive swimming (SHE) group. In the SLE and SHE groups, 15 and 30 mg/kg Sal were administered, respectively, once a day. The rats in the control and ES groups were admi...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - October 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xu P, Wang Y, Sun W, Sun Y, Lu W, Chang Y, Ping Z, Li Y, Cao X Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Does acid reflux precipitate ischaemia in subjects with acute coronary syndrome?
CONCLUSIONS: Although GORD is common in subjects with ACS, we have not been able to show that GORD may serve as a trigger for ischaemia in these subjects. PMID: 31591635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: George SK, Tlou B, Ponnusamy S, Naidoo DP Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

An easy method for monitoring patients with pulmonary Hypertension: P-wave dispersion.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a haemodynamic and pathophysiological condition with restricted flow through the pulmonary arterial circulation. In pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction can lead to an increase in atrial strain, fibrosis and dilation, which cause inhomogeneous atrial conduction. Interlead variation in P-wave duration is called P-wave dispersion (PwD), which is an electrocardiographic parameter that can be used to predict atrial arrhythmias. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between PwD, functional capacity, and invasi...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cimen AO, Emet S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Geographical influence on the distribution of the prevalence of hypertension in South Africa: a multilevel analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences in hypertension prevalence between districts and therefore the method of analysis and the results could be useful for more targeted preventative and control programmes. PMID: 31544203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wandai ME, Norris SA, Aagaard-Hansen J, Manda SO Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Relationship between obesity and blood pressure among employees in the Vhembe district municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a high prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension, with females more affected than their male counterparts. BMI, WC and WHtR were positively correlated with SBP in the normal and overweight groups, with WHtR positively correlated with both SBP and DBP in the overweight group. Therefore, it is recommended that intervention regimes designed to address obesity and hypertension should consider risk awareness for cardiovascular diseases, impaired quality of life and productivity among local government employees. PMID: 31528977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Muluvhu TC, Monyeki MA, Strydom GL, Toriola AL Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Associations between body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors in mixed-ancestry South African women and men.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between body fat distribution and cardiometabolic risk in mixed-ancestry South African (SA) men and women, and to explore the effect of menopausal status on these relationships in women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 207 mixed-ancestry SA women and 46 men underwent measurement of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein determination. The associations between different body fat compartments and associated cardiometabolic risk factors were expl...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Davidson FE, Matsha TE, Erasmus RT, Kengne AP, Goedecke JH Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Sevoflurane- and propofol-based regimens show comparable effect on oxygenation in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with CPB, lung injury was mild, and sevoflurane- and propofol-based anaesthetic regimens showed similar effect on oxygenation, respiratory mechanics and haemodynamics during the early stage of CPB. PMID: 31512716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Luo Z, Wei X, Zuo Y, Du G Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Long-term safety and efficacy of alirocumab in South African patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: the ODYSSEY Open-Label Extension study.
CONCLUSIONS: Alirocumab effectively and safely reduced LDL-C in these patients. PMID: 31512717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Blom DJ, Breedt J, Burgess LJ, Ebrahim IO, Ellis G, Soma P, van der Walt E, Naidoo P, van Tonder A, Raal FJ Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Echocardiographic left atrial remodelling and determinants of left atrial size in the early phase of high blood pressure: a comparative cross-sectional study in Douala, Cameroon.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Left atrial remodelling (LAR) has been described in Western populations with chronic hypertension and is associated with a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Although hypertension tends to occur earlier and is more severe in sub-Saharan Africa than in more developed nations, LAR and its associated factors in these African hypertensive subjects have been poorly elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To assess left atrial structural remodelling in black hypertensive patients and determine factors associated with left atrial size. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study carri...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - September 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gounoue AC, Tamdja AD, Choukem SP, Ba H, Aboubakar SM, Nzali A, Halle MP, Nkoke C, Kadia BM, Abanda MH, Nganou CN, Abzabji MK, Kingue S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Relationship between clot burden in pulmonary computed tomography angiography and different parameters of right cardiac dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) contains a wealth of information regarding the diagnosis and impact of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Echocardiography remains the recommended examination to detect signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction in patients with shock or hypotension following PE. OBJECTIVES: To detect the relationship between clot volume in pulmonary CTA and different parameters of RV dysfunction assessed by echocardiography and pulmonary CTA in patients with acute PE. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with acute PE from June 2017 ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Abdelwahab HW, Arafa S, Bondok K, Batouty N, Bakeer M Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Ductal closure in infants under 6 kg including premature infants using AmplatzerTM duct occluder type two additional sizes: a single-centre experience in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: PDA closure using ADO II AS in small infants is feasible, effective and has few complications. PMID: 31469384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pepeta L, Greyling A, Nxele MF, Makrexeni Z, Jiyana S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

The effects of HIV/AIDS on the clinical profile and outcomes post pericardiectomy of patients with constrictive pericarditis: a retrospective review.
CONCLUSIONS: Without surgery, tuberculous constrictive pericarditis was associated with a high mortality rate. Although peri-operative complications occurred more frequently, surgery was not associated with increased mortality rates in HIV-positive subjects. PMID: 31469385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Naidoo DP, Laurence G, Sartorius B, Ponnusamy S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

The walking estimated limitation stated by history (WELSH): a visual tool to self-reported walking impairment in a predominantly illiterate population.
The objective measurement of MWD during a six-minute walking test showed no association with the subjects' educational level, body mass index, NYHA stage or gender, but a significant correlation with the WELSH scores. The Spearman r-value for the WELSH score-to-MWD relationship was 0.605 (p
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 30, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sempore WY, Ilboudo A, Henni S, Hersant J, Ammi M, Yameogo AA, Ouedraogo N, Yameogo TM, Abraham P Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Ellisras Longitudinal Study 2017: elevated serum levels of carboxymethyl-lysine, an advanced glycation end-product, are associated with higher odds of developing endothelial dysfunction in black South African patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ELS 29).
Abstract This case-control study investigated the association between major types of serum advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and selected serum/plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction in black patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital. Serum AGEs were measured using either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or spectrofluoremetry. Serum markers of endothelial dysfunction were measured using either ELISA or calometry. The correlation and associations between major types of serum AGEs and markers of endothelial dysfunction were investigated using the Spearman correlat...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mogale MA, Mhlanga CM, Gololo SS, Adu A Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

A 10-year follow-up study of demographic and cardiometabolic factors in HIV-infected South Africans.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Understanding of the interplay between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cardiovascular disease, especially in Africa, is limited to evidence from longitudinal studies. Therefore the demographic profile and cardiometabolic, renal and liver function of an HIV-infected South African population were profiled from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: The study included 117 HIV-infected and 131 uninfected controls that were examined at baseline, five and 10 years. RESULTS: Mortality rate declined from 24% (2005-2010) to 0% (2010-2015) after the introduction of ART. Longitudinal increases in C-reac...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Phalane E, Fourie CM, Mels CM, Schutte AE Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

A cross-sectional cohort study with microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without hypothyroidism.
This study aimed to determine whether there were significant differences in these complications in patients with T2DM with and without hypothyroidism. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study from a single centre specialising in diabetes in South Africa. T2DM was defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. The cases were all patients treated for hypothyroidism and the controls were clinically and biochemically confirmed euthyroid, who were under follow up between 1 January and 1 July 2016. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 2, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Johnson L, Rayner B Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Effects of atorvastatin on time-dependent change of fast sodium current in simulated acute ischaemic ventricular myocytes.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, in the early stages of ischaemia, changes in INa in ventricular myocytes are time-dependent, showing an initial increase followed by a decrease, while atorvastatin inhibited the transient increase in INa and made the change more gradual. PMID: 31361295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - July 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Li H, Wan Z, Li X, Teng T, Du X, Nie J Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

OPCAB surgery with an alternative retraction method: a single-centre experience.
This study was a retrospective analysis of OPCAB operations performed between January 2014 and December 2018. Patients were evaluated and operated on by a surgical team led by an experienced OPCAB surgeon with over 200 prior OPCAB surgeries. RESULTS: The study included 606 OPCAB cases, and 21.8% (132) were female and 78.2% (474) were male. Our mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 10) and only two patients suffered a cerebrovascular incident. A statistically significant difference was found between pre-operative and six-month postoperative left ventricular ejection fraction values (p
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - July 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cetin E, Can T, Unal CS, Keskin A, Kubat E Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Plasma phospholipid fatty acid patterns are associated with adiposity and the metabolic syndrome in black South Africans: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSION: The n-9 LC-MUFA and n-3 EFA patterns seemed to provide possible protective associations with adiposity and the MetS, whereas the high-Satfat and n-3 VLC-PUFA patterns were associated with adiposity and the MetS in our study participants. The results are reflective of the metabolic difference between overweight and obese compared to lean individuals. PMID: 31361296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - July 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ojwang AA, Kruger HS, Zec M, Ricci C, Pieters M, Kruger IM, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Smuts CM Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in assessing myocardial viability in a tertiary academic centre in Johannesburg, South Africa: a pilot study.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that F18-FDG PET was able to identify 55% of patients with ischaemic heart disease with viability in more than 10% of the total myocardium when using a 17-segment model. PMID: 31194212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mpanya D, Tsabedze N, Libhaber C, Kagodora B, Vangu MD Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Clinical outcome of intracoronary versus intravenous high-dose bolus administration of tirofiban in diabetic patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
CONCLUSION: Thirty days post PCI, IC tirofiban was more efficient in ameliorating blood flow in the coronary arteries and myocardial tissue perfusion in DM patients after STEMI despite bleeding events, and MACE rates showed no significant difference between the groups. The IC group showed better improvement in LVEF. PMID: 31194213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ghonim AA, Mostafa A, Emara A, Algazzar AS, Qutub MA Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Ellisras Longitudinal Study 2017: Childhood underweight and blood pressure status in a rural black population of South Africa (ELS 26).
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of childhood underweight was found to be high in children aged between five and 16 years. To address this problem, well-thought-out intervention systems are need. PMID: 31180114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mphekgwana PM, Makgopa HM, Monyeki KD, Malatji JM, Mabila TE Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Atherosclerotic plaque in HIV-positive patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes.
CONCLUSIONS: IVUS and VH demonstrated a high burden of atherosclerosis in the left anterior descending artery and proximal vasculature of HIV-positive patients. The atherosclerotic plaque predominantly comprised non-calcified fibrous and fibro-fatty plaque. PMID: 31180115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - June 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Vachiat A, McCutcheon K, Tsabedze N, Zachariah D, Manga P Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Coronary angiographic findings in dilated cardiomyopathy in a sub-Saharan African population.
Abstract AIM: To describe the coronary angiographic aspects observed in patients with dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) in a sub-Saharan African country in order to improve their management. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from 1 January 2010 to 31 March 2016. All patients aged 18 years and older, presenting with DCM and admitted to Abidjan Heart Institute, who underwent coronary angiography were included. One hundred and eight patients were selected. We analysed and compared the coronary angiographic features observed. RESULTS: The median age of our patients was 52 years (46-61). There ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: N'Guetta R, Yao H, Ehouman E, Ekou A, Anzouan-Kacou JB, Coulibaly I, Hauhouot-Attoungbre ML, Kramoh E, Yapobi Y, Seka R Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Ellisras Longitudinal Study 2017: the association of fat patterning with blood pressure in Polokwane private school children aged five to 15 years (ELS 22).
Abstract BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and is a global public health concern. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association of fat patterning and blood pressure among five- to 15-year-old black children attending private schools in Polokwane, South Africa, and to determine the prevalence of obesity and hypertension. METHODS: A total of 1 665 subjects (846 boys and 819 girls), aged five to 15 years and attending three private schools in Polokwane, were included in the study. All anthropometric measurements were taken according to stan...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nkwana MR, Monyeki KD, Monyeki SM, Makata TT, Monyeki JM Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Effect of time delay of PDA closure on the aortic stiffness index and its relationship with cardiac function.
In this study, we evaluated the effect of time delay of PDA closure on aortic stiffness and its relationship with cardiac function before and after transcatheter closure of the PDA. METHODS: Our study population consisted of 60 children who were scheduled for transcatheter closure of the PDA. They were divided into two groups as follows: group A in whom PDA closure was performed before the age of one year, and group B in whom PDA closure was performed after the age of one year. RESULTS: Before PDA closure, the aortic stiffness index (ASI) was significantly higher in children in group B than in those in group A (p
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Elsaughier SM, Ghaleb R, Mansour H Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study: how important is physical activity in youth for later health? (ELS 33).
This study followed three birth cohorts (1962, 1963 and 1964) of boys and girls in the Amsterdam region in the Netherlands. The follow-up period was 25 years, with 10 measurements from age 12 to 42 years. The main purpose of the AGAHLS was to detect changes in health and lifestyle over time during the teenage and young adult period. METHODS: In total, 617 subjects were recruited from two secondary schools in Amsterdam and Purmerend. We measured aerobic fitness (VO2 peak), bone mineral density (BMD), obesity from body mass index (BMI) and body fatness from the sum of four skinfolds (S4S). Daily physical activity (DPA) ...
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - May 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kemper HC, Monyeki KD Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research