Head Start Teachers' Professional Development, Well-being, Attitudes, and Practices: Understanding Changes Over Time and Predictive Associations.
Authors: Harding JF, Connors MC, Krauss AF, Aikens N, Malone L, Tarullo L Abstract Early care and education (ECE) teachers shape children's daily experiences in many ways. Specifically, teachers' well-being, attitudes about child development, and teaching practices are central influences on children's learning. One crucial way ECE programs support teachers to enhance children's learning environments is through the provision of professional development (PD), but little research has examined the PD provided by ECE programs in the absence of focused initiatives to support teachers. In this descriptive study, we use da...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Strengthening the Child- and Youth-Serving Workforce: Surveying the Landscape, Overcoming Challenges.
Authors: Tebes JK Abstract This special issue addresses a neglected but important topic in our field: strengthening the child- and youth-serving workforce. Investing in this workforce should be a national priority because considerable evidence has shown that investments in early childhood education and development, particularly in low-resource contexts, that are reinforced through skills-based programs in adolescence and adulthood, have beneficial impacts throughout life. Investing in quality child- and youth-serving programs also has the additional benefit of creating a productive and capable future workforce. The...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Youth Cognitive Empowerment: Development and Evaluation of an Instrument.
In this study, we adapted a measure, which previously had been validated and used among adults, for use among young people and tested it in a sample of high school students (53% female, 75% Hispanic) in an urban school in the northeastern U.S. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the hypothesized three-factor structure of cognitive empowerment, and the measure was examined for association with the construct of social justice orientation. Results indicate an adequate fit for the second-order factor, and an expected relationship with the related construct. PMID: 31116873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Exploring the Role of Social Support in Promoting Community Integration: An Integrated Literature Review.
Authors: Terry R, Townley G Abstract Community integration has emerged as a priority area among mental health advocates, policy makers, and researchers (Townley, Miller, & Kloos, 2013; Ware, Hopper, Tugenberg, Dickey, & Fisher, 2007). Past research suggests that social support influences community integration for individuals with serious mental illnesses (Davidson, Haglund, Stayner, Rakfeldt, Chinman, & Tebes, 2001; Davidson, Stayner, Nickou, Styron, Rowe, & Chinman, 2001; Wong & Solomon, 2002), but there has not yet been a systematic review on this topic....
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Who Gets What? Describing the Non-supervisory Training and Supports Received by Home Visiting Staff Members and its Relationship with Turnover.
Abstract The early childhood home visiting field lacks a basic understanding of home visiting program staff members' receipt of on-the-job training from experts outside of their programs who are not their immediate colleagues or supervisors. To address this gap, we created a unique dataset by asking program leaders to log the external technical assistance (TA) that staff members received, and we collected a survey from 288 of the same staff members. We performed descriptive analyses to learn how many hours of TA staff members were receiving, what topics the TA most commonly addressed, and what formats (e.g., in-pe...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Chen WB, Spiker D, Wei X, Gaylor E, Schachner A, Hudson L Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

The Latent Threat of Community Violence: Indirect Exposure to Local Homicides and Adolescents' Mental Health in Colombia.
This study examines the relation between adolescents' indirect exposure to local homicides and mental health disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We employ a sample of 300 adolescents ( M age = 14.52 , range = 12 - 17 ) representative for Bogotá, Colombia, and geocoded data on violent crimes recorded by the national police. Findings show that one SD increment in local homicides is associated with increments by 0.17 SD in the mental health disorder index and a 0.14 SD increase in the PTSD score index, even after accounting for adolescents' direct exposure to violence. The estimated effect fo...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

New Perspectives on the Child- and Youth-Serving Workforce in Low-Resource Communities: Fostering Best Practices and Professional Development.
Authors: Cappella E, Godfrey EB Abstract The professionals and paraprofessionals who work daily with youth in low-resource, marginalized communities are integral to youth wellbeing; yet, their professional development, and the factors that promote it, are not well understood. In this introduction to the special issue, Understanding and Strengthening the Child- and Youth-Serving Workforce in Low-Resource Communities, we focus on understudied practitioners operating in an array of sectors and settings, such as home visitors, mental health paraprofessionals, early childhood assistant teachers, teachers in low-income c...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Race and the Criminal Justice System Response to Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Shaw J, Lee H Abstract Prior research has consistently documented that the vast majority of sexual assault cases do not progress through the criminal justice system. However, there is less agreement in prior work on how race influences case progression, resulting in a literature frequently described as "inconsistent." This systematic review examines all prior research that has included race as an independent variable in predicting the criminal justice system response to sexual assault (N = 34) in an effort to provide insight into seemingly disparate findings. We assess each study for th...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Bystander Response to Sexual Assault Disclosures in the U.S. Military: Encouraging Survivors to use Formal Resources.
Authors: Holland KJ, Cipriano AE Abstract Experiencing military sexual assault (MSA) results in serious mental health consequences. Sexual assault survivors often disclose to informal sources of support, and how these individuals respond can have a significant effect on survivors' wellbeing. Bystander intervention is one mechanism through which institutions, such as the U.S. Military, aim to teach informal support providers to respond positively and effectively to sexual assaults. One bystander response that survivors may find helpful is the discussion of formal resources (e.g., counseling options, reporting option...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - May 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Early Childhood Teachers' Lives in Context: Implications for Professional Development in Under-Resourced Areas.
This study explores the personal, professional, and contextual conditions faced by early childhood education (ECE) teachers in under-resourced settings and how these relate to teacher responsiveness to professional development (PD): namely, teacher attrition (a sign of PD failure when occurring shortly after PD), take-up of offered PD, adherence to PD training/materials, and quality of implementation. We use data from six disadvantaged districts in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana and PD focused on implementation of a national, play-based curriculum. Descriptive statistics indicate that ECE teachers (n = 302) fa...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Workforce Support for Urban After-School Programs: Turning Obstacles into Opportunities.
Authors: Frazier SL, Chou T, Ouellette RR, Helseth SA, Kashem ER, Cromer KD Abstract Organized after-school programs can mitigate risk and build resilience for youth in urban communities. Benefits rely on high-quality developmental experiences characterized by a supportive environment, structured youth-adult interactions, and opportunities for reflective engagement. Programs in historically disenfranchised communities are underfunded; staff are transient, underpaid, and undertrained; and youth exhibit significant mental health problems which staff are variably equipped to address. Historically, after-school researc...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Minority Stress, Activism, and Health in the Context of Economic Precarity: Results from a National Participatory Action Survey of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Gender Non-Conforming Youth.
Authors: Frost DM, Fine M, Torre ME, Cabana A Abstract Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and gender non-conforming (LGBTQ & GNC) youth experience more economic hardship and social stress than their heterosexual and cisgender peers. However, the ways that LGBTQ & GNC youth resist these damaging social factors and the corresponding implications for their health have not been addressed. Data were analyzed from a national participatory survey of LGBTQ & GNC youth ages 14-24 (N = 5,860) living in the United States. Structural equation models indicated that economic precarity was asso...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Supporting Out-of-School Time Staff in Low Resource Communities: A Professional Development Approach.
Abstract Federally funded out-of-school time (OST) programs provide academic support, enrichment, and safety for students and families in low-resource communities. However, programs struggle to meet these aims, in part because of the lack of program structure and limited training and support for staff. This observational case study documents the training and technical assistance (TA) delivered to OST frontline staff and program leadership to implement Positive Behavior in Out-of-School Time (Positive BOOST), an adaptation of positive behavior interventions and supports conducted in multiple settings. Findings acro...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Farrell AF, Collier-Meek MA, Furman MJ Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

The Role of Familial Incarceration and Ethnic Identity in Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Latinx Young Adults in California.
This study assessed the association between familial incarceration and suicide behaviors and examined ethnic identity as a potential moderator. Data from a longitudinal study of health among Hispanics (n = 1,094) in California were used to test associations between familial incarceration, ethnic identity, and SA and SI, adjusting for demographic factors and covariates. Approximately 18% and 8% of respondents reported SI and SA, respectively. Compared to no incarceration, or the incarceration of a relative, parental incarceration was associated with higher odds (AOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.23-3.34) of SI whereas higher a...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Forster M, Davis L, Grigsby TJ, Rogers CJ, Vetrone SF, Unger JB Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Enhancing Program Quality in a National Sample of After-school Settings: The Role of Youth-Staff Interactions and Staff/Organizational Functioning.
Abstract Using multilevel data from the national evaluation of Boys and Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), this study examined associations among programmatic structures, workplace and workforce characteristics, and relational practices of program staff as they relate to young people's ratings of their experience attending local clubs. The sample included 57,710 members and 5,231 staff members at 740 BGCA sites throughout the United States. Staff relational practices-including establishing caring relationships, setting high expectations, positive behavior management, encouraging youth input and agency, and cultural se...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - April 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Kuperminc GP, Seitz S, Joseph H, Khatib N, Wilson C, Collins K, Guessous O Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Elaborating the Connection between Social Class and Classism in College.
Abstract Scholarship has documented the challenges that face college students of marginalized economic backgrounds, an issue that is relevant for Community Psychology because of the field's commitment to social justice. Community psychologists are concerned with facilitating access to social resources such as education across the full range of social identities. The current study builds on recent research that has identified the key role of classism in students' struggles. We developed a new measure of college student financial stress in order to investigate the relationship between indices of social class (financ...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Cattaneo LB, Chan WY, Shor R, Gebhard KT, Elshabassi NH Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Social Cohesion, Neighborhood Collective Efficacy, and Adolescent Subjective Well-being in Urban and Rural Taiwan.
This study investigates the association between neighborhood social cohesion, collective efficacy, and adolescent subjective well-being in a nationally representative sample of Taiwanese youth. The study represents a first to adapt and test a developmental ecological model within a Chinese cultural context. Data came from the Taiwan Youth Project, which assessed representative samples of seventh graders (n = 2,690) and ninth graders (n = 2,851) from both urban and rural counties. The analytic sample included 4,988 adolescents (M age = 14.4, SD = 1.14; 50% female) in Taiwan. A path an...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Wang SC, Fowler PJ Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

The Development and Evaluation of a Statewide Training Center for Home Visitors and Supervisors.
We describe implementation and lessons learned from seven development activities: (a) review of the literature, (b) survey of other training initiatives across the country, (c) focus groups with home visitors and supervisors, (d) consultation with individual home visitors, (e) creation of a state advisory board of home visiting providers and stakeholders, (f) evaluation of two pilot trainings, and (g) video development. We then present evaluation data from 49 home visitors and 23 supervisors who completed the training certificate program after the pilot trainings. Both home visitors and supervisors rated training satisfact...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Collective Efficacy as a Key Context in Neighborhood Support for Urban Youth.
This study uses street-intercept interviews with adults (N = 408) to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adult support for neighborhood youth. A path model was used to examine the direct and indirect relationship of neighborhood constructs (safety, aesthetic quality, and walkability) on adult support for neighborhood youth. Neighborhood aesthetic quality and the walking environment were directly associated with adult support for youth, whereas perceived safety was indirectly associated. Collective efficacy partially explained these relationships. Findings support theorized relationships b...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

More than Data Collectors: A Systematic Review of the Environmental Outcomes of Youth Inquiry Approaches in the United States.
Authors: Kennedy H, DeChants J, Bender K, Anyon Y Abstract Over the last twenty years, research on the impact of engaging children and adolescents in the generation of new knowledge about their lives, schools, and communities, has grown tremendously. This systematic review summarizes the findings from empirical studies of youth inquiry approaches in the United States, with a focus on their environmental outcomes. Searches of four interdisciplinary databases retrieved a total of 3,724 relevant articles published between 1995 and 2015. Sixty-three distinct studies met the systematic review inclusion criteria, of whic...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Child and Family Team Meeting Characteristics and Outcomes in a Statewide System of Care.
This study examined CFT characteristics and the association between those characteristics and youth and family outcomes in a statewide SOC. Participants were 363 youth (Mage  = 10.89, SD = 3.72) and their caregivers. Families completed measures of youth and caregiver functioning and symptoms at enrollment and 6-month follow-up. Care coordinators completed a survey assessing CFT implementation and characteristics following each meeting. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between CFT characteristics and youth and caregiver outcomes. Results indicated that a higher number of...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Schreier A, Horwitz M, Marshall T, Bracey J, Cummins M, Kaufman JS Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Collaboration with Urban Community Stakeholders: Refining Paraprofessional-led Services to Promote Positive Parenting.
We describe the process by which we (a) identified implementation challenges, (b) sustained a university-community collaboration to redesign the paraprofessional service model, and (c) assessed the feasibility of the new model involving four social service agencies in 16 schools with over 600 families. The structure and process of the collaboration and refinement are described with attention to who was best positioned to engage in the collaboration and how the partnership worked to balance scientific rigor with responsiveness to paraprofessional workforce strengths. Feasibility data indicated that the revised model was suc...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Strengthening and Expanding Child Services in Low Resource Communities: The Role of Task-Shifting and Just-in-Time Training.
Abstract In the United States, the demand for child mental health services is increasing, while the supply is limited by workforce shortages. These shortages are unlikely to be corrected without significant structural changes in how mental health services are provided. One strategy for bridging this gap is task-shifting, defined as a process by which services that are typically delivered by professionals are moved to individuals with less extensive qualifications or training. Although task-shifting can increase the size of the workforce, there are challenges related to training new workers. In this paper, we propo...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - March 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: McQuillin SD, Lyons MD, Becker KD, Hart MJ, Cohen K Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Natural Mentoring, Academic Motivation, and Values Toward Education Among Latinx Adolescents.
We examined the roles of relational and instrumental relationship quality with natural mentors and academic intrinsic motivation on Latinx adolescents' perceived economic values of education. Participants were 256 Latinx youth (M = 15.07 years old; 116 boys, 140 girls) who completed surveys in 9th and 10th grades. Path analyses indicated significant cross-sectional effects in 9th grade such that instrumental quality was associated with more perceived benefits of education, and relational quality was associated with fewer perceived limitations of education. Neither instrumental nor relational quality in 9th g...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Anderson AJ, Sánchez B, McMahon SD Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Preventing Neighborhood Disorder: Comparing Alternative Models of Collective Efficacy Theory Using Structural Equation Modeling.
Authors: Gearhart MC Abstract Collective efficacy is a widely studied theoretical framework. Originally operationalized as the combination of social cohesion and informal social control, collective efficacy theory is a predictor of multiple positive outcomes. Conceptual and empirical critiques of collective efficacy theory suggest that social cohesion and informal social control should be modeled as unique constructs. Further, the current model of collective efficacy theory does not include an explicit measure of efficacy. Mutual efficacy, defined as community members' beliefs that collective action will be success...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Enhancing the National Dialogue on the Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence.
Authors: Estefan LF, Armstead TL, Rivera MS, Kearns MC, Carter D, Crowell J, El-Beshti R, Daniels B Abstract Little systematic information exists about how community-based prevention efforts at the state and local levels contribute to our knowledge of intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) DELTA FOCUS program funds ten state domestic violence coalitions to engage in IPV primary prevention through approaches addressing the outer layers of the social ecology. This paper explored the ways in which DELTA FOCUS recipients have contributed to a national-level di...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Perceptions of Community Norms and Youths' Reactive and Proactive Dating and Sexual Violence Bystander Action.
Abstract There is enthusiasm for programs that promote bystander intervention to prevent dating and sexual violence (DSV). However, more information about what facilitates or inhibits bystander behavior in DSV situations is needed. The present cross-sectional survey study investigated whether youth perceptions of adults' behavior and community norms were associated with how frequently youth took action and intervened in DSV situations or to prevent DSV. Specifically, study hypotheses were that youths' perceptions of community-level variables, such as adults' willingness to help victims of DSV or prevent DSV, perce...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Rothman EF, Edwards KM, Rizzo AJ, Kearns M, Banyard VL Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Empowering Change Agents: Youth Organizing Groups as Sites for Sociopolitical Development.
This study explored how youth organizing experiences influenced SPD in the professional domain, applying an empowerment lens. Phenomenologically-based interviews were conducted with former sexual health education youth organizers and adult program staff. Former youth participants chose socially-oriented career paths influenced by the group's empowering approach to sexual health education and advocacy. They related meaningful sociopolitical learning experiences (e.g., interpersonal, educational, and civic engagement) to empowerment outcomes (e.g., political efficacy, critical awareness, and participatory behaviors) which in...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Nicholas C, Eastman-Mueller H, Barbich N Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Ecology of Sites of Confinement: Everyday Life in a Detention Center for Illegalized Non-citizens.
Authors: Esposito F, Ornelas J, Briozzo E, Arcidiacono C Abstract Drawing on almost 3 years of fieldwork, comprising qualitative interviews and ethnographic observations, this study provides an exploration into the detention of illegalized non-citizens in Italy. Taking the largest detention center as a case study, the fabric of everyday life and the lived experiences of people, both detainees and professional actors, are the focus of examination. An ecological community psychology framework, with a focus on justice, guided the data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Findings highlight the oppressive qualitie...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Theorizing Safety Informed Settings: Supporting Staff at Youth Residential Facilities.
Authors: Sichel CE, Burson E, Javdani S, Godfrey EB Abstract Each year approximately 48,000 youth are incarcerated in residential placement facilities (YRFs) in the United States. The limited existing literature addressing the workforce in these settings paints a complicated picture. The YRF workforce is highly motivated to work with legal system involved youth. However, YRF staff report high rates of burnout, job fatigue, and work-related stress. The current paper proposes solutions to persistent problems faced by staff in these settings by integrating literature from criminology, organizational psychology, trauma...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Socially Valued Roles, Self-Determination, and Community Participation among Individuals Living with Serious Mental Illnesses.
Authors: Millner UC, Woods T, Furlong-Norman K, Rogers ES, Rice D, Russinova Z Abstract Decades after deinstitutionalization, individuals living with serious mental illnesses remain isolated, socially disengaged, and devalued members of communities. Burgeoning research and services need conceptual clarity to improve such social conditions. This qualitative inquiry used grounded theory and participatory approaches to conduct an in-depth exploration of community participation for individuals living with serious mental illnesses based on key stakeholder perspectives (n = 45). Results revealed that community ...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Policing Education: An Empirical Review of the Challenges and Impact of the Work of School Police Officers.
Authors: Javdani S Abstract Public concerns regarding school safety and zero-tolerance education policies have contributed to the growth of a workforce of school police, or frontline school safety professionals who are typically placed in schools with the authority to arrest students (Brown, ). Thus, school police represent a workforce positioned at the nexus of multiple systems, including education and juvenile justice, and whose work likely brings them into contact with underserved youth and families. Despite national representation of this growing workforce (e.g., National Association of School Resource Officers...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

System Dynamics Approaches and Collective Action for Community Health: An Integrative Review.
The objective of this review was to understand how often, why, and how SD has been used by cross-sector community collectives. Of 409 identified manuscripts describing application of SD to community health, only 31 (7.6%) documented cross-sector collective use of these tools. All 31 had as a purpose using SD to better understand community health problems, but only seven (22.6%) documented a collective action taken as the result. In nine of the 31 articles (29.0%), no learning, decisions, or action was documented. The most common form of collective participation in SD work among the seven collectives reporting resulting act...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - February 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Youth Risk and Mentoring Relationship Quality: The Moderating Effect of Program Experiences.
Abstract Because program experiences are more amendable than mentor or mentee characteristics, they may be important factors to consider in buffering the negative impact of youth risk on the quality of the mentor-mentee bond. Data from 455 mentees (ages 11-18; 57% male) and their undergraduate student mentors (82.3% female) from the Campus Connections mentoring program were used to assess whether youth risk and mentors' program experiences (i.e., program structure, supportive relationships with staff, opportunities for skill building, support for efficacy and mattering, and opportunities to belong) were associated...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Weiler LM, Boat AA, Haddock SA Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Perceptions Among Child Welfare Staff when Modifying A Child Mental Health Intervention to be Implemented in Child Welfare Services.
This study examined perceptions among CW staff who were members of a collaborative advisory board involved in the implementation of the 4Rs and 2Ss Strengthening Families Program (4R2S) in CW placement prevention settings, utilizing task-shifting strategies and the Practical, Robust, Implementation, and Sustainability Model. Advisory board members reported difficulties in engaging families, heavy workloads, and conflicting implementation initiatives. While 4R2S was perceived as generally aligned with their organization's mission, modifications to the intervention and to agency procedures were recommended to promote impleme...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 29, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Gopalan G, Hooley C, Winters A, Stephens T Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Making Space for Community Critical Methodology: Stories from the Australian Context.
We present three pieces of practice which engaged with critical methodologies. The first examines collaborative research methodologies developed with young people in rural Australia who are primary carers for a family member. The second examines tensions involved in trying to employ critical methodologies in multi-stakeholder work between community organizations, communities, and researchers. The third examines opportunities and barriers when employing critical methodologies in learning and teaching with undergraduate students. We reflect upon the intersecting threads of commonality and difference between them and consider...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Fox R, Nic Giolla Easpaig B, Watson L Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Patching the Pathway and Widening the Pipeline: Models for Developing a Diverse Early Childhood Workforce in Chicago.
We describe three prior and ongoing partnership programs between community-based organizations and institutions of higher education, each tailored to support a unique population in the ECE pipeline on the pathway for increased educational attainment and credentialing. Each program is grounded in a specific community of Chicago, a diverse city with a sizable population of children raised in non-English speaking homes. Each program addresses specific needs of the communities they serve, especially around the recruitment, retention, and promotion of bilingual ECEs. Program administrators and community members describe each pr...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Exploring Diurnal Cortisol Rhythms of Kindergarten Teachers in Kosovo and Ukraine.
This study explores whether certain combinations of individual and environmental experiences of teachers in LMICs may result in stress, assessed as patterns of diurnal cortisol rhythm. Participants were kindergarten teachers in Kosovo and Ukraine, two LMICs in Europe. Latent Profile Analysis identified three subgroups of teachers that significantly differed on teachers' education and experience. Preliminary results of Latent Growth Modeling suggested differences between profiles in baseline waking cortisol and patterns of diurnal decline. Teachers in the profile that was characterized by the longest experience working in t...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Engaged Against the Machine: Institutional and Cultural Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity as Predictors of Activism Orientation among Black Youth.
Abstract The current study examines how experiences of institutional and cultural racial discrimination relate to orientations toward activism in the Black community among Black adolescents and emerging adults. Furthermore, we investigate the role of racial identity (centrality, public regard, nationalism) as moderators of those relations. In a national sample of 888 Black adolescents and emerging adults, we found that experiences of cultural racial discrimination, racial centrality, and nationalism ideology were related to a greater orientation toward low-risk Black community activism. For high-risk activism, nat...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Hope EC, Gugwor R, Riddick KN, Pender KN Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Positive School Climate as a Moderator of Violence Exposure for Colombian Adolescents.
This study used data from 1857 Colombian adolescents in an urban setting. We aim to understand the relations between exposure to violence and adolescent outcomes, both externalizing behaviors and developmental competence, and then to understand whether school climate (i.e., safety, connectedness, services) moderates these relations. Results demonstrate that armed conflict, community violence victimization, and witnessing community violence are positively associated with externalizing behaviors, but only armed conflict is negatively associated with developmental competence. School safety, connectedness, and services moderat...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - January 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Decolonizing Mental Health Services for Indigenous Clients: A Training Program for Mental Health Professionals.
Authors: Lewis ME, Hartwell EE, Myhra LL Abstract Culturally appropriate mental health services are essential for Indigenous people who suffer the greatest mental health disparities of any ethnic group in the U.S. However, few mental health professionals receive training to work with this population. To fill this gap, a 90-minute training was created to increase knowledge of and empathy for Indigenous people and culture and therefore, improve mental health services for Indigenous patients. This training is grounded in cultural competency, cultural humility, and decolonialism. The training is presented here for ment...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Acknowledgement of Reviewers.
Authors: PMID: 30561802 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Community Psychology)
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Decoloniality as a Framework for Indigenous Youth Suicide Prevention Pedagogy: Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide.
We describe the theoretical framework and feasibility and acceptability outcomes for this learning circle, and elucidate how the educational model engages community members in decolonial approaches to suicide prevention education and practice, thus serving as a bridge between Western and Indigenous traditions to generate collective knowledge and catalyze community healing. PMID: 30561803 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Community Psychology)
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Teaching toward Decoloniality in Community Psychology and Allied Disciplines: Editorial Introduction.
Authors: Carolissen RL, Duckett PS PMID: 30561804 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Community Psychology)
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Engaging the Struggle for Decolonial Approaches to Teaching Community Psychology.
Authors: Watkins M, Ciofalo N, James S Abstract Community psychology's history has traditionally been described within the context of U.S. history, silencing contributions from people of color from the Americas, Asia, the Pacific Islands, and Africa. In a MA/PhD specialization in Community Psychology, Liberation Psychology, Indigenous Psychologies, and Ecopsychology at Pacifica Graduate Institute, we are attempting to steer into critical dialogues about modernity, coloniality, and decoloniality, closely examining our curriculum and pedagogy, including our approaches to fieldwork and research. Turning to Indigenous ...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

No Easy Answers: Avoiding Potential Pitfalls of De-implementation.
Abstract In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began to de-emphasize and de-implement multiple evidence-based HIV prevention practices that had been around for 20 years, thus changing the scope of implementation across the globe. The authors provide evidence how existing interventions (e.g., CDC HIV interventions) may influence implementation of interventions that came after the program was discontinued. De-implementation is an ecological event that influences, and is influenced by, many parts of a system, for instance, implementation of one type of intervention may influence the implementa...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Pinto RM, Witte SS Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

The Praxis of Decoloniality in Researcher Training and Community-Based Data Collection.
Authors: Singh S, Granski M, Victoria MDP, Javdani S Abstract In this paper, we detail our praxis of decoloniality in the context of a community-based study that employs a quantitative experimental methodology to evaluate an intervention for girls involved in the juvenile legal system. We resist the essentializing of methodology that positions quantitative paradigms as impermeable to reflexivity and decoloniality, and describe a model for training and supervising researchers engaged in an experimental randomized controlled trial of an advocacy program for girls, most of whom are girls of color and about half of who...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Finding the Sweet Spot: Investigating the Effects of Relationship Closeness and Instrumental Activities in School-based Mentoring.
Abstract School-based mentoring programs are popular prevention programs thought to influence youth development; but rigorous evaluations indicate that these programs often have small effects on youth outcomes. Researchers suggest that these findings may be explained by (a) mentors and mentees failing to develop a close relationship and (b) mentors not setting goals or focusing on specific skills necessary improve outcomes. We assessed these explanations using data from approximately 1360 mentor and mentee pairs collected through a national study of school-based mentoring (called, "The Student Mentoring Progr...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lyons MD, McQuillin SD, Henderson LJ Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Unsettling the Settlers: Principles of a Decolonial Approach to Creating Safe(r) Spaces in Post-secondary Education.
We describe an educational context, a pedagogical praxis, and our efforts to bridge the theories of Settler colonialism and community psychology. From our individual and collective reflections of engagement with decolonization in the education system we present an emergent framework that highlights four principles for decolonization. In implementing these principles we discuss the co-creation of safe(r), decolonized spaces within post-secondary institutions through deconstructing dominant narratives and illuminating Indigenous narratives of self-determination with attention to the de-powerment of non-Indigenous faculty and...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research

Decolonizing Community Psychology by Supporting Indigenous Knowledge, Projects, and Students: Lessons from Aotearoa New Zealand and Canada.
Authors: McNamara RA, Naepi S Abstract Community psychology has long stood as a social justice agitator that encouraged reformation both within and outside of the academy, while keeping a firm goal of building greater well-being for people in communities. However, community psychology's historically Euro-centric orientation and applied, interventionist focus may inadvertently promote colonial agendas. In this paper, we focus on the example of Indigenous Pacific peoples, drawing upon experience working among Indigenous iTaukei Fijian communities and with Indigenous frameworks for promoting student success in Aotearo...
Source: American Journal of Community Psychology - December 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Community Psychol Source Type: research