What Role Do Masculine Norms Play in Men ’s HIV Testing in Sub-Saharan Africa?: A Scoping Review
AbstractMen living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to test for HIV than women. We conducted a scoping review in May of 2016 to identify how masculine norms influence men ’s HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review yielded a total of 13 qualitative studies from 8 countries. Masculine norms create both barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included emotional inexpression, gendered communication, social pressures to be strong and self-reliant, and t he fear that an HIV positive result would threaten traditional social roles (i.e., husband, father, provider, worker) and reduce sexual...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Healthcare Seeking Intention if Diagnosed with HIV Among Young MSM in Taiwan: A Theory-Based Comparison by Voluntary Counseling and Testing Experience
AbstractThe number of HIV cases in Taiwan exceeded 30,000 in 2016. Per the UNAIDS 90 –90–90 target, 81% of people living with HIV should receive medication. However, numerous previous studies focused on adherence rather than the initial healthcare seeking intention if diagnosed with HIV (HIV HSI). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), anonymous online survey data were c ollected from December 2016 through February 2017 from 2709 young MSM (YMSM) ages 15–39. Multivariate logistic regression found the significant factors and strengths of associations with HIV HSI varied by their HIV voluntary couns...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Timing and Predictors of Initiation on Antiretroviral Therapy Among Newly-Diagnosed HIV-Infected Persons in South Africa
AbstractDespite a decade of advancing HIV/AIDS treatment policy in South Africa, 20% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART) remain untreated. To inform universal test and treat (UTT) implementation in South Africa, this analysis describes the rate, timeliness and determinants of ART initiation among newly diagnosed PLHIV. This analysis used routine data from 35 purposively selected primary clinics in three high HIV-burden districts of South Africa from June 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Kaplan –Meier survival curves estimated the rate of ART initiation. We identified predictors of ...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Validation of the AIDS Prevention Questionnaire: A Brief Self-Report Instrument to Assess Risk of HIV Infection and Guide Behavioral Change
AbstractThis paper describes the process of building and validating the AIDS Prevention Questionnaire (CPS), a brief HIV risk assessment measure. An initial 64-items bank was filled out by 466 young people (192 men and 274 women), aged between 17 and 26  years (M = 20.62; SD = 2.15). The exploratory factor analysis revealed five components: Knowledge about HIV, Condom Attitudes, Intentions of Condom Use, Safe sexual behavior and Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV. This structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency for the different components ranged from .67 to...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 14, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Theory-Based Text-Messaging to Reduce Methamphetamine Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Automated Unidirectional Delivery Outperforms Bidirectional Peer Interactive Delivery
AbstractProject Tech Support2 was a randomized controlled trial that tested three methods of text message delivery for reducing methamphetamine use and HIV risks among MSM. From March 2014 to January 2016, 286 methamphetamine-using MSM were randomized into: (1) interactive text conversations with Peer Health Educators, plus five-times-a-day automated theory-based messages, plus a weekly self-monitoring text-message assessment (TXT-PHE; n  = 94); or, (2) the daily automated messages and weekly self-monitoring assessment (TXT-Auto; n = 99); or, (3) weekly self-monitoring assessment only (AO; n&thi...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Consistent Condom Use by Married and Cohabiting Female Sex Workers in India: Investigating Relational Norms with Commercial Versus Intimate Partners
This study examines determinants of consistent condom use (CCU) among married and cohabiting female sex workers (FSW) in India. Although CCU with clients is normative in the study area, most FSW do not consistently use condoms with intimate partners. Multiple logistic regression models indicated that condom use with intimate partners was associated with relationship status, cohabitation, HIV knowledge, STI symptoms, and being offered more money for sex without a condom by clients. Additionally, more days of sex work in the last week, serving as a peer educator, and participating in community mobilization activities were as...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Patterns of Oral PrEP Adherence and HIV Risk Among Eastern African Women in HIV Serodiscordant Partnerships
AbstractUnderstanding how women use PrEP is important for developing successful implementation programs. We hypothesized there are distinct patterns of adherence, related to HIV risk and other factors. We identified patterns of PrEP adherence and HIV risk behavior over the first 6  months of PrEP use, using data from 233 HIV-uninfected women in high-risk serodiscordant couples in a demonstration project in Kenya& Uganda. We modeled PrEP adherence, assessed by daily electronic monitoring, and HIV risk behavior using group-based trajectory models. We tested baseline covariates and risk behavior group as predictors o...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Who Will Show? Predicting Missed Visits Among Patients in Routine HIV Primary Care in the United States
AbstractMissed HIV medical visits predict poor clinical outcomes. We sought to identify patients at high risk of missing visits. We analyzed 2002 –2014 data from six large US HIV clinics. At each visit, we predicted the likelihood of missing the next scheduled visit using demographic, clinical, and patient-reported psychosocial variables. Overall, 10,374 participants contributed 105,628 HIV visits. For 17% of visits, the next scheduled appo intment was missed. The strongest predictor of a future missed visit was past-year missed visits. A model with only this predictor had area under the receiver operator curve&thins...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Understanding HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Men in South Africa: A Syndemic Approach
This study applied a syndemic framework to explore whether these syndemic  factors are interconnected and work in synergy to increase HIV risk behaviors. Five syndemic factors were assessed including: binge drinking, polydrug use, depressive symptoms, violence and food insecurity on two HIV risk behaviors: multiple sex partners and transactional sex. Participants were (N  = 1233) young men aged 18–29 years from a township in Cape Town, South Africa. Bivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that many of the syndemic factors were related to one another. Pairwise interactions (on an ad...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Composite Risk for HIV: A New Approach Towards Integrating Biomedical and Behavioral Strategies in Couples-Based HIV Prevention Research
We present a novel, comprehensive, and flexible Composite Risk for HIV (CR-HIV) approach for integrating evolving biomedical and behavioral HIV prevention strategies into couples-based HIV prevention intervention and survey research. We provide illustrative examples of the utility of the CR-HIV approach based on couples ’ HIV status. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Negotiating Control of HIV: A Qualitative Analysis of HIV-Positive Latino MSM in North Carolina
AbstractThe majority of HIV disease management happens outside of clinical encounters. As such, understanding how HIV fits into the lives of patients is key to improving HIV outcomes. The concept of control is a vital part of the social context within which health is managed. This qualitative study explores how a sample of Latino men who have sex with men living with HIV in North Carolina (n  = 16) conceptualize and negotiate control in the context of living with HIV. We found that participants use a range of strategies to exert control over their lives including: understanding their infection, engaging with ...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Level of Alcohol Use Associated with HIV Care Continuum Targets in a National U.S. Sample of Persons Living with HIV Receiving Healthcare
AbstractWe evaluated associations between levels of alcohol use and HIV care continuum components using national Veterans Aging Cohort Study data for all patients with HIV and AUDIT-C screening (2/1/2008 –9/30/2014). Poisson regression models evaluated associations between alcohol use levels (non-drinking, low-, medium-, high-, and very high-level drinking) and: (1) engagement with care (documented CD4 cells/µl or viral load copies/ml labs), (2) ART treatment (≥ 1 prescription), and (3) viral suppression (HIV RNA 
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who have Sex with Men: Dual Motivational Model of Intention to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis
AbstractMen who have sex with men (MSM) account for most new HIV infections in the United States. Despite representing a fraction of the population, MSM make up an estimated 65% of new infections. To address this epidemic, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended to supplement condom use. Despite its effectiveness, PrEP uptake among MSM is low. Few studies have employed theoretical approaches to understand PrEP use intention. Incorporating factors like safe sex fatigue, expectation of better sexual experiences, and perceived risk are proposed in this dual motivational path model of PrEP use intention. This model hypo...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identifying Which Place Characteristics are Associated with the Odds of Recent HIV Testing in a Large Sample of People Who Inject Drugs in 19 US Metropolitan Areas
AbstractThis exploratory analysis investigates relationships of place characteristics to HIV testing among people who inject drugs (PWID). We used CDC ’s 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data among PWID from 19 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs); we restricted the analytic sample to PWID self-reporting being HIV negative (N = 7477). Administrative data were analyzed to describe the 1. Sociodemographic Composition; 2. Econ omic disadvantage; 3. Healthcare Service/Law enforcement; and 4. HIV burden of the ZIP codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived. Multilevel models tested associatio...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among HIV-Infected Older Adults with Younger Adults in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
This study compares the adherence to antiretroviral treatment among older adults to that of younger adults living in Africa. We searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, Google Scholar and EMBASE for keywords (HIV, ART, compliance, adheren ce, age, Africa) on publications from 1st Jan 2000 to 1st March 2016. Eligible studies were pooled for meta-analysis using a random-effects model, with the odds ratio as the primary outcome. Twenty studies were included, among them were five randomised trials and five cohort studies. Overall, we poo led data for 148,819 individuals in two groups (older and younger adults) and f...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Beliefs About the End of AIDS, Concerns About PrEP Functionality, and Perceptions of HIV Risk as Drivers of PrEP Use in Urban Sexual Minority Men: The P18 Cohort Study
AbstractUsing cross-sectional data from an ongoing cohort study of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (N  = 492), we examined the extent to which cognitive factors such as beliefs about the end of AIDS, concerns about the manner in which PrEP works, and perceptions about risk of contracting HIV, are related to PrEP uptake and use. While almost all participants indicted awareness of PrEP, a mere 14% h ad ever used PrEP. Those with lower concerns about the side effects of PrEP and greater belief that treatment and PrEP would eliminate AIDS were also more likely to have ever used PrEP. Our find...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Modelling the Epidemiological Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of PrEP for HIV Transmission in MSM in China
This study evaluates the epidemiological impact and cost-effectiveness of implementing PrEP in Chinese MSM over the next two decades. A compartmental model for HIV was used to forecast the impact of PrEP on number of infections, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted. We also provide an estimate of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and the cost per DALY averted of the intervention. Without PrEP, there will be 1.1 –3.0 million new infections and 0.7–2.3 million HIV-related deaths in the next two decades. Moderate PrEP coverage (50%) would prevent 0.17–0.32 million new HIV i...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Fecal Coliform Bacterial Detection to Assess Enema Adherence in HIV Prevention Clinical Studies
AbstractEvaluating the efficacy of any HIV prevention strategy is dependent on ensuring and objectively monitoring adherence to the intervention. Medicated rectal enemas are a potential method for providing topical, episodic HIV prophylaxis during receptive anal intercourse. Assessing adherence to recommended enema dosing regimens is essential in evaluating the utility of this strategy. We utilized fecal coliform bacteria on used enema tips as a marker for enema use. Enema tip coliforms were tested by repurposing a microtiter plate-based water quality test designed to detect fecal contamination of water. Coliform detection...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 3, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Syndemic Vulnerability and Condomless Sex Among Incarcerated Men in Mexico City: A Latent Class Analysis
AbstractIn order to address common statistical and population-based limitations in epidemiological literature applying syndemic theory, this study uses latent class analysis (LCA) to explore how health and social problems coalesce and shape sexual risk behaviors linked to HIV transmission in three Mexico City prisons. Among the studied male inmates, LCA identified four classes, defined by low syndemic risk (61.4%); marijuana (14.3%); depression, substances, and trauma (19.7%); and depression, substances, and marijuana (4.7%). In multinomial regression models, classes with a greater number of syndemic exposures were associa...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Characterizing the Patterns of HIV Disclosure to Clients Among South African Female Sex Workers in Port Elizabeth
AbstractFemale sex workers (FSW) in South Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV, yet little is known about their HIV-status disclosure with clients. Among 410 FSW participating in a cross-sectional study, 213 were HIV positive and aware of their status prior to enrollment. Among FSW aware of their HIV-status, 35% (74/213) reported disclosing their HIV-status to paying clients, whereas 75% (118/158) of those with regular, non-paying partners disclosed to them. In a multivariable analysis, disclosure to clients was associated with more years of education, disclosure to non-paying partners, and meeting clients at esta...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Low Birthweight, Retention in HIV Care, and Adherence to ART Among Postpartum Women Living with HIV in Ghana
AbstractCare for low birthweight (LBW) infants can contribute to psychological difficulties and stigma among mothers living with HIV, creating challenges for antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in HIV care. We explored how caring for LBW infants affects maternal ART adherence and retention in care. We conducted 30 in-depth interviews with postpartum women living with HIV in Accra, Ghana: 15 with LBW infants and 15 with normal birthweight (NBW) infants. Compared to mothers with NBW infants, mothers with LBW infants described how caring for their newborns led to increased caregiver burden, prolonged hospital...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - July 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Bisexual and Bidirectional: Assessing the Potential for HIV Bridging in Mozambique
AbstractAfrican men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently, and often concurrently, have female partners, raising concerns about HIV sexual bridging. We explored potential HIV transmission in Mozambique from and to female partners of MSM focusing on preferred anal sex role and circumcision status. Data collected in a respondent-driven sampling study of MSM in 2011 in Maputo and Beira. Men who had oral or anal sex with other men 12  months prior completed a questionnaire and consented for HIV testing. Statistical analysis explored demographic/risk characteristics and associations among circumcision status, anal sex wit...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HIV Prevalence and Related Risk Factors in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Bamako, Mali: Findings from a Bio-behavioral Survey Using Respondent-Driven Sampling
AbstractUsing respondent driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bamako, Mali. Eligibility criteria included age  ≥18 years and having had sex with another man in the last 6 months. We enrolled 552 MSM, 99.6% were tested for HIV. MSM in Bamako were young (69.6% ≤24 years) and educated (63.7% ≥secondary). HIV prevalence among MSM in Bamako was 13.7; 90.1% of HIV-infected men were unaware of their HI V status. Almost one-third had never been tested for HIV. Factors associated with higher odds of HIV included younger ...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk Prediction Score for HIV Infection: Development and Internal Validation with Cross-Sectional Data from Men Who Have Sex with Men in China
AbstractReceptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model. T...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Contraceptive Use Among Kenyan Women Aged 15 –49 Years
AbstractUptake of contraceptives is generally low in low-income settings. For women with HIV, contraception is a reliable and affordable method of minimizing vertical transmission. We investigated the factors that affect contraceptive use among Kenyan women using data collected during the Kenya Demographic& Health Survey (KDHS) of 2014. Data on contraceptive use were extracted from the 2014 KDHS database. Records of 31,079 Kenyan women of reproductive age (15 –49 years) were analyzed. Frequencies were calculated; cross-tabulations and bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Twelve thousand thirty...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparisons of New HIV Rapid Test Kit Performance
This study reports on the sensitivity and specificity of HIV tests when included on multi-disease test kits. 1029 participants were recruited from 2011 to 2014. HIV test kit sensitivities ranged from 91.1 to 100%, and the HIV test kit specificities from 99.5 to 100%. The two HIV kits which used oral fluid instead of blood performed well. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Lessons Learned from Applying a Modified Learning Collaborative Model to Promote Change in Regional and Statewide HIV Care Systems
AbstractThe Health Resources and Services Administration Special Projects of National Significance launched the Systems Linkage and Access to Care for Populations at High Risk of HIV Infection Initiative in 2011. Six state departments of health were funded to utilize a modified Learning Collaborative model to develop and/or adapt HIV testing, linkage to care and retention in care system-level interventions. More than 60 Learning Sessions were held over the course of the Learning Collaborative. A total of 22 unique interventions were tested with 18 interventions selected and scaled up. All interventions were created to impa...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

“Unspoken Agreements”: Perceived Acceptability of Couples HIV Testing and Counseling (CHTC) Among Cisgender Men with Transgender Women Partners
This study sought to examine the perceived acceptability of couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) for TW-male dyads from the perspective of cisgender men who partner with TW. Between September 2016 and June 2017, 19 cisgender men (mean age  = 40.1, SD = 12.8) who currently have, or have ever had a TW partner completed an in-depth semi-structured phone interview and brief survey to gather data on acceptability of CHTC, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators to CHTC for TW-male couples. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed and integrated with survey data. Acceptability of CHTC w...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Household Food Insecurity as Mediator of the Association Between Internalized Stigma and Opportunistic Infections
AbstractInternalized HIV stigma can affect health outcomes, but the mechanism underlying this relationship is poorly understood. We investigated the potential pathways for the association between internalized stigma and opportunistic infections (OIs) among women living with HIV in rural India. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving in-person interviews with 600 participants. We modeled two outcome variables, total number of OIs and fungal dermatoses, which was the most frequently reported OI. Causal mediation analysis was performed to estimate the total effect, direct effect, and indirect effect through mediators w...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ugandan Study Participants Experience Electronic Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence as Welcomed Pressure to Adhere
AbstractMany new technologies monitor patients ’ and study participants’ medical adherence. Some have cautioned that these devices transgress personal autonomy and ethics. But do they? This qualitative study explored how Ugandan study participants perceive the effect of electronic monitoring of their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on their freedoms to be non-adherent and pursue other activities that monitoring may inadvertently expose. Between August 2014 and June 2015, we interviewed 60 Ugandans living with HIV and enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) study, a longitudinal, o...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influences on Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Rural HIV-Infected South African Women: A Cluster Randomized Control Trial
This study examined the impact of a PMTCT intervention and male involvement on EBF. In a two-phase cluster-randomized trial, rural South African community health centers were randomized to offer HIV-infected pregnant women PMTCT standard of care plus either: a behavioral PMTCT intervention, or a time-equivalent attention-control condition. Phase 1 women had non-participating male partners; Phase 2 women had participating partners. Pregnant women (n  = 1398) were assessed on HIV stigma, disclosure of HIV status to partner, male involvement, and family planning knowledge. Feeding practices were assessed 6 weeks...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

AIDS Prevention Research: Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Investigators from Low- and Middle-Income Countries
(Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 18, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

“It Was Not My Aim to Sleep There”: The Impact of Timing and Location of Sex on Adherence to Coitally-Dependent HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis
AbstractThe FACTS 001 trial found that vaginal pre- and post-coital application of 1% tenofovir gel did not prevent HIV-1 infection amongst young South African women. The trial included a multi-faceted approach to adherence support and collected objective and self-reported adherence measures. Using qualitative data collected from a random sub-set of FACTS 001 participants (135 in-depth interviews at product discontinuation and 13 focus group discussions at dissemination of trial results), we explore the importance of ‘place’ and ‘timing’ in shaping acts of sexual intimacy and product adherence. Demo...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Stigma, Depression, and Substance Use Problems Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth in South Africa
AbstractA growing population of youth who acquired HIV from their mothers are surviving into adulthood. This group is unique in that they experience both internalized stigma (due to their HIV status) and associative stigma (due to their mothers ’ HIV status). Results of a cross-sectional survey of 250 perinatally HIV-infected South African youth suggests that internalized stigma is associated with greater risk of depression, and associative stigma is associated with greater risk of depression and substance use problems. Interventions cur rently focus on internalized stigma; this study highlights the importance of als...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 16, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk Behaviors and Perceptions Among Self-identified Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM), Bisexuals, Transvestites, and Transgender Women in Western Guatemala
AbstractGuatemala has a concentrated HIV epidemic disproportionately affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. We recruited 205 self-identified MSM, bisexuals, transvestites, and transgender women in western Guatemala using long-chain peer referral, wherein “seed” participants were asked to invite as many as three acquaintances to participate in the study. Self-reported sexual or gender identity was MSM, 46%; bisexual, 28%; transvestite, 21%, and transgender woman, 5%. Median age of the participants was 23 years, and 36% self-identified as being i ndigenous. Indigenous persons were m...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Trend and Factors Associated with Condom Use Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong: Findings of 13 Serial Behavioural Surveillance Surveys
This study investigated the trend and associated factors of condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in Hong Kong. A total of 25,443 males of the general population were screened to identify 2,330 CFSW via 13 rounds of population-based serial cross-sectional telephone surveys during 1998 through 2015. Over time, there were no significant changes in condom use with various types of female sex partners (p ranged 0. 219 –0.837) and prevalence of self-reported STI (p  =  0.975) in the past 6 months. Decrease in the prevalence of non-regular sex partners (p  
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

National Trends in Sexual Behavior, Substance Use and HIV Testing Among United States Men Who have Sex with Men Recruited Online, 2013 Through 2017
AbstractThe American Men ’s Internet Survey (AMIS) is conducted annually with 10,000 men age 15 + who have sex with men (MSM). Modeling was used with 39,863 AMIS surveys from 4 cycles between December 2013 to February 2017 to identify temporal trends in sexual behavior, substance use, and testing behavior (within 12  months preceding interview) stratified by participants’ self-reported HIV status. HIV-negative/unknown status MSM had significant increases in condomless anal intercourse (CAI), marijuana use, use of other illicit substances, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses, and HI...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Impact of Cell Phone Support on Psychosocial Outcomes for Youth Living with HIV Nonadherent to Antiretroviral Therapy
AbstractMobile health interventions to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents and young adults living with HIV represent a promising strategy. This pilot study (N  = 37) evaluated the psychosocial impacts of an efficacious adherence intervention, cell phone support (CPS). Participants receiving CPS reported significant decreases in perceived stress, depression, and illicit substance use, and increases in self-efficacy during at least one study assessment period, in comparison to participants receiving usual care. Future research using a larger sample should test for mediators of treatme...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviour Among Women Who Inject Drugs in Indonesia: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Study
This study examined associations and additive effects of different forms of IPV victimization (psychological, physical and/or injurious, and sexual) on HIV sexual risk behavior among women who inject drugs in Indonesia. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit 731 women from Greater Jakarta and Bandung, West Java. RDS-II weighted prevalence of any past-year IPV was 68.9% (95% CI 65.0, 72.6) in Jakarta and 55.9% (95% CI 48.0, 63.5) in Bandung. In separate logistic regressions controlling for socio-demographic covariates, all three forms of IPV showed statistically significant associations with sexual risk behavi...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative Approach on Improving Male Partner Involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Western Kenya
AbstractA rapid results initiative (RRI) aimed at increasing male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and service uptake among pregnant women at 116 antenatal clinics in Western Kenya was compared at baseline, during the RRI, and 3-months post-RRI. Male involvement increased from 7.4 to 54.2% during RRI (risk difference [RD] 0.47, CI 0.45 –0.48) then 43.4% post-RRI (RD 0.36, CI 0.35–0.37). Among HIV-infected women, facility delivery increased from 40.0 to 49.9% (RD 0.10, 95% CI 0.06–0.13) and 65.0% post-RRI (RD 0.25, 95% CI 0.22–0.28). HIV-infected pregnant women linkag...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Stigmatizing Attitudes Toward People Living with HIV Among Adults and Adolescents in the United States
AbstractStigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) cause psychological distress for PLWH and hinder HIV prevention efforts. We estimated the prevalence of stigmatizing attitudes among 6809 adults and 885 adolescents who responded to online surveys in 2015. Fear of casual contact with PLWH was reported by 17.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 16.3 –18.6%] of adults and 31.6% (CI 27.8–35.4%) of adolescents. Among adults, 12.5% (CI 11.6–13.5%) endorsed a measure of moral judgment toward PLWH. Stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH persist in the United States. Continued monitoring of these attitud...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction: Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In the section, “Data Collection Procedure”, the last sentence was incorrect. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preferences for Sexual Health Smartphone App Features Among Gay and Bisexual Men
AbstractGiven the popularity of geosocial networking applications ( “apps”) among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM), this study sought to examine GBMSM’s willingness to use sexual health and behavior tracking features if integrated within apps they are already using to meet sexual partners. Most GBMSM (91%) recruited on a popular app r eported interest in one or more sexual health app features, including features to find LGBT-friendly providers (83%), receive lab results (68%), schedule appointment reminders (67%), chat with a healthcare provider (59%), and receive medication remi...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A Critical Review and Commentary on the Challenges in Engaging HIV-Infected Latinos in the Continuum of HIV Care
AbstractAntiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV infection has become increasingly effective. Persistent poor HIV outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations in the US call for a closer examination into why Latinos are at significant risk for acquiring and dying from HIV. To improve clinical outcomes and achieve an AIDS-free generation, HIV research must address disparities in HIV outcomes in Latinos, the largest ethnic/racial minority population in the US. Immigrant status as well as cultural factors influence HIV care utilization and are essential to highlight for effective intervention development in Latinos. ...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Food Insecurity, Internalized Stigma, and Depressive Symptoms Among Women Living with HIV in the United States
AbstractFood insecurity, internalized HIV stigma, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with poor HIV outcomes. Food insecurity, stigma, and depression may be interrelated among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with internalized stigma and depressive symptoms among WLHIV in the United States (US), and would partially account for associations between stigma and depressive symptoms. We tested hypotheses using regression models and partial correlation analysis with cross-sectional data among 1317 WLHIV from the Women ’s Interagency HIV S...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Addressing Stigma Through a Virtual Community for People Living with HIV: A Mixed Methods Study of the PositiveLinks Mobile Health Intervention
AbstractStigma has negative consequences for quality of life and HIV care outcomes. PositiveLinks is a mobile health intervention that includes a secure anonymous community message board (CMB). We investigated discussion of stigma and changes in stigma scores. Of 77 participants in our pilot, 63% were male, 49% Black, and 72% had incomes below the federal poverty level. Twenty-one percent of CMB posts  (394/1834) contained stigma-related content including negative (experiencing stigma) and positive (overcoming stigma) posts addressing intrapersonal and interpersonal stigma. Higher baseline stigma was positively correl...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sexual Sensation Seeking: A Validated Scale for Spanish Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People
This study adapts and validates the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale to Spanish LGB people. For this purpose, we tested the factor structure in 1237 people, ranged from 17 to 60  years old, 880 self-defined as homosexuals and 357 as bisexuals. The results support the appropriateness of this scale for Spanish LGB people and determine two factors, explaining the 49.91% of variance: “physical sensations attraction” and “sexual experiences”. Our findings reveal optimal levels of internal consistency in the total scale (α = 0.81) and each factor (α = 0.84 and &a...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correlates of Serodiscordant Condomless Anal Intercourse Among Virologically Detectable HIV-Positive Young Men Who Have Sex with Men
AbstractSexual transmission risk occurs in the context of serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse (CAI) where the seropositive partner is virologically detectable (VL+) and/or seronegative partner is not on PrEP. We analyzed correlates of serodiscordant CAI among 688 VL+ young men who have sex with men (YMSM). In multivariable analyses, serodiscordant CAI was associated with a receiving a HIV diagnosis in the past 6  months, greater depressive symptoms, and cocaine use during the past 90 days. Although HIV+ YMSM currently experience disparities across the continuum of care, those new to care may need support a...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Inject Drugs in a Canadian Setting
AbstractFew data on HIV incidence among men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM-PWID) are available. Drawing on a prospective cohort in Vancouver, Canada, we examined the relationship between MSM status and HIV incidence among PWID using Kaplan –Meier analyses and extended Cox regression. Data were collected from 1996 to 2014 and analyzed in 2017. Of 1131 HIV-negative male PWID, 8.6% (n = 97) reported sex with men over the study period. MSM status was crudely associated with HIV incidence [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.81; 95% CI 1.08– 3.03], but not after adjustment for daily...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Improving PrEP Implementation Through Multilevel Interventions: A Synthesis of the Literature
AbstractThere are many challenges to accessing PrEP and thus low uptake in the United States. This review (2007 –2017) of PrEP implementation identified barriers to PrEP and interventions to match those barriers. The final set of articles (n = 47) included content on cognitive aspects of HIV service providers and individuals at risk for infection, reviews, and case studies. Cognitive barriers and interv entions regarding patients and providers included knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about PrEP. The “purview paradox” was identified as a key barrier—HIV specialists often do not see HI...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - June 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research