Expansion of HIV testing in Eswatini: stakeholder perspectives on reaching the first 90.
Authors: Kitchen PJ, Bärnighausen K, Dube L, Mnisi Z, Dlamini-Nqeketo S, Johnson CC, Bärnighausen T, De Neve JW, McMahon SA Abstract Achieving the United Nations' 90-90-90 goals has proven challenging in most settings and the ambitious 95-95-95 goals seem even more elusive. However, in Eswatini - a lower-middle-income country in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest HIV prevalence in the world - an estimated 92% of people living with HIV know their status. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with stakeholders from policy, implementation, donor, local advocacy and academic sectors to elicit the facilitators ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 19, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

HIV serostatus, inflammatory biomarkers and the frailty phenotype among older people in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Authors: Edwards A, Siedner MJ, Nash S, Neuman M, Danaviah S, Smit T, Gareta D, Kowal P, Seeley J Abstract Objective: We compared the prevalence of frailty by HIV serostatus and related biomarkers to the modified frailty phenotype among older individuals in a rural population in South Africa. Methods: Questionnaire data were from a cohort of people living with HIV (PWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-uninfected people aged 50 years and older sampled from the Africa Health Research Institute Demographic Health and Surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal. The prevalence of frailty was compared using five...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

How do HIV/AIDS policies address access to HIV services among men who have sex with men in Botswana?
Authors: Matlapeng KM, Babatunde GB, Akintola O Abstract The study assessed Botswana government policies related to HIV/AIDS and international policy documents that were adopted to address the HIV epidemic. Studies have indicated that HIV surveillance among men who have sex with men (MSM) is poor and that they are disproportionally affected by HIV. A document analysis method was employed to assess the Botswana government and international HIV/AIDS policy documents adopted in the country to determine how they address MSM issues such as access to HIV testing and treatment. A qualitative assessment of documents reveal...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Negative centralisation of HIV/AIDS trauma and health-related quality of life: do post-traumatic stress symptoms explain the link?
Authors: Uchechukwu D, Kator SI, Ugwu DI Abstract Over-integration of HIV-related trauma into the client's memory in a negative emotional valence could be a serious health debilitating process which may result in negative post-traumatic health outcomes, affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people living with HIV (PLWH). We hypothesized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are the mediating link between negative event centrality (NEC) and HRQoL among PLWH. Nine hundred and sixty-nine PLWH in Nigeria completed measures of NEC, PTSD symptoms and HRQoL. Model 4 of Hayes' regression-based P...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

 "There is no fear in me … well, that little fear is there": dualistic views towards HIV testing among South African adolescent girls and young women.
This article reports on findings from an exploration of perceptions of HIV testing and testing behaviour amongst AGYW in South Africa using a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. Analysis included data on testing behaviour and reasons for never testing from a survey conducted with 4 399 AGYW aged 15-24 years in six provinces. Combined with survey data is qualitative analysis from 63 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions with 237 AGYW from five provinces. Findings revealed complex, dualistic and often contradictory views towards HIV testing in this population, with fear of HIV and the consequences ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

HIV stigma, resilience and depressive symptoms among older adults living with HIV in rural Namibia.
This study focused on the association between HIV stigma, resilience, and depressive symptoms among 147 older adults from the Oshana and Ohangwena health facilities in rural Namibia. The study used the hierarchical multivariate regression analysis method to reveal that there was a positive association between HIV stigma (negative self-perceptions) and depression as well as a negative relationship between resilience and depression. In addition, being female and higher education were protective factors, and disclosure of HIV status was a risk factor to predict depressive symptoms among the target population. In order to redu...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Individual and contextual predictors of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge among young females in Ghana.
This study sought to examine the individual and contextual predictors of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge among young women in Ghana. The study used the females' file from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey dataset. A total of 1 407 young women were used for the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. The results showed that about 22% of the respondents had comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge. Young women with secondary and higher levels of education (AOR = 2.85, p
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 9, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Applying a social-ecological lens to opinions about HIV self-testing among Kenyan truckers who declined to test: a qualitative study.
Authors: Christian SN, Mantell JE, Romo ML, Grov C, George G, Mwai E, Nyaga E, Odhiambo JO, Govender K, Kelvin EA Abstract HIV prevalence among truckers in Africa is high and testing rates suboptimal. With numerous African countries having approved HIV self-testing kits, more information on how to design acceptable and accessible self-testing programs for high-risk populations is necessary. We explored views about self-testing via in-depth interviews with 24 truckers participating in a randomised controlled trial who refused HIV testing. A social-ecological lens was used to guide data analysis and frame study findi...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - August 13, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

PMTCT Option B+ 2012 to 2018 - Taking stock: barriers and strategies to improve adherence to Option B+ in urban and rural Uganda.
Authors: King R, Matovu JN, Rujumba J, Wavamunno P, Amone A, Gabagaya G, Fowler MG, Homsy J, Seeley J, Musoke P Abstract Since 2012, PMTCT Option B+ has been recommended by the World Health Organization to reduce vertical transmission but numerous adherence challenges remain. We conducted a qualitative study at baseline using six focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews to explore knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and challenges towards the Option B+ strategy for PMTCT among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum women and health workers engaged in Uganda's national Option B+ PMTCT programme. Data were analyse...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - August 13, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Experiences of grandmothers caring for female adolescents living with HIV in rural Manzini, Eswatini: a caregiver stress model perspective.
Authors: Nsibandze BS, Downing C, Poggenpoel M, Myburgh CP Abstract The HIV pandemic has immense effects on the Eswatini population. The burden of caregiving rests on women, typically grandmothers who are elderly and dealing with chronic diseases themselves. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of grandmothers in Eswatini caring for female adolescents living with HIV. The study draws on phenomenological fieldwork of six case studies of grandmother-granddaughter pairs who were purposively sampled. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews that commenced with broad qu...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - August 13, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

HIV-prevention measures on a university campus in South Africa - perceptions, practices and needs of undergraduate medical students.
Conclusion: Medical students received HIV-prevention information as part of their curriculum but this was deemed not to be sufficient. This study suggests that tertiary education institutions should evaluate the effectiveness of strategies currently in place for the distribution and awareness of HIV-prevention measures and sexual health issues affecting students, using a student-centred approach. PMID: 32780679 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - August 13, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Kenya: an investigation into the perceptions of Kenyans toward people living with HIV/AIDS and government programmes.
Authors: Nyaga R Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is compounded by the continued stigmatization of the virus/disease and of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Employing structuration theory, this study sought to examine the perceptions of Kenyans toward their government's efforts to curtail HIV/AIDS as well as their attitudes toward PLWHA. Data for this study were collected using an open-ended online survey. In total, 103 participants (25.3%) completed the survey. We used snowball sampling to select prospective participants known to the researcher; they were sent a link to the survey via email or direct message on ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - August 13, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

"I'm doing this test so I can benefit from PrEP": exploring HIV testing barriers/facilitators and implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis among South African adolescents.
"I'm doing this test so I can benefit from PrEP": exploring HIV testing barriers/facilitators and implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis among South African adolescents. Afr J AIDS Res. 2020 Apr 24;:1-8 Authors: Yoshioka E, Giovenco D, Kuo C, Underhill K, Hoare J, Operario D Abstract In South Africa, adolescents are a key population in the HIV epidemic that can benefit from increased access to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). HIV testing is an integral component of the PrEP care continuum but adolescents in South Africa have generally low HIV testing rates; therefore, adolescents' HI...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - April 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Male partners' influence on women's acceptance and use of PrEP products across two high HIV-burdened districts in South Africa.
Authors: Mbewe L, Govender E Abstract The demonstrated efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has brought hope of controlling the epidemic among women with limited HIV preventation options. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of male partner involvement in female sexual and reproductive health but there is limited research on male involvement in the adoption of HIV prevention methods among women. Using a culture-centred approach, this article discusses perceptions of female-initiated HIV prevention methods among men and women. The data were collected using eight sex-specific focus group discussion...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - April 24, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Addressing community-level stigma toward key populations: communication insights from action research in Ghana.
Conclusions: Participants realised that causing hurt or harm to others through stigma was not consistent with their religious and cultural values, nor how they saw themselves as people. There were four entry points that undermined the rationale for stigma: The need to know and understand 'the other', the need to be true to one's moral values, the need for empathy towards others, and recognition of the value of all people within a communal whole. These findings are relevant for engaging communities in stigma-reduction programs and improving health-seeking and adherence to care among key populations in similar African settin...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - April 24, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Editorial: Managing the march of COVID-19: lessons from the HIV and AIDS epidemic.
Authors: Whiteside A, Parker W, Schramm M PMID: 32233915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - April 4, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Review - The Impatient Dr. LangeReview - The Impatient Dr. Lange, Seema Yasmin, 2018, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 186 pages, ISBN 978-1-42142-662-4, US$24.95.
Authors: MacArthur C PMID: 32200721 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

A community-based HIV counselling and testing programme found a decreasing proportion of new HIV testers in South Africa.
This article assesses the history of HIV testing among community-based HIV counselling and testing (CBCT) clients between 2014 and 2018 in 13 South African districts. Consenting clients were tested for HIV and interviewed to categorise as first-time testers or repeat testers. Of the 1 800 753 clients tested for HIV, 15.7% (95% CI [15.6-15.7]) were first-time testers. The rate of identifying first-time testers decreased by 10.7% in four years from 18.4% in year one to 7.7% in year four. A substantial proportion (5.5% [5.4-5.6]) of HIV-positive people not yet on antiretroviral treatment sought HIV re-test, of whom nearly hal...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Healthcare workers' perspectives on availability and accessibility of the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission programme in North West province, South Africa.
Conclusion: Availability and accessibility of PMTCT programme services are still problematic. The study has the potential to inform development of strategies that may facilitate access to care for PMTCT programme clients. PMID: 32200723 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Resilience and pathways to wellness among HIV-positive patients in Ghana: a qualitative study.
Authors: Lewis C, Lartey M, Operario D Abstract Few African studies have focused on resilience factors related to engagement in HIV-related care among people living with HIV; instead, many studies have identified health risk factors and barriers within this population. Informed by the Disability-Stress-Coping Model of Adjustment, a qualitative study was conducted to develop a better understanding of psychosocial factors that can promote positive behaviours and subjective wellness for people living with HIV in Accra, Ghana. Thirty patients from the two largest HIV clinics in Accra participated in in-depth individual...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Intervention targets for people living with HIV and depressive symptoms in Botswana.
Conclusion: Almost half of the PLWH reported depressive symptoms that were clinically significant. The findings suggested that an intervention for PLWH with depressive symptoms in Botswana should preferably be a self-help programme presented in booklet format. With regard to content, the results confirmed that the intervention should focus on specific coping skills. In addition, elements like goal finding and strategies to reduce physical tension should be added. PMID: 32200725 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Review - Mistreated: The Political Consequences of the Fight Against AIDS in LesothoReview - Mistreated: The Political Consequences of the Fight Against AIDS in Lesotho, Nora Kenworthy, 2017, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, TN 231 pages, ISBN 978-0-8265-2155-2, US$39.95.
Authors: Hoek JV PMID: 32200726 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 25, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Barriers to HIV testing uptake among men in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review.
Conclusion: Structural and individual factors present barriers to HIV testing uptake among men in SSA. Community and home-based initiatives have the potential to improve the uptake of HIV testing among men in SSA, considering the confidentiality concerns posed by clinic settings. PMID: 32174231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 18, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Maternal HIV status disclosure to young uninfected children: psychological variables of the mother.
In this study, a South African sample of mothers living with HIV, with young uninfected children (6-10 years) in the city of Tshwane was studied. In the sample of 406 mothers, 11.6% reported that they disclosed their HIV status to their young uninfected children. The research compared 47 mothers who disclosed (29 full disclosure and 18 partial disclosure) and a random sample of 50 mothers who did not disclose to their children, in terms of depression symptoms, parenting stress and coping strategies. The results showed that single and widowed mothers disclosed significantly more to their uninfected young children than mothe...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 12, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

"Left behind": why implementing migration-aware responses to HIV for migrant farm workers is a priority for South Africa.
"Left behind": why implementing migration-aware responses to HIV for migrant farm workers is a priority for South Africa. Afr J AIDS Res. 2020 Mar 10;:1-12 Authors: Gruchy T, Vearey J Abstract Like many other countries, South Africa (SA) has committed to the Sustainable Development Goals that aim to "leave no-one behind", in efforts towards universal health coverage, and meeting the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets through the implementation of universal test and treat (UTT) interventions. SA is associated with high levels of international and internal migration that, in certain contexts, ar...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 12, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults on antiretroviral therapy: a review of South African and global literature.
Authors: Anderson K, Muloiwa R, Davies MA Abstract Paediatric antiretroviral programmes have been implemented globally for more than a decade, yet information on long-term treatment outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents is limited. Published literature on long-term treatment outcomes was reviewed, including virologic, immunologic and growth outcomes, as well as drug resistance and factors associated with drug resistance. Outcomes were compared between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with additional focus on South Africa, the country with the biggest HIV epidemic in the ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - March 5, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Levels and determinants of HIV testing uptake among Ghanaian men.
This article was based on data from the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. A bivariate statistical method was used to calculate the levels of uptake while three logit models were fitted to estimate the determinants of HIV uptake among the respondents. The total levels of the uptake of HIV testing among the respondents were 9.1%, 14.7% and 22.7% for 2003, 2008 and 2014, respectively; 15% overall. These were significantly determined by age, educational attainment, religious affiliation, wealth and work status, region of residence and media exposure. HIV testing uptake is very low among men in Ghana, al...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - February 22, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Doomed Interventions: The Failure of Global Responses to AIDS in Africa.
Authors: Ennis B PMID: 32063138 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - February 20, 2020 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of average costs of HIV testing and counselling and voluntary medical male circumcision across thirteen countries.
Authors: Pineda-Antunez C, Martinez-Silva G, Cerecero-Garcia D, Alexander L, Cameron DB, Chiwevu C, Dandona L, Obure CD, Forsythe S, Nguyen VT, Settumba S, Tchuenche M, Van Minh H, Kahn JG, Gomez G, Sweeney S, Vassall A, Bollinger L, Levin C, Bautista-Arredondo S Abstract Objective: Explore facility-level average costs per client of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services in 13 countries.Methods: Through a literature search we identified studies that reported facility-level costs of HTC or VMMC programmes. We requested the primary data from authors and standardised ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Doomed Interventions: The Failure of Global Responses to AIDS in Africa.
Authors: Ennis B PMID: 31779566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Smart cascades: using cost analysis to improve HIV care and treatment interventions to achieve global 95-95-95 goals.
Conclusions across countries are synthesised for overall best practices.Results: In Ghana, Indonesia, Tajikistan, and the Kyrgyz Republic, HIV identification strategies need to evolve to counter diminishing testing yields. Higher-yield testing modes may have higher costs per person tested, yet lower costs per person identified compared to previous strategies. In Kenya, investments in linkage and retention require additional funding, and will reduce the need for expensive loss-to-follow-up activities. In Tanzania, differentiated antiretroviral therapy can improve patient management while reducing facility-level costs.Conclu...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

The state of costing research for HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.
Authors: Cameron DB, Mustafa Diab M, Carroll LN, Bollinger LA, DeCormier Plosky W, Levin C, Herzel B, Marseille E, Alexander L, Bautista-Arredondo S, Pineda-Antunez C, Cerecero-García D, Gomez GB, Dow WH, Kahn JG Abstract The past decade has seen a growing emphasis on the production of high-quality costing data to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of global health interventions. The need for such data is especially important for decision making and priority setting across HIV services from prevention and testing to treatment and care. To help address this critical need, the Global Health Cost Con...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

The future of HIV and AIDS - a persistent priority.
Authors: Reiszadeh A PMID: 31779569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

The costs of home-based HIV testing and counselling in sub-Saharan Africa and its association with testing yield: a literature review.
Authors: Hauck K Abstract More than 14.5 of the 36.7 million people living with HIV globally do not know their HIV status, making comprehensive testing interventions a critical step in ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Home-based testing and counselling (HBTC) involves small teams of community health workers with basic training going from door-to-door and offering services in people's homes. HBTC is effective in reaching individuals that are unlikely to test otherwise, but there is conflicting evidence on its costs and little insight into why estimates are different. We undertook a comparative review of existing costin...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Developing the Global Health Cost Consortium Unit Cost Study Repository for HIV and TB: methodology and lessons learned.
Authors: DeCormier Plosky W, Bollinger LA, Alexander L, Cameron DB, Carroll LN, Cunnama L, Gomez GB, Levin C, Marseille E, Mustafa Diab M, Siapka M, Sinanovic E, Vassall A, Kahn JG Abstract Consistently defined, accurate, and easily accessible cost data are a valuable resource to inform efficiency analyses, budget preparation, and sustainability planning in global health. The Global Health Cost Consortium (GHCC) designed the Unit Cost Study Repository (UCSR) to be a resource for standardised HIV and TB intervention cost data displayed by key characteristics such as intervention type, country, and target population....
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Which delivery model innovations can support sustainable HIV treatment?
We describe twelve models for ART delivery, which could be achieved through five categories of delivery innovations: integrating ART ("vertical ART plus", "partially-integrated ART" and "fully-integrated ART"); modifying steps in the ART value chain ("professional task-shifted ART", "people task-shifted ART" and "technology-supported ART"); eliminating steps in the ART value chain ("immediate ART" and "less frequent ART pick-up"); changing ART locations ("private-sector ART", "traditional-sector ART" and "ART outside th...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

It's politics, stupid! A political analysis of the HIV/AIDS Trust Fund in Uganda.
Authors: Birungi C, Colbourn T Abstract The role of trust funds in the practice of and the policy discourse on the sustainable financing for health and HIV is growing. However, there is a paucity of political analyses on implementing trust fund arrangements. Drawing on a novel meta-framework - connecting multiple streams and advocacy coalition frameworks to policy cycle models of analysis - to politically analyse HIV financing policy design, adoption and implementation as well as insights from public finance literature, this article critically analyses the politics of the AIDS Trust Fund (ATF) in Uganda. We find th...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Using information on ART costs and benefits to mobilise resources - comparing different methods and contexts.
Authors: Kinghorn A Abstract Sustaining HIV and AIDS responses depends on a mix of donor, government and private funders. Their decisions about investing in HIV treatment may be informed by various types of economic evaluations, which may be more or less useful for different contexts. This paper benchmarks methods against each other. Epidemiological and demographic impacts of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1996-2015 were quantified using country- specific spectrum files. The study compared societal benefits of ART using the full income (FI) methodology with "conventional" benefit, utility and e...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Planning and sustaining HIV response in the countries of the "risky middle".
Planning and sustaining HIV response in the countries of the "risky middle". Afr J AIDS Res. 2019 Dec;18(4):360-369 Authors: Whiteside A, Greener R, Semini I Abstract This paper focusses on high-HIV middle-income countries termed the "risky middle", i.e. characterised by a typology based on HIV burden and gross national income (GNI), according to which seven countries - Lesotho, Eswatini, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Namibia and Zambia - are identified. There is particular concern for "people left behind", the factors determining a country's ability to mobilise resources in ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

HIV testing preferences among pregnant women attending antenatal care and their male partners: a discrete choice experiment in Uganda.
We present the results of a discrete choice experiment in Uganda, examining preferences among 824 pregnant women and 896 male partners regarding service delivery characteristics of HIV testing. Both men and women preferred nurse administered testing to self-testing (OR = 0.835; p
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

A meta-analysis approach for estimating average unit costs for ART using pooled facility-level primary data from African countries.
Conclusion: Our approach allowed us to explore unit cost variation across contexts by pooling ART costs from multiple sources. Our research provides an example of how to estimate costs based on heterogeneous sources reconciling methodological differences across studies and contributes by giving an example on how to estimate costs based on heterogeneous sources of data. Also, our study provides additional information on costs for funders, policy-makers, and decision-makers in the process of designing or scaling-up HIV interventions. PMID: 31779577 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

HIV treatment support services in Tanzania: a cost and efficiency analysis at facility and community levels.
This study assessed the costs of treatment support services at 27 sites in Tanzania. The cost analysis found that the average unit cost of treatment support services is US$39 per patient per year. The analysis found that community-based models have clear advantages with regard to the number of patients that can be reached with support services. Costing data indicated that community-based models are also less expensive. The lack of data on retention limited any conclusions about whether community-based models are the most effective within the Tanzanian context. PMID: 31779578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Editorial - A sustainable AIDS response: results in the era of shrinking donor funding.
Authors: Forsythe S, Semini I PMID: 31779579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: African Journal of AIDS Research)
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - November 30, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Do challenges still exist amongst HIV/AIDS patients in managing their condition? A cross-sectional study of 297 participants in the Ethekwini Metro of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Authors: Naidoo P, Premdutt R Abstract Background: South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic globally and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, yet HIV incidence is still chronically high in South Africa, especially in KwaZulu-Natal province (KZN). In light of this, a study was conducted to investigate the extent of challenges making the management of HIV/AIDS difficult in people living with HIV (PLWH) in KZN, South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 297 study participants living with HIV and receiving ART from three selected clinics in the Ethekwini Met...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Accessing HIV treatment and care services in fishing communities around Lake Victoria in Uganda: mobility and transport challenges.
Authors: Tumwine C, Aggleton P, Bell S Abstract Qualitative research exploring the influence of community-level factors on access to and use of HIV treatment and care services among people living in fishing communities is limited, especially with respect to those already in receipt of HIV care and on treatment. To enhance understanding of these issues, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 HIV-positive fisherfolk and 15 health care providers from two HIV clinics located in two fishing communities in Uganda. Fisherfolk's mobility and poor transport systems were significant barriers to access to ...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

"I am aware of the risks, I am not changing my behaviour": risky sexual behaviour of university students in a high-HIV context.
This study uses qualitative data from 20 in-depth interviews and one focus group to examine the risk behaviours of university students aged 18-24 years old, with particular emphasis on understanding the decline in the use of condoms. It is well documented that South Africa has one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV and AIDS in the world, however the findings of this study suggest that even though students were well informed about the perceived risks associated with unsafe sexual behaviours, they continue to engage in risk behaviours including unprotected sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners and the use of alcoh...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Sex work among female workers in the traditional mining sector in Mali - results from the ANRS-12339 Sanu Gundo cross-sectional study in 2015.
Authors: Kounta CH, Sagaon-Teyssier L, Balique H, Diallo F, Kalampalikis N, Mora M, Bourrelly M, Suzan-Monti M, Spire B, Keita BD Abstract Female sex workers (FSW) in mining sites are considered to be at very high risk of HIV infection. We aimed to characterize FSW at the Kôkôyô artisanal gold mining site in Mali, and identify factors associated with sex work using data from ANRS-12339 Sanu Gundo, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015 at the mine by ARCAD-SIDA, a Malian non-governmental organisation. People attending HIV-prevention activities were invited to participate in the quantitative an...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Social networks, gender and HIV within marriages in Kenya.
This study explores how couples' social networks and spaces of interactions are implicated in the (re)production of gender and gender relations and how this, consequently, shapes HIV risks within marriage. It draws on qualitative data from 14 relatively poor couples from rural eastern Kenya and 13 middle-class couples from the capital city of Nairobi. The data describe couples' networks and address three broad themes: kin relations and gender (re)production; informal financial networks and gender hierarchies; and gender segregation of networks and spaces of interaction. Overall, findings show that much social interaction s...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

The relevance of the content of an HIV and AIDS social intervention programme for the youth in the Northern Cape, South Africa.
This study aimed to evaluate the relevance of the content of an HIV and AIDS social intervention programme for the youth in the Northern Cape as well as to collect attendees' recommendations with regards to programme content. The data collection method comprised a group-administered questionnaire completed by youth (N = 172) who participated in the Soul City social intervention programme (SCP) implemented for the youth in the Northern Cape, and recruited through stratified random sampling. Based on specific criteria, the results showed that the SCP programme's content was relevant to the communities it served. The youth al...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - October 4, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research

Associations between female genital mutilation/cutting and HIV: a review of the evidence.
This article reviewed current evidence of associations between FGM/C and HIV, drawing on evidence from peer-reviewed as well as grey literature. All studies evaluated were observational. This review investigated associations between FGM/C and HIV, not a causal relationship, and observational studies therefore sufficed. The final review included 14 studies from several African countries. The strength of the evidence overall was determined to be of low to moderate quality by Department for International Development criteria: conceptual framing, openness and transparency, cogency, appropriateness and rigour, validity, reliabi...
Source: African Journal of AIDS Research - September 11, 2019 Category: African Health Tags: Afr J AIDS Res Source Type: research