Racial/ethnic disparities in ovarian cancer research.
Abstract Ovarian cancer is one of the most fatal cancers diagnosed in women in the United States (U.S.). Data from national databases, including the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, show racial/ethnic differences in risk and survival of epithelial ovarian cancer with higher incidence among white women yet worse survival among African-American women compared to other racial/ethnic groups. The reasons for these differences are not well understood, but are likely multi-factorial. Epidemiologic studies suggest there may be some risk factor differences across racial/ethnic groups that would exp...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Peres LC, Schildkraut JM Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Race differences in mobility status among prostate cancer survivors: The role of socioeconomic status.
The objective of this paper was to determine whether there were any race differences in mobility limitation among PCa survivors, and understand the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on this relationship. Data consisted of 661 PCa survivors (296 Black and 365 White) from the Diagnosis and Decisions in Prostate Cancer Treatment Outcomes (DAD) Study. Mobility limitation was defined as PCa survivors who reported difficulty walking a quarter mile or up 1 flight of stairs. Race was based on the PCa survivors self-identification of either White or Black. SES consisted of education level (i.e., less than high school, high schoo...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Thorpe RJ, Bruce MA, Howard DL, LaVeist TA Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Assessing an intervention to increase knowledge related to cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine.
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary risk factor for cervical cancer. While the HPV vaccine significantly reduces the risk of HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer diagnosis, underuse is linked to lack of knowledge of its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a cancer educational intervention (titled "MOVENUP") to improve knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine among predominantly African American communities in South Carolina. The MOVENUP cancer educational intervention was conducted among participants residin...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ford ME, Cannady K, Nahhas GJ, Knight KD, Chavis C, Crawford B, Malek AM, Martino E, Frazier S, Gathers A, Lawton C, Cartmell KB, Luque JS Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Patient barriers to cancer clinical trial participation and navigator activities to assist.
Abstract Clinical research is vital to the discovery of new cancer treatments that can enhance health and prolong life for cancer patients, but breakthroughs in cancer treatment are limited by challenges recruiting patients into cancer clinical trials (CT). Only 3-5% of cancer patients in the United States participate in a cancer CT and there are disparities in CT participation by age, race and gender. Strategies such as patient navigation, which is designed to provide patients with education and practical support, may help to overcome challenges of CT recruitment. The current study evaluated an intervention in wh...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cartmell KB, Bonilha HS, Simpson KN, Ford ME, Bryant DC, Alberg AJ Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Project PLACE: Enhancing community and academic partnerships to describe and address health disparities.
Abstract Achieving cancer health equity is a national imperative. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and in North Carolina (NC), where the disease disproportionately impacts traditionally underrepresented race and ethnic groups, those who live in rural communities, the impoverished, and medically disenfranchised and/or health-disparate populations at high-risk for cancer. These populations have worse cancer outcomes and are less likely to be participants in clinical research and trials. It is critical for cancer centers and other academic health centers to understand the factors that ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Barrett NJ, Ingraham KL, Bethea K, Hwa-Lin P, Chirinos M, Fish LJ, Randolph S, Zhang P, Le P, Harvey D, Godbee RL, Patierno SR Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Mighty men: A faith-based weight loss intervention to reduce cancer risk in African American men.
Abstract According to the American Cancer Society's guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention, weight control, eating practices and physical activity are second only to tobacco use as modifiable determinants of cancer risk. However, no evidence-based interventions have been targeted to African American men or tailored to individual African American men's preferences, needs or identities. The goal of this chapter is to describe the rationale for the components, aims and setting of Mighty Men: A Faith-Based Weight Loss Intervention for African American Men. We begin by discussing the ration...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Griffith DM, Jaeger EC Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

A primer for cancer research programs on defining and evaluating the catchment area and evaluating minority clinical trials recruitment.
Abstract National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated cancer centers are charged with reducing disparities, improving cancer-related health outcomes, and increasing clinical trial participation for the catchment area population. Succeeding in this endeavor requires a clear definition of each cancer center's geographic catchment area as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations residing in the catchment area. For this reason, the definition of the catchment area is now a required element of NCI grant applications. This primer provides detailed information related to the definition of cancer centers' ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nguyen LH, Cook ED Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Age-related disparities in older women with breast cancer.
Abstract Improvements in breast cancer (BC) mortality rates have not been seen in the older adult community, and the fact that older adults are more likely to die from their cancer than younger women establishes a major health disparity. Studies have identified that despite typically presenting with more favorable histology, older women present with more advanced disease, which may be related in part to delayed diagnosis. This is supported by examination of screening practices in older adults. Older women have a worse prognosis than younger women in both early stage disease, and more advanced and metastatic diseas...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bagegni NA, Peterson LL Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Pubertal mammary development as a "susceptibility window" for breast cancer disparity.
Pubertal mammary development as a "susceptibility window" for breast cancer disparity. Adv Cancer Res. 2020;146:57-82 Authors: Krisanits B, Randise JF, Burton CE, Findlay VJ, Turner DP Abstract Factors such as socioeconomic status, age at menarche and childbearing patterns are components that have been shown to influence mammary gland development and establish breast cancer disparity. Pubertal mammary gland development is selected as the focus of this review, as it is identified as a "window of susceptibility" for breast cancer risk and disparity. Here we recognize non-Hispanic Whi...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Krisanits B, Randise JF, Burton CE, Findlay VJ, Turner DP Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

BMI, physical activity, and breast cancer subtype in white, black, and Sea Island breast cancer survivors.
JD, Whitfield KE, Esnaola NF, Cunningham JE Abstract Higher BMI, lower rates of physical activity (PA), and hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (BC) subtype are associated with poorer BC treatment outcomes. We evaluated the prevalence of high BMI, low PA level, and BC subtype among survivors with white/European American (EA) and African American (AA) ancestry, as well as a distinct subset of AAs with Sea Island/Gullah ancestry (SI). We used the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry to identify 137 (42 EAs, 66 AAs, and 29 SIs) women diagnosed with BC and who were within 6-21 months of diagnosis. We employed l...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ford ME, Bauza CE, Findlay VJ, Turner DP, Abraham LM, Moore LA, Magwood G, Alberg AJ, Gaymon K, Knight KD, Hilton E, Malek AM, Kramer RM, Peterson LL, Gregoski MJ, Bolick S, Hurley D, Mosley C, Hazelton TR, Burshell DR, Nogueira L, Mack F, Brown ET, Salle Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 32241394 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Cancer Research)
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - April 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ford ME, Esnaola NF, Salley JD Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Atypical chemokine receptors in tumor cell growth and metastasis.
Abstract Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) are seven-transmembrane cell surface protein receptors expressed in immune cells, normal mesenchymal cells, and several tumor cells. As of this writing, six ACKRs have been characterized by diverse activities. They bind both cysteine-cysteine (CC) type and cysteine-X-cysteine (CXC)-type chemokines, either alone, or together with a ligand bound-functional G-protein coupled (typical) chemokine receptor. The major structural difference between ACKRs and typical chemokine receptors is the substituted DRYLAIV amino acid motif in the second intracellular loop of the ACKR. Du...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lokeshwar BL, Kallifatidis G, Hoy JJ Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Structure and function of β-arrestins, their emerging role in breast cancer, and potential opportunities for therapeutic manipulation.
Structure and function of β-arrestins, their emerging role in breast cancer, and potential opportunities for therapeutic manipulation. Adv Cancer Res. 2020;145:139-156 Authors: Shukla AK, Dwivedi-Agnihotri H Abstract β-Arrestins (βarrs) are multifunctional intracellular proteins with an ability to directly interact with a large number of cellular partners including the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). βarrs contribute to multiple aspects of GPCR signaling, trafficking and downregulation. Considering the central involvement of GPCR signaling in the onset and progression of diver...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Shukla AK, Dwivedi-Agnihotri H Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

The G protein coupled receptor CCR5 in cancer.
Abstract The G coupled protein receptor CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) has the unusual characteristic in humans of being a developmentally non-essential gene that participates in several pathological processes including infection with HIV (Dean et al., 1996; Gupta et al., 2019; Samson et al., 1996), progression of stroke (Joy et al., 2019), osteoporosis (Xie et al., 2019) and the metastasis of cancer (Jiao et al., 2018; Velasco-Velazquez et al., 2012, 2014) (Reviewed in: Jiao, Nawab, et al., 2019; Jiao, Wang, & Pestell, 2019). The importance of CCR5 in HIV led to recent genetic engineering of humans to re...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Upadhyaya C, Jiao X, Ashton A, Patel K, Kossenkov AV, Pestell RG Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Targeting G protein-coupled receptors in cancer therapy.
Abstract As basic research into GPCR signaling and its association with disease has come into fruition, greater clarity has emerged with regards to how these receptors may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. As a diverse group of receptor proteins, which regulate a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, research in this area has been slow to yield tangible therapeutic agents for the treatment of a number of diseases including cancer. However, recently such research has gained momentum based on a series of studies that have sought to define GPCR proteins dynamics through the elucidation of their crystal ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Soond SM, Zamyatnin AA Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

The diverse and complex roles of atypical chemokine receptors in cancer: From molecular biology to clinical relevance and therapy.
Szpakowska M Abstract Chemokines regulate directed cell migration, proliferation and survival and are key components in cancer biology. They exert their functions by interacting with seven-transmembrane domain receptors that signal through G proteins (GPCRs). A subgroup of four chemokine receptors known as the atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) has emerged as essential regulators of the chemokine functions. ACKRs play diverse and complex roles in tumor biology from tumor initiation to metastasis, including cancer cell proliferation, adherence to endothelium, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), extravasatio...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sjöberg E, Meyrath M, Chevigné A, Östman A, Augsten M, Szpakowska M Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

The Microbiome as a Component of the Tumor Microenvironment.
acute;ri Z, Bai P Abstract Microbes, which live in the human body, affect a large set of pathophysiological processes. Changes in the composition and proportion of the microbiome are associated with metabolic diseases (Fulbright et al., PLoS Pathog 13:e1006480, 2017; Maruvada et al., Cell Host Microbe 22:589-599, 2017), psychiatric disorders (Macfabe, Glob Adv Health Med 2:52-66, 2013; Kundu et al., Cell 171:1481-1493, 2017), and neoplastic diseases (Plottel and Blaser, Cell Host Microbe 10:324-335, 2011; Schwabe and Jobin, Nat Rev Cancer 13:800-812, 2013; Zitvogel et al., Cell 165:276-287, 2016). However, the num...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kovács T, Mikó E, Ujlaki G, Sári Z, Bai P Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Macroenvironment-gene-microenvironment interactions in ultraviolet radiation-induced melanomagenesis.
Abstract Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the few major cancers that continue to exhibit a positive rate of increase in the developed world. A wealth of epidemiological data has undisputedly implicated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight and artificial sources as the major risk factor for melanomagenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of this cause-and-effect relationship remain murky and understudied. Recent efforts on multiple fronts have brought unprecedented expansion of our knowledge base on this subject and it is now clear that melanoma is caused by a complex interaction between genetic predi...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Mo X, Preston S, Zaidi MR Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

MDA-9/Syntenin: An emerging global molecular target regulating cancer invasion and metastasis.
Abstract With few exceptions, metastasis is the terminal stage of cancer with limited therapeutic options. Metastasis consists of numerous phenotypic and genotypic alterations of cells that are directly and indirectly induced by multiple intrinsic (cellular) and extrinsic (micro-environmental) factors. To metastasize, a cancer cell often transitions from an epithelial to mesenchymal morphology (EMT), modifies the extracellular matrix, forms emboli and survives in the circulation, escapes immune surveillance, adheres to sites distant from the initial tumor and finally develops a blood supply (angiogenesis) and colo...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Das SK, Sarkar D, Emdad L, Fisher PB Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Expression of costimulatory and inhibitory receptors in FoxP3+ regulatory T cells within the tumor microenvironment: Implications for combination immunotherapy approaches.
Abstract The unprecedented success of immune checkpoint inhibitors has given rise to a rapidly growing number of immuno-oncology agents undergoing preclinical and clinical development and an exponential increase in possible combinations. Defining a clear rationale for combinations by identifying synergies between immunomodulatory pathways has therefore become a high priority. Immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME) represent a major roadblock to endogenous and therapeutic tumor immunity. However, Tregs are also essential for the maintenance of immunological self-toleran...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Toker A, Ohashi PS Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Capsaicinoids enhance chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Abstract Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the mainstay of cancer treatment. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents do not distinguish between normal and neoplastic cells. This leads to severe toxic side effects, which may necessitate the discontinuation of treatment in some patients. Recent research has identified key molecular events in the initiation and progression of cancer, promoting the design of targeted therapies to selectively kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. Although, the side effects of such drugs are typically milder than conventional chemotherapies, some off-target effects still occur. Another seri...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Friedman JR, Richbart SD, Merritt JC, Perry HE, Brown KC, Akers AT, Nolan NA, Stevenson CD, Hurley JD, Miles SL, Tirona MT, Valentovic MA, Dasgupta P Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Marine natural products in the discovery and development of potential pancreatic cancer therapeutics.
Abstract Pancreatic cancer one of the most deadly cancers and is an increasingly significant concern for global health. The death rates for pancreatic cancer have changed little over time, even with recent expansions of first-line drugs to treat pancreatic cancer there has been little improvement in patient prognosis. Any improvements in treatment strategies will come as a much-needed reprieve to patients diagnosed with this uniquely-challenging disease. Greater attention is needed regarding the identification and development of novel chemotherapeutic strategies with unique mechanisms of action. The marine environ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang X, Hamann MT Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Cancer stem cells in breast and prostate: Fact or fiction?
Abstract Since the introduction of the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, accumulating evidence shows that most cancers present stem-like niches. However, therapies aimed at targeting this niche have not been as successful as expected. New evidence regarding CSCs hierarchy, similarities with normal tissue stem cells and cell plasticity might be key in understanding their role in cancer biology and how to efficiently eliminate them. In this Chapter, we discuss what is known in breast and prostate CSCs from their initial discoveries to the current therapeutic efforts in the field. Future challenges towards better CS...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sampayo RG, Bissell MJ Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Racial disparities, cancer and response to oxidative stress.
Abstract At the intersection of genetics, biochemistry and behavioral sciences, there is a largely untapped opportunity to consider how ethnic and racial disparities contribute to individual sensitivity to reactive oxygen species and how these might influence susceptibility to various cancers and/or response to classical cancer treatment regimens that pervasively result in the formation of such chemical species. This chapter begins to explore these connections and builds a platform from which to consider how the disciplines can be strengthened further. PMID: 31349903 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Cancer Research)
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang J, Ye ZW, Townsend DM, Hughes-Halbert C, Tew KD Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

PP2A holoenzymes, substrate specificity driving cellular functions and deregulation in cancer.
e;a X Abstract PP2A is a highly conserved eukaryotic serine/threonine protein phosphatase of the PPP family of phosphatases with fundamental cellular functions. In cells, PP2A targets specific subcellular locations and substrates by forming heterotrimeric holoenzymes, where a core dimer consisting of scaffold (A) and catalytic (C) subunits complexes with one of many B regulatory subunits. PP2A plays a key role in positively and negatively regulating a myriad of cellular processes, as it targets a very sizable fraction of the cellular substrates phosphorylated on Ser/Thr residues. This review focuses on insights ma...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Fowle H, Zhao Z, Graña X Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Clinical and translational advances in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
an KA Abstract Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is among the most deadly forms of human malignancy characterized by late stage diagnosis, metastasis, therapy resistance and frequent recurrence. Clinical management of ESCC remains challenging and the disease presently lacks approved targeted therapeutics. However, emerging data from recent clinical and translational investigations hold great promise for future progress toward improving patient outcomes in this deadly disease. Here, we review current clinical perspectives in ESCC epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical care, highlighting recent advances...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - July 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Reichenbach ZW, Murray MG, Saxena R, Farkas D, Karassik EG, Klochkova A, Patel K, Tice C, Hall TM, Gang J, Parkman HP, Ward SJ, Tétreault MP, Whelan KA Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Translation of cancer immunotherapy from the bench to the bedside.
er WH Abstract The tremendous success of immune checkpoint blockades has revolutionized cancer management. Our increased understanding of the cell types that compose the tumor microenvironment (TME), including those of the innate and adaptive immune system, has helped to shape additional immune modulatory strategies in cancer care. Pre-clinical and clinical investigations targeting novel checkpoint interactions and key pathways that regulate cancer immunity continue to increase rapidly. Various combinatorial drug regimens are being tested in attempt to achieve durable response and survival rates of patients with c...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guo Q, Huang F, Goncalves C, Del Rincón SV, Miller WH Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways in cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Cancer remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Traditional treatments such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have had limited efficacy, especially with late stage cancers. Cancer immunotherapy and targeted therapy have revolutionized how cancer is treated, especially in patients with late stage disease. In 2013 cancer immunotherapy was named the breakthrough of the year, partially due to the established efficacy of blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1, both T cell co-inhibitory molecules involved in tumor-induced immunosuppression. Though early trials promised success, toxicity and tolerance to immunot...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: O'Neill RE, Cao X Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Immunometabolism: A new target for improving cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Fundamental metabolic pathways are essential for mammalian cells to provide energy, precursors for biosynthesis of macromolecules, and reducing power for redox regulation. While dysregulated metabolism (e.g., aerobic glycolysis also known as the Warburg effect) has long been recognized as a hallmark of cancer, recent discoveries of metabolic reprogramming in immune cells during their activation and differentiation have led to an emerging concept of "immunometabolism." Considering the recent success of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of several cancer types, increasing research efforts are ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Guo C, Chen S, Liu W, Ma Y, Li J, Fisher PB, Fang X, Wang XY Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Impact of the microbiome on cancer progression and response to anti-cancer therapies.
Abstract Humans are a colonized with trillions of commensal microorganisms which exert a profound effect on normal host physiology and immune function through an abundance of genetic and metabolic by-products. Although the commensal microbiome has beneficial functions to host physiology, perturbations of the composition of the commensal microbiome or the homeostatic mucosal environment can lead to the induction of immune pathology and systemic inflammation. In the context of cancer progression or response to immune therapy, this inflammation can be detrimental, resulting in tumor growth and the promotion of immune...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Buchta Rosean C, Feng TY, Azar FN, Rutkowski MR Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in breast cancer: Current status and future directions.
Abstract Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of death in women in the United States, challenges therapeutic success in patients due to tumor heterogeneity, treatment resistance, metastasis and disease recurrence. Knowledge of immune system involvement in normal breast development and breast cancer has led to extensive research into the immune landscape of breast cancer and multiple immunotherapy clinical trials in breast cancer patients. However, poor immunogenicity and T-cell infiltration along with heightened immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment have been identified as potential challenges to the...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Basu A, Ramamoorthi G, Jia Y, Faughn J, Wiener D, Awshah S, Kodumudi K, Czerniecki BJ Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Can CpG methylation serve as surrogate markers for immune infiltration in cancer?
Abstract Recent reports describe how genome-wide transcriptional analysis of cancer tissues can be exploited to identify molecular signatures of immune infiltration in cancer. We hypothesize that immune infiltration in cancer may also be defined by changes in certain epigenetic signatures. In this context, a primary objective is to identify site-specific CpG markers whose levels of methylation may be highly indicative of known transcriptional markers of immune infiltration such as GZMA, PRF1, T cell receptor genes, PDCD1, and CTLA4. This has been accomplished by integrating genome-wide transcriptional expression a...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bacolod MD, Barany F, Fisher PB Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

From immune checkpoints to vaccines: The past, present and future of cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract Cancer is a worldwide medical problem with significant repercussions on individual patients and societies as a whole. In order to alter the outcomes of this deadly disease the treatment of cancer over the centuries has undergone a unique evolution. However, utilizing the best treatment modalities and achieving cures or long-term durable responses have been inconsistent and limited, that is until recently. Contemporary research has highlighted a fundamental gap in our understanding of how we approach treating cancer, by revealing the intricate relationship between the immune system and tumors. In this atmo...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Osipov A, Murphy A, Zheng L Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 31202364 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Cancer Research)
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wang XY, Fisher PB Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Highly variant DNA methylation in normal tissues identifies a distinct subclass of cancer patients.
Abstract The "CpG Island Methylator Phenotype" (CIMP) has been found to be a useful concept in stratifying several types of human cancer into molecularly and clinically distinguishable subgroups. We have identified an additional epigenetic stratification category, the "Outlier Methylation Phenotype" (OMP). Whereas CIMP is defined on the basis of hyper-methylation in tumor genomes, OMP is defined on the basis of highly variant (either or both hyper- and hypo-methylation) methylation at many sites in normal tissues. OMP was identified and defined, originally, as being more common among low birth ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ghosh J, Schultz B, Coutifaris C, Sapienza C Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Pathways- and epigenetic-based assessment of relative immune infiltration in various types of solid tumors.
Abstract Recent clinical studies document the power of immunotherapy in treating subsets of patients with advanced cancers. In this context and with multiple cancer immunotherapeutics already evaluated in the clinic and a large number in various stages of clinical trials, it is imperative to comprehensively examine genomics data to better comprehend the role of immunity in different cancers in predicting response to therapy and in directing appropriate therapies. The approach we chose is to scrutinize the pathways and epigenetic factors predicted to drive immune infiltration in different cancer types using publicl...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Bacolod MD, Barany F, Pilones K, Fisher PB, de Castro RJ Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

HVEM network signaling in cancer.
ezani-Rad P Abstract Somatic mutations in cancer cells may influence tumor growth, survival, or immune interactions in their microenvironment. The tumor necrosis factor receptor family member HVEM (TNFRSF14) is frequently mutated in cancers and has been attributed a tumor suppressive role in some cancer contexts. HVEM functions both as a ligand for the lymphocyte checkpoint proteins BTLA and CD160, and as a receptor that activates NF-κB signaling pathways in response to BTLA and CD160 and the TNF ligands LIGHT and LTα. BTLA functions to inhibit lymphocyte activation, but has also been ascribed a role i...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Šedý JR, Ramezani-Rad P Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Pharmacology of ME-344, a novel cytotoxic isoflavone.
Abstract Isoflavones isolated from members of the Fabaceae (primarily Leguminosae) family have been characterized for their phytoestrogenic properties, but certain derivatives have also shown potential as possible cancer therapeutic agents. ME-344, related to phenoxodiol (Fig. 1), is a second generation isoflavone with a recent history of both preclinical and early clinical testing. The drug has unusual cytotoxicity profiles, where cancer cell lines can be categorized as either intrinsically sensitive or resistant to the drug. Evolving studies show that the cytotoxic properties of the drug are enacted through targ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Zhang L, Zhang J, Ye Z, Townsend DM, Tew KD Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Bittersweet tumor development and progression: Emerging roles of epithelial plasticity glycosylations.
Abstract Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The best-known cancer metabolic anomaly is an increase in aerobic glycolysis, which generates ATP and other basic building blocks, such as nucleotides, lipids, and proteins to support tumor cell growth and survival. Epithelial plasticity (EP) programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are evolutionarily conserved processes that are essential for embryonic development. EP also plays an important role during tumor progression toward metastasis and treatment resistance, and new roles in the acc...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Phillips RM, Lam C, Wang H, Tran PT Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

The second genome: Effects of the mitochondrial genome on cancer progression.
Abstract The role of genetics in cancer has been recognized for centuries, but most studies elucidating genetic contributions to cancer have understandably focused on the nuclear genome. Mitochondrial contributions to cancer pathogenesis have been documented for decades, but how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influences cancer progression and metastasis remains poorly understood. This lack of understanding stems from difficulty isolating the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes as experimental variables, which is critical for investigating direct mtDNA contributions to disease given extensive crosstalk exists between both...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Scheid AD, Beadnell TC, Welch DR Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Regulation of cancer stem cell properties by SIX1, a member of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network.
Abstract The PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network (PSEDN) is a central developmental transcriptional regulatory network from Drosophila to humans. The PSEDN is comprised of four conserved protein families; including paired box (PAX), sine oculis (SIX), eyes absent (EYA), and dachshund (DACH). Aberrant expression of PSEDN members, particularly SIX1, has been observed in multiple human cancers, where SIX1 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis. In conjunction with its transcriptional activator EYA, the SIX1 transcription factor increases cancer stem cell (CSC) numbers and induces epithelial-mesen...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kingsbury TJ, Kim M, Civin CI Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Assays for functionally defined normal and malignant mammary stem cells.
Abstract The discovery of rare, heterogeneous self-renewing stem cells with shared developmental and molecular features within epithelial components of mammary gland and breast cancers has provided a conceptual framework to understand cellular composition of these tissues and mechanisms that control their number. These normal mammary epithelial stem cells (MaSCs) and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified and analyzed using transplant assays (namely mammary repopulating unit (MRU) assay, mammary tumor-initiating cell (TIC) assay), which reveal their latent ability to regenerate respective normal and mali...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Aalam SMM, Beer PA, Kannan N Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Hypoxia-inducible factors promote breast cancer stem cell specification and maintenance in response to hypoxia or cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Abstract Clinical studies have revealed that breast cancers contain regions of intratumoral hypoxia (reduced oxygen availability), which activates hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). The relationship between intratumoral hypoxia, distant metastasis and cancer mortality has been well established. A major mechanism by which intratumoral hypoxia contributes to disease progression is through induction of the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype. BCSCs are a small subpopulation of cells with the capability for self-renewal. BCSCs have been implicated in resistance to chemotherapy, disease recurrence, and metastasis. ...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Xiang L, Semenza GL Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Exploiting epigenetically mediated changes: Acute myeloid leukemia, leukemia stem cells and the bone marrow microenvironment.
Abstract Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) derives from the clonal expansion of immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow, and results in the disruption of normal hematopoiesis and subsequent bone marrow failure. The bone marrow microenvironment (BME) and its immune and other supporting cells are regarded to facilitate the survival, differentiation and proliferation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which enables AML cells to persist and expand despite treatment. Recent studies have identified epigenetic modifications among AML cells and BME constituents in AML, and have shown that epigenetic therapy can potentially repro...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kogan AA, Lapidus RG, Baer MR, Rassool FV Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Dormancy and cancer stem cells: An enigma for cancer therapeutic targeting.
Abstract Dormancy occurs when cells remain viable but stop proliferating. When most of a cancer population undergoes this phenomenon, the result is called tumor dormancy, and when a single cancer cell undergoes this process, it is termed quiescence. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) share several overlapping characteristics and signaling pathways with dormant cancer cells, including therapy resistance, and an ability to metastasize and evade the immune system. Cancer cells can be broadly grouped into dormancy-competent CSCs (DCCs), cancer-repopulating cells (CRCs), dormancy-incompetent CSCs and disseminated tumor cells (DT...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Talukdar S, Bhoopathi P, Emdad L, Das S, Sarkar D, Fisher PB Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Clonal hematopoiesis: Pre-cancer PLUS.
Abstract Clonal hematopoiesis is a common, age-related process in which a somatically mutated hematopoietic precursor gives rise to a genetically distinct subpopulation in the blood. This phenomenon has been observed in populations across the globe and, while virtually non-existent in children is estimated to affect>10% of the 70-and-older age group. The mutations are thought to occur in stem cells, which makes them pre-cancerous, and precursors to cancer stem cells. Many of the genes most commonly mutated in clonal hematopoiesis are also recurrently mutated in leukemia, genes such as DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, JAK2,...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Silver AJ, Jaiswal S Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 30691687 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Cancer Research)
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Civin CI, Kingsbury TJ, Kim M, Fisher PB Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Ceramide-Dependent Cancer Cell Death.
Abstract Mechanistic details for the roles of sphingolipids and their downstream targets in the regulation of tumor growth, response to chemo/radiotherapy, and metastasis have been investigated in recent studies using innovative molecular, genetic and pharmacologic tools in various cancer models. Induction of ceramide generation in response to cellular stress by chemotherapy, radiation, or exogenous ceramide analog drugs mediates cell death via apoptosis, necroptosis, or mitophagy. In this chapter, distinct functions and mechanisms of action of endogenous ceramides with different fatty acyl chain lengths in the re...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nganga R, Oleinik N, Ogretmen B Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Ceramide and Exosomes: A Novel Target in Cancer Biology and Therapy.
Abstract Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) that carry micro RNAs and other factors to reprogram cancer cells and tissues affected by cancer. Exosomes are exchanged between cancer cells and other tissues, often to prepare a premetastatic niche, escape immune surveillance, or spread multidrug resistance. Only a few studies investigated the function of lipids in exosomes although their lipid composition is different from that of the secreting cells. Ceramide is one of the lipids critical for exosome formation, and it is also enriched in these EVs. New research suggests that lipids in the exosomal mem...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Elsherbini A, Bieberich E Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research

Sphingolipids at the Crossroads of NAFLD and Senescence.
Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a group of liver disorders encompassing simple hepatic steatosis and its more aggressive forms of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. It is a rapidly growing health concern and the major cause for the increasing incidence of primary liver tumors. Unequivocal evidence shows that sphingolipid metabolism is altered in the course of the disease and these changes might contribute to NAFLD progression. Recent data provide solid support to the notion that deregulated ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism are present at all stages of NAFLD, i.e., steat...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nikolova-Karakashian M Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research