Il-18 induces pro-fibrotic renal tubular cell injury via stat3 activation.
IL-18 INDUCES PRO-FIBROTIC RENAL TUBULAR CELL INJURY VIA STAT3 ACTIVATION. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013 Jul 31; Authors: Matsui F, Rhee A, Hile KL, Zhang H, Meldrum KK Abstract IL-18 is an important mediator of obstruction-induced renal fibrosis and renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury. IL-18's pro-inflammatory properties have been attributed, in part, to NFκB activation and the stimulation of cytokine gene expression, however, STAT3 has increasingly been shown to mediate renal fibrotic injury. We therefore hypothesized that IL-18 mediates pro-fibrotic TEC injury via STAT3 activation. Male C57BL6 wild-type mice and transgenic mice for human IL-18-binding protein were subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction or sham operation. The kidneys were harvested 1 or 2 weeks after operation, and analyzed for active STAT3 (p-STAT3) expression (western blot, immunohistochemistry) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression. In a separate arm, renal tubular cells (HK-2) were directly stimulated with IL-18 for 2 days with or without the STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201 (50μM). Cell lysates were then analyzed for p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression, pro-fibrotic cellular changes (collagen and α-SMA expression), and tubular cell apoptosis. p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression increased significantly in response to obstruction, however, a significant reduction in p-STAT3 and SOCS3 expression occurred following 1 week, but not 2 weeks, of obstruction in the...
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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