Morning Break: India Beats Nipah; ER Drug Shortages; The 97,000% Price Hike

(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web gathered by the MedPage Today staff
Source: MedPage Today Public Health - Category: American Health Source Type: news

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The complement system is a key component of innate immunity which readily responds to invading microorganisms. Activation of the complement system typically occurs via three main pathways and can induce various antimicrobial effects, including: neutralization of pathogens, regulation of inflammatory responses, promotion of chemotaxis, and enhancement of the adaptive immune response. These can be vital host responses to protect against acute, chronic, and recurrent viral infections. Consequently, many viruses (including dengue virus, West Nile virus and Nipah virus) have evolved mechanisms for evasion or dysregulation of th...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we summarized the current findings on how CH25H and 25HC play multiple roles to modulate cholesterol metabolism, inflammation, immunity, and antiviral infections. Overall, 25HC should be further studied as a potential therapeutic agent to control emerging infectious diseases in the future.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
PMID: 32597751 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Abstract Little is known about the genetic features of Nipah virus (NiV) associated with virulence and transmission. Herein, phylogenetic and genetic analyses for all available NiV strains revealed sequence variations between the two genetic lineages of NiV with pathogenic differences, as well as among different strains within Bangladesh lineage. A total of 143 conserved amino acid differences, distributed among viral nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F) and glycoprotein (G), were revealed. Structural modeling revealed one key substitution (S3554N) in the viral G protein tha...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
C. Tan and K. Wong
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract SUMMARYIn recent decades, several new diseases have emerged in different geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola virus, Zika virus, Nipah virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus do not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now been termed severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to originate from an animal host (zoonotic origin) followed by human-to-human transm...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
An opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae is known to cause life-threating nosocomial infection with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Evolutions of multi-drug-resistant and hyper-virulent strains of K. pneumoniae make the situation worse. Currently, there is no incisive drug molecule available for drug-resistant hyper-virulent K. pneumoniae infection that emphasizes the need for identification of novel and more promising drug targets in K. pneumoniae. Recently, various non-canonical structures of nucleic acids especially G-quadruplex (G4) motifs have been identified as potential therapeutic targets against se...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract In any outbreak situation, a poor stakeholder response can impede the outbreak control and can have high economic and social cost. We conducted a qualitative study to understand stakeholder response in handling of the Nipah deceased persons during the outbreak of Nipah in Kerala, 2018. To understand the responses and to generate knowledge from the data, we used grounded theory approach for the study and conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Mixed public response and swift state response emerged as the main themes in our study. Under the "mixed public response," three categori...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Licensed vaccines or therapeutics are rarely available for pathogens with epidemic or pandemic potential. Developing interventions for specific pathogens and defining generalizable approaches for related pathogens is a global priority and inherent to the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Nipah virus (NiV) poses a significant epidemic threat, and zoonotic transmission from bats-to-humans with high fatality rates occurs almost annually. Human-to-human transmission of NiV has been documented in recent outbreaks leading public health officials and government agencies to declare an urgent need for effective vaccines and therape...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Rajeev SadanandanIndian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):99-101 The response of Kerala state to COVID-19, led by the health department, was nested in larger social mobilization. Kerala has developed a strong government health system. Learning from managing the Nipah outbreaks, Kerala took effective prevention measures early. Local governments, actively involved in public health in Kerala, played an active role in controlling the epidemic and in cushioning the impact on the poor. Transparency in information and willingness of the government to take the people into confidence has contributed to enhancing trust in the gov...
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
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