Experimental drug shows promise against dangerous viruses

An experimental antiviral drug is effective against a number of coronaviruses, including some that can cause deadly epidemics, researchers say.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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In this study, we explored the antiviral effect of CH25H and 25HC on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which causes high mortality rates in newborn piglets with severe diarrhea, and considerable financial loss in the swine industry worldwide. Our results showed that PEDV infection downregulated the expression of CH25H in Vero cells. An overexpression and knockdown assay indicated that CH25H has significant antiviral action against PEDV, and a CH25H mutant (CH25H-M) that lacks hydroxylase activity also retains antiviral activity to a lesser extent. Furthermore, 25HC had a broad-spectrum antiviral effect against differ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, we detected p53 upregulation in response to PEDV infection. Treatment with a p53 specific activator or p53 overexpression markedly decreased viral replication, and we showed that there was more viral progeny produced in p53 knock-out cells than in p53 wild-type cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of viral infection by p53 was mediated via p53-dependent IFN signaling, leading to IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) activation, as well as the upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and IFN-β released from infected cells. These findings demonstrate that p53 suppresses PEDV infection, offe...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This article aims at reviewing the various aspects of the global epidemiology of bat coronaviruses (CoVs). Before the SARS epidemic, bats were not known to be hosts for CoVs. In the last 15 years, bats have been found to be hosts of >30 CoVs with complete genomes sequenced, and many more if those without genome sequences are included. Among the four CoV genera, only alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been found in bats. As a whole, both alphaCoVs and betaCoVs have been detected from bats in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America and Australasia; but alphaCoVs seem to be more widespread than betaCoVs, and their detec...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, we analyzed the complete genome sequence of the recently sequenced isolate PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008. A recombination event in S gene of PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 was detected. Pairwise identity analysis of the whole genome sequences revealed that PEDV/Belgorod/dom/2008 is an intermediate between PEDV and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) strains. These results can be used for further analysis of the evolutionary variability, prevalence, and epidemiology of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology JournalAuthor(s): Kin On Kwok, Arthur Tang, Vivian W.I. Wei, Woo Hyun Park, Eng Kiong Yeoh, Steven RileyAbstractThe emergence and reemergence of coronavirus epidemics sparked renewed concerns from global epidemiology researchers and public health administrators. Mathematical models that represented how contact tracing and follow-up may control Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) transmissions were developed for evaluating different infection control interventions, estimating ...
Source: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
(CNN) — From climate change to superbugs, the World Health Organization has laid out 10 big threats to our global health in 2019. And unless these threats get addressed, millions of lives will be in jeopardy. Here’s a snapshot of 10 urgent health issues, according to the United Nations’ public health agency: Not vaccinating when you can One of the most controversial recent health topics in the US is now an international concern. “Vaccine hesitancy — the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines — threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-prevent...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Local TV Source Type: news
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Qiuhong Wang, Anastasia N Vlasova, Scott P Kenney, Linda J SaifPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome-coronavirus (SADS-CoV) are emerging/reemerging coronaviruses (CoVs). They cause acute gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. Sequence analyses suggest that PEDV and SADS-CoV may have originated from bat CoVs and PDCoV from a sparrow CoV, reaffirming the interspecies transmission of CoVs. The clinical signs and pathogenesis of the three viruses are similar. Necrosis of in...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies against PEDV were screened from the porcine scFv phage display library. After four rounds of biopanning, scFvs that showed higher affinity to the PEDV antigen were selected for further study. The scFv genes were cloned into the expression plasmid for recombinant protein expression. These scFvs were shown to inhibit PEDV infectivity by the plaque reduction neutralization assay. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed that the epitopes recognized by these scFvs were in the S1 region of the spike protein. The potential of scFvs to provide prevention against PEDV ...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
n Mossman Bats are speculated to be reservoirs of several emerging viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause serious disease in humans and agricultural animals. These include CoVs that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and severe acute diarrhea syndrome (SADS). Bats that are naturally infected or experimentally infected do not demonstrate clinical signs of disease. These observations have allowed researchers to speculate that bats are the likely reservoirs or ancestral hosts for several CoVs. In this review, we follow the CoV...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) produce a wide spectrum of disease syndromes in different mammalian and avian host species. These viruses are well-recognized for their ability to change tissue tropism, to hurdle the interspecies barriers and to adapt ecological variations. It is predicted that the inherent genetic diversity of CoVs caused by accumulation of point mutations and high frequency of homologous recombination is the principal determinant of these competences. Several CoVs (e.g. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV) have been recorded to cross the interspecies barrier,...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research
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