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The structural connectivity pathology of first-episode schizophrenia based on the cardinal symptom of auditory verbal hallucinations
Heterogeneous findings across studies of structural abnormality in schizophrenia (SZ) have impeded the development a unified theory of white matter pathology. As a cardinal symptom of SZ, auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) have been suspected to be associated with improper communication among several brain regions, which might indicated white matter pathology. Participants comprised 25 first-episode (FE) patients with AVH, 25 patients without AVH and 25 healthy subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures were calculated using the TBSS of FSL. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi-Bin Xi, Fan Guo, Hua Li, Xiao Chang, Jin-Bo Sun, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Wen-Ming Liu, Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin Source Type: research

Cortical inhibitory deficits in Huntington's disease are not influenced by gender
Huntington's disease (HD) affects GABA-mediated inhibitory circuitry in the cortex. As there is evidence that sex hormones affect GABAergic function, we investigated whether gender modulates GABA-related pathophysiological changes in HD. Fifteen premanifest HD, 11 symptomatic HD and 16 healthy control participants were assessed with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the primary motor cortex. Cortical inhibition was significantly reduced in symptomatic HD, compared with premanifest HD and controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: April L. Philpott, Tarrant D.R. Cummins, Neil W. Bailey, Andrew Churchyard, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis Source Type: research

Cortical Inhibitory Deficits in Huntington ’s Disease are Not Influenced by Gender
Huntington's disease (HD) affects GABA-mediated inhibitory circuitry in the cortex. As there is evidence that sex hormones affect GABAergic function, we investigated whether gender modulates GABA-related pathophysiological changes in HD. Fifteen premanifest HD, 11 symptomatic HD and 16 healthy control participants were assessed with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the primary motor cortex. Cortical inhibition was significantly reduced in symptomatic HD, compared with premanifest HD and controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: April L. Philpott, Tarrant D.R. Cummins, Neil W. Bailey, Andrew Churchyard, Paul B. Fitzgerald, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis Source Type: research

Amygdala-based intrinsic functional connectivity and anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults
This study investigated differences in the functional connectivity of intrinsic amygdala-based networks of participants with and without AD. Resting state fMRI data were obtained from 18 participants with an AD and 19 healthy comparison individuals. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using standardized structured interviews. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rudineia Toazza, Alexandre Rosa Franco, Augusto Buchweitz, Roberta Dalle Molle, Danitsa Marcos Rodrigues, Roberta Sena Reis, Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Nathalia Bianchini Esper, Cristiano Aguzzoli, Patr ícia Pelufo Silveira, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Gise Source Type: research

Cholinesterase inhibitors are compatible with psychosocial intervention for Alzheimer disease patients suggested by neuroimaging findings
We previously reported that the frontal lobe was stimulated by psychosocial intervention for dementia patients, and that the parietal lobe was associated with logical judgment. We hypothesized that the combined therapeutic approach with symptomatic drug treatment can directly stimulate not only attention function but also judgment function indirectly to observing other participants ’ behaviors. Fifty-two patients with Alzheimer disease underwent the group reminiscence approach with reality orientation, as well as the donepezil treatment. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenichi Meguro Source Type: research

Youth with Substance Abuse Histories Exhibit Dysfunctional Representation of Expected Value During a Passive Avoidance Task
Individuals with substance abuse (SA) histories show impairment in the computations necessary for decision-making, including expected value (EV) and prediction error (PE). Neuroimaging findings, however, have been inconsistent. Sixteen youth with (SApositive) and 29 youth without (SAnegative) substance abuse histories completed a passive avoidance task while undergoing functional MRI. The groups did not significantly differ on age, gender composition or IQ. Behavioral results indicated that SApositive youth showed significantly less learning than SAnegative youth over the task. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stuart F. White, Patrick Tyler, Mary L. Botkin, Anna K. Erway, Laura C. Thornton, Venkata Kolli, Kayla Pope, Harma Meffert, R. James Blair Source Type: research

Altered neurotransmitter metabolism in adolescents with high-functioning autism
Previous studies have suggested that alterations in excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters might play a crucial role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) can provide valuable information about abnormal brain metabolism and neurotransmitter concentrations. However, few 1H-MRS studies have been published on the imbalance of the two most abundant neurotransmitters in ASD: glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Moreover, to our knowledge none of these published studies is performed with a study population consisting purely of high-functioning autism (HFA) adolescents....
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gerhard S. Drenthen, Evelien M. Barendse, Albert P. Aldenkamp, Tamar van Veenendaal, Nicolaas A.J. Puts, Richard A.E. Edden, Svitlana Zinger, Geert Thoonen, Marc P.H. Hendriks, Roy P.C. Kessels, Jacobus F.A. Jansen Source Type: research

Hippocampal and amygdala volumes in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to childhood abuse or maltreatment: A systematic review
We systematically reviewed differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes between adults with childhood maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy controls. Using the terms “adults”, “MRI”, “magnetic resonance imaging”, with “posttraumatic stress disorder” “PTSD”, “child abuse”, and “child maltreatment”, we conducted searches on several electronic databases. We identified 10 studies that met our inclusion criteria; 7 of which were included i n a meta-analysis of hippocampal volume and 4 that were included in a meta-analysis of amygdala volume. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fatima Ahmed-Leitao, Georgina Spies, van den Heuvel Leigh, Soraya Seedat Source Type: research

Functional abnormalities of the right posterior insula are related to the altered self-experience in schizophrenia
The insula is involved in detecting the salience of internal and external stimuli, and it plays a critical role in psychosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the structural and functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia. To acquire a full picture of the functional alterations of the insula in schizophrenia, the resting-state fMRI data of 46 patients with schizophrenia and 46 healthy control subjects were collected. We used clustering analysis to divide the insula into three subregions: the dorsal anterior insula (dAI), ventral anterior insula (vAI) and posterior insula (PI). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xi Chen, Mingjun Duan, Hui He, Mi Yang, Benjamin Klugah –Brown, Hao Xu, Yongxiu Lai, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao Source Type: research

Prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus volume are affected in suicidal psychiatric patients
This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted in the past two months (SA; n=20), non-suicidal control group (DA; n=20); these patients were all depressed and not significantly different for age, gender, race, marital status, education level, anxiety level, and substance abuse. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Savannah N. Gosnell, Kenia M. Velasquez, David L. Molfese, Peter J. Molfese, Alok Madan, James C. Fowler, Bartley C. Frueh, Philip R. Baldwin, Ramiro Salas Source Type: research

Plasticity of prefrontal cortex connectivity in schizophrenia in response to antisaccade practice
People with schizophrenia exhibit difficulties in cognitive control that are often attributed to deficits in prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuitry. Practice paradigms have been used to improve these PFC-mediated deficits. The neural consequences of practice on task-based PFC activation have been addressed, however, effects on task-based PFC connectivity are largely unknown. We recruited people with schizophrenia and controls to practice antisaccades, a measure of PFC-mediated cognitive control that is disrupted in people with schizophrenia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amanda L. Rodrigue, Benjamin P. Austin, Jennifer E. McDowell Source Type: research

Positive affect and regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease
Quality of life (QOL) has been recently recognized as the central purpose of healthcare, and positive affect is one of the core dimension of QOL. However, positive affect among patients with dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not received much attention in the medical research field. One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with AD were recruited from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic of Okayama University Hospital. The positive affect score was evaluated using the positive affect domain of the Quality of Life questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Satoshi Hayashi, Seishi Terada, Shuhei Sato, Etsuko Oshima, Tomoko Miki, Osamu Yokota, Takeshi Ishihara, Norihito Yamada Source Type: research

Hippocampal arterial cerebral blood volume in early psychosis
Recent studies of patients in the early stage of psychosis have revealed increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in specific subfields of the anterior hippocampus. These studies required injection of a contrast agent to measure steady state CBV. Here we used a novel, non-invasive method, inflow-based-vascular-space-occupancy with dynamic subtraction (iVASO-DS), to measure the arterial component of CBV (aCBV) in a single slice of the hippocampus. Based on evidence from contrast-enhanced CBV studies, we hypothesized increased aCBV in the anterior hippocampus in early psychosis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Manus J. Donahue, Stephan Heckers Source Type: research

Differential fMRI BOLD Responses in Amygdala In Intermittent Explosive Disorder as a Function of Past Alcohol Use Disorder
Individuals with intermittent explosive disorder (IED) were previously found to exhibit amygdala (AMYG) hyperactivation to anger faces during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, acute alcohol consumption, and/or life history of alcoholism, may blunt amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Thus, we examined the influence of a past history of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) on the fMRI BOLD AMYG response to anger faces in IED. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emil F. Coccaro, Sarah K. Keedy, Stephanie M. Gorka, Andrea C. King, Jennifer R. Fanning, Royce J. Lee, K. Luan Phan Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Cortical thickness and VBM in young women at risk for familial depression and their depressed mothers with positive family history” [Psychiatry Res.: Neuroimaging 252 (2016) 1–9]
This article contained a misspelling of a co-author's name. The correct spelling is Swati Chandhoke. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - September 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ozgun Ozalay, Burcu Aksoy, Sebnem Tunay, Fatma Simsek, Swati Chandhoke, Omer Kitis, Cagdas Eker, Ali Saffet Gonul Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Associations between Corpus Callosum Size and ADHD Symptoms in Older Adults: The PATH Through Life Study
Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed deviations of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents. However, little is known about the link between callosal morphology and symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity in adulthood, especially later in life. Here, we investigated in a large population-based sample of 280 adults (150 males, 130 females) in their late sixties and early seventies whether ADHD symptoms correlate with callosal thickness. In addition, we tested for significant sex interactions, which were followed by correlation analyses stratified by sex. (Source: Ps...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Debjani Das, Daniela E. Oyarce, Marnie Shaw, Perminder Sachdev, Simon Easteal, Kaarin J. Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin Source Type: research

Alterations of the default mode network connectivity in obsessive –compulsive personality disorder: A pilot study
Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joana Coutinho, Oscar Filipe Goncalves, Jos é Miguel Soares, Paulo Marques, Adriana Sampaio Source Type: research

Switching between internally and externally focused attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Abnormal visual cortex activation and connectivity
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by excessive absorption with internally-generated distressing thoughts and urges, with difficulty incorporating external information running counter to their fears and concerns. In the present study, we experimentally probed this core feature of OCD through the use of a novel attention switching task that investigates transitions between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Eighteen OCD patients and 18 controls imagined positive and negative personal event scenarios (IF state) or performed a color-word Stroop task (EF state). (Source: P...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily R. Stern, Alexandra F. Muratore, Stephan F. Taylor, James L. Abelson, Patrick R. Hof, Wayne K. Goodman Source Type: research

Alterations of the Default Mode Network Connectivity in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: A pilot study
Obsessive-compulsive personality (OCPD) disorder is characterized by a pattern of excessive self-control, perfectionism and behavioral and cognitive rigidity. Despite the fact that OCPD is the most common personality disorder in the general population, published studies looking at the brain correlates of this disorder are practically nonexistent. The main goal of this study was to analyze the presence of brain alterations in OCPD when compared to healthy controls, specifically at the level of the Default Mode Network (DMN). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joana Coutinho, Oscar Filipe Goncalves, Jos é Miguel Soares, Paulo Marques, Adriana Sampaio Source Type: research

The link between callous-unemotional traits and neural mechanisms of reward processing: An fMRI study
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, i.e., unconcernedness and lack of prosocial feelings, may manifest in Conduct Disorder (CD), but also in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). These disorders have been associated with aberrant reward processing, while the influence of CU traits is unclear. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we examined whether CU traits affect the neural circuit for reward. A Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task was administered to 328 adolescents and young adults with varying levels of CU traits: 40 participants with ODD/CD plus ADHD, 101 ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kim Veroude, Daniel von Rhein, Roselyne J.M. Chauvin, Eelco V. van Dongen, Maarten J.J. Mennes, Barbara Franke, Dirk J. Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Catharina A. Hartman, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Jeffrey C. Glennon, Jan K. Buitelaar Source Type: research

Odor Identification Deficit in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease is Associated with Hippocampal and Deep Gray Matter Atrophy
Even in early stages, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with olfactory deficit. We assess the association of volumetric differences in subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) structures and odor identification deficit (OID) in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), AD and normal controls (NCs), and relate findings to the current gold standard right sided memory measure, visual reproduction. Eighty subjects (19 aMCI; 42 CE; 19 NC) were included in this study. We obtained olfactory testing and normalized structural brain volumes from 3T T1 MRI scans. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jesper Hagemeier, Matthew R Woodward, Usama A Rafique, Chaitanya V Amrutkar, Niels Bergsland, Michael G Dwyer, Ralph Benedict, Robert Zivadinov, Kinga Szigeti Source Type: research

White Matter Structure in the Uncinate Fasciculus: Implications for Socio-Affective Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder
In this study, we assessed white matter structure in the left and right uncinate fasciculus in 18 high-functioning individuals with ASD and 18 group-matched typically developing (TD) controls using Diffusion Tensor Imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea C. Samson, Robert F. Dougherty, Ihno A. Lee, Jennifer M. Phillips, James J. Gross, Antonio Y. Hardan Source Type: research

Lack of Association Between the Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin 1A Receptor: an in vivo PET Imaging Study in Healthy Adults
The serotonin neurotransmitter system is modulated in part by the uptake of synaptically released serotonin (5-HT) by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), and by specific serotonin autoreceptors such as the somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptor, which can limit serotonin neuron depolarization. However, little is known about how 5-HTT and 5-HT1A are related in vivo. To study this question, we reanalyzed positron emission tomography (PET) data obtained earlier in 40 healthy participants (21 females) using [11C]WAY-100635 for quantification of 5-HT1A binding and [11C](+)-McN-5652 for quantification of 5-HTT binding. (Source: Psychiat...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Strupp-Levitsky, Jeffrey M. Miller, Harry Rubin-Falcone, Francesca Zanderigo, Matthew S. Milak, Gregory Sullivan, R. Todd Ogden, Maria A. Oquendo, Christine DeLorenzo, Norman Simpson, Ramin V. Parsey, J. John Mann Source Type: research

Differential neural processing of social exclusion in adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury: An fMRI study
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent in adolescence and has been suggested as an autonomous diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5). Social rejection is as potential risk-factor for NSSI and depression in adolescence. Objectives of this study were to identify differences in neural processing of social rejection in depressed adolescents with and without co-morbid NSSI and healthy controls. Participants were 28 depressed adolescents (14 with co-morbid NSSI, 79% females) and 15 healthy controls, with an average age of 15.2 years (SD=1.8). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rebecca C. Groschwitz, Paul L. Plener, Georg Groen, Martina Bonenberger, Birgit Abler Source Type: research

Olfactory sulcus morphology in patients with current and past major depression
Olfactory deficits have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains largely unknown whether MDD is associated with abnormalities in olfactory sulcus morphology, a potential marker of olfactory system development. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 29 currently depressed patients, 27 remitted depressed patients, and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Both current and remitted MDD patients had significantly shallower olfactory sulci bilaterally as compared with controls. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - August 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsutomu Takahashi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Murat Y ücel, Sarah Whittle, Valentina Lorenzetti, Mark Walterfang, Daiki Sasabayashi, Michio Suzuki, Christos Pantelis, Nicholas B. Allen Source Type: research

Abnormal interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of the insula in heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment
This study aimed to examine 1) the differences in interhemispheric functional connections of the insula with the contralateral insula and other brain regions between heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and healthy controls, and 2) the association between heroin users ’ interhemispheric insular functional connectivity using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the results of urine heroin analysis. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peng-Wei Wang, Huang-Chi Lin, Gin-Chung Liu, Yi-Hsin Connie Yang, Chih-Hung Ko, Cheng-Fang Yen Source Type: research

Prognostic value of imbalanced interhemispheric functional coordination in early therapeutic efficacy in major depressive disorder
This study aims to explore the early response of antidepressant therapy by measuring the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) in major depressive disorder (MDD). Eighty-two MDD patients [n=42 treatment-responsive depression (RD) and n=40 non-responding depression (NRD)] and n=50 normal controls (NC) underwent clinical measures and a magnetic resonance imaging scan, and the VMHC values were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied to determine the capability of altered VMHC to distinguish NRD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhenghua Hou, Xiaopeng Song, Wenhao Jiang, Yingying Yue, Yingying Yin, Yuqun Zhang, Yijun Liu, Yonggui Yuan Source Type: research

Decreased functional connectivity to posterior cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder
In this study, we combined independent component analysis and seed based connectivity analysis to study the posterior default mode network between 20 patients with MDD and 25 normal controls, as well as pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions of the patients. Both correlated and anti-correlated networks centered at posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were examined (PCC+ and PCC-). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rui Yang, Chengge Gao, Xiaoping Wu, Junle Yang, Shengbin Li, Hu Cheng Source Type: research

Lifetime Use of Cannabis from Longitudinal Assessments, Cannabinoid Receptor (CNR1) Variation, and Reduced Volume of the Right Anterior Cingulate
Lifetime measures of cannabis use and co-occurring exposures were obtained from a longitudinal cohort followed an average of 13 years at the time they received a structural MRI scan. MRI scans were analyzed for 88 participants (mean age = 25.9 years), 34 of whom were regular users of cannabis. Whole brain voxel based morphometry analyses (SPM8) were conducted using 50 voxel clusters at p=0.005. Controlling for age, familial risk, and gender, we found reduced volume in Regular Users compared to Non-Users, in the lingual gyrus, anterior cingulum (right and left), and the rolandic operculum (right). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 18, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shirley Y. Hill, Vinod Sharma, Bobby L. Jones Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Activation Patterns during Executive Function Tasks in Hoarding Disorder and Non-Hoarding OCD
We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christina M. Hough, Tracy L. Luks, Karen Lai, Ofilio Vigil, Sylvia Guillory, Shiva M. Fekri, Eve Kupferman, Daniel H. Mathalon, Carol A. Mathews Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry to detect effect of ApoE on brain gray matter changes in Parkinson's Disease
The goal of the study was to determine association between APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter changes in PD patients, with or without dementia. Twenty-five PD patients with the APOE Ɛ4 (13 with dementia), 24 without Ɛ4 (12 with dementia), and 26 controls were selected. We found no significant differences between PD patients and controls, or between PD patients with and without the APOE Ɛ4 allele, with regard to VBM analysis. Our results provide no evidence of an association of the APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter degenerative changes in patients with PD, either with or without dementia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Nicoletti, David Neil Manners, Fabiana Novellino, Claudia Testa, Monica Gagliardi, Caterina Tonon, Raffaele Lodi, Aldo Quattrone Source Type: research

Comparison of Brain Activation Patterns during Executive Function Tasks in Hoarding Disorder and Non-Hoarding OCD
We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christina M. Hough, Tracy L. Luks, Karen Lai, Ofilio Vigil, Sylvia Guillory, Shiva M. Fekri, Eve Kupferman, Daniel H. Mathalon, Carol A. Mathews Source Type: research

Voxel-based morphometry to detect effect of ApoE on brain gray matter changes in Parkinson's Disease
The goal of the study was to determine association between APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter changes in PD patients, with or without dementia. Twenty-five PD patients with the APOE Ɛ4 (13 with dementia), 24 without Ɛ4 (12 with dementia), and 26 controls were selected. We found no significant differences between PD patients and controls, or between PD patients with and without the APOE Ɛ4 allele, with regard to VBM analysis. Our results provide no evidence of an association of the APOE Ɛ4 and gray matter degenerative changes in patients with PD, either with or without dementia. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giuseppe Nicoletti, David Neil Manners, Fabiana Novellino, Claudia Testa, Monica Gagliardi, Caterina Tonon, Raffaele Lodi, Aldo Quattrone Source Type: research

Cerebellar volume deficits in medication-na ïve obsessive compulsive disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-na ïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared u sing hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-na ïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-na ïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared u sing hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Cerebellar Volume deficits in Medication-naïve Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
In this study, we examined the cerebellar regional volume in a large sample of medication-naïve OCD patients compared to matched healthy controls (HC). In 49 medication naïve right handed OCD patients and 39 age and sex matched HC, sub-region wise volume of cerebellum was extracted from the T1 weighted images using Spatially Unbiased Infra tentorial Template (SUIT) toolbox and compared using hypothesis driven, region of interest approach after clinical assessment with standard scales. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Dania Jose, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Y.C. Janardhan Reddy Source Type: research

Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedvig Sultson, Floor van Meer, Nicole Sanders, Annemarie A. van Elburg, Unna N. Danner, Hans W. Hoek, Roger A.H. Adan, Paul A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7y), characterised by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moran D. Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A.H. Doreleijers, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Associations between neural correlates of visual stimulus processing and set-shifting in ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
In this study, we investigated whether brain activation in frontal and parietal regions during visual stimulus processing correlates with SS ability. Women currently ill with AN (AN; N=14), recovered women (REC; N=14) and healthy controls (HC; N=15), viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food pictures during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The Berg's Card Sorting Task was completed outside the scanner to measure SS. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hedvig Sultson, Floor van Meer, Nicole Sanders, Annemarie A. van Elburg, Unna N. Danner, Hans W. Hoek, Roger A.H. Adan, Paul A.M. Smeets Source Type: research

Regional grey matter volume and concentration in at-risk adolescents: Untangling associations with callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits. The present study employed voxel-based morphometry to assess both grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter concentration (GMC) in a large representative at-risk sample of adolescents (n=134; mean age 17.7y), characterised by a broad range of CU trait and conduct disorder (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Moran D. Cohn, Essi Viding, Eamon McCrory, Louise Pape, Wim van den Brink, Theo A.H. Doreleijers, Dick J. Veltman, Arne Popma Source Type: research

Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young adults at risk for psychosis – The Oulu Brain and Mind Study
We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20 –25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Bj örnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amity E. Green, Rodney J. Croft, Jerome J. Maller, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from resting-state fMRI
In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong Source Type: research

Body mass index and brain white matter structure in young individuals at risk for psychosis – The Oulu Brain and Mind Study
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Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H. Barnett, Peter B. Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola Source Type: research

White matter correlates of episodic memory encoding and retrieval in schizophrenia
Episodic memory (EM) impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are predictive of functional outcome and are a potential endophenotype of the disorder. The current study investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of EM encoding and retrieval in SZ with structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures in 22 patients with SZ and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was used to investigate microstructural alterations in white matter (WM), while FreeSurfer surface-based analysis was used to determine abnormalities in grey matter (GM) and WM volumetrics and cortical...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amity E. Green, Rodney J. Croft, Jerome J. Maller, Paul B. Fitzgerald Source Type: research

Altered brain functional networks in people with Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting-state fMRI
In this study, we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the intrinsic topological properties of brain networks in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). 37 IGD subjects and 35 matched healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - July 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lingxiao Wang, Lingdan Wu, Xiao Lin, Yifen Zhang, Hongli Zhou, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong Source Type: research

The neurobiology of self-knowledge in depressed and self-injurious youth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers', best fri...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research

The Neurobiology of Self-knowledge in Depressed and Self-injuriousYouth
There is limited information regarding the neurobiology underlying non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in clinically-referred youth. However, the salience of disturbed interpersonal relationships and disrupted self-processing associated with NSSI suggests the neural basis of social processes as a key area for additional study. Adolescent participants (N=123; M=14.75 years, SD=1.64) were divided into three groups: NSSI plus depression diagnosis (NSSI), depression only (DEP), healthy controls (HC). In the scanner, participants completed an Interpersonal Self-Processing task by taking direct (own) and indirect (mothers’, best f...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - June 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karina Quevedo, Jodi Martin, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H. Pfeifer Source Type: research