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Cortical complexity in bipolar disorder applying a spherical harmonics approach
Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, a...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Igor Nenadic, Rachel A. Yotter, Maren Dietzek, Kerstin Langbein, Heinrich Sauer, Christian Gaser Source Type: research

Neural Correlates of Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels Predict Smoking Cessation Relapse
Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli. ...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Max M. Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C. Gray, Brittany E. Hawkshead, Cara M. Murphy, Lawrence H. Sweet Source Type: research

A functional connectivity comparison between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder in medication-na ïve adolescents with mood fluctuation and attention problems
In order to compare patterns of connectivity between affective and attention networks in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we investigated differences in resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) between these populations. Study participants were medication-na ïve adolescents (aged 13–18 years) with BD (N=22) or ADHD (N=25) and age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents (healthy controls [HC]) (N=22). Forty-seven adolescents with mood fluctuation and attention problems showed increased functional correlation (FC) between two pairs of regions within the a ffectiv...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 16, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Young Don Son, Doug Hyun Han, Sun Mi Kim, Kyung Joon Min, Perry F. Renshaw Source Type: research

Effect of Maternal Rumination and Disengagement during Childhood on Offspring Neural Response to Reward in Late Adolescence
Maternal rumination is a cognitive-affective trait that could influence offspring's ability to respond flexibly to positive and negative events, depending on the quality of maternal problem-solving behaviors with which rumination co-occurs. As reward circuitry is sensitive to stressors and related to risk for depression, reward circuitry is an appropriate candidate mechanism for how maternal characteristics influence offspring. We evaluated the independent and combined effect of maternal rumination and disengagement on adolescent neural response to reward win and loss. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Judith K. Morgan, Daniel S. Shaw, Rachel H. Jacobs, Sarah E. Romens, Stephanie L. Sitnick, Erika E. Forbes Source Type: research

Task-dependent modulation of amygdala connectivity in social anxiety disorder
In this study, we measured 15 SAD patients and 15 healthy controls during an affective counting Stroop task with emotional faces to assess the interaction of affective stimuli with a cognitive task in SAD, as well as to investigate the causal interactions between the amygdala and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lora Minkova, Ronald Sladky, Georg S. Kranz, Michael Woletz, Nicole Geissberger, Christoph Kraus, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger Source Type: research

Abnormal Fear Circuitry in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication na ïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea E. Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R. Milad, Thomas J. Spencer, Olivia E. Bogucki, Amanda L. Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F. Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman Source Type: research

Neural Activity during Production of Rorschach Responses: An fMRI Study
Recently, a lot of effort has been made to ground Rorschach interpretations to their evidence base. To date, however, no studies have yet described, via fMRI, what brain areas get involved when one takes the Rorschach. To fill this gap in the literature, we administered the ten-inkblot stimuli to 26 healthy volunteers during fMRI. Analysis of BOLD signals revealed that, compared to fixating a cross, looking at the Rorschach inkblots while thinking of what they might be associated with higher temporo-occipital and fronto-parietal activations, and with greater activity in some small, sub-cortical regions included in the limb...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Luciano Giromini, Donald J. Viglione, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda Source Type: research

Corpus callosum volumes in bipolar disorders and suicidal vulnerability
Reduced size of the corpus callosum (CC) has been associated with bipolar disorders and suicidality. Here, we aimed at investigating the relative independence of these associations in a large sample of patients. Two samples of males and females totaling 209 euthymic participants were recruited, including 72 patients with major depressive disorder, 64 with bipolar disorders and 73 healthy controls. Among patients, 61 had a history of suicide attempt and 75 had none. Structural scans were acquired with 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anthony J. Gifuni, Emilie Oli é, Yang Ding, Fabienne Cyprien, Emmanuelle le Bars, Alain Bonafé, Philippe Courtet, Fabrice Jollant Source Type: research

The association of sleep and physical activity with integrity of white matter microstructure in bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls
We investigate how the sleep disruptions and irregular physical activity levels that are prominent features of bipolar disorder (BD) relate to white matter microstructure in patients and controls. Diffusion tension imaging (DTI) and 14-day actigraphy recordings were obtained in 51 BD I patients and 55 age-and-gender-matched healthy controls. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used for voxelwise analysis of the association between fractional anisotropy (FA) and sleep and activity characteristics in the overall sample. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sanne Verkooijen, Remi Stevelink, Lucija Abramovic, Christiaan H. Vinkers, Roel A. Ophoff, Ren é S. Kahn, Marco P.M. Boks, Neeltje E.M. van Haren Source Type: research

Altered olfactory processing and increased insula activity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: an fMRI study
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients show increased insula activation to disgust-inducing images compared to healthy controls (HC). We explored whether this disgust reactivity was also present in the olfactory domain by conducting the first fMRI study of olfaction in OCD. Neural activation in response to pleasant and unpleasant odors (vs. unscented air) was investigated in 15 OCD and 15 HC participants using fMRI. OCD participants (vs. HC) had increased left anterior insula activation to unpleasant odors (vs. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Heather A. Berlin, Emily R. Stern, Johnny Ng, Sam Zhang, David Rosenthal, Rachel Turetzky, Cheuk Tang, Wayne Goodman Source Type: research

Association of Medial Prefrontal Resting State Functional Connectivity and Metacognitive Capacity in Early Phase Psychosis
Metacognition is a term referring to a wide range of mental activities which involve some form of reflection about one's own mental states or the mental states of others. Since its introduction in the 1970s, metacognition has been increasingly used to describe a spectrum of activities ranging from the consideration of discrete mental experiences, such as a specific thought or emotion, the synthesis of discrete perceptions and integration of the representations of self and others as unique agents in the world (Dimaggio et al., 2013; Lysaker et al., 2013; Semerari et al., 2003). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael M Francis, Tom A Hummer, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jenifer L Vohs, Matt G Yung, Nicole F Mehdiyoun, Paul H Lysaker, Alan Breier Source Type: research

Increased white matter radial diffusivity is associated with prefrontal cortical folding deficits in schizophrenia
The neuronal underpinnings of cortical folding alterations in schizophrenia remain unclear. Theories on the physiological development of cortical folds stress the importance of white matter fibers for this process and disturbances of fiber tracts might be relevant for cortical folding alterations in schizophrenia. Nine-teen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy subjects underwent T1-weighted MRI and DTI. Cortical folding was computed using a surface based approach. DTI was analyzed using FSL and SPM 5. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - February 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: C. Christoph Schultz, Gerd Wagner, Claudia Schachtzabel, J ürgen R. Reichenbach, Ralf G.M. Schlösser, Heinrich Sauer, Kathrin Koch Source Type: research

Within-session effect of repeated stress exposure on extinction circuitry function in social anxiety disorder
Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fredrik Åhs, Malin Gingnell, Tomas Furmark, Mats Fredrikson Source Type: research

Evaluations of hemodynamic changes during neuropsychological test batteries using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common, and frequently debilitating, neuropsychiatric disorder that affects approximately 2% of the population (Ruscio et al., 2010). It is characterized by repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that are intrusive and unwanted. The obsessions and compulsions are time-consuming or cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning (DSM-5). Individuals with OCD often have a variety of psychopathology including autistic traits (Cadman et al., 2015; Krebs and Heyman, 2015; Mito et al., 201...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keiichiro Mukai, Naomi Matsuura, Akihiro Nakajima, Yoshinobu Yanagisawa, Yoshikazu Yoshida, Kensei Maebayashi, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Hisato Matsunaga Source Type: research

Gray matter volumes may predict the clinical response to paliperidone palmitate long-acting in acute psychosis: A pilot longitudinal neuroimaging study
In schizophrenia, paliperidone palmitate (PP) long acting injectable (LAI) has been reported to sustain plasma concentrations and improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, it has also been demonstrated the important role of total gray matter (GM) volumes in predicting the clinical outcome. However, no studies investigating the association between PP-LAI treatment and brain morphometry has been published so far. Therefore, the main aim of our 24 weeks prospective observational exploratory study was to investigate the relation between brain anatomy and clinical outcome in seven patients with acute psychosis treated with PP-LAI. (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Carlo Altamura, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Silvia Paletta, Chiara Di Pace, Alessandra Reggiori, Alessio Fiorentini, M. Donatella Mirabile, Riccardo A. Paoli, Claudia Cinnante, Fabio Triulzi, Massimo C. Mauri, Paolo Brambilla Source Type: research

Grey matter volumes may predict the clinical response to paliperidone palmitate long-acting in acute psychosis: a pilot longitudinal neuroimaging study
In schizophrenia, paliperidone palmitate (PP) long acting injectable (LAI) has been reported to sustain plasma concentrations and improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, it has also been demonstrated the important role of total gray matter (GM) volumes in predicting the clinical outcome. However, no studies investigating the association between PP-LAI treatment and brain morphometry has been published so far. Therefore, the main aim of our 24 weeks prospective observational exploratory study was to investigate the relation between brain anatomy and clinical outcome in seven patients with acute psychosis treated with PP-LAI. (...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carlo Altamura, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Silvia Paletta, Chiara Di Pace, Alessandra Reggiori, Alessio Fiorentini, M. Donatella Mirabile, Riccardo A. Paoli, Claudia Cinnante, Fabio Triulzi, Massimo C. Mauri, Paolo Brambilla Source Type: research

Using probabilistic tractography to target the subcallosal cingulate cortex in patients with treatment resistant depression
The lack of efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate (SCC) in treatment resistant depression (TRD) may be due in part to suboptimal targeting. In two patients treated with SCC DBS for TRD we assessed the voxel-wise probabilistic connectivity of SCC with four tractography-defined target areas implicated in depression, thereby identifying the tractography-optimized target (TOT). Compared to the non-responder, the responder ’s DBS leads were implanted and stimulation was delivered closer to the TOT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Evangelia Tsolaki, Randall Espinoza, Nader Pouratian Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Using Probablistic Tractography to Target the Subcallosal Cingulate Cortex in Patients with Treatment Resistant Depression
The lack of efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate (SCC) in treatment resistant depression (TRD) may be due in part to suboptimal targeting. In two patients treated with SCC DBS for TRD we assessed the voxel-wise probabilistic connectivity of SCC with four tractography-defined target areas implicated in depression, thereby identifying the tractography-optimized target (TOT). Compared to the non-responder, the responder ’s DBS leads were implanted and stimulation was delivered closer to the TOT. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Evangelia Tsolaki, Randall Espinoza, Nader Pouratian Source Type: research

123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy with early images alone is useful for the differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies
The objective of this study was to evaluate statistically the usefulness of the heart/mediastinum ratio (H/M) from the early phase of MIBG for the differential diagnosis of DLB. In total, 113 patients were examined, including 32 non-DLB (19 with Alzheimer's dementia) and 79 DLB patients. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuta Manabe, Yoshitaka Inui, Hiroshi Toyama, Kenji Kosaka Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity When Detecting Rare Visual Targets in Schizophrenia
Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate difficulties in attending to important stimuli (e.g., targets) and ignoring distractors (e.g., non-targets). We used a visual oddball task during fMRI to examine functional connectivity within and between the ventral and dorsal attention networks to determine the relative contribution of each network to detection of rare visual targets in schizophrenia. The sample comprised 25 schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls. Psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine whole-brain functional connectivity in response to targets. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy M. Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Michael F. Green, Jonathan K. Wynn Source Type: research

Treatment for social anxiety disorder alters functional connectivity in emotion regulation neural circuitry
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized at a neurobiological level by disrupted activity in emotion regulation neural circuitry. Previous work has demonstrated amygdala hyperreactivity and disrupted prefrontal responses to social cues in individuals with SAD (Kim et al., 2011). While exposure-based psychological treatments effectively reduce SAD symptoms, not all individuals respond to treatment. Better understanding of the neural mechanisms involved offers the potential to improve treatment efficacy. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katherine S. Young, Lisa J. Burklund, Jared Torre, Darby Saxbe, Matthew D. Lieberman, Michelle G. Craske Source Type: research

Electrophysiological basis of reading related phonological impairment in Chinese speakers with schizophrenia: an ERP study
Chinese patients with schizophrenia showed impaired phonological processing skills. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 13, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiuju Wang, Qi Liu, Taeko N. Wydell, Jinmin Liao, Fang Wang, Wenxiang Quan, Ju Tian, Pengfei Wang, Jin Liu, Wentian Dong Source Type: research

Frontal Activity During a Verbal Emotional Working Memory Task in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study
Emotional – compared to non-emotional - information is more likely to be remembered. This emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) is a well-known phenomenon especially among healthy young people (Baran et al., 2014; Kensinger et al., 2002; Kensinger and Corkin, 2003b). The EEM effect was also observed in heal thy older people (Mather and Carstensen, 2005; Schultz et al., 2009). Carstensen and Mikels (2005) proposed that older people utilize a cognitive filter and/or a control mechanism over the afferent stimuli. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fatma Ebru Ate ş, Banu Cangöz, Erguvan Tuğba Özel Kızıl, Bora Baskak, Zeynel Baran, Halise Devrimci Özgüven Source Type: research

Electrocortical Consequences of Image Processing: The Influence of Working Memory Load and Worry
Research suggests that worry precludes emotional processing as well as biases attentional processes. Although there is burgeoning evidence for the relationship between executive functioning and worry, more research in this area is needed. A recent theory suggests one mechanism for the negative effects of worry on neural indicators of attention may be working memory load, however few studies have examined this directly. The goal of the current study was to document the influence of both visual and verbal working memory load and worry on attention allocation during processing of emotional images in a cued image paradigm. (So...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Evan J. White, DeMond M. Grant Source Type: research

Aberrant spontaneous neural activity and correlation with evoked-brain potentials in first-episode, treatment-na ïve patients with deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used extensively to understand the neuropathology of schizophrenia because of its high spatial resolution and non-invasiveness. In particular, resting-state fMRI, in which measurements are taken during rest, has been used to measure intrinsic (spontaneous) brain activity that does not depend on specific tasks. Such activity is typically measured in terms of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) (0.01 –0.08Hz) of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal (He et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhe Li, Wei Lei, Wei Deng, Zhong Zheng, Mingli Li, Xiaohong Ma, Qiang Wang, Chaohua Huang, Na Li, David A. Collier, Qiyong Gong, Tao Li Source Type: research

Anomalous subcortical morphology in boys, but not girls, with ADHD compared to typically developing controls and correlates with emotion dysregulation
The objective of this study was to examine morphology (volume and shape) of subcortical structures and their association with emotion dysregulation (ED) in girls and boys with ADHD as compared to their typically-developing (TD) counterparts. Participants included 218 children ages 8 –12 years old with and without DSM-IV ADHD. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - January 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karen E. Seymour, Xiaoying Tang, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Michael I. Miller, Keri S. Rosch Source Type: research

Neural responses to social threat and predictors of cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy in social anxiety disorder
Previous research has often highlighted hyperactivity in emotion regions to simple, static social threat cues in social anxiety disorder (SAD). Investigation of the neurobiology of SAD using more naturalistic paradigms can further reveal underlying mechanisms and how these relate to clinical outcomes. We used fMRI to investigate responses to novel dynamic rejection stimuli in individuals with SAD (N=70) and healthy controls (HC; N=17), and whether these responses predicted treatment outcomes following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lisa J. Burklund, Jared B. Torre, Matthew D. Lieberman, Shelley E. Taylor, Michelle G. Craske Source Type: research

Brain connectivity networks and longitudinal trajectories of depression symptoms in adolescence
This study examined the relationship between the developmental timing of depressive symptoms, and brain structural outcomes in late adolescence. In a prior work, we examined longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms in 243 adolescents (121 males and 122 females), and identified four subgroups: a normative group with stable low levels of depression, two groups with declining symptoms, and one group with increasing symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel Ellis, Marc L. Seal, Christopher Adamson, Richard Beare, Julian G. Simmons, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B. Allen Source Type: research

Vertex-wise Examination of Depressive Symptom Dimensions and Brain Volumes in Older Adults
This study used vertex-wise analyses to examine the association between specific symptom dimensions of depression and brain volumes in older adults with subthreshold levels of depressive symptoms. Forty-three community-dwelling adults between the ages of 55 and 81 years underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan and completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Molly E. McLaren, Sarah M. Szymkowicz, Andrew O'Shea, Adam J. Woods, Stephen D. Anton, Vonetta M. Dotson Source Type: research

Impulsivity and aggression mediate regional brain responses in Borderline Personality Disorder: An fMRI Study
Fronto-limbic brain networks involved in regulation of impulsivity and aggression are abnormal in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). However, it is unclear whether, or to what extent, these personality traits actually modulate brain responses during cognitive processing. Using fMRI, we examined the effects of trait impulsivity, aggression, and depressed mood on regional brain responses in 31 female BPD and 25 control subjects during a Go No-Go task using Ekman faces as targets. First-level contrasts modeled effects of negative emotional context. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul H. Soloff, Kristy Abraham, Ashley Burgess, Karthik Ramaseshan, Asadur Chowdury, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar Source Type: research

Lateralization of Intrinsic Frontoparietal Network Connectivity and Symptoms in Schizophrenia
It has been frequently reported that schizophrenia patients have reduced functional lateralization in the areas related to language processing. Furthermore, there is evidence supporting that schizophrenia patients have disrupted functional connectivity in the bilateral frontoparietal networks (FPNs), of which the left is strongly associated with a cognition-language paradigm, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). To examine the laterality of resting-state functional connectivity in schizophrenia, we investigated the bilateral FPNs. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shuraku Son, Jun Miyata, Yasuo Mori, Masanori Isobe, Shin-ichi Urayama, Toshihiko Aso, Hidenao Fukuyama, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi Source Type: research

Brain network dysfunction in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder induced by simple uni-manual behavior: The role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex
In an effort to elucidate differences in functioning brain networks between youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls, we used fMRI signals to analyze brain network interactions of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during visually coordinated motor responses. Subjects made a uni-manual response to briefly presented probes, at periodic (allowing participants to maintain a “motor set”) or random intervals (demanding reactive responses). Network interactions were assessed using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI), a basic model of functional connectivity evaluating modulatory effects of the dACC i...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy L. Friedman, Ashley Burgess, Karthik Ramaseshan, Phil Easter, Dalal Khatib, Asadur Chowdury, Paul D. Arnold, Gregory L. Hanna, David R. Rosenberg, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar Source Type: research

Cerebral blood flow and its connectivity features of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: A perfusion study
The goal of the study was to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its connectivity (an across-subject covariance measure) patterns of schizophrenia (SZ) patients with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). A total of demographically matched 25 SZ patients with AVHs, 25 without AVHs, and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting state perfusion imaging using a pulsed arterial spin labeling sequence. CBF and its connectivity were analyzed and then CBF topological properties were calculated. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Zi-Liang Xu, Lin Liu, Hua-Ning Wang, Li Guo, Wen-Ming Liu, Ting-Ting Liu, Shun Qi, Kang Liu, Wei Qin, Jin-Bo Sun, Yi-Bin Xi, Hong Yin Source Type: research

White matter abnormalities in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users: a pilot study
Recent studies of long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users reported amygdala structural and functional connectivity abnormalities. We assessed white matter microstructure in the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major associative bundle of the amygdala network. Diffusion weighted images acquired from 9 male long-term AAS users and 8 matched controls aged 36 –51 years old were processed using a standardized pipeline (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics). Group differences were examined using linear regression with adjustment for age and current testosterone level. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johanna Seitz, Amanda E. Lyall, Gen Kanayama, Nikos Makris, James I. Hudson, Marek Kubicki, Harrison G. Pope, Marc J. Kaufman Source Type: research

Decreased response inhibition to sad faces during explicit and implicit tasks in females with depression: Evidence from an event-related potential study
The present study aimed to investigate neural substrates of response inhibition to sad faces across explicit and implicit tasks in depressed female patients. Event-related potentials were obtained while participants performed modified explicit and implicit emotional go/no-go tasks. Compared to controls, depressed patients showed decreased discrimination accuracy and amplitudes of original and nogo-go difference waves at the P3 interval in response inhibition to sad faces during explicit and implicit tasks. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fengqiong Yu, Xiaoqing Zhou, Wu Qing, Dan Li, Jing Li, Xingui Chen, Gongjun Ji, Yi Dong, Yuejia Luo, Chunyan Zhu, Kai Wang Source Type: research

Lost emotion: Disrupted brain-based tracking of dynamic affective episodes in anxiety and depression
In our day-to-day lives we are confronted with dynamic sensory inputs that elicit a continuously evolving emotional response. Insight into the brain basis of the dynamic nature of emotional reactivity may be critical for understanding chronic symptoms of anxiety and depression. Here, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy controls watched a video with dynamic affective content while fMRI activity was recorded. Across all participants there was a large-scale tracking of affective content in emotion processing regions and the default mode network. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joshua M. Carlson, Denis Rubin, Lilianne R. Mujica-Parodi Source Type: research

Evidence for the changes of pituitary volumes in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder
In pubertal and postpubertal patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), significantly greater pituitary gland volumes have been reported. Moving from this point, in the present study, we aimed to investigate pituitary gland volumes in patients with PTSD and hypothesized that volumes of the gland would be structurally changed. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland was performed among sixteen patients with PTSD and fifteen healthy control subjects. We found that the mean volume of the pituitary gland was statistically significant and smaller than that of healthy subjects (0.69 ±0.08cm3 for p...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Murad Atmaca, Omer Ozer, Sevda Korkmaz, Ismail Taskent, Hanefi Yildirim Source Type: research

Altered patterns of association between cortical thickness and subcortical volume in patients with first episode major depressive disorder: A structural MRI study
This study explored correlations between overall cortical thickness and the volume of several subcortical structures in first episode major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Thirty-six untreated individuals experiencing their first episode of MDD were compared with healthy controls (n=41). Their brains were imaged by T1-weighted MRI, allowing the measurement of cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - December 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ke Zhao, Haiyan Liu, Rui Yan, Lingling Hua, Yu Chen, Jiabo Shi, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu Source Type: research

Cortical-Amygdala Volumetric Ratios Predict Onset of Symptoms of Psychosis in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
Dysfunction of cortical circuitry involving prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus and mesial temporal lobe has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic disorder that comports a 25-fold increased risk of developing psychosis. Morphological changes in the neuroanatomy of this syndrome may represent a biological risk factor for the development of psychosis. The present study explored ratios between cortical volumes and the amygdala. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: David Berhanu, Leah M. Mattiaccio, Kevin M. Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Frank A. Middleton, Wendy R. Kates Source Type: research

Neural basis for inferring false beliefs and social emotions in others among individuals with schizophrenia and those at ultra-high risk for psychosis
Inferring beliefs and social emotions of others has different neural substrates and possibly different roles in the pathophysiology of different clinical phases of schizophrenia. The current study investigated the neural basis for inferring others ’ beliefs and social emotions, as individual concepts, in 17 subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), 16 patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Brain activity significantly differed from normal in both the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IF G) in the schizophrenia group while inferring others’ beliefs, whereas those of...
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yosuke Takano, Yuta Aoki, Noriaki Yahata, Yuki Kawakubo, Hideyuki Inoue, Norichika Iwashiro, Tatsunobu Natsubori, Shinsuke Koike, Wataru Gonoi, Hiroki Sasaki, Hidemasa Takao, Kiyoto Kasai, Hidenori Yamasue Source Type: research

Structural differences in hippocampal subfields among schizophrenia patients, major depressive disorder patients, and healthy subjects
Many MRI studies have reported a volume reduction of the hippocampus in psychiatric diseases. However, disease-related volume differences in hippocampus subfields remain unclear. Here we compared the volumes of hippocampus subfields in patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy subjects as controls. T2-weighted images were acquired in 20 patients with schizophrenia, 36 with MDD, and 35 healthy volunteers by 3-Tesla MRI. Hippocampal subfields were segmented using an automatic algorithm, Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS). (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Miho Ota, Noriko Sato, Shinsuke Hidese, Toshiya Teraishi, Norihide Maikusa, Hiroshi Matsuda, Kotaro Hattori, Hiroshi Kunugi Source Type: research

Predicting CYP2D6 phenotype from resting brain perfusion images by gradient boosting
The cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6 is involved in the metabolism of 20% of all commonly used drugs, including many psychotropic drugs and CNS-active substances. CYP2D6 is among the CYP enzymes with the highest expression levels in the brain, suggesting a role in the local brain metabolism of psychotropic drugs and the existence of endogenous substrates. The genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6, which causes individual differences in activity levels of the enzyme, has also been characterized functionally in human brain imaging studies. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Giulio Napolitano, Julia C Stingl, Matthias Schmid, Roberto Viviani Source Type: research

Reduced cortical thickness in body dysmorphic disorder
Recent neuroimaging studies in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have implicated abnormal structure and function of occipito-temporal and fronto-limbic regions in the potential pathophysiology of the disorder. To date, morphometric investigations have yielded inconsistent results, and have suggested that clinical symptoms may mediate morphometric abnormalities in BDD. We measured Grey Matter (GM) cortical thickness in 20 participants with BDD and 20 healthy control participants matched on age, gender and handedness. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sally A Grace, Ben Buchanan, Jerome J Maller, Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell Source Type: research

Altered dynamics of brain connectivity in major depressive disorder at-rest and during task performance
In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a goal-directed task to investigate dynamics of functional connectivity in 19 unmedicated patients with MDD and 19 healthy controls across both experimental paradigms. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 17, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fabio Sambataro, Eleonora Visintin, Nadja Doerig, Janis Brakowski, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz, Simona Spinelli Source Type: research

Correlation of florbetaben PET imaging and the amyloid peptide A ß42 in cerebrospinal fluid
Today, the use of biomarkers such as amyloid-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers and information derived from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can support the diagnosis of Alzheimer ´s disease (AD) as an indicator for the presence of amyloid pathology. We here show that the PET signal of the 18F-labelled tracer florbetaben (NeuraCeqTM), that binds to amyloid-beta plaques, inversely correlates with CSF levels of Aß42, another biomarker for AD. Results from the two biomarkers w ere concordant in 34 out of 38 subjects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Carola G. Schipke, Norman Koglin, Santiago Bullich, Lisa Katharina Joachim, Brigitte Haas, John Seibyl, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Oliver Peters Source Type: research

Altered resting-state regional homogeneity after 13 weeks of paliperidone injection treatment in schizophrenia patients
This study aimed to explore the effects of the long-acting antipsychotic drug palmitate paliperidone in resting-state brain activity of schizophrenia patients. Seventeen schizophrenia outpatients were included and received palmitate paliperidone injection (PAL) treatment for 13 weeks. These patients were compared to seventeen matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent two scan sessions of resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (baseline and the 13th week) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) at resting-state where compared. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yan Bai, Weixin Wang, Jian Xu, Fengrui Zhang, Hongjun Yu, Chunrong Luo, Lianzhang Wang, Xianyu Chen, Roeben Munji, Baoci Shan, Lin Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Yuqi Cheng Source Type: research

Distinct Differences in Striatal Dysmorphology Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Boys with and without a Comorbid Reading Disability
There is evidence of greater cognitive deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with a comorbid reading disability (ADHD/+RD) compared to ADHD alone (ADHD/-RD). Additionally, the striatum has been consistently implicated in ADHD. However, the extent of morphological alterations in the striatum of ADHD/+RD is poorly understood, which is the main purpose of this study. Based on structural MRI images, the surface deformation of the caudate and putamen was assessed in 59 boys matching in age and IQ [19 ADHD/-RD, 15 ADHD/+RD and 25 typically developing controls (TDC)]. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 3, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dhruman D. Goradia, Sherry Vogel, Brianne Mohl, Dalal Khatib, Caroline Zajac-Benitez, Usha Rajan, Arthur Robin, David R. Rosenberg, Jeffrey A. Stanley Source Type: research

Volume of Hippocampal Subfields in Patients with Alcohol Dependence
Alcohol-induced hippocampal atrophy has been well documented in many studies and is known to affect various subfields. Given the functional heterogeneity of these subfields, we investigated the precise effects of alcohol-induced damage in these areas. Twenty-six male patients with alcohol dependence (alcohol group) and twenty-six age-matched male healthy social drinkers were recruited from a mental health hospital and the community respectively, with the aim of comparing the hippocampal subfields between groups. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeonghwan Lee, Sung-Jin Im, Sang-Gu Lee, Alfreda Stadlin, Jung-Woo Son, Chul-Jin Shin, Gawon Ju, Sang-Ick Lee, Siekyeong Kim Source Type: research

DTI microstructural abnormalities in adolescent siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia
We found microstructural differences between adolescent COS siblings and age-matched control participants with greater mean diffusivity (MD) in the putamen in controls compared to COS siblingsOur data also reveal widespread increased white matter MD, radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) throughout the brain in the COS siblings compared to controls.Increases in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreases in MD, RD, and AD were associated with worse task performance in COS siblings. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - November 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dana Waltzman, Barbara Jean Knowlton, Jessica Rachel Cohen, Susan Yost Bookheimer, Robert Martin Bilder, Robert Franklin Asarnow Source Type: research

Test-retest reproducibility of extrastriatal binding with 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in healthy male subjects
123I-labeled 2 β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) is used to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) expression, but it can also quantify extrastriatal serotonin transporter (SERT) expressions. While FP-CIT uptake in extrastriatal regions has been quantified, no infor mation exists on the reproducibility of the 123I-FP-CIT specific uptake ratio (SUR) in extrastriatal regions. We investigated test-retest reproducibility of 123I-FP-CIT binding in the striatum, the midbrain, and cortical regions in eight healthy male subjects. (Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging)
Source: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - October 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kiwamu Matsuoka, Fumihiko Yasuno, Takayuki Shinkai, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Masato Takahashi, Kuniaki Kiuchi, Jun Kosaka, Makoto Inoue, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Toshifumi Kishimoto Source Type: research