Cost-effective oxygen concentrators
(ETH Zurich) People suffering from COVID-19 need air enriched with oxygen, as the Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus attacks the lungs. Presenting new ideas and prototypes for oxygen concentrators, researchers at ETH Zurich hope to avoid a worldwide oxygen shortage that could threaten humankind as a result of the pandemic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How do mantis shrimp find their way home?
(University of Maryland Baltimore County) New research in Current Biology indicates mantis shrimp use path integration to find their way back to their burrows after leaving to seek food or mates. That means they can track their distance and direction from their starting point. A series of creative experiments revealed that to do that, they rely on a hierarchy of cues from the sun, polarized light patterns, and their internal senses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Special issue explores consumer access and power
(American Marketing Association) A special issue from the Journal of Public Policy& Marketing explores the definition of consumer access and consumer power with some insights being prophetic as it relates to access during the current global health crisis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Money can't buy love -- or friendship
(University at Buffalo) While researchers have suggested that individuals who base their self-worth on their financial success often feel lonely in everyday life, a newly published study by the University at Buffalo and Harvard Business School has taken initial steps to better understand why this link exists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 9, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Social media can forecast economic impact of disasters including COVID-19 pandemic
(University of Bristol) Social media should be used to chart the economic impact and recovery of businesses in countries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, according to new research published in Nature Communications. University of Bristol scientists describe a 'real time' method accurately trialled across three global natural disasters which could be used to reliably forecast the financial impact of the current global health crisis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Public policies push schools to prioritize creating better test-takers over better people
(University at Buffalo) Personal growth and job skills have taken a backseat to an increased focus on standardized test scores in schools across the nation, according to new University at Buffalo-led research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Extreme action costs popular support for protest movements, new study finds
(University of Toronto, Rotman School of Management) New research has found that social change advocates face an 'activist's dilemma.' While extreme actions can bring more attention to a cause than moderate ones, they are more likely to diminish support, even among natural sympathizers, the study found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Examining association of preoperative metformin, surgical outcomes in patients with diabetes
(JAMA Network) Metformin is the most commonly prescribed noninsulin medication for type 2 diabetes and this observational study examined postoperative death and hospital readmission among adults with type 2 diabetes who had a prescription for metformin before major surgery with those who didn't. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Is autoimmunity on the rise?
(Wiley) A study published in Arthritis& Rheumatology provides evidence that the prevalence of autoimmunity -- when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself -- has increased in the United States in recent years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Therapy dogs may help lower emergency clinicians' stress
(Wiley) New research published in Academic Emergency Medicine indicates that for physicians and nurses working evening shifts in the emergency department, interacting with a therapy dog for several minutes may help lower stress. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Early bedtime may help children maintain healthy weight
(Wiley) Going to bed early and following a consistent bedtime routine may help reduce children's risk of becoming overweight or obese, according to a new study published in Acta Paediatrica. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

The effects of inflammatory bowel disease on pregnancy
(Wiley) Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) -- including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis -- often affects women of childbearing age. A study published in Alimentary Pharmacology& Therapeutics compared the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women with IBD. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Restricting sleep may affect emotional reactions
(Wiley) In a recent Journal of Sleep Research study, participants perceived pleasant and neutral pictures in a more negative way when their sleep was restricted for several nights in a row. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mindfulness program may benefit patients with irritable bowel syndrome
(Wiley) Adults with irritable bowel syndrome experienced fewer gastrointestinal symptoms after they participated in a mindfulness program meant to reduce stress. Results of the study are published in Neurogastroenterology& Motility. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Depression in adults who are overweight or obese
(Wiley) In an analysis of primary care records of 519,513 UK adults who were overweight or obese between 2000-2016 and followed up until 2019, the incidence of new cases of depression was 92 per 10,000 people per year. The risk of depression also rose with higher weight, according to the Obesity analysis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

COVID-19 in children in Spain
(JAMA Network) Describes testing for and treatment of children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Madrid. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

First study on the health conditions of adults one month into COVID-19 lockdown
(University of Sydney) A new preliminary study provides some of the earliest pieces of evidence that the COVID-19 outbreak affected people mentally as well as physically. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Uganda: 20% decline in economic output without climate action
(CMCC Foundation - Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change) Less nutrition, less productivity, less development: the changing climate hinders poor rural areas of developing countries. A new study with contribution from the CMCC Foundation shows the impacts of climate change on the labor supply in 21st century, and how decision makers should act today to prevent the potential negative outcomes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mapping the evolution of coastal waters in Metro Vancouver: The Burrard Inlet
(University of British Columbia) In collaboration with Tsleil-Waututh Nation and West Coast Environmental Law, graduate student researchers from UBC's Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries brought together research on factors of change in Burrard Inlet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

'Fake news' increases consumer demands for corporate action
(North Carolina State University) New research finds that 'fake news' inspires consumers to demand corrective action from companies -- even if the company is a victim of the fake news story. The study also supports the idea that most people feel they are better at detecting fake news than other people are. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Security guards struggle with PTSD and lack mental health support
(University of Portsmouth) New research shows that thousands of security guards in the UK are suffering Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), having been exposed to frequent episodes of verbal and physical abuse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Migration: What does it mean to be vulnerable?
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) EU funded project will examine how nine countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and the Middle East address the vulnerabilities affecting migrants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Young children find a parent's hug more calming than a stranger's
(Cell Press) For infants as young as four months, a hug from a parent makes all the difference. A study appearing April 7 in the journal iScience examined heart rate responses in infants less than one year old during a hug and found that children as young as four months experience greater heart rate slowing during a hug than a hold -- and during a hug from their parent as compared to a hug from a stranger. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Investigating association between preconception exposure to plastics, risk of preterm birth
(JAMA Network) Researchers used urinary measures of biomarkers of phthalates (a group of chemicals used in plastics) and phthalate substitutes from couples undergoing fertility care and examined if higher concentrations prior to conception were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NHS could save £ 89 million and further fight against antimicrobial resistance
(Taylor& Francis Group) The NHS could save up to £ 89 million a year on unnecessary prescriptions for antibiotics, and further its efforts in the fight against antimicrobial resistance -- if it was to comprehensively introduce already available and accurate point-of-care (POCTs) diagnostic tests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Simulations show extreme opinions can lead to polarized groups
(American Institute of Physics) In this week's Chaos, researchers use a theoretical model to examine what effect extreme views have on making the entire system more polarized. The group's network-based model extends a popular approach for studying opinion dynamics, called the Cobb model, and is based on the hypothesis that those with opinions farther from the middle of a political spectrum are also less influenced by others, a trait known to social scientists as 'rigidity of the extreme.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Hangover drug shows wider benefits in USC research
(University of Southern California) The hangover remedy DHM may have broader applications for substance abuse treatment and liver disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Children have very precise expectations about adults' communicative actions
(Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona) Adults talk to babies differently from how we would speak to other adults. Compared to how adults speak, speech directed at babies tends to have a higher, more varied pitch, greater positive affectation, it is slower and involves shorter phrases. The characteristics of this speech targeting babies has been studied extensively and it has been found that it is a common feature of different cultures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How serotonin balances communication within the brain
(Ruhr-University Bochum) Our brain is steadily engaged in soliloquies. These internal communications are usually also bombarded with external sensory events. Hence, the impact of the two neuronal processes need to be permanently fine-tuned to avoid their imbalance. A team of scientists at the Ruhr-Universit ä t Bochum (RUB) revealed the role of the neurotransmitter Serotonin in this scenario. They discovered that distinct serotonergic receptor types control the gain of both streams of information in a separable manner. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Marketing researchers identify the three most powerful drivers of effective crowdfunding
(Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences) While the concept of crowdfunding is still in its early phases of development, a group of marketing researchers have conducted a study that reveals the most powerful drivers behind effective crowdfunding campaigns. According to the researchers, there are three primary mechanisms that serve as the major drivers of crowdfunding campaigns that yield results. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Babies retain even detailed events during a nap
(Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences) While sleeping the brain goes through previously experienced things, consolidates new memory contents and summarizes similar experiences into more general knowledge. This already applies to babies. However, they can more than just generalize what they have learned. A recent study shows: during sleep a baby's brain also consolidates the details of its individual experience and protects them from generalization and is therefore also important for what is known as episodic memory. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Disagreements help team perception, study finds
(U.S. Army Research Laboratory) Team disagreements might be the key to helping Soldiers identify objects in battle, researchers say. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Students who listened to Beethoven during lecture -- and in dreamland -- did better on test
(Baylor University) College students who listened to classical music by Beethoven and Chopin during a computer-interactive lecture on microeconomics -- and heard the music played again that night -- did better on a test the next day than did peers who heard the same lecture, but instead slept that evening with white noise in the background. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Housing prescriptions improve health outcomes in children, anxiety and depression in adults
(Boston Medical Center) Results of a study show that enrollment in a program that supports housing and health needs of medically complex families was associated with improved child health and parent mental health within six months. The program, Housing Prescription as Health Care (HPHC), helps families experiencing homelessness and housing instability in Boston and uses a multi-dimensional approach to address families' specific needs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ride-hailing linked to more crashes for motorists and pedestrians
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) Ride-hailing trips increase the number of crashes for motorists and pedestrians at pick-up and drop-off locations, reports a new study from researchers at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. The research is the first to use data for individual ride-hailing trips, rather than comparing cities where ride-hailing is available to those where it is not available. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Changes in brain attention may underlie autism
(Society for Neuroscience) New research in JNeurosci explores how a particular region of the brainstem might explain differences in attention in people with autism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Adding a measure of patient frailty to Medicare payment model could lead to fairer reimbursement for clinicians
(American College of Physicians) Researchers identified a way to measure frailty using patients' medical claims that more accurately predicts costs-of-care, especially for clinicians with disproportionate shares of frail patients. Adding this measure to Medicare's value-based payment models could lead to fairer reimbursement for clinicians who care for patients with greater needs. Findings from a retrospective cohort study are published in Annals of Internal Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Societal transformations and resilience in Arabia across 12,000 years of climate change
(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) Recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental research in the Arabian Peninsula shows a range of societal responses to a series of extreme climatic and environmental fluctuations over thousands of years. These responses include migration, increasing population mobility, the introduction of pastoral lifeways, the management of water resources, and the construction of diverse structures to aid survival. Present-day constraints mean that many of these options are not available to populations living in the region today. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Leaving its mark: How frailty impacts the blood
(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) Fifteen blood metabolites are key for diagnosing the age-related disorder, frailty, new study finds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Alzheimer's trial screening data links high amyloid levels with early stage disease
(NIH/National Institute on Aging) The first paper from the NIH-funded A4 study supports the hypothesis that higher levels of amyloid protein in the brain represent an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Screening data for the study show that amyloid burden in clinically normal older adults is associated with a family history of disease, lower cognitive test scores, and reports of declines in daily cognitive function. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Follow your gut
(Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown) We may try to consciously make good food choices, but our bodies have their own way of weighing in. A new study reveals a learning mechanism orchestrated by the digestive and nervous systems that leads animals to actively seek out certain foods. These results are a step towards understanding how eating-related disorders, such as obesity, occur. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Which healthy lifestyle factors associated with more years free of chronic disease?
(JAMA Network) What combination of healthy lifestyle factors were associated with the most years lived without chronic diseases was the focus of this analysis that included data from more than 100,000 adults who were participants in 12 European studies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Changes in marijuana vaping, edible use among US 12th-graders
(JAMA Network) About 2,400 students in the 12th grade were surveyed about the frequency and mode of use (smoking, vaping and edibles) of marijuana from 2015 to 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Neuroscientists find memory cells that help us interpret new situations
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT neuroscientists have identified populations of cells that encode distinctive segments of an overall experience. These chunks of memory are encoded separately from the neural code that stores detailed memories of a specific experience. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Making stronger concrete with 'sewage-enhanced' steel slag
(RMIT University) Researchers examined whether steel slag that had been used to treat wastewater could then be recycled as an aggregate material for concrete. Their findings? Concrete made with post-treatment steel slag was about 17% stronger than concrete made with conventional aggregates, and 8% stronger than raw steel slag. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Identification of new factors important in maintaining lung function in the elderly
(Kumamoto University) Japanese researchers have found that elderly carriers of a specific DsbA-L gene type are at increased risk for lung function decline. The protein DsbA-L is known to be an antioxidant and enhances the function of the beneficial protein adiponectin. Decreased expression of the DsbA-L gene in lung tissue resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and mucous production. The researchers expect that precision medicine focusing on this gene will prove to be beneficial. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers hope to improve future epidemic predictions
(U.S. Army Research Laboratory) As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, a new mathematical model could offer insights on how to improve future epidemic predictions based on how information mutates as it is transmitted from person to person and group to group. The Army Research Office funded this model, developed by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Princeton University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Older entrepreneurs as successful as their younger counterparts, study reveals
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) From Steve Jobs to Mark Zuckerberg, the stories of prosperous, young innovators drive the American economic narrative. However, the truth is that older business entrepreneurs may be just as well suited to success. And older women are far more successful at launching a business than their younger counterparts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Religious believers think God values lives of out-group members more than they do
(Society for Personality and Social Psychology) In a new paper, which will appear in print in an upcoming special issue of Social Psychological and Personality Science, Michael Pasek, Jeremy Ginges, and colleagues find that, across religious groups in Fiji and Israel, religious believers see God as encouraging people to treat others in a more universal, or equal, manner. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

When what-if scenarios turn real: CSU pandemic modeler providing new COVID-19 insights
(Colorado State University) School closures are intended to slow the transmission of the coronavirus. But researchers find that the toll school closures take on health care workers could potentially negate any mortality benefits from the closures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news