Shifts in Porcine PBMC Populations from Adolescence to Adulthood
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Wolfgang SiposAbstractIn mammals, the immune system is undergoing significant changes during development, which has many impacts on the individual’s capacity to cope with infectious diseases or other pathologic conditions, where the immune system is involved. Especially in livestock, it is important to know in detail about these changes, including shifts in the composition of systemic leukocyte populations, as this knowledge may help to focus on relevant cell populations when developing novel vaccines for use i...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - April 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of a monoclonal antibody against swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-DR α chain and evaluation of SLA-DR expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells after PRRSV infection
In conclusion, we successfully developed a MAb reactive with endogenous SLA-DR in western blotting, and this MAb could be a useful tool for further research and analysis. Moreover, the inconsistency of SLA-DR expression between protein and mRNA levels may suggest a novel role of DC played during the immune response after PRRSV infection. (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - April 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 210Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - April 2, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of Ascaris and Trichuris antigens on cytokine production in porcine blood mononuclear and epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Simon R. Jakobsen, Laura J. Myhill, Andrew R. WilliamsAbstractHelminth parasites are highly prevalent in swine production, causing chronic infections and considerable morbidity due to growth retardation. Moreover, helminths actively modulate host immune responses to other pathogens and/or vaccines. Here, we investigated the modulatory effects of Ascaris suum adult body fluid (ABF) and Trichuris suis Soluble Products (TsSP) on the cytokine response in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the intestina...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - April 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development and application of a porcine specific ELISA for the quantification of soluble CD163
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): J. Alex Pasternak, Daniel J. MacPhee, John C.S. HardingAbstractThe cellular marker CD163 is a type 1 transmembrane scavenger protein found either on the surface of antigen-presenting cells or in a soluble form (sCD163), released in response to inflammation. Despite an obligatory role in porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) infection, information on sCD163 as a biomarker of disease outcome in swine remains limited. In the present study, we developed a sandwich ELISA using an anti-bovine CD163 antibody, L...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Procoagulant activity of bovine neutrophils incubated with conditioned media or extracellular vesicles from Histophilus somni stimulated bovine brain endothelial cells
Publication date: Available online 25 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): José J. Rivera Rivas, Charles J. CzuprynskiAbstractHistophilus somni is a Gram negative coccobacillus that causes respiratory, reproductive and central nervous system disease in cattle. The hallmark of H. somni infection is diffuse vasculitis and intravascular thrombosis that can lead to an acute central nervous system disease known as thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME). Because neutrophils are major players in the pathophysiology of septic meningitis, we sought to determine their role in H. somni-induced fi...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pattern of CD14, CD16, CD163 and CD172a expression on water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) leukocytes
This study expands mAbs available to define and study the buffalo monocytes, and also extends information available on the unique features of the buffalo immune system. (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Skin immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) experimentally exposed to the disease Red Mark Syndrome
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Louise von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Jacob Günther Schmidt, Defang Chen, Per Walter Kania, Kurt Buchmann, Niels Jørgen OlesenAbstractRed Mark Syndrome (RMS) is a skin disease reported from farmed rainbow trout. Since the turn of the millennium it has been spreading through Europe. RMS is probably a bacterial disease caused by a Midichloria-like organism (MLO). It is non-lethal and causes little obvious changes in appetite or behavior but results in red hyperaemic skin lesions, which may lead to economic...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli infection of a chicken lung epithelial cell line
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Noëlle Mol, Lianci Peng, Evelyne Esnault, Pascale Quéré, Henk P. Haagsman, Edwin J.A. VeldhuizenABSTRACTVirulent strains of Escherichia coli (Avian Pathogenic E. Coli: APEC) can cause initial infection of the respiratory tract in chickens potentially leading to systemic infection called colibacillosis, which remains a major cause of economic losses in the poultry industry. The role of epithelial lung cells as first targets of APEC and in initiating the innate immune response is unclear and was inve...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 209Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development and characterization of a canine-specific anti-CD94 (KLRD-1) monoclonal antibody
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Scott S. Graves, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Diane M. Stone, Maura H. Parker, Kraig Abrams, Christoph Jochum, Susanna Gallo, Marium Saad, Melissa M. Johnson, Steven L. Rosinski, Rainer StorbABSTRACTNatural killer (NK) cells are non-T, non-B lymphocytes are part of the innate immune system and function without prior activation. The human NK cell surface determinant, CD94, plays a critical role in regulation of NK cell activity as a heterodimer with NKG2 subclasses. Canine NK cells are not as well defined as the human and muri...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Flow-cytometric analysis of circulating leukocyte populations in turkeys: establishment of a whole blood analysis approach and investigations on possible influencing factors
In this study we established a whole blood based flow cytometric analysis method for turkeys. This method was used to determine baseline values depending on the age of the birds as well as under consideration of variations between trials and animal room effects. During three trials whole blood samples of B.U.T. 6 female turkeys were collected to analyze different leukocyte concentrations (cells/µl whole blood). In the first trial one group and in the second and third trial two groups with 22 birds/group were housed. Blood samples were collected at days one, 23, 43, 60, and 88 post hatch and concentrations of monocyte...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Stocking density induces differential expression of immune-related genes in skeletal muscle and head kidney of fine flounder (Paralichthys adspersus)
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Cristián A. Valenzuela, Sebastián Escobar-Aguirre, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Tamara Vera-Tobar, Luis Mercado, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Juan A. Valdés, Alfredo MolinaAbstractImmunity can be modulated by different internal and external factors, being stress one of the most important. However, the stress effects on the immunocompetence of the skeletal muscle has not been studied in detail in earlier vertebrates. Here, we examine the effect of chronic (4 and 7 weeks) crowding stress on the immunoco...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 12, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correlation between toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and pathological severity in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal diseases
We examined the expression levels of TLR4, NOD2, and TNF-α in the stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum obtained from 21 dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease, including inflammatory bowel disease, high-grade lymphoma, food responsive enteropathy, chronic pancreatitis, low-grade lymphoma, inflammatory colorectal polyp, and chronic colitis. Next, we demonstrated whether there is good correlation between the expression levels of TLR4, NOD2, and TNF-α and the histopathological analysis of each sample. We found that the level of TLR4 expression in the ileum of dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease w...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The effect of age on foal monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MoDC) maturation and function after exposure to killed bacteria
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Brina S. Lopez, David J. Hurley, Shyla Giancola, Steeve Giguère, M. Julia. B. Felippe, Kelsey A. HartAbstractNeonatal foals are uniquely susceptible to certain infections early in life. Dendritic cells (DCs) are vital in the transition between the innate and adaptive immune response to infection, but DC biology in foals is not fully characterized. Monocyte-derived DCs represent a suitable in vitro model similar to DCs that differentiate from monocytes recruited from circulation. We hypothesized that foal monocy...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Heat stress, Eimeria spp. and C. perfringens infections alone or in combination modify gut Th1/Th2 cytokine balance and avian necrotic enteritis pathogenesis
This study analyzes the effects of heat stress on Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, pathological features, and Toll-like receptor expression in the small intestine of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens type A in the presence or absence of Eimeria spp. co-infection. This co-infection model was experimentally used because it reproduces the findings commonly observed in the field during avian NE. For this purpose, broiler chickens infected with C. perfringens and/or Eimeria spp. were reared in isolator chambers subjected or not to heat stress intermittently. It was observed that heat stress directs the expression ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Modulation of TNF-α, IL-1Ra and IFN-γ in equine whole blood culture by glucocorticoids
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Simon Rütten, Wieland Schrödl, Getu AbrahamAbstractGlucocorticoids are important drugs in the treatment of many inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic diseases in humans and animals. We investigated the effects of hydrocortisone and dexamethasone on TNF-α, IL-1Ra and INF-γ release in stimulated whole blood cell culture from healthy horses. Whole blood cell cultures proved to be useful for the characterization of the anti-inflammatory properties of new drugs.Diluted equine whole blood was exposed t...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intestinal colonization and acute immune response in commercial turkeys following inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni constructs encoding antibiotic-resistance markers
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Matthew J. Sylte, Timothy A. Johnson, Ella L. Meyer, Matt H. Inbody, Julian Trachsel, Torey Looft, Leonardo Susta, Zuowei Wu, Qijing ZhangAbstractConsumption of contaminated poultry products is one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, of which Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (C. jejuni) is responsible for approximately 90% of the cases. At slaughter, the ceca of commercial chickens and turkeys are the main anatomical site where C. jejuni asymptomatically colonizes. We have previously colonized commercia...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mucosal immunization with polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 using alternative delivery systems against Brucella ovis in rams
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Alejandra Graciela Díaz, Daniela Alejandra Quinteros, Fernando Alberto Paolicchi, Mariana Alejandra Rivero, Santiago Daniel Palma, Romina Paola Pardo, María Clausse, Vanesa Zylberman, Fernando Alberto Goldbaum, Silvia Marcela EsteinAbstractSubcellular vaccines against ovine contagious epididymitis due Brucella ovis can solve some shortcomings associated with the use of Brucella melitensis Rev 1. We have demonstrated that the parenteral immunization with polymeric antigen BLSOmp31 emulsified in oil adjuva...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Intranasally administered polyethylenimine adjuvanted influenza M2 ectodomain induces partial protection against H9N2 influenza A virus infection in chickens
This study aimed to investigate whether intranasally coadministered four tandem copies of extracellular domains of M2 (M2e) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), a mucosal adjuvant, can protect chickens against H9N2 influenza A virus infection. Groups of chickens were intranasally vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant, M2e alone or PEI adjuvant, and antibody (serum IgG and mucosal IgA) and cellular (CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ levels) immune responses were measured post-vaccination. We demonstrated that the chickens vaccinated with M2e plus PEI adjuvant showed significantly (p 
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - March 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Breed-specific variations in the coding region of toll-like receptor 4 in the domestic cat
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): J. Whitney, B. Haase, J. Beatty, V.R. BarrsAbstractSpecific point mutations in the human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) confer altered risk for diverse diseases, including sepsis, aspergillosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Some of these TLR4 polymorphisms are racially specific. We hypothesised that feline TLR4 polymorphisms might underlie an observed increased risk to infectious and inflammatory diseases in some cat breeds. The aim of this study was to identify breed-specific variations in the coding region of fel...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Docosahexaenoic acid and TUG-891 activate Free Fatty Acid-4 receptor in bovine neutrophils
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Ivan Olmo, Stefanie Teuber, Camilo Larrazabal, Pablo Alarcon, Fernanda Raipane, Rafael A. Burgos, Maria A. HidalgoAbstractFatty acids are well known metabolic intermediaries but also have a role in the immune response. Long-chain fatty acids such as omega-6 and -9 activate neutrophil function through free fatty acid (FFA)-1 receptor in bovines. Although omega-3 has also been suggested to influence neutrophil function, the details remain unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the presence of the bovine FF...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Expression profiling of selected miRNAs in equine endometrium in response to LPS challenge in vitro: a new understanding of the inflammatory immune response
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Sally Ibrahim, Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Dariusz SkarzynskiAbstractBacterial infections of the genital tract are the major cause of reproductive failure in the mares. MiRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, mostly through transcriptional and translational regression. We hypothesized that LPS induced aberrant expression of miRNAs and their targets, which are involved in regulation of uterine homeostasis. Three groups of primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and endometrial tissue exp...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 17, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Attenuated Salmonella secreting Brucella protective antigens confer dual-faceted protection against brucellosis and salmonellosis in a mouse model
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Amal Senevirathne, Chamith Hewawaduge, John Hwa LeeAbstractWe demonstrated the use of attenuated Salmonella strains secreting Brucella antigens SodC, Omp19, BLS, and PrpA as live vaccine candidates against Brucella abortus infection and presented their cross-protection against Salmonella infections using a BALB/c mice model. Here, a single immunization with each individual strain was capable of establishing significantly high (p 
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Innate immune response profiles in pigs injected with vaccine adjuvants polydi(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene (PCEP) and Emulsigen
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Royford Magiri, Ken Lai, Yanyun Huang, George Mutwiri, Heather L. WilsonAbstractVaccines are formulated with adjuvants to enhance or direct antigen-specific immune responses against pathogens. However, the mechanisms of action (MOA) of adjuvants are not well understood and are under-investigated in large animal species. We have previously reported that injection of mice induced innate immune responses as indicated by increased cell recruitment and cytokine production at the site of injection with polyphosphazene (P...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Th17 cells increase during maturation in peripheral blood of healthy dogs
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Satoshi Akiyama, Ryota Asahina, Hiroshi Ohta, Toshihiro Tsukui, Hidetaka Nishida, Hiroaki Kamishina, Sadatoshi MaedaAbstractRecent studies have indicated that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases in dogs. However, age-related changes in canine Th17 cells have not yet been investigated. In the present study, the proportion of Th17 cells was examined in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy dogs at various ages: Group 1 (n = 16; less than 1&thi...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 6, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1b and its effect on infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of the porcine OAS1b gene and studied the effects of its overexpression or silencing on PRRSV replication. OAS1b, localized mainly in the cytoplasm, was found to contain conserved protein domains, such as the P-Loop and D-Box, indicating that its nucleotidyl transferase activity was complete and the antiviral effect depended on ribonuclease L (RNase L). OAS1b overexpression inhibited PRRSV replication, whereas small-interfering-RNA silencing of OAS1b resulted in increased virus titers. Additionally, OAS1b promoted expression of interferons as well as interferon-β promoter ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 6, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 208Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 2, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genome-wide Association Analysis in West Highland White Terriers with Atopic Dermatitis
ConclusionsAtopic dermatitis in WHWT is associated with a region on CFA3 that contains several candidate genes. Of these, a homozygous variant in the F2R gene present in multiple breeds that also suffer from AD warrants further evaluation. (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - February 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A review of canine B cell clonality assays and primer set optimization using large-scale repertoire data
The objectives of this study were 1) to provide an overview of published IGH clonality assays that highlights key differences in assay design and testing strategy and 2) to propose a novel method for optimizing primer sets that leverages large-scale sequencing data. A review of previously published assays highlighted confounding factors that hamper a direct comparison of performance metrics between studies. These findings illustrate the need for a multi-institutional effort to harmonize veterinary clonality testing. A novel in silico analysis of primer sequences using a large dataset of expressed sequences identified short...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - January 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evidence of reduced vertical transmission of Neospora caninum associated with higher IgG1 than IgG2 serum levels and presence of IFN-γ in non-aborting chronically infected cattle under natural condition
In this study, N. caninum seropositive pregnant cattle from three different farms with high avidity antibodies and low IgM titers were selected and their newborn colostrum-deprived calves were tested for anti-N. caninum antibodies. Based on these results, dams were grouped according to their congenital transmission status. The analysis of the immune profile of the chronically-infected pregnant cattle revealed that higher ratio between IgG1 and IgG2 anti-N. caninum serum titers and higher levels of systemic IFN-γ were associated with diminished vertical transmission rates, compared to dams with the opposite profile. O...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - January 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects and immune responses of probiotic treatment in ruminants
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Sarah Raabis, Wenli Li, Laura CersosimoAbstractGut microbial colonization and establishment are vital to ruminant health and production. This review article focuses on current knowledge and methods used to understand and manipulate the gut microbial community in ruminant animals, with a special focus on probiotics treatment. This review highlights the most promising of studies in this area, including gut microbial colonization and establishment, effect of gastrointestinal tract microbial community on host mucosal in...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - January 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 207Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Insights into the intestine immune of Marsupenaeus japonicus under the white spot syndrome virus challenge using RNA sequencing
In this study, we use kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) as a model to study the intestine immune characteristics of shrimp against WSSV through next-generation sequencing technique. A total of 63,458 and 44,350 unigenes were generated from the control sample and the WSSV infection sample, respectively. Based on homology searches, KEGG, GO, and COG analysis, 39,520 unigenes were annotated. Among them, 12,920 differentially expressed genes were identified. Some of them, including mucin, peritrophin, chitinase, et al., are involved in immune response. These results contribute to a better understanding of the intestine im...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 22, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of a viral DNA-protein immunization strategy against African swine fever in domestic pigs
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Sun-Young Sunwoo, Elena G. Sánchez, Nicholas Haley, Raquel García-Belmonte, Marisa Nogal, Igor Morozov, Daniel Madden, Natasha N. Gaudreault, Lina Mur, Vinay Shivanna, Juergen A. Richt, Yolanda RevillaAbstractAfrican swine fever virus (ASFV) causes serious disease in domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine currently available. ASFV is a large DNA virus that encodes for more than 150 proteins, thus making the identification of viral antigens that induce a p...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification and characterization of an M cell marker in nasopharynx- and oropharynx-associated lymphoid tissue of sheep
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Vijay Kumar Saxena, Alejandra Diaz, Jean-Pierre Y. ScheerlinckAbstractM cells play a pivotal role in the induction of immune responses within the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. M cells exist principally in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the isolated solitary lymphoid follicles as well as in the lymphoid follicles of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue and gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Through lymphatic cannulation it is possible to investigate local immune responses induced following ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparative analysis and characterization of soluble factors and exosomes from cultured adipose tissue and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in canine species
We described and compared, for the first time, the secretory profile and exosomes characterization in standard monolayer culture of MSCs from both sources of the same donor as well as its immunomodulatory potential. We found that despite the similarity in surface immunophenotyping and trilineage differentiation, there are several differences in terms of proliferation rate and secretory profile. cAd-MSCs have advantages in proliferative capacity, whereas cBM-MSCs showed a significantly higher secretory production of some soluble factors (IL-10, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, VEGF-A, NGF-β, TGF-β, NO and ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mycoplasma bovis delay in apoptosis of macrophages is accompanied by increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes, reduced cytochrome C translocation and inhibition of DNA fragmentation
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Teresia Maina, Tracy Prysliak, Jose Perez-CasalAbstractBacterial pathogens have evolved to manipulate host cell death and survival pathways for their intracellular persistence. Understanding the ability of a bacterium to induce or inhibit cell death is essential for elucidating the disease pathogenesis and suggesting potential therapeutic options to manage the infection. In recent years, apoptosis inhibition by different bacteria has been suggested as a mechanism of survival by allowing the pathogen to replicate a...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Truncated Chicken MDA5 Enhances the Immune Response to Inactivated NDV Vaccine
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Qingsong Han, Xiaolong Gao, Zhili Chu, Xiangwei Wang, Fathalrhman Eisa Addoma Adam, Shuxia Zhang, Yanqing Jia, Xinxin Qiu, Xinglong Wang, Zengqi YangAbstractMelanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a cytoplasmic sensor for viral invasion and plays an important role in regulation of the immune response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens. MDA5 was used as an adjuvant to enhance the humoral immune response against influenza virus. In the current study, truncated chicken MDA5 [1 - 483 aa,...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 19, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dietary selenium supplementation enhances antiviral immunity in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H9N2
In this study, we have evaluated the effects of supplementation of chicken diets with organic (Selenium Enriched Yeast; SEY) and inorganic selenium (Sodium Selenite; SS) on low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H9N2) shedding in the cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples as well as examined the expression of immune related genes. Chickens were fed two doses (High- 0.30 mg/kg of feed; Low- 0.15 mg/kg of feed) of selenium supplementation for 2 weeks followed by low pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge. Our results showed that the cloacal shedding of virus in all the selenium supplemented groups was ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - December 14, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 206Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 30, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Rapid whole blood assay using flow cytometry for measuring phagocytic activity of chicken leukocytes
In conclusion, our results suggest that the WBP assay, using a no-lyse no-wash single staining method, is a rapid and convenient method to assess phagocytic functions of different leukocyte populations. (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 29, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory and morphophysiological effects of Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l. (Acari: Ixodidae) salivary gland extracts
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Marina Rodrigues de Abreu, Melissa Carolina Pereira, Patrícia Ucelli Simioni, Elen Fernanda Nodari, Lisiery Negrini Paiatto, Maria Izabel Camargo-MathiasAbstractRhipicephalus sanguineus s. l. is popularly known as the “brown dog tick” since dogs are its preferential hosts, but the species has been reported to parasitize other mammals, including humans, with significant medical-veterinary importance since it transmits several important pathogenic agents during the feeding period. The tick saliva ...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

CXCL10 production in equine monocytes is stimulated by interferon-gamma
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Christiane L. Schnabel, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Bettina WagnerAbstractC–X–C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine and has been extensively evaluated in people and mice. In horses, CXCL10 and its involvement in host immunity has rarely been analyzed due to the lack of specific antibodies.We generated a mAb specific for the equine chemokine CXCL10 using hybridoma technology. Antibody specificity was confirmed by intracellular staining and flow cytometric analysis of Chinese Ha...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Frequency of bovine viral diarrhea virus detected in subpopulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected animals and health outcome
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, Paul Walz, Eduardo Casas, John D. Neill, Julia F. RidpathAbstractBovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) cause acute and persistent infections. Acute infection results in generalized immunosuppression characterized by a decrease in circulating lymphocytes as a result of depletion of CD4+ and CD8 + T cell populations. Persistent infection with BVDV is the result of immune tolerance and is generally not associated with lymphocytopenia. The health outcome of pe...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 26, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Delayed type hypersensitivity induced by intradermal inoculation of a Neospora caninum tachyzoite antigen in previously exposed cattle
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Franco Fiorani, Joaquín I. Armendano, Yanina P. Hecker, Virginia Araoz, Germán J. Cantón, María R. Leunda, Susana B. Pereyra, Pablo M. Corva, Anselmo C. Odeón, Dadín P. MooreAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced by the intradermal inoculation of a Neospora caninum tachyzoite soluble lysate in cattle previously exposed with the protozoa. Four experimental groups were selected according to the prior exposure to N. caninum a...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Ehrlichia ruminantium antigens and peptides induce cytotoxic T cell responses in vitro
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): N. Thema, S.I. Tshilwane, L. Son, R.M. Smith, F.E. Faber, H.C. Steyn, M. van Kleef, J. Liebenberg, A. PretoriusAbstractSince CD8+ T cells play an important role in resistance to infection with heartwater, effective vaccines against this disease will likely require identification of antigens that contain CD8+ T cell epitopes responsible for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. With the use of the fluorescent antigen-transfected target cell (FATT)-CTL assay, IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry, peptides that i...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

An immune response-based approach to evaluate physiological stress in rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtle
In this study we monitored for the first time different immune responses in hospitalized Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) (n = 88), comparing them with free-ranging animals (n = 11). The final scope was to identify sensitive tools based on immune responses parameters that rescue centers operators could use to verify the stress condition of hospitalized specimens. Blood samples were obtained from loggerhead sea turtles hospidalized for different periods (≤2 months;>2 months and ≤1 year;>1 year) in various Italian rescue centers. Free-ranging turtles...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 21, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Volume 205Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology)
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 18, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 6 in the equine chorioallantois
This study examined the expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 as transcript and protein in the placenta (chorioallantois) of 14 foals born alive. By PCR, all examined placental samples contained TLR 2, 4 and 6 transcripts. Using immunohistochemistry, trophoblasts and allantoic epithelium were immunopositive for TLR 2, 4 and 6 in all placental samples. The majority of placental samples contained TLR 4 and 6 positive stromal cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Since these results confirm the expression of TLR 2, 4 and 6 in different cell populations of the equine placenta, they are the basis for studies into the pathogenesis of T...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - November 17, 2018 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research