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[Clinical Picture] A travelling camper with a spiking fever, headache, myalgia, hepatitis, and intracellular inclusions
A previously healthy 60-year-old Norwegian man presented to the emergency department of Stavanger University Hospital in late May 2016 with a 10-day history of spiking fever, headache, and myalgia. The patient was in good general condition, with normal vital signs, but he developed fever spikes within a few hours of admission. Physical examination was unremarkable. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jens Vikse, Jan Klos, Aase Berg Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Tuberculosis of the tonsil simulating a cancer
A 36-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of sore throat and progressive dysphagia. She had no history of any serious illness, chronic cough, or other chest symptoms. She had been taking various courses of antibiotics, including amoxicillin and a combination of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, and paracetamol for sore throat without any relief. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moncef Sellami, Malek Mnejja, Slim Charfi, Abdelmonem Ghorbel Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Anti-vaxxers are antisocial
Over the years, academics have used all sorts of techniques during their shows at the Cabaret of Dangerous Ideas (CODI) —from music and props to experiments involving audience members. Yet, Dr Clare Taylor, Senior Lecturer in Medical Microbiology at Edinburgh Napier University, UK, is the first scientist I have seen who has started her show by tweeting. Taylor took to Twitter at the beginning of “Anti-vaxxers are antisocial” on Aug 12, 2017, to ask the US President, Donald Trump, “@realDonaldTrump a quick question, have your kids been vaccinated? @CODIfringe”. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Ranscombe Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
Squirrels might have caused or maintained an epidemic of leprosy in medieval England. Genetic analysis of Mycobacterium leprae from a pre-Norman skull found in a garden in Suffolk has lent support to the suggestion that East Anglia was the epicentre of the medieval leprosy epidemic. The M leprae strain found on the skull matches the strain found on skeletal remains from medieval Denmark and Sweden. The bacteria might have arrived on the east coast of England along viking trade routes for the then-popular squirrel meat and fur. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
Since the outbreak began in August, 2017, the total number of cases of plague in Madagascar has risen to 1554, including 113 deaths as of Oct 27. 63% of patients have the pneumonic form of the illness, which spreads from person to person. 40 of the 114 districts in Madagascar have reported pneumonic plague cases during this outbreak, including the most populous cities of Antananarivo and Toamasina. Contact tracing is ongoing; so far 30% of people who have had contact with cases have been traced. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Highlights from IDWeek 2017
IDWeek brings together experts across infectious diseases and health-care epidemiology. This year's meeting was held in San Diego, Oct 4 –8. Sean Cleghorn describes the highlights. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sean Cleghorn Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Marseilles' lazaretto for the 21st century
A new integrated infectious diseases facility opened in Marseilles last year. John McConnell paid a visit. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John McConnell Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Plague in Madagascar
Madagascar has long been affected by plague, but the latest outbreak is proving unusual in more ways than one. Talha Burki reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Proton-pump inhibitors and glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir in HCV infection – Authors' reply
Conclusions cannot be reached given the small sample size of the subpopulation of patients receiving proton-pump inhibitors in only one study. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xavier Forns, Federico J Mensa Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Proton-pump inhibitors and glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir in HCV infection
Drug interactions between proton-pump inhibitors and direct-acting antiviral drugs are a great concern in patients with hepatitis C virus infection, because of the potential for suboptimal plasma concentrations of direct-acting antiviral drugs leading to compromised outcomes.1,2 In the phase 3 trial reported by Xavier Forns and colleagues,3 31 (21%) patients with hepatitis C virus infection and compensated cirrhosis receiving glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir were concurrently treated with proton-pump inhibitors. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guo Yu, Guo-Fu Li, Hong-Hao Zhou Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prediction and prevention of tuberculosis in contacts – Authors' reply
We thank Sandra Arend and Jonathan Uzorka for their interest in our study. They argue that because our risk score predicts tuberculosis independently of the contact tuberculin skin test (TST) results and index case smear grade, it is likely that subsequent re-exposure to tuberculosis was an important risk factor. Therefore, they debate the justification for our calculation of numbers needed to treat (NNT) with preventive therapy at the time of known exposure to prevent each tuberculosis case. Although we agree that re-exposure might have been an important, unmeasured risk factor in our population, the highest rate of tuber...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matthew J Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A Tovar, Matthew R Baldwin, Sumona Datta, Carlton A Evans Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prediction and prevention of tuberculosis in contacts
We read with great interest the Article by Matthew Saunders and colleagues on the use of a tuberculosis risk score.1 The authors developed their much-needed scoring system to predict the risk of tuberculosis development in contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. They also showed the feasibility of their scoring system in a population of contacts of patients with tuberculosis. However, their score slightly overestimated the risk in the high-risk group of the external validation cohort (the observed 2 ·5-year risk was 11·6% in the high-risk group in the derivation cohort vs 8·6% in the external...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nidhi Tejan, Ravi Uniyal, Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Ravindra Kumar Garg Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Prediction and prevention of tuberculosis in contacts
Targeting of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection to patients at highest risk is a key component of the prevention and control of the disease, and any measure to reach that target with less effort is valuable. Matthew Saunders and colleagues1 derived a composite risk score to predict and stratify the risk of active tuberculosis in adult contacts of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis from an underprivileged Peruvian community. In an independent prospective validation cohort, the score retained its predictive value. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sandra M Arend, Jonathan W Uzorka Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Diagnostic algorithm for low-volume CSF samples in tuberculous meningitis
Nathan Bahr and colleagues1 reported the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected adults. They report significantly high sensitivity of Xpert-Ultra (95%) versus Xpert (45%), which was similar to Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture. The authors also show that no test is 100% accurate, and even Xpert-Ultra can miss or give indeterminate results in culture-positive cases. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarman Singh, Mani M Sankar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Can defective interfering RNAs affect the live attenuated influenza vaccine? – Authors' reply
We thank Nigel Dimmock and Andrew Easton for drawing attention to new research, which has become available since the publication of our article,1 describing their interesting observation of defective interfering RNAs in two batches of Fluenz Tetra (MedImmune, Nijmegen, Netherlands; AstraZeneca, Luton, UK) for the 2014 –15 influenza season.2 This research warrants further investigation to understand its implications. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Can defective interfering RNAs affect the live attenuated influenza vaccine?
In their thoughtful Personal View, Anika Singanayagam and colleagues1 raise several important questions relating to the apparent loss of efficacy of the live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccine. One factor not considered by the authors is the presence, in batches of the Fluenz Tetra vaccine (MedImmune, Nijmegen, Netherlands; AstraZeneca, Luton, UK) of substantial amounts of small RNAs derived from the genomes of both the influenza A and influenza B components of the vaccine itself.2 If the vaccine was composed only of infectious virus, one would expect to see only the eight full-length influenza segments of the viral...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nigel J Dimmock, Andrew J Easton Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Scabies and mortality
Chante Karimkhani and colleagues1 highlighted the substantial burden of scabies, reporting that scabies accounted for 0 ·21% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) from all conditions globally in 2015. Although the documentation of global morbidity is timely, the contribution of scabies to mortality is yet to be elucidated. Karimkhani and colleagues' DALY calculations were unable to take into account years of lif e lost (YLL); instead, a null mortality was assumed. Furthermore, scabies was attributed a maximum disability severity of 1, corresponding to itch or pain, which potentially under-represents its severity...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarah Lynar, Bart J Currie, Robert Baird Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Emergence of Plasmodium falciparum triple mutant in Cambodia
We share Mallika Imwong and colleagues'1 concern regarding the spread of single-fit multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites along the borders of Cambodia —ie, to Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. In 2016, in Cambodia, artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) replaced dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. The rationale for this combination relies on evidence that parasites carrying markers of res istance both to artemisinin (pfKelch13-580Y mutant) and piperaquine (later associated with the amplification of pfplasmepsin2)3,4 have regained suscept...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gabriele Rossi, Martin De Smet, Nimol Khim, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Didier Menard Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Editorial] Climate change: the role of the infectious disease community
In October, the World Meteorological Organization reported that atmospheric concentrations of CO2 increased at a record rate in 2016 to reach their highest point in 800  000 years. Such statistics are a stark reminder that human beings continue to damage the planet and that not enough is being done to mitigate the harms. Climate change is one of the severest threats to human health and wellbeing. At the end of a year of policy setbacks as well as causes for optim ism in addressing climate change, now is a good time to reflect on how the infectious diseases community could respond to the challenge. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Comment] Addressing antimicrobial resistance in the UK and Europe
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has received substantial attention in recent years. Since bacteria evolve to resist the effects of existing antibiotics, infections can become more difficult to treat and subsequently modern medical interventions can become more dangerous for patients. Fear of so-called superbugs has spurred international authorities into action. In 2011, WHO developed a European strategic action plan on antibiotic resistance,1 which set forth strategic objectives to aid European member states in addressing the complex factors that cause AMR. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Victoria Wells, Laura J V Piddock Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Gsell P-S, Camacho A, Kucharski AJ, et al. Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17:1276-86 —Mosaka Fallah has been added to the author list, Severine Danmadji has been changed to Séverine Danmadji Nadlaou, and Honora Djidonou has been changed to Djidonou A Honora. The affiliation details and Contributors section have been updated to reflect these changes. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 8, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Blok DJ, de Vlas SJ, Richardus JH. Finding undiagnosed leprosy cases. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16: 1113 — In this Correspondence, incorrect colours had been used to label ‘Undiagnosed’ and ‘Diagnosed’ in the key of the figure. Additionally, the data on the x-axis should have started at 1991 and ended at 2040. These corrections have been made to the online version as of October 26, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Atypical presentation of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis
An 80-year-old man, from an area in Bangladesh where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic, presented at our hospital in June, 2016, reporting widespread swelling and a history of papulonodular lesions for the past 2 years. In 2014, the patient sought medical attention for skin thickening and several subcutaneous papules and nodules of varying sizes, which had gradually developed on the dorsum of the foot, and then disseminated to both legs. The patient gave no history of fever or other systemic symptoms at any time of illness. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Quazi Tarikul Islam, Ariful Basher Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Criminalising transmission of infections
In their new work Criminalising Contagion: Legal and Ethical Challenges of Disease Transmission and the Criminal Law, Catherine Stanton and Hannah Quirk reiterate the existing orthodoxy that criminalising contagion is bad. In a nutshell, doing so makes ill people's lives more onerous, and stigmatises illness, deterring those who suspect they might be afflicted, from getting diagnosed and thereupon treatment, and incentivising them to continue, officially at least, as uninfected. Their officially uninfected status thus frees them from the burdens of disclosure and liabilities that might attach to their desired actions, were...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: George Mawhinney Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Voices on antimicrobial resistance
Suddenly, it seems, the media is full of stories about antibiotic resistance. Val McDermid's critically acclaimed radio play Resistance and Dominic Rees-Roberts and Paul Cooke's short film Catch have shown how rich our potential post-antibiotic future is as a topic for dystopian fiction. Yet this type of fiction is far better at highlighting the problem than at showing how it arose, let alone where solutions might come from. For that, we need to turn to documentary. Michael Graziano's hard-hitting documentary, also called Resistance, presents the truth about antibiotic resistance in the early 21st century in an engaging an...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clare Sansom Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
Meet the early hominin that gave us genital herpes: Paranthropus boisei, a heavy-set, dish-faced, bipedal hominid. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2, which causes genital herpes, jumped back to hominins from early chimpanzees between 1 ·4 million and 3 million years ago. Using Bayesian modelling of HSV data and information about the climate in ancient Africa, UK researchers identified P boisei as the hominin most likely to have been in contact with ancestral chimps. From there, the virus made its way to our ancestor, Homo erectus . (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
As of Oct 7, the number of people who have died in the cholera epidemic that started in April 2017, in Yemen, has risen to 2151. A total of 800  626 cases have been reported across 22 of the 23 provinces in Yemen. Most of the reported deaths have been from the northern province of Hajjah. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Antibiotic development pipeline slows to a trickle
New antibiotics are needed as part of the global effort to tackle antimicrobial resistance, but WHO warns that few are in development. Talha Burki reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] International Forum on Gonococcal Infections and Resistance
Held in Shenzhen, China (Sept 18 –19), the forum was convened to discuss the major challenges in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. Marco De Ambrogi reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marco De Ambrogi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] HIV and antenatal care in Sri Lanka: a global health success
Sri Lanka's dedication to maternal and antenatal health is helping it to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Sophie Cousins reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sophie Cousins Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] WHO delays guinea-worm disease eradication to 2020: are dogs the sole culprits?
WHO's 2007 global plan1 targeted the eradication of guinea-worm disease by 2015. This objective was not met and the culprits have, apparently, been identified. In addition to the political instability that prevails in many areas of Africa, which prevents the applicability of control strategies for disease control, dogs have been considered the most serious obstacle to the eradication because of the number of infected dogs that reside in Chad, Ethiopia, and Mali.2 As a result, WHO has reconsidered the objectives set out in the 2007 global plan, delaying the eradication of guinea-worm disease to 2018 for Mali and South Sudan...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M Teresa Gal án-Puchades Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Post-migration follow-up of migrants at risk of tuberculosis
In recent Correspondence about the screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in migrants who had moved from countries with a high tuberculosis burden to low-burden countries, Kayvan Bozorgmehr1 reported that asylum seekers in Germany from Somalia and Iraq had very different prevalences of latent infection. He commented that “Many studies on effectiveness of tuberculosis screening treat migrants as homogenous, neglecting that this population is socially constructed and highly heterogeneous”, citing our study2 as one of the examples. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter J White, Ibrahim Abubakar, Robert W Aldridge, Andrew C Hayward Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Itraconazole and antiretroviral therapy: strategies for empirical dosing – Author's reply
We thank Ilan S Schwartz and Sean Wasserman for their interest in our paper on the management of HIV-associated endemic mycoses.1 Schwartz and Wasserman rightly express concern regarding the known drug –drug interaction between itraconazole and non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine, which results in considerable reductions in plasma itraconazole concentrations following co-administration. NNRTIs are often included in standardised first-line antiretrovi ral therapy regimens in developing countries, and co-administration with itraconazole is commonly required during the conso...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thuy Le, Antoine Adenis, Andrew Limper, Thomas Harrison Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Itraconazole and antiretroviral therapy: strategies for empirical dosing
In their Review in, Andrew H Limper and colleagues1 highlight the importance of itraconazole for the management of HIV-associated endemic mycoses. Itraconazole is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and inhibits the membrane transporter P-glycoprotein, resulting in considerable drug –drug interactions with antiretrovirals.2 The reduction of itraconazole exposure when co-administered with the non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) efavirenz and nevirapine, which are widely-used in developing countries, is particularly concerning. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ilan S Schwartz, Sean Wasserman Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Proposed treatment strategies for non-gonococcal urethritis
I read with great interest the Comment by J ørgen S Jensen1 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases about Mycoplasma genitalium infections. As the author notes, the increase in macrolide and fluoroquinolone-resistant M genitalium makes the treatment of M genitalium infections difficult. Under these conditions, new treatment strategies for non-gono coccal urethritis in men are needed. In clinical practice, non-gonococcal urethritis is treated with drugs highly active against Chlamydia trachomatis, because it causes approximately 50% of non-gonococcal urethritis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takashi Deguchi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward – Authors' reply
Discussion section, we completely agree that the possibility of uncontrolled studies having observed effects as a result of an underlying secular trend cannot be ignored, and we also recommended the use of controll ed interventional designs for future studies. However, we would like to underline that, although some guidance is available on how to design interventions on antimicrobial stewardship,2 specific recommendations about how to select study designs and overcome major bias in assessing antibiotic steward ship programmes (eg, definitions of outcomes or analytical methods) are missing or under development. (Source: The...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Evelina Tacconelli, Beryl Primrose Gladstone Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward
In resource-limited environments, deciding where and how investments should be made to reduce bacterial resistance is challenging. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: C éline Pulcini, Peter Collignon Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward
We read David Baur and colleagues' systematic review1 of the effect of antimicrobial stewardship programmes on antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infection, and the accompanying Comment,2 with great interest. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Charis A Marwick, Bruce Guthrie, Peter G Davey Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions: an urgent requirement in post-flood Nepal
Another natural disaster struck in Nepal between Aug 11 and Aug 12, 2017, when heavy rainfall caused extensive flooding in 21 Terai (lowland) districts bordering India. By Aug 16, 2017, 75  000 households had been affected and 123 people had been killed.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Om Prasad Gautam, Yael Velleman, Krishna Prasad Paudel, Meghnath Dhimal, Val Curtis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] The 2017 Dhaka chikungunya outbreak
Chikungunya is an arboviral disease transmitted between human beings via the bites of infected female aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus).1 Millions of chikungunya cases have been reported across more than 60 countries, and this virus is responsible for devastating epidemics across the globe.2 Chikungunya is characterised by fever, nausea, fatigue, myalgia, headache, rashes, prolonged joint pain, and arthralgia.2 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iqbal Kabir, Megnath Dhimal, Ruth M üller, Swagata Banik, Ubydul Haque Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Comment] Threats of vector-borne zoonotic disease in Europe: dogs, drosophilids, and Oriental eye worm
Mosquito and tick ecology has changed in parts of Europe over the past 20 years and threats to the UK from diseases such as dengue, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever have to be considered.1 But health professionals must also be aware of increasing risks from less well known vector-borne zoonoses that have emerged in Europe during the same timeframe. These zoonotic conditions include certain parasitic disorders of dogs that are well known to veterinarians, such as visceral leishmaniasis and dirofilariasis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John W McGarry, John Graham-Brown, Monika Pasztor Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Infectious disease trends in China since the SARS outbreak
The 2002 –03 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak has changed public health in many ways in China and worldwide. This change is reflected in China's effective control of H1N1, H5N1, and H7N9 influenza outbreaks; response to imported cases of Zika virus infection, Rift Valley fever, and Yellow fever; and China's active involvement in the fight against Ebola virus disease in west Africa in 2014. After the SARS outbreak, intensified actions have been taken in China to reduce the burden of infectious diseases, such as substantial investment in public health, capacity building for laboratory testing, surveill...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhongjie Li, George F Gao Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] The imperative of vaccination
Vaccination is one of the most effective public health interventions and it has been instrumental in saving lives and greatly changing the burden of many infectious diseases over the past 100 years. However, the very effectiveness of vaccines has made some diseases rare, and most of us are less likely to witness first hand the devastating consequences of vaccine-preventable diseases. This fact, combined with misinformation, suspicion about vaccines, and mistrust of governments and health authorities, have prompted many parents to override concerns about the diseases themselves and oppose the vaccination of their children. ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 25, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Weber WP, Mujagic E, Zwahlen M. Timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis: a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; published online April 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30176-7 —Urs von Holzen was missing from the author list of this Article. This correction has been made to the online version as of Oct 20, 2017 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Cooper AJR, Dholakia S, Holland CV, Friend PJ. Helminths in organ transplantation. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17: e166 –76—In this Review, diethylcarbamazine, not doxycycline, should have been stated as effective for the control of Loa loa microfilaraemia. This correction has been made to the online version as of Oct 16, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 16, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Articles] Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report
The results show that a ring vaccination strategy can be rapidly and safely implemented at scale in response to Ebola virus disease outbreaks in rural settings. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pierre-St éphane Gsell, Anton Camacho, Adam J Kucharski, Conall H Watson, Aminata Bagayoko, Séverine Danmadji Nadlaou, Natalie E Dean, Abdourahamane Diallo, Abdourahmane Diallo, Djidonou A Honora, Moussa Doumbia, Godwin Enwere, Elizabeth S Higgs, Thomas Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Majumder MS, Nguyen CM, Mekaru SR, Brownstein JS. Yellow fever vaccination coverage heterogeneities in Luanda province, Angola. Lancet Infect Dis 2016; 16: 993 –95—in the figure, the red square bullet should have read “threshold vaccination”, and the blue circular bullet should have read “vaccinated to date”. This correction has been made in the online version as of Oct 9, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Comment] An effective and safe vaccine will not be enough to prepare us for the next Ebola outbreak
In The Lancet Infectious Disease, Pierre-St éphane Gsell and colleagues1 present safety and efficacy data on the deployment of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine during an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016. On March 17, 2016, almost 3 months after Guinea was first declared Ebola virus disease-free, two new cases of Ebola virus disease were confirmed.2 Fortunately, members of the Ebola Ça Suffit! team were meeting in the capital, Conakry. Less than 1 week after the first cases were confirmed, the previously trained team members travelled to the epicentre of the flare and began the process of identifying cont...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John S Schieffelin Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Articles] Changes in the prevalence of human papillomavirus following a national bivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Scotland: a 7-year cross-sectional study
Bivalent vaccination has led to a startling reduction in vaccine and cross-protective HPV types 7 years after vaccination. There is also evidence of herd protection against the vaccine-specific and cross-protective types in unvaccinated individuals born in 1995. These findings should be considered in cost-effectiveness models informing vaccine choice and models to shape the future of cervical screening programmes. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimberley Kavanagh, Kevin G Pollock, Kate Cuschieri, Tim Palmer, Ross L Cameron, Cameron Watt, Ramya Bhatia, Catherine Moore, Heather Cubie, Margaret Cruickshank, Chris Robertson Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Confirming cross-protection of bivalent HPV vaccine
Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have exceeded expectations in preventing infection with oncogenic HPV, the underlying cause of cervical cancer. Both the bivalent HPV vaccine and quadrivalent HPV vaccine contain virus-like particles that induce high-level antibody responses to HPV types 16 and 18, the two most oncogenic HPV types, which are responsible for 71% of cervical cancer cases globally.1 In the 11 years since their first licensure, the vaccines have been distributed globally in over 270 million doses and are demonstrably safe in population usage. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julia M L Brotherton Tags: Comment Source Type: research