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[Clinical Picture] Mycobacterium abscessus glossitis
A 40-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm of the left breast, was admitted for chemotherapy. She had already received multiple lines of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and radical mastectomy, but had local disease recurrence. She was treated with combination chemotherapy, consisting of intravenous mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2 for 3 days), etoposide (100 mg/m2 for 4 days), and cytarabine (1 g/m2 for 5 days). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jae-Hoon Ko, Cheol-In Kang, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Nam Yong Lee, Seok Jin Kim, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Unseen enemy
“There is something that destroys the soul of a community when an epidemic is out of control”, explains Larry Brilliant, early in Unseen Enemy. “It is not just the large number of casualties and the deaths, it is what it does to the social fabric”. The well-meaning but flawed documentary is a call to arms. The world must ready itself for the next major disease outbreak. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Profile] Simon Hay: mapping the world's ills
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, might feel like a long way from home for Simon Hay. But as IHME's director of geospatial science and a professor of global health, Hay has made this sprawling and pretty metropolis his new home. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tony Kirby Tags: Profile Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
Like smoking a rabbit out of a hole, researchers are testing the ability of an experimental cancer drug to reactivate latent HIV and expose it to antiretroviral treatment. The drug, called JQ1, targets the short form of a viral protein called BRD4, which is involved in virus transcription. JQ1 seems to remove the protein, allowing the transcription machinery to come back into action. Once HIV is transcribed and translated, it can be eliminated with standard antiretroviral therapy. This strategy could be a useful method in the stubborn last yard to effectively eradicate the virus from a patient's body. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
Four cases of locally transmitted chikungunya have been confirmed in Provence-Alpes-C ôte d'Azur region of southeastern France as of Aug 23. Eight suspected cases and one probable case have also been reported. Symptoms for the four confirmed cases and one probable case began between Aug 2 and Aug 17. Regional Health Authorities have reported that the 13 patients are aged 3–77 year s and live in the commune of Cannet des Maures in Var. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Illnesses of isolation: detention of asylum seekers
Doctors warn that detention of asylum seekers in Australia is contributing to serious infections and chronic ill-health. Georgina Kenyon reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Georgina Kenyon Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Counterfeit and substandard malaria drugs in Africa
Ineffective and fake drugs for malaria are hampering efforts to control the disease. Now, the international community is seeking ways to respond. Vicki Brower reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vicki Brower Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] A case for retraction?
In the Editorial in the September issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases, the editors ask whether the ultimate aim of a call for retraction is “to correct the record” or “to ensure the record does not challenge cherished preconceptions”.1 In the case of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' (AASLD) critique2 of a recent Cochrane review,3 their aim was clear—to correct the record. Why then, given the subsequent outcry from professional bodies4 and patient organisations5 worldwide, is there any need for further debate on the ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lucy Bailey Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] WHO's recommendation for surgical skin antisepsis is premature – Authors' reply
Matthias Maiwald and Andreas Widmer express concern with the WHO recommendation on surgical site preparation.1,2 WHO guidelines are developed using processes and methods to ensure robust recommendations.3 Specifically, this recommendation was informed by a systematic review and several meta-analyses, including one of six randomised controlled trials comparing alcohol-based chlorhexidine with povidone-iodine-alcohol (PVP-I) preparations that showed a greater reduction in surgical site infections (SSIs) with chlorhexidine (odds ratio [OR] 0 ·58, 95% CI 0·42–0·80). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, Didier Pittet, Peter Bischoff, Peter Nthumba, Joseph Solomkin Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] WHO's recommendation for surgical skin antisepsis is premature
The new WHO guidelines on prevention of surgical site infections1 recommend chlorhexidine-alcohol rather than aqueous povidone-iodine or povidone-iodine with alcohol for surgical skin preparation. This recommendation was provided as a “strong recommendation” with “low to moderate” quality of evidence. One of us (AFW) was a member of the guidelines development group that formulated the WHO recommendations. However, we are now concerned with the completeness and quality of the evidence that led to the chlorhexidine-alcohol recommendation. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matthias Maiwald, Andreas F Widmer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Spread of a single multidrug resistant malaria parasite lineage (PfPailin) to Vietnam
The spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and the subsequent loss of partner antimalarial drugs in the Greater Mekong subregion1 presents one of the greatest threats to the control and elimination of malaria. Artemisinin resistance is associated with mutations in the PfKelch gene. Initially multiple independent Kelch mutations were observed,1 but in a recent sinister development, a single dominant artemisinin-resistant P falciparum C580Y mutant lineage has arisen in western Cambodia, outcompeted the other resistant malaria parasites, and subsequently acquired resistance to piperaquine. (Source: The Lanc...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mallika Imwong, Tran T Hien, Nguyen T Thuy-Nhien, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] High mortality in non-Ebola virus disease cases: need to provide timely and effective care
In their Article in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Matthew Waxman and colleagues1 report an overall high (8 ·1%) mortality in patients without Ebola virus disease (EVD) admitted to three Ebola treatment units (ETU) in Sierra Leone; we report a similarly high (6·4%) mortality in non-EVD cases from a Guinean ETU.2 We agree with the authors that many non-EVD patients succumb to other severe illnesses, prob ably infectious diseases within a broad differential diagnosis given the high frequency of fever in the context of a negative malaria test. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robert Colebunders, Shevin T Jacob, Kevin K Ari ën, Anja De Weggheleire, Tom Decroo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Combination therapy for bloodstream infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae – Authors' reply
We thank Bernd Salzberger and Gerd F ätkenheuer for their interest in our study.1 They were concerned about the use of Charlson, Pitt, and INCREMENT-CPE scores, as well as the individual variables contained in them in the analyses. Our objective was to provide the best possible estimation of the association of the main exposure (treat ment) with the outcome considering the effect of confounders, in accordance with the study hypothesis; we did not intend to provide a model to predict outcome (mortality). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bel én Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Robert A Bonomo, Yehuda Carmeli, David L Paterson, Alvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Combination therapy for bloodstream infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
We applaud the authors of the INCREMENT study1 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases for accumulating these impressive data for bloodstream infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). However, we are concerned about several aspects of the study. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bernd Salzberger, Gerd F ätkenheuer Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Walter P Weber and colleagues1 found that early administration (approximately 30 –75 min before the scheduled incision) of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis did not significantly reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) compared with late administration (approximately 0–30 min before the scheduled incision). The authors tested cefuroxime, a commonly used cephalospor in with a short half-life, plus metronidazole in colorectal surgery, in patients older than 18 years who underwent inpatients general surgery procedures as well as orthopaedic trauma and vascular procedure...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshiaki Kanemoto, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Yuto Maeda, Tomohiro Kurokawa, Giichiro Tsurita Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Evidence that Mycobacterium chimaera aerosols penetrate laminar airflow and result in infections at the surgical field
We read with interest the correspondence between Paul C Jutte and colleagues1 and Peter Bischoff and colleagues2 in The Lancet Infectious Diseases regarding the benefit of laminar airflow in reducing bacterial and particulate contamination of the air at the level of the incision and instrument table during surgery. Bischoff stated that a “causal link between microbial air contamination and surgical site infections has not been shown in any study so far”. We write to draw attention to evidence to the contrary. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jimmy T Walker, Theresa Lamagni, Meera Chand Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Comment] Hand, foot, and mouth disease in mainland China before it was listed as category C disease in May, 2008
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by a group of enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71).1 Mainland China experienced several large outbreaks of HFMD in 2007 and early 2008 and established a national enhanced surveillance system partly in response to these outbreaks.2 On May 2, 2008, HFMD was listed as a category C infectious disease and made statutorily notifiable.3 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jie Li, Jinfeng Wang, Chengdong Xu, Qian Yin, Maogui Hu, Zhaojun Sun, Dewang Shao Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Zika virus and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: a tenuous link
Zika virus, similar to dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses, predominantly exists in a transmission cycle between human beings and anthropophilic mosquitoes.1 Because of its intrinsic ability to transmit the virus and affiliation with human beings, the primary mosquito vector of Zika virus during outbreaks is Aedes aegypti.2 In early 2016, researchers in northeastern Brazil announced that another mosquito species, Culex quinquefasciatus, which also inhabits domestic environments, could be involved in the transmission of Zika virus. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Cassie C Jansen, Stephen Higgs Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] Vaccine against Zika virus must remain a priority
On Sept 1, the pharmaceutical company Sanofi Pasteur announced that it was withdrawing from development of a vaccine against Zika virus infection. This announcement raises concerns about the future of Zika virus vaccine development, at a time when the number of cases is falling and other questions about the virus remain unanswered. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Campylobacter jejuni vertebral osteomyelitis
A 59-year-old man presented to the emergency department of our hospital with fever, lower-back pain, and diarrhoea. His medical history included only Meniere's disease and longstanding lower-back pain. On admission, laboratory tests showed an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 70 mm/h, C-reactive protein concentration of 77 ·1 mg/L, and a total white blood cell count of 11·1 × 109 cells per L with mature neutrophilia. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood and stool cultures taken on admission. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ivan Puljiz, Antea Topic Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Articles] Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and the risk of stillbirth in Brazil, 2006 –12: a matched case-control study
Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of fetal death. We recommend further epidemiological and biological studies of the association between dengue and poor birth outcomes to measure the burden of subclinical infections and elucidate pathological mechanisms. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Enny S Paix ão, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Maria Glória Teixeira, Katie Harron, Marcia Furquim de Almeida, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Media Watch] PK-PD Compass, a novel computerized decision support system
As antimicrobial resistance becomes a reality, treatment of patients with infections most effectively within stewardship principles is a growing challenge. Although stewardship programmes provide guidance regarding individual dosing and frequency or duration of treatment, it is seldom done through the lens of pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) principles. In today's clinical setting, each patient has multiple parameters which must be integrated concurrently. Each patient differs in many respects, not least of which include the species and susceptibility of pathogen(s), organ function, and concomitant medications. (S...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Glenn Tillotson Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] African American women surviving HIV/AIDS
The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, established in the 1990s in the USA to provide emergency resources for HIV care, serves more than half of individuals diagnosed with HIV infection in the USA and is the only federal programme designed specifically to assist those infected with HIV. Although US Congress continues to allocate funds to the programme, its use faces a relentless battle within the intersection of two primary factors. First, designated funding support for the programme has remained constant while HIV prevalence and health-care costs have increased. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimberly Parker Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
The global incidence of dengue fever is on the rise, especially in southeast Asia and the Americas. New research suggests much of this spread is caused by aeroplane travel. Researchers did a phylogenetic analysis of 2202 viral sequences from dengue virus samples collected in 20 countries between 1956 and 2015. They also assessed air travel, maritime mobility, migration, and socioeconomic factors for associated trends. Spread of dengue serotypes 1, 2, and 3 was associated with air travel more than any other factor. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
Health authorities in Sri Lanka reported more than 35  651 suspected cases of dengue fever during July. 10 715 cases were reported for the same period in 2016. The total number of suspected cases reported in 2017 as of Aug 4 is 122 384, including an estimated 300 deaths. 44% of the cases have been reported in the Western Province, which includes the capital Colombo. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Essential medicines for hepatitis C: at what price?
Effective new hepatitis C drugs have been added to WHO's Essential Medicines List, but governments are struggling to afford them. Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] No jab, no play: Australia and compulsory vaccination
Public health concerns have prompted several Australian states to propose laws imposing heavy fines on kindergartens that enrol unvaccinated children. Tony Kirby reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tony Kirby Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Highlights from the 9th International AIDS Society meeting
Held in Paris, France (July 23 –26), the conference lacked major breakthroughs but developments in treatment and prevention provided hope in turbulent times. Peter Hayward reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Hayward Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Changing trends of neglected tropical diseases in China
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Shigui Yang and colleagues1 analysed the epidemiological profiles and trends of 45 infectious diseases in China and found ten diseases substantially increasing from 2004 to 2013. Notably, two neglected tropical diseases, namely echinococcosis and schistosomiasis, had large increases, with echinococcosis increasing most, with an annual percentage change of 24 ·0%, and schistosomiasis increasing by the sixth largest amount, at 10·5%. However, caution is warranted as the incidence of the reported cases of these two diseases from the national notifiable infectious disease report...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shi-Zhu Li, Men-Bao Qian, Li-Juan Zhang, Xiao-Nong Zhou Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Divergent policy responses to increasing vaccine scepticism in southern Europe
In the last month, the Greek1 and Italian2 Ministries of Health have expressed concern about increasing numbers of parents refusing to vaccinate their children against preventable infectious diseases. But their policy responses have been very different. Greece moved from a paternalist approach to child vaccinations to a more laissez faire one. Child vaccination has been mandatory since 1999 and children were only allowed to avoid vaccination for certified medical reasons. But at the end of May, 2017, the left-wing Syriza-led government proposed that parents be able to opt out of vaccinating their children. (Source: The Lan...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jonathan Kennedy, Domna Michailidou Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Combination therapy for carbapenemase-producing Entero-bacteriaceae: INCREMENT-al effect on resistance remains unclear
Bel én Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez and colleagues1 investigated the effect of appropriate combination therapy versus monotherapy on the mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. In stratified analyses, a ppropriate combination therapy was associated with a significantly lower mortality than was appropriate monotherapy in the high-mortality-score stratum (adjusted hazard ratio 0·56, 95% CI 0·34–0·91; p=0·02), yet the low-mortality-score stratum showed no benefit (adjusted o...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sara E Boyd, Luke S P Moore, Timothy M Rawson, William W Hope, Alison H Holmes Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Successful cure of extensively drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in a young child
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases,1 we described a 2-year-old child from the USA who developed extensively drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis after a 3 month visit to India. She has been closely followed for 2 years after completing 18 months of directly observed therapy with an individualised drug regimen, including streptomycin (first 6 months), linezolid, para-aminosalicylic acid, cycloserine, and clofazimine. In the absence of clinical or microbiological markers, low-radiation exposure CT was used as a rapid biomarker to guide treatment. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nicole Salazar-Austin, Ibukunoluwa Akinboyo, Sanjay K Jain Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic science
Despite all efforts, the burden of disease caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is worrisome. In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Aditya Sharma and colleagues1 estimated an increase in MDR and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and a shift from acquired drug resistance to transmission of resistance.1 In the accompanying Comment, Andrei Mariandyshev and Platon Eliseev2 emphasised implementation of the short-course regimen as the most important measure to prevent the spread of MDR tuberculosis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jan-Willem C Alffenaar, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Tawanda Gumbo Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Comment] International Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines 2016: the perspective from low-income and middle-income countries
In the most recent international Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines, Rhodes and colleagues1 excellently outline evidence-based management of patients with sepsis and septic shock. Of note, however, is that most of the world's population resides in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden of sepsis is enormous, outcomes are often poor, and socioeconomic consequences are dire.2 Of the 655 references supporting the new sepsis guidelines, only a few pertain to studies in LMICs (about 10%). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gentle S Shrestha, Arthur Kwizera, Ganbold Lundeg, John I Baelani, Luciano C P Azevedo, Rajyabardhan Pattnaik, Rashan Haniffa, Srdjan Gavrilovic, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Niranjan Kissoon, Rakesh Lodha, David Misango, Ary Serpa Neto, Marcus J Schultz, Arjen Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Dengue and stillbirth
Dengue, a viral disease mostly transmitted by Aedes aegypti, is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Oceania.1 The incidence of dengue is increasing in many areas, with more than half of the world's population now vulnerable.2 Many dengue infections are subclinical, but others present with symptoms including high fever, headache, weakness, muscle pain, and sometimes a rash that usually diminish after 6 days. At its worst, dengue might cause dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, resulting in death. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robert L Goldenberg, Elizabeth M McClure Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] A proper place for retraction
When calls for retraction of scientific literature are issued what is the ultimate aim? Is it to correct the record? Or is it to ensure the record does not challenge cherished preconceptions? As Thomas Kuhn outlined in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the challenge of preconceptions is often unwelcome in research settings. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Articles] Glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection in adults with compensated cirrhosis (EXPEDITION-1): a single-arm, open-label, multicentre phase 3 trial
Our results show that 99% of patients treated with once-daily glecaprevir plus pibrentasvir achieved a sustained virological response at 12 weeks. Furthermore, this drug regimen had a favourable safety profile in previously treated or untreated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, or 6 infection and compensated cirrhosis. These findings could help simplify treatment algorithms and reduce treatment burden. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xavier Forns, Samuel S Lee, Joaquin Valdes, Sabela Lens, Reem Ghalib, Humberto Aguilar, Franco Felizarta, Tarek Hassanein, Holger Hinrichsen, Diego Rincon, Rosa Morillas, Stefan Zeuzem, Yves Horsmans, David R Nelson, Yao Yu, Preethi Krishnan, Chih-Wei Lin Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Articles] Trends in antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infection isolates at a large urban hospital in Malawi (1998 –2016): a surveillance study
The rapid expansion of ESBL and fluoroquinolone resistance among common Gram-negative pathogens, and the emergence of MRSA, highlight the growing challenge of bloodstream infections that are effectively impossible to treat in this resource-limited setting. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] New anti-HCV drug combinations: who will benefit?
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C has evolved rapidly. The first two direct-acting antiretroviral drugs were approved in 2011; just 2 years later the first interferon-free regimen was introduced. Now, 3 and a half years later, seven highly effective combinations of direct-acting antiretroviral drugs are available, the most recent being glecaprevir (a second-generation protease inhibitor) coformulated with pibrentasvir (a second-generation NS5A inhibitor; Maviret; Abbvie, North Chicago, IL, USA) and sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir (Vosevi; Gilead, Foster City, CA, USA). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Ferenci Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Patterns of bacteraemia aetiology
Bloodstream infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both high-income and lower-income countries, but the causative organisms and risk factors differ. Human beings coexist with diverse bacterial flora on their skin and their nasal, pharyngeal, and gastrointestinal mucosae. Physical barriers and non-specific immune defences keep these bacteria in check. However, various primary pathogens can invade via the respiratory mucosa (eg, some Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes) or gastrointestinal (Salmonella Typhi) mucosa or integument (Staphylococcus aureus), then enter the bloodstream and provoke clinical syn...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alan Cross, Myron M Levine Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Articles] Measles immunity gaps and the progress towards elimination: a multi-country modelling analysis
Future vaccination strategies in high-fertility countries should focus on increasing childhood immunisation rates, either by raising first-dose coverage or by making erratic SIAs more frequent and regular. Immunisation campaigns targeting adolescents and adults are required in low-fertility countries, where the susceptibility in these age groups will otherwise sustain measles circulation. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Filippo Trentini, Piero Poletti, Stefano Merler, Alessia Melegaro Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] What will it take to end human suffering from measles?
In The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Filippo Trentini and colleagues1 presented the results of a comprehensive modelling analysis that examined the transmission of measles in nine countries with diverse demographic and vaccination histories. The results emphasised that to achieve and maintain measles elimination, countries will need to focus immunisation efforts on reaching different age groups and improving immunisation coverage.1 Specifically, in low-income (and high-fertility) countries, susceptibility remains concentrated in early childhood, and periodic Supplementary Immunization Activities continue to contribute substa...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimberly M Thompson Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] The challenges of cholera at the 2017 Hajj pilgrimage
In September, 2017, up to 2 million pilgrims from all continents will arrive in Saudi Arabia for the annual Hajj pilgrimage.1 Living and worshipping together in crowded conditions will expose the pilgrims and the local Saudi Arabian community to a range of imported and local infections.1 Over the past 5 years the Hajj has focused attention on new and re-emerging infectious diseases with epidemic potential such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Zika virus, and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteria —global health security threats that are ongoing and under active surveillance. (Source: The Lan...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - August 10, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Brian McCloskey, Tina Endericks, Esam I Azhar, Eskild Petersen Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Disseminated aspergillosis in an HIV-positive cannabis user taking steroid treatment
A 47-year-old woman with well controlled HIV (CD4>1000 cells per μL and an undetectable viral load) presented to our hospital with confusion and seizures. Results of brain MRI were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed lymphocytosis (20 cells per μL), a high protein concentration (0·52 g/L), and a low glucose concentration (3·2 mmol/L in CSF vs 8·1 mmol/L in serum). CT chest images revealed a cavitating lesion in the left upper lobe of the lung, with surrounding tree-in-bud opacities. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alex P Salam, Anton L Pozniak Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] When microbes fight back
Life expectancy in industrialised nations has almost doubled in the past 100 years. This increase has occurred in large part due to three main factors acting to reduce infectious diseases: development of systems for the management of human wastewater, ensuring high quality and safe drinking water, as well as high quality and safe food; vaccinations; and use of antibiotics. Although the first two factors have their own growing challenges, the usage and efficacy of antibiotics is being threatened because of the worldwide selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistant microbes and organisms. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: George Zhanel Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] The importance of hand washing
Healthcare workers ’ hands are the most common vector in the transmission of microorganisms causing health-care-associated infections (HAI). This fact should come as a surprise to no one since Ignaz Semmelweiz established the connection between mortality and contaminated hands more than 150 years ago. Since then, hu ndreds of reports and research articles have identified the imperative actions for proper hand hygiene among those caring for hospital patients. Yet, compliance rates in most reports remain less than 50%. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: David Birnback Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
Women with previous herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection have persistent antibodies against the virus and can pass protection to their unborn babies. In laboratory studies using autopsied human tissue, the researchers showed that the antibodies remain in the trigeminal ganglion (a key site of HSV infection) in mothers and that they travel to the same site in their fetus. In studies in mice, they showed that these vertically transmitted antibodies completely protect newborn mice from infection. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
Five patients have been admitted to hospital in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, and tested positive for cutaneous anthrax. The patients had developed boils on their hands and fingers. The men are suspected to have eaten goat meat 20 days before symptoms developed; the meat could have been infected with anthrax and not properly cooked. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Nigeria battles infection on several fronts
After more than 6 months, the meningitis outbreak in Nigeria is over. Sanjeet Bagcchi looks back at the outbreak and the challenges of combatting infection in Nigeria. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sanjeet Bagcchi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Highlights from the fourth ICPIC
Experts from around the world gathered in Geneva, Switzerland, in June 2017 for the fourth International Conference on Prevention and Infection Control. Sean Cleghorn reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sean Cleghorn Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research