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[Clinical Picture] Neisseria meningitidis subdural empyema causing acute cauda equina syndrome
A 22-year-old man presented to a hospital emergency department with symptoms of bacterial meningitis but without focal neurology. Blood and CSF cultures were positive for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. He received empirical bacterial meningitis therapy on presentation to the hospital as per local guidelines with 4 g ceftriaxone every 24 h, vancomycin titrated to>20 mg/L and 10 mg dexamethasone every 6 h, and 1 ·8 g benzylpenicillin every 4 h. On day 2 after admission, after bacterial identification of N meningitidis, treatment was simplified to the use of high dose ceftriaxone monotherapy. (Source: The Lance...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Olivia C Smibert, Olga Vujovic, Jennifer Hoy Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Antibiotic resistance: apocalypse soon?
Imagine a world in which a single pandemic disease is virulent and infectious enough to reduce the human population by over 99 ·9% in less than a year. That was the scenario presented in a new radio play by the well known thriller writer Val McDermid. Resistance was broadcast in three parts on BBC Radio 4 on March 3, 10, and 17, as part of its Dangerous Visions series of dystopian dramas. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Clare Sansom Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Dedicated followers of fashion
“This is a great excuse to look at some really old books” grinned Iain Milne, Head of Heritage at the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) as he gingerly opened a copy of an encyclopaedia about the health benefits of water—published in Venice in 1553—and carefully propped it up on a pair of pillows on the table in front of him. The book was one of the oldest volumes on show at Fashionable Diseases, an event on April 6 organised as part of the 2017 Edinburgh International Science Festival. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Ranscombe Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Obituary] Chifumbe Chintu
Chifumbe Chintu was born on Dec 8, 1935, in Isoka, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He died in Lusaka, Zambia on May 4, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Obituary Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
US scientists have created a vancomycin analogue they think will push back the threat of antibiotic resistance. The analogue, made by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA, USA, has three independent modes of action on bacterial cell wall synthesis or maintenance. It has proved effective against vancomycin-resistant strains of both enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro, which showed no resistance after 50 rounds of testing. The findings are preliminary, with the 30-step manufacturing process needing to be simplified before testing in animals and people. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
As of June 2, 2017, more than 73  700 suspected cases of cholera have been reported in Yemen since the epidemic began in late April, 2017. 605 deaths have also been reported. Cases have been reported in 19 governorates. Only 45% of hospitals are operational with shortages of staff and supplies due to the ongoing conflict. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Cholera in Yemen
With a fragile health-care system, war-torn Yemen now faces a second wave of cholera amid famine and lack of access to clean water and sanitation. Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] ASM Microbe 2017
The second meeting of ASM Microbe, the successor to the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting and ICAAC, took place June 1 –5. John McConnell reports from New Orleans. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John McConnell Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Safeguarding health in Europe's migrant hotspots
Thousands of people live in makeshift camps across Europe. The substandard conditions are putting migrants' health at risk. Sally Hargreaves reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sally Hargreaves Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Incarceration and infection: drug policy in the USA
The USA is in the midst of an opiate addiction crisis. Resurrecting the war on drugs will only serve to harm public health and risks spreading infections. Talha Burki reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Laminar flow: the better choice in orthopaedic implants – Authors' reply
We appreciate Paul Jutte and colleagues' comments on our systematic review of studies of the effect of laminar airflow ventilation on surgical site infections (SSI).1 One of their main concerns is the use of data obtained from national surveillance systems and registries, since these databases were not designed specifically to address whether laminar airflow systems decrease the risk of SSIs. In their comment, Weinstein and Bonten2 also highlighted the high amount of clinical and statistical heterogeneity of the studies included in our review. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peter Bischoff, Benedetta Allegranzi, Matthias Egger, Petra Gastmeier Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Laminar flow: the better choice in orthopaedic implants
This study was done in the context of guidelines on SSI by WHO2,3 and was also in line with publications of the same institution.4 We disagree with the conclusion that laminar airflow ventilation should not be used, especially in case of biomaterial implantation, for various reasons. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paul C Jutte, Roberto AAL Traversari, Geert HIM Walenkamp Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] HPV control and resistance in the Middle East and north Africa
We thank Murat G ültekin and Baki Akgül,1 and we agree wholeheartedly with the fact that Islamic countries, and countries with more conservative sexual views based on religion in general, should implement educational projects in government-organised programmes. As we mentioned in our original Correspondence,2 the organisation of intervention policies based on awareness campaigns can be a very effective first step in the control of cervical cancer caused by HPV. However, a point that we would like to stress once more is that acceptance and implementation of these programmes, and in effect also vaccines, can b e fa...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Mohammad Aghazadeh Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Guillain-Barr é syndrome and arboviral infection in Brazil
Among the clinical manifestations associated with the recent Zika infection outbreak in South America and elsewhere are rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barr é syndrome (GBS) in exposed adults, and in the newborn so-called congenital Zika syndrome, especially microcephaly.1 After accumulating epidemiological data from the French Polynesia2 outbreak, attention has now focused on Zika infection as a trigger of GBS. The case for a specific, causal associat ion between acute Zika infection and subsequent GBS was strongly made: 42 individuals were diagnosed with GBS, of whom all had Zika neutralising antibodies. (Source: T...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tatjana Souza Lima Keesen, Roque P de Almeida, Bruna Mac êdo Gois, Rephany Fonseca Peixoto, Anna Stella Cysneiros Pachá, Fernanda Carolina Fernandes Vieira, Marcelo Paixão, Rodrigo Cazzaniga, Rosemary J Boyton, Daniel M Altmann Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine against pneumococcal pneumonia
Motoi Suzuki and colleagues1 found that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) showed low to moderate effectiveness against vaccine serotype pneumococcal pneumonia in Japanese people aged 65 years or older treated at four community-based hospitals from September, 2011, to August, 2014. As the authors wrote, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) became commercially available for Japanese children in February, 2010, and it was incorporated into the routine immunisation schedule for children in April, 2013. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tetsuya Tanimoto, Eiji Kusumi, Kazutaka Hosoda, Tamae Hamaki, Kenzo Takahashi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Post-migration follow-up of migrants at risk of tuberculosis
The systematic review and meta-analysis of Isaac H Y Chan and colleagues1 on the effectiveness of post-migration follow up of migrants at risk of developing tuberculosis provides urgently needed evidence to inform tuberculosis prevention and control strategies in an era of unprecedented cross-border migration. Their analysis is insightful, but falls short in accounting for the heterogeneity in migrant populations with respect to both reasons for migration and country of origin. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kayvan Bozorgmehr Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Fighting drug-resistant tuberculosis in eastern Europe
We read with great interest the letter from Tomasz Jagielsi and colleagues1 presenting the Fight Against TB in Central and Eastern Europe (FATE). As the authors point out, eastern Europe is a hotspot for drug-resistant tuberculosis involving countries both within and outside the EU. The correspondence rightly highlights the need for intercountry and regional collaboration; however, it does not mention the existing regional initiatives and networks including WHO's European TB Laboratory Initiative (ELI),2 the Regional Collaborating Committee on TB,3 the European Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) networks,4 a...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Francis Drobniewski, Soudeh Ehsani, Masoud Dara Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Consequence of prioritising pathogens for global antibiotic research
We agree with The Lancet Infectious Diseases that any prioritisation exercise to select important organisms for new antibiotic research inevitably leads to a decrease in emphasis for other pathogens omitted from the selection, such as mycobacteria.1 Restricting the list to promote research on antibacterial agents might be justifiable; however, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a bacterium. It is insufficient to state that drug resistant tuberculosis “is already a globally established priority for which innovative new treatments are urgently needed”. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ibrahim Abubakar, Helen Strain Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] How artificial is the antibiotic resistance definition?
Streptococcus pneumoniae is naturally susceptible to β-lactams since no β-lactamases have been described in this bacterium.1 Penicillin and cefotaxime, the preferred antibiotics for treating pneumococcal infections, act in the same way on S pneumoniae by inhibiting the peptidoglycan assembly.1 Thus, biologically, there should be no pneumococcus resi stant to cefotaxime and resistant to penicillin. However, defining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that indicate whether a bacterium is susceptible, intermediate, or resistant to antibiotics is a complex issue that depends on the microorganism, patient, a...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seydina M Diene, C édric Abat, Jean-Marc Rolain, Didier Raoult Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Tang JW, Lam TT, Zaraket H, et al. Global epidemiology of non-influenza RNA respiratory viruses: data gaps and a growing need for surveillance. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30238-4 —In the affiliations of this Personal View, the affiliation for J W Tang should read “Department of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK”, the affiliation for T T Lam should read “School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China”, the affiliation for H Zaraket should read “Department of Experimental...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Comment] Improving communication about viral hepatitis in Africa
Viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death worldwide.1 By 2030, WHO's elimination strategy2 seeks to reduce mortality from chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses by 65%. To achieve this goal, it is essential to scale up antiviral treatment programmes in low-income and middle-income countries, where most deaths due to hepatitis occur. These programmes must identify, engage, and retain infected populations. Yet, only with a genuine understanding of viral hepatitis can people living with these infections fully commit to a treatment programme. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yusuke Shimakawa, Dolor ès Pourette, Louis Bainilago, Catherine Enel, Roger Sombié, Ramanampamonjy Rado, Maud Lemoine, Tamara Giles-Vernick Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Zika enhancement: a reality check
The recent Zika virus epidemic in Brazil was associated with microcephaly and fetal malformation. Severe cases of CNS malformation in northeastern Brazil have raised questions about why infection in pregnant women was apparently more severe in this region. We wonder whether antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection might have contributed to the high incidence of congenital Zika syndrome. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suresh Mahalingam, Mauro M Teixeira, Scott B Halstead Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] Between the devil and the deep blue sea
An unprecedented number of people escaping conflict and poverty have migrated from Asia and Africa towards Europe in recent years. A report from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that in 2016 alone around 362  376 people crossed the Mediterranean Sea, risking their lives to reach Europe. These new arrivals were in addition to more than 1 million refugees and migrants who had crossed the Mediterranean Sea on makeshift boats in 2015. Because of their geographical location, Greece and Italy have been the countries facing a continuous influx of migrants, mainly people aiming to move to northern European nations...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - June 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Noma in a patient with HIV
A 43-year-old German-born white man presented to our local emergency department in London, UK, in February, 2011, with a 3-month history of progressive facial soft-tissue destruction. He worked as a pastry chef and had previously been employed on cruise ships. He had no clinically significant medical history, including no previous diagnosis of HIV infection. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: James Hatcher, Laura Williamson Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Clinical Picture] Pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema associated with influenza A H1N1 virus
A 60-year-old man originally from Mexico City presented to an emergency department with myalgia and cough. He used to be a smoker but had quit 5 years previously and did not use illicit drugs. He was overweight but had no other significant medical history. He was diagnosed with acute pharyngitis and discharged with antibiotics and antipyretics (amoxicillin 500 mg –clavulanic acid 125 mg and paracetamol 500 mg every 12 h), but 2 days later, he returned with sudden chest pain, neck fullness, and dyspnoea. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bruno Ali L ópez Luis, Alberto Ordinola Navarro, Guillermo Miguel Ruiz Palacios Tags: Clinical Picture Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt
Dramatic advances in biomedical techniques and medical engineering have substantially changed our ability to discover disease in ancient remains. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria are now understood to have affected large parts of the population of ancient Egypt, while other diseases such as heart disease and cancer are taking their place as part of the so-called human condition, rather than as a product of the modern world. With these changes in our understanding, an updated book on disease in the ancient world is greatly needed. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lisa Sabbahy Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Being an Ebola virus hunter
Guido van der Groen, author of the book On the trail of Ebola: my life as a virus hunter, was starting his career as a researcher in the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium, when the outbreak of Ebola virus disease was declared in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 1976. Similarly, I was working in Connaught Hospital, a tertiary hospital in Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, when the declaration of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea came in March, 2014. It was my first job in global health as the clinical lead of a small health organisation, and, like van der Groen, I found myself with ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marta Lado Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Media Watch] Anyone can absolutely change the world
From its beginnings as a protest group in 1986, the AIDS Healthcare Foundation has grown into a US$1 billion non-profit, generating more revenue than more established names like the American Heart Association. The AIDS Healthcare Foundation fights the war on HIV on several fronts: it distributes free condoms, provides HIV testing, operates media campaigns, and provides medicine to those who need it, all funded by a chain of pharmacies and charity shops. It provided two million free HIV tests in 2013, operates in 32 countries around the world, and aims to provide care for one million people in 2020. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Robert Stirrups Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Research brief
A team of international scientists have developed a quick and sensitive test for Zika virus: a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. They validated it in a series of experiments in Zika-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and biological samples from individuals with and without the infection. LAMP was similarly sensitive to the gold-standard PCR detection method, with both methods identifying 19 (95%) of 20 positive human serum RNA preparations; PCR correctly identified 12 negative samples (100%), with LAMP identifying only 11 (92%). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dara Mohammadi Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
An additional 28 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus have been notified to WHO from mainland China. Symptoms began between March 22 and April 18, 2017. Eight of the patients died from their illness and the remaining 19 were diagnosed with pneumonia (four patients), severe pneumonia (13 patients), or mild pneumonia (two patients). 22 patients reported exposure to poultry or poultry markets. As of April 21, 1421 laboratory-confirmed human infections have been reported through the International Health Regulation notifications since early 2013. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ruth Zwizwai Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] HIV in the Philippines
President Rodrigo Duterte's war on drugs could bolster the burgeoning HIV epidemic. Talha Burki reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Talha Burki Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Seasonal malaria chemoprevention in the Sahel
The second seasonal malaria chemoprevention implementation meeting was held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Feb 13 –15. Alexandra York reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexandra York Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Highlights from the 27th ECCMID
The European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases was held this year in Vienna, Austria. John McConnell and Onisillos Sekkides report on the meeting highlights. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: John McConnell, Onisillos Sekkides Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Ending neglected tropical diseases
Efforts to control NTDs are making progress, but eliminating them will be a tall order without funding, political will, and eradicating poverty. Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vijay Shankar Balakrishnan Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Helminths in organ transplantation – Authors' reply
We thank Dora Buonfrate and colleagues and M Teresa Gal án-Puchades for their insightful contributions and overall positive feedback on our Review.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Andrew J R Cooper, Shamik Dholakia Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Helminths in organ transplantation
The aim of the Review1 recently published by Andrew J R Cooper and colleagues was “to catalogue all clinically-relevant helminthiases that have been reported to coincide with transplantation”. In this context, regardless of whether the transplanted organ was the point of entry of the helminth into the recipient or the helminthiasis was a consequence of the subsequent immunosu ppresion, only those helminths capable of multiplying in human beings—thus increasing their number—and able to invade various organs and tissues are, in my opinion, relevant and deserve special attention. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: M Teresa Gal án-Puchades Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Helminths in organ transplantation
Pre-transplant screening for helminth infections, the object of the recent Review1 by Andrew J R Cooper and colleagues, is an area of uncertainty. One main problem is the scarce evidence supporting the recommendations, which are often based on expert opinion rather than on facts. Randomised controlled trials of available drugs can be difficult to implement in non-endemic areas because of the relatively low number of cases diagnosed, whereas in endemic areas such trials are limited by frequent co-infections and the risk of reinfection. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dora Buonfrate, Federico Gobbi, Zeno Bisoffi Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Laminar flow ventilation during surgery
A recent meta-analysis and systematic review by Peter Bischoff and colleagues1 suggests that laminar airflow ventilation confers no advantage in terms of the incidence of post-operative surgical site infection (SSI) when compared with the use of conventional (turbulent) ventilation. On the basis of their findings, the authors strongly recommend that laminar airflow ventilation, which is considerably more expensive than conventional ventilation, should not be installed in new operating theatres. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michelle K ümin, Matthew Scarborough Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Staphylococcus aureus in critical care – Authors' reply
Ravindra Dotel and colleagues highlight several limitations of our study1 and argue that, taken together, these limitations undermine our conclusion that health-care workers are infrequently sources of Staphylococcus aureus transmission. Although we acknowledge the criticisms made, we do not agree with this analysis. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: James R Price, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Timothy E A Peto, Martin J Llewelyn, John Paul Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Staphylococcus aureus in critical care
The Article by James Price and colleagues1 describes an important study that explores the role of health-care workers and the environment in patient acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus. We congratulate the team on the study, which, impressively, enrolled 95% of eligible health-care workers who, along with patients and the environment, were screened for S aureus; the large number of isolates were then analysed using whole-genome sequencing. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ravindra Dotel, Matthew O'Sullivan, Gwendolyn Gilbert Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] e-learning for global antimicrobial stewardship
In their Correspondence, Elizabeth Robilotti and colleagues1 highlighted the demand and need for open access, globally accessible educational resources for health-care professionals across all health economies, and discussed the resources they offer in response to this need. To support this demand, the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) developed a massive open online course (MOOC) on antimicrobial stewardship in partnership with the University of Dundee, Scotland, UK. Free at the point of access, it has been accessed by almost 33  000 learners in 163 countries since October, 2015. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dilip Nathwani, Tracey Guise, Mark Gilchrist, BSAC Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Pharmaceutical waste and antimicrobial resistance
On Sept 21, 2016, the United Nations called a meeting on antimicrobial resistance with policymakers to address antimicrobial resistance comprehensively and multisectorally.1 An estimated 700  000 people around the world die each year from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial infections, tuberculosis, and malaria,2 and total global deaths caused by antibiotic-resistant infections are estimated to reach 10 million per year by 2050, with economic losses exceeding US$100 trillion. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Akram Ahmad, Isha Patel, Muhammad Umair Khan, Zaheer ud-din Babar Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Defining sepsis: inspiring proposals meet practical realities
The Article1 by John P Donnelly and colleagues compared sepsis incidence and mortality among patients identified by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, and the sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) and quick SOFA (qSOFA) classifications presented by Sepsis-3.2 Their study confirmed that SOFA and qSOFA are more effective at identifying patients at elevated risk of poor outcomes than is SIRS. However, as the authors observe, the operational roles of SOFA and qSOFA at the time of initial presentation is not clear: SOFA is not designed for acute management triage and qSOFA has yet to undergo large...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Melinda Munang, Saleem Chaudhri, Methini Himayakanthan, Steven Laird, Amy Moltu, Natasha Naworynsky, Christopher Pollard, Tahir Saeed, Paul Scott, Cathleen Chan, Maya Sussman, Shaun Thein, George Trafford, Ariyur Balaji, Neil Jenkins, Ed Moran Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Correspondence] MCR-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak in China
In January, 2017, The Lancet Infectious Diseases published our finding1 that Enterobacteriaceae carrying mcr-1, a plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, are highly heterogenous in sequence type (ST) grouping and plasmid types indicating the diversity of mcr-1-carrying bacteria in China, and mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae infections were associated with male sex, immunosuppression and antibiotics use before hospitalisation. Here we report a hospital outbreak of the MCR-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guo-Bao Tian, Yohei Doi, Jianzhong Shen, Timothy R Walsh, Yang Wang, Rong Zhang, Xi Huang Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Chan IHY, Kaushik N, Dobler CC. Post-migration follow-up of migrants identified to be at increased risk of developing tuberculosis at pre-migration screening: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; published online April 11, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30194-9 —In the Statistical Analysis section, first paragraph, “Fleiss and Vollset” should read “Fleiss and Wald”. This correction has been made to the online version as of May 23, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Sotgiu G, Migliori GB. Effectiveness of post-migration tuberculosis screening. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; published online April 11, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30167-6 —In paragraph 6, incidence rate ratios in high-risk migrants should have been “102 (95% CI 75–128) in the UK” and “416 (314–525) in the USA”. This correction has been made to the online version as of May 23, 2017. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Sulyok M, R ückle T, Roth A, et al. DSM265 for Plasmodium falciparum chemoprophylaxis: a randomised, double blinded, phase 1 trial with controlled human malaria infection. Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17: 534–42—Author name “Kim Lee Sim” has been corrected to “B Kim Lee Sim”. This correction has been ma de to the online version as of May 23, 2017, and the printed version is correct. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

[Comment] Antimicrobial resistance and food safety in Africa
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem around the world, including in Africa, and is associated with increasing mortality and medical costs.1,2 Prevention and treatment of the emergence of resistant pathogens requires contextual knowledge about the way both drugs and microbial ecologies interact and are locally understood. Suboptimal, non-prescribed, and excessive use of antimicrobials for human and animal health has long been documented in both high-income and low-income countries,3,4 and medical and agricultural practices have long been implicated in the global rise of antimicrobial resistance. (Source: The Lancet...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lauren Carruth, Amira A Roess, Yitagele Terefe, Farah Mussa Hosh, M D Salman Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] Breaking up is hard to do: Brexit and European science
On April 18 the UK Government announced that a general election will be held on June 8, a move precipitated by the vote of the UK electorate in June last year to leave the European Union (EU). Shortly after the general election announcement, the 27th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) was held in Vienna, Austria. ECCMID is a must-attend event on the conference circuit for this journal. This year's running —the first since the UK voted to leave the EU—attracted 12 494 attendees from 126 countries, making it arguably the world's most important infectious diseases meeting...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

[Media Watch] The threshold of revelation
The year is 1985. The AIDS epidemic is ravaging the USA but President Ronald Reagan's government is ignoring it, consigning thousands of sick people to oblivion. Among thousands of cases of AIDS, discrimination towards the gay community and drug users is growing and this fuels fears of what the new millennium might bring. The stories of a few men and women caught in the epidemic converge in a visionary reflection on love, politics, gender, religion, and the identity of the USA. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - May 22, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marco De Ambrogi Tags: Media Watch Source Type: research