Training and Competency in Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) should be the preferred method of removal for colonic laterally spreading lesions (LSLs) ≥ 2cm in size since it is safer, more efficient and more cost-effective than endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or surgery. Although competent endoscopists should be comfortable in removing colonic lesions up to 2cm in size, removal of larger LSLs by modern EMR requires advanced skills and met iculous execution of systematic technique to minimize incomplete resection and subsequent interval cancer. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - June 24, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ralph F. Lee, Steven J. Heitman, Michael J. Bourke Source Type: research

Endoscopic eradication therapy in barrett ′s esophagus
Endoscopic eradication therapy (EET), the standard of care for treatment of Barrett ′s esophagus with dysplasia and early neoplasia, consists of a combination of endoscopic resection and ablative modalities. Resection techniques primarily include endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection. Resection of nodular disease is generally followed by one of multiple ablative therapies among which radiofrequency ablation has the best evidence supporting safety and efficacy. These advanced endoscopic procedures require both experience and expertise in the cognitive and procedural aspects of EET. (Source: ...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - June 14, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Swathi Eluri, Nicholas J. Shaheen Source Type: research

Preface
Despite advances in the care of patients with varices and variceal hemorrhage, an overall mortality of 10 –20% still remains. Strategies that encompass a multidisciplinary approach with the latest developments in periprocedural management and technology will further optimize patient care and improve survival following an episode of variceal hemorrhage. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - May 3, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Louis M. Wong Kee Song Source Type: research

Nonendoscopic Management of Gastric Varices
Patients with underlying cirrhosis and portal hypertension have a 30% risk of developing varices. In patients that have developed varices, gastric varices (GVs) represent 10 –20%. While GVs carry a lower risk of bleeding than esophageal varices (EVs), GVs have higher rates of morbidity and mortality [1]. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy continues to be the first-line diagnostic and management tool for managing upper GI bleeding secondary to varices. However defin itive endovascular treatment is becoming more prevalent. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - April 4, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Luke R. Wilkins, Saher S. Sabri Tags: SI: Management of Variceal GI Bleeding Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - April 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - April 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - April 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Endoscopic management of gastric varices
Understanding the basic pathophysiology and anatomy of gastric varices is critical to the appropriate management of acute variceal bleeding. The high morbidity and mortality of gastric variceal bleeding combined with poor response to treatments for esophageal variceal bleeding has demanded a highly-differentiated approach. This review will focus on gastric fundal varices for which the most recent Baveno VI consensus guidelines recommend endoscopic cyanoacrylate (CYA)-based therapy as first-line intervention. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 28, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Frank Weilert, Kenneth F. Binmoeller Source Type: research

Management of bleeding ectopic varices
Ectopic varices are a heterogeneous group of portosystemic shunts that occur in the presence of portal hypertension. The shunts occur throughout the abdomen and pelvis, including the gallbladder, the genitourinary system, and the retroperitoneal space, but are most common within the bowel (small intestine and colon) and at the mucocutaneous junction of a stoma. Bleeding rates vary depending on the location but overall ectopic varices account for 1 –5% of all variceal bleeding and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 28, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Zachary H. Henry, Stephen H. Caldwell Source Type: research

The Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Gastrointestinal Varices
Gastrointestinal varices are a consequence of portal hypertension that can occur in the setting of cirrhosis or extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Increased intrahepatic vascular resistance, a hyperdynamic circulation, and increased flow through the portal and collateral venous system lead to persistently elevated portal pressures that result in angiogenesis and formation of collaterals between the portal and systemic circulation. Despite this physiologic attempt at decompression, portal hypertension persists as collateral vessels have higher resistance than the normal liver. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 27, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Aliya F. Gulamhusein, Patrick S. Kamath Tags: SI: Management of Variceal GI Bleeding Source Type: research

Primary and Secondary Prophylaxis of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding
Cirrhosis is a chronic condition with high mortality. Portal hypertension (PH) is the initial and main consequence of cirrhosis and is responsible for the majority of its complications, including esophageal varices. It has been shown that portal pressure determined by the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is better than liver biopsy in predicting development of complications of cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver disease without cirrhosis on liver biopsy. An HVPG greater than 5mmHg defines PH. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 24, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Parastoo Jangouk, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao Tags: SI: Management of Variceal GI Bleeding Source Type: research

Periprocedural Management of Acute Variceal Bleeding
Acute variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening complication of cirrhosis and certain non-cirrhotic conditions. The incidence of esophagogastric varices ranges from 20 –80% among cirrhotic patients, establishing it as a well-known health concern. Management of variceal bleeding has advanced over the past 30 years but an overall mortality rate of 10–20% remains. Patient death is often due to complications of hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, infection, mal nutrition or subsequent rebleeding. Herein, we highlight the periprocedural management of variceal hemorrhage and its complications. (Source: Techniques ...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 23, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Avery L. Smith, Sumeet K. Asrani Source Type: research

Nonendoscopic management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding
Acute esophageal variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Its management has improved over the past several years, leading to a significant reduction in rebleeding episodes and in bleeding-related deaths. Although endoscopic therapy is an integral part in the management of the acute variceal bleeder, pharmacologic and radiologic therapies are important interventions, in addition to optimal supportive care. Herein, we highlight the nonendoscopic management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 19, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gilberto Silva-Junior, Anna Baiges, Fanny Turon, Virginia Hernandez-Gea, Juan Carlos Garcia-Pagan Source Type: research

Non-Endoscopic management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding
Acute esophageal variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Its management has improved over the past several years, leading to a significant reduction in rebleeding episodes and in bleeding-related deaths. Although endoscopic therapy is an integral part in the management of the acute variceal bleeder, pharmacologic and radiologic therapies are important interventions, in addition to optimal supportive care. Herein, we highlight the non-endoscopic management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 18, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gilberto Silva-Junior, Anna Baiges, Fanny Turon, Virginia Hernandez-Gea, Juan Carlos Garcia-Pagan Source Type: research

Endoscopic management of acute esophageal variceal bleeding
Esophageal varices develop in the setting of portal hypertension, most commonly caused by cirrhosis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is considered the gold standard for both diagnosis and treatment of acute variceal bleeding. In this review, we highlight the management of both acute and refractory bleeding from esophageal varices, with an emphasis on endoscopic therapies, including injection sclerotherapy, band ligation, and esophageal stent placement. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - March 18, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sheeva K. Parbhu, Douglas G. Adler Source Type: research

A working paradigm for the treatment of obesity in gastrointestinal practice
Obesity is a chronic, relapsing, multifactorial disease characterized by abnormal or excessive adipose tissue accumulation that may impair health and increase disease risks. Despite the ever-increasing prevalence and economic and societal burden, the current approaches to treat obesity are not standardized or generally effective. In this article, we describe a current working paradigm developed by a consensus approach for the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity in the gastrointestinal practice. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 24, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andres Acosta, Michael Camilleri Source Type: research

A Working Paradigm for the Treatment of Obesity in GI Practice
Obesity is a chronic, relapsing, multi-factorial disease characterized by abnormal or excessive adipose tissue accumulation that may impair health and increase disease risks. Despite the ever-increasing prevalence and economic and societal burden, the current approaches to treat obesity are not standardized or generally effective. In this manuscript, we describe a current working paradigm developed by a consensus approach for the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity in the GI practice. Obesity should be managed as a continuum of care focusing on weight loss, weight loss maintenance and prevention of weight regain. (Sourc...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 24, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andres Acosta, Michael Camilleri Source Type: research

Preface
The global epidemic of obesity, when evaluated in the context of the insidious role it plays in the health and well being of the population, is undoubtedly the paramount health care issue that we face. Through the lense of gastroenterology alone, obesity is a significant risk factor for GERD, Barrett ′s, Gallbladder Disease, Pancreatitis, NAFLD, Cirrhosis, Colon Adenomas and Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and colon. The complexity of obesity has only recently been appreciated, and there have been fascinating developments in understanding the interplay of genetic, e pigenetic, physiologic ...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 16, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sarah E. Streett Tags: SI: Endoscopic Bariatric Procedures: Considerations and Expe Source Type: research

Gastric space –occupying devices
Despite advances in lifestyle interventions, antiobesity medications and metabolic surgery, obesity ׳s health burden continues to rise. Endoscopic bariatric techniques (EBTs) have arisen over the years that are efficacious, reversible, safe, and cost effective. These techniques potentially allow us to treat broader populations that are unable to undergo bariatric surgery. Gastric space–occupyin g devices are some of the most widely endoscopic metabolic therapies available. This review would summarize the gastric-occupying devices that are available in the US market or in advanced stages of development and regulatory...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 13, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Eric J. Vargas, Barham K. Abu Dayyeh Source Type: research

Gastric space-occupying devices
Despite advances in lifestyle interventions, anti-obesity medications and metabolic surgery, obesity ′s health burden continues to rise. Endoscopic bariatric techniques (EBTs) have arisen over the years that are efficacious, reversible, safe, and cost-effective. These techniques potentially allow us to treat broader populations that are unable to undergo bariatric surgery. Gastric space occupying devices are some of the most widely endoscopic metabolic therapies available. This review will summarize the gastric occupying devices that are available in the US market or in advanced stages of development and regulatory a...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 13, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Eric J. Vargas, Barham K. Abu Dayyeh Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - January 1, 2017 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

When to stop, how to reverse, and when to restart antithrombotic drugs periendoscopically in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) (UGI) bleeding in patients taking antithrombotics including antiplatelet agents, vitamin K antagonists, and direct oral anticoagulants is challenging because of varying clinical presentations that include the severity of hemorrhage, the type and magnitude of anticoagulation, the patient ׳s underlying thromboembolic risk, and the specific bleeding lesion with attendant ability to achieve successful endoscopic hemostasis. Interruption of antithrombotics for bleeding management exposes the patient to the underlying risk of thromboembolic events from the underlying cardiovascular stat e, whereas co...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: David R. Lichtenstein Source Type: research

When To Stop, How To Reverse And When To Restart Anti-Thrombotic Drugs Peri-Endoscopically in Non-Variceal Upper GI Bleeding
Upper GI (UGI) bleeding in patients taking antithrombotics including antiplatelet agents, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is challenging because of varying clinical presentations that include the severity of hemorrhage, the type and magnitude of anticoagulation, the patient ′s underlying thromboembolic risk and the specific bleeding lesion with attendant ability to achieve successful endoscopic hemostasis. Interruption of antithrombotics for bleeding management exposes the patient to the underlying risk of thromboembolic events from the underlying cardiovascular (CV) state while co...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 21, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: David R. Lichtenstein Tags: SI: Endoscopic Management of Nonvariceal Upper GI Bleeding Source Type: research

Mechanical methods to endoscopically treat nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a frequent condition worldwide. The most common causes of acute nonvariceal UGIB include ulcers and nonulcer etiology, such as mucosal erosive disease, Mallory-Weiss tear, Dieulafoy, and other vascular lesions. Today patients are older and more likely to have comorbidities and concomitant treatments: anticoagulants, antiplatelet agent, low dose aspirin or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In these patients with UGIB the rebleeding risk, need for surgery, and mortality rates are higher. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Livio Cipolletta, Fabio Cipolletta, Clelia Marmo, Roberto Piscopo, Gianluca Rotondano, Riccardo Marmo Source Type: research

Risk stratification and definitive hemostasis of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding with blood flow detection and combination techniques
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage remains a significant health and economic burden. As the use of urgent endoscopy for UGI hemorrhage has increased, there has been a decline in associated mortality. Endoscopic hemostasis is based on risk stratification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage. A Doppler endoscopic probe can provide further risk stratification by detecting arterial blood flow under the lesion and as a guide to successful endoscopic treatment. Standard treatment options for endoscopic hemostasis include submucosal injection therapy usually in combination with either thermal coagulation or through-t...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kevin A. Ghassemi, Dennis M. Jensen Source Type: research

Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding refractory to endoscopy: The role of interventional radiology and surgery
Acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common and life-threatening emergency. Despite optimal endoscopic and pharmacologic therapy, 8%-10% of patients continue to bleed or develop rebleeding. Surgery has been the traditional salvage treatment in these patients. However, surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the past few decades, transarterial embolization has emerged as a promising nonoperative alternative to surgery. High technical (69%-100%) and clinical success rate (63%-97%) were reported. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shannon Melissa Chan, James Yun Wong Lau Source Type: research

Hemostatic sprays to control active nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
As nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains a critical health concern, there is a need for ongoing optimization of endoscopic hemostasis modalities. Current methods for endoscopic hemostasis include epinephrine injection, thermal coagulation, and mechanical clips. Although these modalities have proven efficacy, there are limitations to their use, including significant learning curves and the requirement of expert assistants. Moreover, there still remains an ongoing risk of rebleeding after therapy. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Neal Shahidi, Robert Enns Source Type: research

Argon plasma coagulation and radiofrequency ablation in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the most common causes of emergency department visits worldwide and represents a significant public health problem in many countries. Endoscopy plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. Endoscopic hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding is preferably achieved by the combination of injection with contact thermal methods or mechanical methods. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a noncontact thermal method of hemostasis that has been employed to treat bleeding angioectasia. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ernesto Quaresma Mendonca, Joel Fernandez de Oliveira, Fauze Maluf-Filho Source Type: research

Risk stratification and definitive hemostasis of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding with blood flow detection and combination techniques
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage remains a significant health and economic burden. As the use of urgent endoscopy for UGI hemorrhage has increased, there has been a decline in associated mortality. Endoscopic hemostasis is based on risk stratification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage. A Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP) can provide further risk stratification by detecting arterial blood flow under the lesion and as a guide to successful endoscopic treatment. Standard treatment options for endoscopic hemostasis include submucosal injection therapy usually in combination with either thermal coagulation or th...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kevin A. Ghassemi, Dennis M. Jensen Source Type: research

Non-variceal upper GI bleeding refractory to endoscopy: The role of interventional radiology and surgery
Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common and life-threatening emergency. Despite optimal endoscopic and pharmacological therapy 8 –10% of patients continue to bleed or develop rebleeding. Surgery has been the traditional salvage treatment in these patients. However, surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In the past few decades, trans-arterial embolization (TAE) has emerged as a promising non-operativ e alternative to surgery. High technical (69–100%) and clinical success rate (63–97%) were reported. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shannon Melissa Chan, James Yun Wong Lau Source Type: research

Hemostatic sprays to control active non-variceal upper GI bleeding
As non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains a critical health concern, there is a need for ongoing optimization of endoscopic hemostasis modalities. Current methods for endoscopic hemostasis include epinephrine injection, thermal coagulation and mechanical clips. While these modalities have proven efficacy, there are limitations to their use, including significant learning curves and the requirement of expert assistants. Moreover, there still remains an ongoing risk of rebleeding post-therapy. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Neal Shahidi, Robert Enns Source Type: research

Mechanical methods to endoscopically treat non-variceal upper GI bleeding
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a frequent condition worldwide. The most common causes of acute non-variceal UGIB include ulcers and non-ulcer etiology, such as mucosal erosive disease, Mallory –Weiss tear, Dieulafoy and other vascular lesions. Today patients are older and more likely to have comorbidities and concomitant treatments: anticoagulants, antiplatelet agent, low dose aspirin or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In these patients with UGIB the re-bleeding risk, need for surger y and mortality rates are higher. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Livio Cipolletta, Fabio Cipolletta, Clelia Marmo, Roberto Piscopo, Gianluca Rotondano, Riccardo Marmo Tags: SI: Endoscopic Management of Nonvariceal Upper GI Bleeding Source Type: research

Argon plasma coagulation and radiofrequency ablation in non-variceal upper GI bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the most common causes of emergency room visits worldwide and represents a significant public health problem in many countries. Endoscopy plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of UGIB. Endoscopic hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding is preferably achieved by the combination of injection with contact thermal methods or mechanical methods. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is a non-contact thermal method of hemostasis that has been employed to treat bleeding angioectasia. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ernesto Quaresma Mendonca, Joel Fernandez de Oliveira, Fauze Maluf-Filho Source Type: research

Endoscopic bariatric procedures: Assessment of postintervention safety and success
Morbid obesity has become one of the largest health care crises facing modern medicine. Medical intervention alone has proven inadequate in addressing this issue. Although bariatric surgery has been proven to be the most effective treatment for the medical comorbidities associated with morbid obesity, only a fraction of obese patients will undergo bariatric surgery owing to fear, financial restraint, and limited access to surgical expertise. There exists a void for which endoscopic therapies can provide substantial improvements in the care of the morbidly obese patient. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 8, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amanda M. Johner, Kevin M. Reavis Source Type: research

Endoscopic Bariatric Procedures: Assessment of Post-Intervention Safety and Success
Morbid obesity has become one of the largest health care crises facing modern medicine. Medical intervention alone has proven inadequate in addressing this issue. While bariatric surgery has been proven to be the most effective treatment for the medical comorbidities associated with morbid obesity, only a fraction of obese patients will undergo bariatric surgery due to fear, financial restraint and limited access to surgical expertise. There exists a void for which endoscopic therapies can provide substantial improvements in the care of the morbidly obese patient. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 7, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amanda M. Johner, Kevin M. Reavis Tags: SI: Endoscopic Bariatric Procedures: Considerations and Expe Source Type: research

Current paradigms in the etiology of obesity
The global prevalence of obesity continues to rise at an alarming rate and 37.7% of US adults are obese. Understanding the causes of excessive weight gain is extremely important as it paves the way for the development of new therapies to control this epidemic. Obesity is a heterogeneous chronic disease where multiple factors interact to produce a state of positive energy balance leading to an increase in body weight. This review focuses on the major biological, environmental and behavioral determinants of obesity. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 6, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Hoda C. Kadouh, Andres Acosta Source Type: research

Preface
Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the most common reasons for admission to the hospital and is responsible for more than 300,000 admissions per year in the United States. Although there have been many advances in endoscopy, medicine, radiology and surgery, UGIB has a significant associated morbidity and a mortality commonly estimated between 5 to 14%. Patients who have an UGIB now are older, have more comorbidities and are more likely to be using medications associated with GI bleeding or medications which worsen GI bleeding, such as anti-coagulants and anti-thrombotic agents. (Source: Technique...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 6, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: John R. Saltzman Source Type: research

Novel endoscopic bariatric therapies: A glimpse into the future
The management of obesity generally consists of lifestyle interventions, which are often inadequate, or invasive surgery, that carries a high cost and strict eligibility requirements. The recent rise of endoscopic bariatric interventions has the potential to provide a minimally invasive, cost-effective, and reversible option for patients. Although a few of these therapies have already gained Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, many more are in various stages of development and clinical trials. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 5, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sanjay Salgado, Marvin Ryou Source Type: research

Novel endoscopic bariatric therapies. A glimpse into the future
The management of obesity generally consists of lifestyle interventions, which are often inadequate, or invasive surgery, which carries a high cost and strict eligibility requirements. The recent rise of endoscopic bariatric interventions has the potential to provide a minimally invasive, cost-effective, and reversible option for patients. While a few of these therapies have already gained FDA approval, many more are in various stages of development and clinical trials. These methods utilize a wide array of techniques, including reducing gastric capacity, limiting absorption, duodenal mucosal resurfacing, and creating inte...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 5, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sanjay Salgado, Marvin Ryou Source Type: research

Gastric endoscopic remodeling techniques
The stomach has been an obvious target for endoscopic remodeling in order to facilitate weight loss. Success is shaped by many challenges that must be addressed. The key challenges include mimicking or improving upon existing (permanent) surgical therapies, recognizing the body ′s response to foreign objects and materials and understanding the neuroenteric pathway as it relates to meals, hunger, satiation, and satiety. Early remodeling efforts failed because of technical limitations and limited understanding of the physiology of weight loss applied to the stomach. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 5, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Barham Abu Dayyeh, Elizabeth Rajan, Christopher J. Gostout Source Type: research

Small intestinal interventions including barriers, duodenal mucosal resurfacing, and other small bowel strategies
Bariatric surgery has revolutionized obesity treatment. There remains, however, a large demand for less invasive and potentially cheaper or even reversible procedures that impart a similar effect on obesity and its ′ related co-morbidities. Endoluminal Bariatric Therapies (EBT), such as endoluminal sleeves or barriers, duodenal mucosal resurfacing technology, and magnetic anastomoses may emerge to fill this gap. To date their safety profiles and the reported success with regards to both weight loss and diabe tes control have proven favorable, yet need to be further studied prior to widespread adoption. (Source: Techn...
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - December 2, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Cynthia E. Weber, Eric Marcotte, Bipan Chand Source Type: research

New and emerging technologies to endoscopically manage nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
A subset of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding either fails or is deemed unsuitable for standard endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Newer endoscopic and endosonographic techniques have been developed to offer an alternative treatment and potentially improve patient outcome for the difficult-to-treat lesions. These alternative therapies include over-the-scope clip devices, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, hemostatic sprays, endoscopic suturing, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided angiotherapy. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - November 16, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Larissa L. Fujii-Lau, Louis M. Wong Kee Song, Michael J. Levy Source Type: research

New and emerging technologies to endoscopically manage non-variceal upper gi bleeding
A subset of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NV-UGIB) either fail or are deemed unsuitable for standard endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Newer endoscopic and endosonographic techniques have been developed to offer an alternative treatment and potentially improve patient outcomefor the difficult to treat lesions. These alternative therapies include over-the-scope clip devices, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, hemostatic sprays, endoscopic suturing, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided angiotherapy. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - November 16, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Larissa L. Fujii-Lau, Louis M. Wong Kee Song, Michael J. Levy Source Type: research

Review of multimodal therapies for obesity treatment: including dietary, counseling strategies, and pharmacologic interventions
There have been several recent advances in the field of obesity medicine in the areas of structured behavioral therapies, medically supervised diet programs, pharmacotherapy and new interactive technologies. Patients with obesity now have several options for treatment beyond the standard lifestyle modifications of reducing calories and increasing exercise. Although bariatric surgery is the gold standard of treatment for patients with severe obesity, the problem of recidivism despite surgical intervention has lead obesity medicine specialists to develop multiple treatment modalities. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - November 16, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rekha B. Kumar, Louis J. Aronne Source Type: research

Future role for endoluminal procedures in “high-risk” bariatric patients
This article reviews intragastric space-occupying devices, endoluminal gastric volume reduction procedures, gastric content aspiration therapy and endoluminal duodenal exclusion as possible choices to “bridge” the high-risk patient to bariatric surgery and as a possible alternative to bariatric surgery. (Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - November 16, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Matthew Brengman Source Type: research

Initial management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and timing of endoscopy
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) remains a common cause of hospitalization, with nearly 300,000 cases occurring annually in the United States with a mortality rate of 2 –14% [1–5]. The economic burden from UGIB is substantial with estimates of in-hospital nationwide expenditures of $7.6 billion in 2009 [2]. Patients with UGIB typically present with hematemesis, melena, and/or hematochezia in the setting of brisk bleeding. The initial steps in management involve resuscitation with close hemodynamic monitoring, risk stratification based on validated prognostic scores, and prompt upper endoscopy....
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - November 10, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Navin L Kumar, Jennifer Nayor, John R Saltzman Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - September 30, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Source: Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - September 30, 2016 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research