Analysis of the spatial distribution of scientific publications regarding vector-borne diseases related to climate variability in South America
The objectives of this work were to analyze the distribution and abundance of publications on vector-borne diseases associated with climate variability in South America, identify those works that conducted a geographic analysis and detect the countries where outbreaks occurred and the climate variables with which they were associated. A systematic review of the literature published on vector-borne diseases linked to climate variability in South America was conducted, identifying, evaluating and summarizing scientific papers. The distribution of the study areas and disease type in the publications were represented on maps. ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A multivariable assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of pyrethroids performance on the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi in Chile
In this study we explored the spatial and temporal variation of C. rogercresseyi’s response to pyrethroids in Chile from 2012 to 2013. We modeled lice abundance one week after treatment with a linear mixed-effects regression, and then we performed spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses on farm-level effects and on treatment-level residuals, respectively. Results indicate there were two areas where the post-treatment lice counts were significantly higher than in the rest of the study area. These spatial clusters remained even once we adjusted for environmental and management predictors, suggesting unmeasured fac...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Anna Freni-Sterrantino, Massimo Ventrucci, Håvard RueAbstractIn this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cost-efficient case-control cluster sampling designs for population-based epidemiological studies
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Thomas Ly, Myles Cockburn, Bryan LangholzAbstractCost-efficient sampling schemes for population-based case-control studies are necessary for sampling subjects in geographically dispersed populations where in-house surveys are expensive to conduct due to high interviewer travel costs that may be associated with simple random sampling. Motivated by the original study conducted by Cockburn et al. (2011) that investigated the relationship between exposure to pesticides and prostate carcinogenesis, a set of cluster-based indi...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Regional variation in lung and bronchus cancer survival in the US using mortality-to-incidence ratios
This study used mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) calculated from 2008 to 2012 National Cancer Institute data to highlight state-level variations in relative lung and bronchus cancer survival. In an ad hoc sensitivity analysis, we calculated a correlation between our state-level MIRs and five-year 1-survival rates for states reporting incident lung and bronchus cancer cases (2004–2008) to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database. Differences were observed in state lung and bronchus cancer MIRs, with the highest MIR values (poor relative survival) in southern states and the lowest...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The spread of mosquito-borne viruses in modern times: A spatio-temporal analysis of dengue and chikungunya
In conclusion, our analysis provides crucial insights, which can be applied to improve nations' surveillance and preparedness for future vector-borne disease epidemics. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The geo-spatial distribution of childhood diarrheal disease in West Africa, 2008–2013: A covariate-adjusted cluster analysis
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Gillian Dunn, Glen D. JohnsonAbstractDiarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in West Africa. To determine whether there are areas of heightened risk and if so, how they may be influenced by household and climatic variables, we describe the geo-spatial distribution of childhood diarrhea in ten countries of West Africa for the period 2008–2013 using data from Demographic and Health Surveys. The purely spatial scan statistic was applied, where the observed diarrhea cases were modeled as a Poisso...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mapping rural–urban disparities in late-stage cancer with high-resolution rurality index and GWR
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Liang Mao, Jue Yang, Guangran DengAbstractEffects of urban/rural residence on late-stage cancer have long been explored, but remained controversial. Spatial granularity of rural definition, temporal change of rurality, and local variability of such effects may contribute to inconsistent findings, but they have not been fully addressed. We proposed a spatially resolved and temporally comparable rurality index and a geographically weighted regression approach to re-examine this question. Taking Florida as an example, our analys...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Potential effects of climate change on the risk of accidents with poisonous species of the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Argentina
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan Bidau Knowing the factors that affect the geographic distribution of species allows inferring their potential localization. Human beings, through the expansion of their own distribution area and their contribution to climate alteration have modified the geographic distribution of other biological species. Consequently, the temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dynamics of dengue disease with human and vector mobility
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Murali Krishna Enduri, Shivakumar Jolad Dengue is a vector borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying virus of different serotypes. Dengue exhibits complex spatial and temporal dynamics, influenced by various biological, human and environmental factors. In this work, we study the dengue spread for a single serotype (DENV-1) including statistical models of human mobility with exponential step length distribution, by using reaction-diffusion equations and Stochastic Cellular Automata (SCA...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal trends in physical violence, gender differences and spatial vulnerability of the location of victim's residences
This study performed an ecological-level longitudinal analysis, examining violence rates over four years. Cases of 4,795 victims of physical aggression attended at a Center of Legal Medicine were investigated. Trend analysis was used to evaluate the data, with the creation of polynomial regression models (p < 0,05). Violence rates showed significant temporal variations according to sociodemographic characteristics of victims (p < 0.05) and the circumstances of aggressions (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in violence rate in the North (R2 = 16.1%; p = 0.019) and South (R2...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian latent process spatiotemporal regression model for areal count data
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25 Author(s): C. Edson Utazi, Emmanuel O. Afuecheta, C. Christopher Nnanatu Model-based approaches for the analysis of areal count data are commonplace in spatiotemporal analysis. In Bayesian hierarchical models, a latent process is incorporated in the mean function to account for dependence in space and time. Typically, the latent process is modelled using a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior. The aim of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to CAR-based priors for modelling the latent process. The proposed approach is based ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender and geographical inequalities in fatal drug overdose in Iran: A province-level study in 2006 and 2011
Conclusion Rates of fatal drug overdose were higher among Iranian men and in both younger and older age groups which call for scaling up harm reduction and increasing access to gender- and age-specific substance use treatment services. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gaining relevance from the random: Interpreting observed spatial heterogeneity
Publication date: June 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25 Author(s): Rachel Carroll, Shanshan Zhao In Bayesian disease mapping, spatial random effects are used to account for confounding in the data so that reasonable estimates for the fixed effects can be obtained. Typically, the spatial random effects are mapped and qualitative comments are made related to an increase or decrease in risk for certain areas. The approach outlined here illustrates how a quantitative secondary assessment can be applied to make more useful and applicable inference related to these spatial random effects. We are a...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integrating activity spaces in health research: Comparing the VERITAS activity space questionnaire with 7-day GPS tracking and prompted recall
Conclusions : There is a spatial correspondence between destinations collected through VERITAS and 7-day GPS tracking. Both collection methods offer complementary ways to assess daily mobilities, useful to study environmental determinants of health and health inequities. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of spatio-temporal Bayesian models for the spread of infectious diseases in oil palm
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Marie Denis, Benoît Cochard, Indra Syahputra, Hubert de Franqueville, Sébastien Tisné In the field of epidemiology, studies are often focused on mapping diseases in relation to time and space. Hierarchical modeling is a common flexible and effective tool for modeling problems related to disease spread. In the context of oil palm plantations infected by the fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense, we propose and compare two spatio-temporal hierarchical Bayesian models addressing the lack of informati...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 7, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Assessing the Association of Diabetes Self-Management Education Centers with Age-adjusted Diabetes Rates Across U.S.: A Spatial Cluster Analysis Approach
In this study, we focus on demographic patterns and geographic regionalization of the disease by including accessibility and availability of diabetes education resources as a critical component in understanding and confronting differences in diabetes prevalence, as well as addressing regional or sub-regional differences in awareness, treatment and control. We conducted an ecological county-level study utilizing publicly available secondary data on 3,109 counties in the continental U.S. We used a Bayesian spatial cluster model that enabled spatial heterogeneities across the continental U.S. to be addressed. We used the Amer...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Diving into the consumer nutrition environment: a Bayesian spatial factor analysis of neighborhood restaurant environment
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Hui Luan, Jane Law, Martin Lysy Neighborhood restaurant environment (NRE) plays a vital role in shaping residents’ eating behaviors. While NRE ‘healthfulness’ is a multi-facet concept, most studies evaluate it based only on restaurant type, thus largely ignoring variations of in-restaurant features. In the few studies that do account for such features, healthfulness scores are simply averaged over accessible restaurants, thereby concealing any uncertainty that attributed to neighborhoods’ ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - December 18, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Approximate Bayesian Computation for Spatial SEIR(S) Epidemic Models
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Grant D. Brown, Aaron T. Porter, Jacob J. Oleson, Jessica A. Hinman Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) provides an attractive approach to estimation in complex Bayesian inferential problems for which evaluation of the kernel of the posterior distribution is impossible or computationally expensive. These highly parallelizable techniques have been successfully applied to many fields, particularly in cases where more traditional approaches such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) are impractical. In this work, we...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 29, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical model of ceftriaxone resistance proportions among Salmonella serotype Heidelberg infections
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 24 Author(s): Weidong Gu, Felicita Medalla, Robert M. Hoekstra The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tracks resistance among Salmonella infections. The annual number of Salmonella isolates of a particular serotype from states may be small, making direct estimation of resistance proportions unreliable. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to improve estimation by borrowing strength from relevant sampling units. We illustrate the models with different speci...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 29, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adult obesity prevalence at the county level in the United States, 2000 –2010: Downscaling public health survey data using a spatial microsimulation approach
This study therefore, uses a spatial microsimulation approach to estimate obesity prevalence rates at the county level across the United States to visualize temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 for use in the monitoring of obesity prevalence. This method iteratively replicates the demographic characteristics of public health survey respondents with census data for those areas. Following, Local Moran's I was used to identify clusters of high and low obesity prevalence. The findings showed that obesity prevalence rose dramatically over the last decade with substantial variation across counties and ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Bayesian hierarchical model of ceftriaxone resistance proportions of Salmonella Heidelberg
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Weidong Gu, Felicita Medalla, Robert M. Hoekstra The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tracks resistance among Salmonella infections. The annual number of Salmonella isolates of a particular serotype from states may be small, making direct estimation of resistance proportions unreliable. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to improve estimation by borrowing strength from relevant sampling units. We illustrate the models with differe...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial variation in cancer incidence and survival over time across Queensland, Australia
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 23 Author(s): Susanna M. Cramb, Paula Moraga, Kerrie L. Mengersen, Peter D. Baade Interpreting changes over time in small-area variation in cancer survival, in light of changes in cancer incidence, aids understanding progress in cancer control, yet few space–time analyses have considered both measures. Bayesian space–time hierarchical models were applied to Queensland Cancer Registry data to examine geographical changes in cancer incidence and relative survival over time for the five most common cancers (colorectal, melanom...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian spatio-temporal framework to identify outbreaks and examine environmental and social risk factors for infectious diseases monitored by routine surveillance
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Aparna Lal, Jonathan Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Aleisha Brock, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker, Nigel P French Spatio-temporal disease patterns can provide clues to etiological pathways, but can be complex to model. Using a flexible Bayesian hierarchical framework, we identify previously undetected space-time clusters and environmental and socio-demographic risk factors for reported giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis at the New Zealand small area level. For giardiasis, there was no seasonal pattern in outbreak probabil...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial and population drivers of persistent cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh: Implications for vaccine and intervention targeting
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 24 Author(s): Nushrat Nazia, Mohammad Ali, Md. Jakariya, Quamrun Nahar, Mohammad Yunus, Michael Emch We identify high risk clusters and measure their persistence in time and analyze spatial and population drivers of small area incidence over time. The geographically linked population and cholera surveillance data in Matlab, Bangladesh for a 10-year period were used. Individual level data were aggregated by local 250 × 250 m communities. A retrospective space-time scan statistic was applied to detect high risk clusters. Gene...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 19, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparing the Geographic Distribution and Location Characteristics of HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Individuals with a Diagnosis of Cancer Living in the Southeast US
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Benjamin D. Hallowell, Sara W. Robb, Kristina W. Kintziger As HIV-seropositive individuals live longer, they are more likely to acquire conditions seen in the general population. Excluding AIDS-defining malignancies, HIV-seropositive individuals are more likely to develop cancer than individuals in the general population. In order to better inform future screening and prevention efforts in this population, we compared the geographic distribution and location characteristics of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adult Obesity Prevalence at the County Level in the United States, 2000-2010: Downscaling Public Health Survey Data using a Spatial Microsimulation Approach
This study therefore, uses a spatial microsimulation approach to estimate obesity prevalence rates at the county level across the United States to visualize temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 for use in the monitoring of obesity prevalence. This method iteratively replicates the demographic characteristics of public health survey respondents with census data for those areas. Following, the Local Moran's I was used to identify clusters of high and low obesity prevalence. The findings showed that obesity prevalence rose dramatically over the last decade with substantial variation across counties ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

SpatialEpiApp: A Shiny Web Application for the Analysis of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Disease Data
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Paula Moraga During last years, public health surveillance has been facilitated by the existence of several packages implementing statistical methods for the analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal disease data. However, these methods are still inaccesible for many researchers lacking the adequate programming skills to effectively use the required software. In this paper we present SpatialEpiApp, a Shiny web application that integrate two of the most common approaches in health surveillance: disease mapping and det...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 26, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial variation in risk for physician diagnosed environmental sensitivity
This study investigated the spatial structure of MCS incidence and estimated the contribution of socio-economic deprivation to variations in rates of MCS at the community level in Nova Scotia, Canada. Patient data were used to calculate cumulative incidence rate ratios for treated multiple chemical sensitivities. Poisson regression with a spatially autoregressive random effect was employed to assess spatial variation in MCS. Odds of MSC incidence is greatest among patients from the highest socioeconomic category using the most socioeconomically deprived category as reference (OR: 1.94, CI[2.5-95%] 1.45-2.56). No discernabl...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using additive and coupled spatiotemporal SPDE models: a flexible illustration for predicting occurrence of Culicoides species
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Yimer Wasihun Kifle, Niel Hens, Christel Faes This paper formulates and compares a general class of spatiotemporal models for univariate space-time geostatistical data. The implementation of stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach combined with integrated nested Laplace approximation into the R-INLA package makes it computationally feasible to use spatiotemporal models. However, the impact of specifying models with and without space-time interaction is unclear. We formulate an extensive class of ad...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial analysis of food insecurity and obesity by area-level deprivation in children in early years settings in England
Conclusions We observed differences in manager perception by area-level deprivation, but the relationship was especially pronounced for food insecurity. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Comparing multilevel and multiscale convolution models for small area aggregated health data
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Mehreteab Aregay, Andrew B Lawson, Christel Faes, Russell S Kirby, Rachel Carroll, Kevin Watjou In spatial epidemiology, data are often arrayed hierarchically. The classification of individuals into smaller units, which in turn are grouped into larger units, can induce contextual effects. On the other hand, a scaling effect can occur due to the aggregation of data from smaller units into larger units. In this paper, we propose a shared multilevel model to address the contextual effects. In addition, we consider a shar...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modeling Spatio-temporal Variations of Substance Abuse Mortality in Iran Using a Log-Gaussian Cox Point Process
This study provides the first evidence in Iran on the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in mortality caused by substance use disorders. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling malaria incidence by an autoregressive distributed lag model with spatial component
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Francisco Laguna, María Eugenia Grillet, José R. León, Carenne Ludeña The influence of climatic variables on the dynamics of human malaria has been widely highlighted. Also, it is known that this mosquito-borne infection varies in space and time. However, when the data is spatially incomplete most popular spatio-temporal methods of analysis cannot be applied directly. In this paper, we develop a two step methodology to model the spatio-temporal dependence of malaria incidence on local rainf...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - June 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Time Series Analysis and Mortality Model of Dog Bite Victims Presented for Treatment at a Referral Clinic for Rabies Exposure in Monrovia, Liberia, 2010-2013
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Ayodeji O. Olarinmoye, Johnson F. Ojo, Ayotunde J. Fasunla, Olayinka O. Ishola, Fahnboah G. Dakinah, Charles K. Mulbah, Khalid Al-Hezaimi, Babasola O. Olugasa We developed time trend model, determined treatment outcome and estimated annual human deaths among dog bite victims (DBVs) from 2010 to 2013 in Monrovia, Liberia. Data obtained from clinic records included victim's age, gender and site of bite marks, site name of residence of rabies-exposed patients, promptness of care sought, initial treatment and post-exposur...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 26, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial mapping of temporal risk to improve prevention measures: A case study of dengue epidemic in Lahore
Conclusion Spatial risk identification by using local spatial-autocorrelation helps in identifying other possible causes of disease risk and further strategic planning for prevention and control measures. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - May 7, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Measuring geographical accessibility to rural and remote health care services: Challenges and Considerations
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Tayyab Ikram Shah, Stephan Milosavljevic, Brenna Bath (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial mapping of temporal risk to improve prevention measures; a case study of dengue epidemic in Lahore
Conclusion Spatial risk identification by using Local spatial-autocorrelation helps in identify other possible causes of disease risk and further strategic planning for prevention and control measures. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 24, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003 –2012
Publication date: June 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 21 Author(s): Diba Khan, Lauren M. Rossen, Brady E. Hamilton, Yulei He, Rong Wei, Erin Dienes Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time inte...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 10, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geography of breast cancer incidence according to age & amp; birth cohorts
Conclusion Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - April 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Hot Spots, Cluster Detection and Spatial Outlier Analysis of Teen Birth Rates in the U.S., 2003-2012
Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Diba Khan, Lauren M. Rossen, Brady E. Hamilton, Yulei He, Rong Wei, Erin Dienes Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Geography of Breast Cancer Incidence According to Age & amp; Birth Cohorts,
Conclusion : Geographic patterns of cancer incidence exhibit differences within and across age and birth cohorts. With the continued insights from descriptive epidemiology, our capacity to effectively limit spatial disparities in cancer will improve. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Environmental risk factors for the incidence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Iran: a GIS-based approach
Conclusion : There was a positive correlation between temperature and population density with CL incidence in both local (city) and global (province)level. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Modelling and Forecasting Spatio-temporal Variation in the Risk of Chronic Malnutrition Among Under-Five Children in Ghana
Conclusion: Our spatio-temporal model captured variations in childhood stunting over place and time. Our method facilitates and enriches modelling and forecasting of future stunting prevalence to identify areas at high risk. Improving maternal education could be given greater consideration within an overall strategy for addressing childhood malnutrition. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - March 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Can changes in population mixing and socio-economic deprivation in Cumbria, England explain changes in cancer incidence around Sellafield?
This study investigated changes in measures of population mixing from 1951-2001. Comparisons were made between three specified areas. Area-based measures were calculated (migration, commuting, deprivation, population density). All areas have become more affluent, although Seascale was consistently the most affluent. Seascale has become less densely populated, with less migration into the ward and less diversity with respect to migrants’ origin. There have been marked changes in patterns of population mixing throughout Cumbria. Lesser population mixing has been observed in Seascale in recent decades. Changes in patter...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Exploring racial disparity in obesity: a mediation analysis considering geo-coded environmental factors
Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Qingzhao Yu, Richard A. Scribner, Claudia Leonardi, Lu Zhang, Chi Park, Liwei Chen, Neal R. Simonsen Research shows aconsistent racial disparity in obesity between white and black adults in the United States. Accounting for the disparity is a challenge given the variety of the contributing factors, the nature of the association, and the multilevel relationships among the factors. We used the multivariable mediation analysis (MMA) method to explore the racial disparity in obesity considering not only the individua...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - February 17, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Relative risk for HIV in India – An estimate using conditional auto-regressive models with Bayesian approach
Publication date: February 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 20 Author(s): Chandrasekaran Kandhasamy, Kaushik Ghosh Indian states are currently classified into HIV-risk categories based on the observed prevalence counts, percentage of infected attendees in antenatal clinics, and percentage of infected high-risk individuals. This method, however, does not account for the spatial dependence among the states nor does it provide any measure of statistical uncertainty. We provide an alternative model-based approach to address these issues. Our method uses Poisson log-normal models having various cond...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using Exploratory Data Analysis to Identify and Predict Patterns of Human Lyme Disease Case Clustering within a Multistate Region, 2010-2014
The objective of our study was to identify patterns of Lyme disease reporting after multistate inclusion to mitigate potential border effects. County-level human Lyme disease surveillance data were obtained from Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia state health departments. Rate smoothing and Local Moran's I was performed to identify clusters of reporting activity and identify spatial outliers. A logistic generalized estimating equation was performed to identify significant associations in disease clustering over time. Resulting analyses identified statistically significant (P=0.05) clusters ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Relative risk for HIV in India –an estimate using conditional auto-regressive models with Bayesian approach
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Chandrasekaran Kandhasamy, Kaushik Ghosh Indian states are currently classified into HIV-risk categories based on the observed prevalence counts, percentage of infected attendees in antenatal clinics, and percentage of infected high-risk individuals. This method, however, does not account for the spatial dependence among the states nor does it provide any measure of statistical uncertainty. We provide an alternative model-based approach to address these issues. Our method uses Poisson log-normal models having vario...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The temporal-spatial distribution of seriously maltreated children
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017 Source:Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology Author(s): Holly Thurston, Bridget Freisthler, Janice Bell, Daniel Tancredi, Patrick Romano, Sheridan Miyamoto, Jill G. Joseph This descriptive study utilized Bernoulli and Poisson spatial scan statistical models in SatScan v.9.4 to examine the distribution in space and time of residence of maltreatment cases–operationalized as families with serious maltreatment (resulting in death or hospitalization) of children under 6 years–for the presence of clusters (“hot spots”). In the Poisson model, a populati...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - January 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research