Spatiotemporal analysis of prolonged and recurrent bovine tuberculosis breakdowns in Northern Irish cattle herds reveals a new infection hotspot
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): G.M. Milne, J. Graham, A. Allen, A. Lahuerta-Marin, C. McCormick, E. Presho, R. Skuce, A.W. ByrneAbstractDespite a state-led eradication programme, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains endemic in Northern Ireland (NI). Of particular concern are “chronic” prolonged and recurrent bTB breakdowns, which represent significant financial and administrative burdens. However, little is known regarding the spatiotemporal distribution of chronic breakdowns in NI. We therefore analysed both the spatial and spatiotempo...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 27Author(s): (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - November 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Spatial Analysis of Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis in Relation to Public Water Supply Distribution in North West England
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): N.F. Reeve, P.J. Diggle, K. Lamden, T. KeeganAbstractGiardia and Cryptosporidium are both waterborne parasites and leading causes of gastroenteritis. Although specimens from diarrhoeic patients are routinely examined for Cryptosporidium, they are often not examined for Giardia so many cases go undiagnosed. Since 2002, all faecal specimens in Central Lancashire have been tested for infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the factors contributing to giardiasis and cryp...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatial Analysis of the Relative Risk of Suicide for Virginia Counties Incorporating Uncertainty of Variable Estimates
ConclusionsAccounting for uncertainty in parameter estimates achieved better model fit. Efficient allocation of resources for suicide prevention can be attained by targeting clusters of counties with elevated risk. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 14, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integration of animal health and public health surveillance sources to exhaustively inform the risk of zoonosis: An application to visceral leishmaniasis data in Brazil
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): R Boaz III, A Corberán-Vallet, A Lawson, FE de Ferreira Lima Junior, L Edel Donato, R Vieira Alves, G Machado, Freire de Carvalho M, Julio Pompei, VJ Del Rio VilasAbstractVisceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a parasitic disease that is endemic in more than 80 countries, and leads to high fatality rates when left untreated. We investigate the relationship of VL cases in dogs and human cases, specifically for evidence of VL in dogs leading to excess cases in humans. We use surveillance data for dogs and humans for ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - October 5, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Distance to HIV care and treatment adherence: Adjusting for socio-demographic and geographical heterogeneity
This study aims to examine the relationship between distance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescribing physician and adherence to HIV treatment in British Columbia, Canada. Only participants who provided highly accurate locational data for both place of residence and their physician were used in the analysis. Using logistic regression, a multivariable confounder model was created to assess the association between distance and adherence. A geographically weighted logistic regression was also performed to adjust for spatial dependency. There were 1528 participants in the analysis, for a median distance of 17.85km. The fina...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 2, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Using Spatiotemporal Models to Generate Synthetic Data for Public Use
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Harrison Quick, Lance A. WallerAbstractSummary. When agencies release public-use data, they must be cognizant of the potential risk of disclosure associated with making their data publicly available. This issue is particularly pertinent in disease mapping, where small counts pose both inferential challenges and potential disclosure risks. While the small area estimation, disease mapping, and statistical disclosure limitation literatures are individually robust, there have been few intersections between them. Here, we...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - September 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk maps for cities: Incorporating streets into geostatistical models
We describe a methodology to transform spatial point data to incorporate permeable barriers, by distorting the map to widen streets, with one additional parameter. We use Gaussian Field models to estimate this additional parameter, and develop risk maps incorporating streets as permeable barriers. We demonstrate our method on simulated datasets and apply it to data on Triatoma infestans, a vector of Chagas disease in Arequipa, Peru. We found that the transformed landscape that best fit the observed pattern of Triatoma infestans infestation, approximately doubled the true Euclidean distance between neighboring houses on dif...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Deep learning for supervised classification of spatial epidemics
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Carolyn Augusta, Rob Deardonb, Graham TaylorAbstractIn an emerging epidemic, public health officials must move quickly to contain the spread. Information obtained from statistical disease transmission models often informs the development of containment strategies. Inference procedures such as Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo allow researchers to estimate parameters of such models, but are computationally expensive. In this work, we explore supervised statistical and machine learning methods for fast inference via su...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 30, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Distance to HIV Care & Treatment Adherence: Adjusting for Socio-Demographic and Geographical Heterogeneity
This study aims to examine the relationship between distance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescribing physician and adherence to HIV treatment in British Columbia, Canada. Only participants who provided highly accurate locational data for both place of residence and their physician were used in the analysis. Using logistic regression, a multivariable confounder model was created to assess the association between distance and adherence. A geographically weighted logistic regression was also performed to adjust for spatial dependency. There were 1,528 participants in the analysis, for a median distance of 17.85 km. The fi...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of dementia mortality in the United States, 2000–2010
Publication date: November 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 27Author(s): Wei Xu, Changshan WuAbstractBased on national death certificate data during 2000 and 2010, we employed the space-time scan statistic to identify spatiotemporal clusters of dementia mortality in the contiguous United States. Results revealed that, for both Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia mortality in the total population, the most likely clusters occurred in the Northeast region, with lower than average relative risk. The most likely excess mortality clusters were in the Pacific Northwest and Ohio River Valley and...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 9, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pure spatial and space-time clusters of self-harm in Kwai Tsing 2004 to 2012
Publication date: November 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 27Author(s): Ming Leung, Chun-Bong Chow, Pak-Keung Patrick Ip, Siu-Fai Paul Yip (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - August 4, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pure Spatial and Space -Time Clusters of Self-harm in Kwai Tsing 2004 to 2012
Publication date: Available online 24 July 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Ming Leung, Chun Bong Chow, Pak-Keung Patrick Ip, Siu-Fai Paul Yip (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 24, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Detecting spatiotemporal clusters of dementia mortality in the United States, 2000-2010
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Wei Xu, Changshan WuAbstractBased on national death certificate data during 2000 and 2010, we employed the space-time scan statistic to identify spatiotemporal clusters of dementia mortality in the contiguous United States. Results revealed that, for both Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia mortality in the total population, the most likely clusters occurred in the Northeast region, with lower than average relative risk. The most likely excess mortality clusters were in the Pacific Northwest and Ohio River Valle...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 19, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal Impacts of Two Causal Drivers of Alcohol Demand on Outlet Concentrations within Community Settings: Population Size and Income Effects
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Zhuxuan Jin, Howard H. Chang, William R. Ponicki, Andrew Gaidus, Lance A. Waller, Chris Morrison, Paul J. GruenewaldAbstractWe analyzed counts of licensed bars, restaurants and off-premise alcohol outlets within 53 California cities from 2000-2013. Poisson models were used to assess overall space-time associations between outlet numbers and population size and median household income in local and spatially adjacent block groups. We then separated covariate effects into distinct spatial and temporal components (“d...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adult obesity prevalence at the county level in the United States, 2000–2010: Downscaling public health survey data using a spatial microsimulation approach
This study therefore, uses a spatial microsimulation approach to estimate obesity prevalence rates at the county level across the United States to visualize temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 for use in the monitoring of obesity prevalence. This method iteratively replicates the demographic characteristics of public health survey respondents with census data for those areas. Following, Local Moran's I was used to identify clusters of high and low obesity prevalence. The findings showed that obesity prevalence rose dramatically over the last decade with substantial variation across counties and ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Zero-augmented accelerated spatial failure model for modeling hospital length of stay data
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Cindy Xin FengAbstractHospital length of stay (LOS) is often used as an indicator for hospital efficiency and resource utilization. LOS is nonnegative with presence of zeros and typically positively skewed with a long right tail, which may not be adequately modelled by traditional distributions, such as lognormal. We developed a zero-augmented accelerated frailty model for modeling the extreme skewness with the presence of zeros. Levels of utilization of health services may vary geographically, so conditional autoregres...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Potential effects of climate change on the risk of accidents with poisonous species of the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Argentina
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan BidauAbstractThe temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic var...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integrating activity spaces in health research: Comparing the VERITAS activity space questionnaire with 7-day GPS tracking and prompted recall
ConclusionsThere is a spatial correspondence between destinations collected through VERITAS and 7-day GPS tracking. Both collection methods offer complementary ways to assess daily mobilities, useful to study environmental determinants of health and health inequities. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gaining relevance from the random: Interpreting observed spatial heterogeneity
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Rachel Carroll, Shanshan ZhaoAbstractIn Bayesian disease mapping, spatial random effects are used to account for confounding in the data so that reasonable estimates for the fixed effects can be obtained. Typically, the spatial random effects are mapped and qualitative comments are made related to an increase or decrease in risk for certain areas. The approach outlined here illustrates how a quantitative secondary assessment can be applied to make more useful and applicable inference related to these spatial random effects. We ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender and geographical inequalities in fatal drug overdose in Iran: A province-level study in 2006 and 2011
ConclusionRates of fatal drug overdose were higher among Iranian men and in both younger and older age groups which call for scaling up harm reduction and increasing access to gender- and age-specific substance use treatment services. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian latent process spatiotemporal regression model for areal count data
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): C. Edson Utazi, Emmanuel O. Afuecheta, C. Christopher NnanatuAbstractModel-based approaches for the analysis of areal count data are commonplace in spatiotemporal analysis. In Bayesian hierarchical models, a latent process is incorporated in the mean function to account for dependence in space and time. Typically, the latent process is modelled using a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior. The aim of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to CAR-based priors for modelling the latent process. The proposed approach is b...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian spatio-temporal framework to identify outbreaks and examine environmental and social risk factors for infectious diseases monitored by routine surveillance
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Aparna Lal, Jonathan Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Aleisha Brock, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker, Nigel P FrenchAbstractSpatio-temporal disease patterns can provide clues to etiological pathways, but can be complex to model. Using a flexible Bayesian hierarchical framework, we identify previously undetected space-time clusters and environmental and socio-demographic risk factors for reported giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis at the New Zealand small area level. For giardiasis, there was no seasonal pattern in outbreak probability and...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal trends in physical violence, gender differences and spatial vulnerability of the location of victim's residences
This study performed an ecological-level longitudinal analysis, examining violence rates over 4 years. Cases of 4795 victims of physical aggression attended at a Center of Legal Medicine were investigated. Trend analysis was used to evaluate the data, with the creation of polynomial regression models (p 
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dynamics of dengue disease with human and vector mobility
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Murali Krishna Enduri, Shivakumar JoladAbstractDengue is a vector borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying virus of different serotypes. Dengue exhibits complex spatial and temporal dynamics, influenced by various biological, human and environmental factors. In this work, we study the dengue spread for a single serotype (DENV-1) including statistical models of human mobility with exponential step length distribution, by using reaction–diffusion equations and Stochastic Cellular Automata (SC...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatially-explicit survival modeling with discrete grouping of cancer predictors
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Georgiana Onicescu, Andrew B Lawson, Jiajia Zhang, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kristin Wallace, Jan M. EberthAbstractIn this paper, the spatially explicit survival model is extended by allowing the relation with the explanatory covariates to be spatially adaptive using a threshold conditional autoregressive (CAR) model, further extended to allow the inclusion of multiple threshold levels. The model is applied to prostate cancer survival based on Louisiana SEER registry, which holds individual records linked to vital outcom...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Kernel density analysis reveals a halo pattern of breast cancer incidence in Connecticut
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Natalya Rybnikova, Richard G. Stevens, David I. Gregorio, Holly Samociuk, Boris A. PortnovAbstractBreast cancer (BC) incidence rates in Connecticut are among the highest in the United States, and are unevenly distributed within the state. Our goal was to determine whether artificial light at night (ALAN) played a role. Using BC records obtained from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, we applied the double kernel density (DKD) estimator to produce a continuous relative risk surface of a disease throughout the State. A multi-varia...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the spatial distribution of scientific publications regarding vector-borne diseases related to climate variability in South America
The objectives of this work were to analyze the distribution and abundance of publications on vector-borne diseases associated with climate variability in South America, identify those works that conducted a geographic analysis and detect the countries where outbreaks occurred and the climate variables with which they were associated. A systematic review of the literature published on vector-borne diseases linked to climate variability in South America was conducted, identifying, evaluating and summarizing scientific papers. The distribution of the study areas and disease type in the publications were represented on maps. ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A multivariable assessment of the spatio-temporal distribution of pyrethroids performance on the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi in Chile
In this study we explored the spatial and temporal variation of C. rogercresseyi’s response to pyrethroids in Chile from 2012 to 2013. We modeled lice abundance one week after treatment with a linear mixed-effects regression, and then we performed spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses on farm-level effects and on treatment-level residuals, respectively. Results indicate there were two areas where the post-treatment lice counts were significantly higher than in the rest of the study area. These spatial clusters remained even once we adjusted for environmental and management predictors, suggesting unmeasured fac...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Anna Freni-Sterrantino, Massimo Ventrucci, Håvard RueAbstractIn this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cost-efficient case-control cluster sampling designs for population-based epidemiological studies
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Thomas Ly, Myles Cockburn, Bryan LangholzAbstractCost-efficient sampling schemes for population-based case-control studies are necessary for sampling subjects in geographically dispersed populations where in-house surveys are expensive to conduct due to high interviewer travel costs that may be associated with simple random sampling. Motivated by the original study conducted by Cockburn et al. (2011) that investigated the relationship between exposure to pesticides and prostate carcinogenesis, a set of cluster-based indi...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Regional variation in lung and bronchus cancer survival in the US using mortality-to-incidence ratios
This study used mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) calculated from 2008 to 2012 National Cancer Institute data to highlight state-level variations in relative lung and bronchus cancer survival. In an ad hoc sensitivity analysis, we calculated a correlation between our state-level MIRs and five-year 1-survival rates for states reporting incident lung and bronchus cancer cases (2004–2008) to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database. Differences were observed in state lung and bronchus cancer MIRs, with the highest MIR values (poor relative survival) in southern states and the lowest...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The spread of mosquito-borne viruses in modern times: A spatio-temporal analysis of dengue and chikungunya
In conclusion, our analysis provides crucial insights, which can be applied to improve nations' surveillance and preparedness for future vector-borne disease epidemics. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The geo-spatial distribution of childhood diarrheal disease in West Africa, 2008–2013: A covariate-adjusted cluster analysis
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Gillian Dunn, Glen D. JohnsonAbstractDiarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in West Africa. To determine whether there are areas of heightened risk and if so, how they may be influenced by household and climatic variables, we describe the geo-spatial distribution of childhood diarrhea in ten countries of West Africa for the period 2008–2013 using data from Demographic and Health Surveys. The purely spatial scan statistic was applied, where the observed diarrhea cases were modeled as a Poisso...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mapping rural–urban disparities in late-stage cancer with high-resolution rurality index and GWR
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Liang Mao, Jue Yang, Guangran DengAbstractEffects of urban/rural residence on late-stage cancer have long been explored, but remained controversial. Spatial granularity of rural definition, temporal change of rurality, and local variability of such effects may contribute to inconsistent findings, but they have not been fully addressed. We proposed a spatially resolved and temporally comparable rurality index and a geographically weighted regression approach to re-examine this question. Taking Florida as an example, our analys...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Adult obesity prevalence at the county level in the United States, 2000–2010: Downscaling public health survey data using a spatial microsimulation approach
This study therefore, uses a spatial microsimulation approach to estimate obesity prevalence rates at the county level across the United States to visualize temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 for use in the monitoring of obesity prevalence. This method iteratively replicates the demographic characteristics of public health survey respondents with census data for those areas. Following, Local Moran's I was used to identify clusters of high and low obesity prevalence. The findings showed that obesity prevalence rose dramatically over the last decade with substantial variation across counties and ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Zero-augmented accelerated spatial failure model for modeling hospital length of stay data
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Cindy Xin FengAbstractHospital length of stay (LOS) is often used as an indicator for hospital efficiency and resource utilization. LOS is nonnegative with presence of zeros and typically positively skewed with a long right tail, which may not be adequately modelled by traditional distributions, such as lognormal. We developed a zero-augmented accelerated frailty model for modeling the extreme skewness with the presence of zeros. Levels of utilization of health services may vary geographically, so conditional autoregres...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Potential effects of climate change on the risk of accidents with poisonous species of the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Argentina
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Pablo Ariel Martinez, Mayane Alves Andrade, Claudio Juan BidauAbstractThe temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic var...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Integrating activity spaces in health research: Comparing the VERITAS activity space questionnaire with 7-day GPS tracking and prompted recall
ConclusionsThere is a spatial correspondence between destinations collected through VERITAS and 7-day GPS tracking. Both collection methods offer complementary ways to assess daily mobilities, useful to study environmental determinants of health and health inequities. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gaining relevance from the random: Interpreting observed spatial heterogeneity
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Rachel Carroll, Shanshan ZhaoAbstractIn Bayesian disease mapping, spatial random effects are used to account for confounding in the data so that reasonable estimates for the fixed effects can be obtained. Typically, the spatial random effects are mapped and qualitative comments are made related to an increase or decrease in risk for certain areas. The approach outlined here illustrates how a quantitative secondary assessment can be applied to make more useful and applicable inference related to these spatial random effects. We ...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Gender and geographical inequalities in fatal drug overdose in Iran: A province-level study in 2006 and 2011
ConclusionRates of fatal drug overdose were higher among Iranian men and in both younger and older age groups which call for scaling up harm reduction and increasing access to gender- and age-specific substance use treatment services. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian latent process spatiotemporal regression model for areal count data
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): C. Edson Utazi, Emmanuel O. Afuecheta, C. Christopher NnanatuAbstractModel-based approaches for the analysis of areal count data are commonplace in spatiotemporal analysis. In Bayesian hierarchical models, a latent process is incorporated in the mean function to account for dependence in space and time. Typically, the latent process is modelled using a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior. The aim of this paper is to offer an alternative approach to CAR-based priors for modelling the latent process. The proposed approach is b...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

A Bayesian spatio-temporal framework to identify outbreaks and examine environmental and social risk factors for infectious diseases monitored by routine surveillance
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Aparna Lal, Jonathan Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Aleisha Brock, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker, Nigel P FrenchAbstractSpatio-temporal disease patterns can provide clues to etiological pathways, but can be complex to model. Using a flexible Bayesian hierarchical framework, we identify previously undetected space-time clusters and environmental and socio-demographic risk factors for reported giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis at the New Zealand small area level. For giardiasis, there was no seasonal pattern in outbreak probability and...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Temporal trends in physical violence, gender differences and spatial vulnerability of the location of victim's residences
This study performed an ecological-level longitudinal analysis, examining violence rates over 4 years. Cases of 4795 victims of physical aggression attended at a Center of Legal Medicine were investigated. Trend analysis was used to evaluate the data, with the creation of polynomial regression models (p 
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Dynamics of dengue disease with human and vector mobility
Publication date: June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 25Author(s): Murali Krishna Enduri, Shivakumar JoladAbstractDengue is a vector borne disease transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying virus of different serotypes. Dengue exhibits complex spatial and temporal dynamics, influenced by various biological, human and environmental factors. In this work, we study the dengue spread for a single serotype (DENV-1) including statistical models of human mobility with exponential step length distribution, by using reaction–diffusion equations and Stochastic Cellular Automata (SC...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Spatially-explicit survival modeling with discrete grouping of cancer predictors
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal EpidemiologyAuthor(s): Georgiana Onicescu, Andrew B Lawson, Jiajia Zhang, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Kristin Wallace, Jan M. EberthAbstractIn this paper, the spatially explicit survival model is extended by allowing the relation with the explanatory covariates to be spatially adaptive using a threshold conditional autoregressive (CAR) model, further extended to allow the inclusion of multiple threshold levels. The model is applied to prostate cancer survival based on Louisiana SEER registry, which holds individual records linked to vital outcom...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Kernel density analysis reveals a halo pattern of breast cancer incidence in Connecticut
Publication date: August 2018Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, Volume 26Author(s): Natalya Rybnikova, Richard G. Stevens, David I. Gregorio, Holly Samociuk, Boris A. PortnovAbstractBreast cancer (BC) incidence rates in Connecticut are among the highest in the United States, and are unevenly distributed within the state. Our goal was to determine whether artificial light at night (ALAN) played a role. Using BC records obtained from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, we applied the double kernel density (DKD) estimator to produce a continuous relative risk surface of a disease throughout the State. A multi-varia...
Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology - July 6, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research