Decomposition of leaf mixtures and absorptive-root mixtures synchronously changes with deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Lei Jiang, Liang Kou, Shenggong LiAbstractLeaves and absorptive roots, the plant tissues that acquire resources, decompose quite differently due to their distinct morphology, chemistry, and decomposition microenvironments. Root litters of different species often decompose in mixtures in natural forests or mixed plantations, similar to leaf litters. However, the mechanisms behind leaf mixture decomposition and root mixture decomposition and their responses to nutrient deposition remain poorly understood. We used a nutrient-ad...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Metatranscriptomics reveals climate change effects on the rhizosphere microbiomes in European grassland
In conclusion, our metatranscriptomic study suggests that a near-future level of eCO2 combined with prolonged heat waves may have a significant impact on the interactome between rhizosphere microbiomes and plant roots in European grassland; with a primary effect on fungal activity. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

15N-amino sugar stable isotope probing (15N-SIP) to trace the assimilation of fertiliser-N by soil bacterial and fungal communities
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Michaela K. Reay, Alice F. Charteris, Davey L. Jones, Richard P. EvershedAbstractAlthough amino sugars represent a major component of soil organic nitrogen (ON), the assimilation of nitrate (NO3− ) and ammonium (NH4+) into amino sugars (AS) by soil bacteria and fungi represents a neglected aspect of the global N cycle. A deeper knowledge of AS responses to N fertiliser addition may help enhance N use efficiency (NUE) within agricultural systems. Our aim was to extend a sensitive compound-specific 15N-stable isotope pro...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal heterogeneity in extracellular enzyme activities tracks variation in saprotrophic fungal biomass in a temperate hardwood forest
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Meghan G. Midgley, Richard P. PhillipsAbstractSaprotrophic fungi are the dominant producers of organic matter-degrading extracellular enzymes in forest soils, but the extent to which they drive spatio-temporal variation in enzyme activities is unclear. We quantified the relationships between saprotrophic fungal biomass and enzyme activities in a mature temperate hardwood forest by placing soil-filled ingrowth bags inside trenches. Trenches were located in replicate stands (n = 7) dominated by either arbuscular mycorrhiza...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Land use modulates the effects of climate change on density but not community composition of Collembola
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Rui Yin, Iwona Gruss, Nico Eisenhauer, Paul Kardol, Madhav P. Thakur, Anja Schmidt, Zhengfeng Xu, Julia Siebert, Chensheng Zhang, Gao-Lin Wu, Martin SchädlerAbstractCollembola are highly abundant and diverse soil animals and play key roles in litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Given their functional significance, it is important to understand their responses to human-induced global changes, such as climate change and land-use intensification. Here, we utilized an experimental field study, to test the interactive...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Annual dynamics of soil gross nitrogen turnover and nitrous oxide emissions in an alpine shrub meadow
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiaoxia Hu, Chunyan Liu, Xunhua Zheng, Michael Dannenmann, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Zhisheng Yao, Wei Zhang, Rui Wang, Guangmin CaoAbstractSoil nitrogen (N) transformations play a vital role in maintaining grassland productivity and influencing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To reveal annual dynamics of soil gross N turnover and its effects on N2O emissions in typical grasslands, we conducted year-round measurements of soil gross N turnover rates, inorganic N pool sizes and N2O fluxes in an alpine shrub meadow of the Qinghai&n...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 137Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil organic matter decomposition and carbon sequestration in temperate coniferous forest soils affected by soluble and insoluble spruce needle fractions
In this study, we focused on the effects of soluble, insoluble and whole-tissue coniferous needle fractions on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and C storage in soil fractions. In addition, the effect of future increased C input was tested by applying a doubled amount of the soluble fraction (whole-tissue + soluble fraction). 13C-labelled needles were produced from spruce seedlings in growth chambers and needle fractions were added to the coniferous forest soil in laboratory microcosms. CO2 respired during incubation from the microcosms was partitioned into needle- and SOM-derived components. After seven m...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Polyploidy in invasive Solidago canadensis increased plant nitrogen uptake, and abundance and activity of microbes and nematodes in soil
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Shuqi Wu, Jiliang Cheng, Xinyu Xu, Yi Zhang, Yexin Zhao, Huixin Li, Sheng QiangAbstractPolyploidization (i.e., multiplication of genome size) is a major driver of plant evolution and is believed to play a significant role in plant invasion. One hypothesis states that polyploids possess larger root systems with increased root exudation and thus, induce a greater effect on the rhizosphere compared to their diploids counterparts. Few experiments, however, have explicitly tested the impacts of the polyploidy of plants on soil org...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A new incubation and measurement approach to estimate the temperature response of soil organic matter decomposition
In this study, we first summarize two commonly used approaches for estimating Q10 (Approach A: constant temperature incubation and discontinuous measurements, CDM model; Approach B: varying temperature incubation and discontinuous measurements, VDM model). We then introduced a newly developed approach (Approach C, VCM model) that combines rapidly varying temperature incubations and continuous measurements of SOM decomposition rates (Rs) that may be more realistic and suitable for Q10 estimation, especially for large scale estimation. Then, we conducted a 26-day incubation experiment using three different soils to compare t...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

pH and exchangeable aluminum are major regulators of microbial energy flow and carbon use efficiency in soil microbial communities
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Davey L. Jones, Emily C. Cooledge, Frances C. Hoyle, Robert I. Griffiths, Daniel V. MurphyAbstractThe microbial partitioning of organic carbon (C) into either anabolic (i.e. growth) or catabolic (i.e. respiration) metabolic pathways represents a key process regulating the amount of added C that is retained in soil. The factors regulating C use efficiency (CUE) in agricultural soils, however, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate substrate CUE from a wide range of soils (n = 970) and geographic...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Using metagenomics to reveal landscape scale patterns of denitrifiers in a montane forest ecosystem
Publication date: Available online 4 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): C. Armanda Roco, Peter Dörsch, James G. Booth, Charles Pepe-Ranney, Peter M. Groffman, Timothy J. Fahey, Joseph B. Yavitt, James P. ShapleighAbstractDenitrification has been implicated as an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle in many soil ecosystems, but the relationships between process rates and the genotype of denitrifying microorganisms are poorly understood. This relationship is crucial where denitrifiers with less than the full complement of nitrogen-oxide reductases might play a crucial role in denitrification...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant expansion drives bacteria and collembola communities under winter climate change in frost-affected tundra
Publication date: November 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 138Author(s): Eveline J. Krab, Sylvain Monteux, James T. Weedon, Ellen DorrepaalAbstractAt high latitudes, winter warming facilitates vegetation expansion into barren frost-affected soils. The interplay of changes in winter climate and plant presence may alter soil functioning via effects on decomposers. Responses of decomposer soil fauna and microorganisms to such changes likely differ from each other, since their life histories, dispersal mechanisms and microhabitats vary greatly.We investigated the relative impacts of short-term winter warming ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Large variations in readily-available phosphorus in casts of eight earthworm species are linked to cast properties
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Hannah M.J. Vos, Gerwin F. Koopmans, Lieke Beezemer, Ron G.M. de Goede, Tjisse Hiemstra, Jan Willem van GroenigenAbstractPhosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plant growth. However, P is often poorly available for uptake by roots because it strongly adsorbs to the soil mineral phase. Recent research shows that earthworms can temporally and locally increase P availability to plants. However, the pathways through which they do so are not fully understood, and it remains unclear to what extent this capacity varies among ea...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fate of photosynthesized carbon as regulated by long–term tillage management in a dryland wheat cropping system
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Fei Mo, Ye–Ye Zhang, Tong Li, Zi–Ting Wang, Kai–Liang Yu, Xiao–Xia Wen, You–Cai Xiong, Zhi–Kuan Jia, Yun–Cheng LiaoAbstractTracking photosynthesized carbon (C) allocation into different C pools is crucial for management of C sequestration, especially in agroecosystems. However, the effects of long–term tillage management on allocation and dynamics of recently fixed C in the crop–soil–atmosphere system have been rarely investigated under dryland conditions. Using in&nda...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Polarity of chloroform eluent critical to quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal biomass in soil using the neutral lipid fatty acid biomarker C16:1cis11
Publication date: Available online 31 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Rhae A. Drijber, Elizabeth S. JeskeAbstractArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form mutualisms with the majority of terrestrial plants. The fatty acid biomarker C16:1cis11, abundant in the neutral lipids, has become the preferred method for quantification of AMF biomass within the soil. The neutral lipids are eluted from silica gel with chloroform; however, commercially available chloroform is stabilized with varying amounts of ethanol (0.5–1.5%) which influences its chromatographic properties. At ethanol contents below 1....
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Direct and understorey-mediated indirect effects of human-induced environmental changes on litter decomposition in temperate forest
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Bin Wang, Haben Blondeel, Lander Baeten, Ika Djukic, Emiel De Lombaerde, Kris VerheyenAbstractHuman-induced environmental changes in temperature, light availability due to forest canopy management, nitrogen deposition, and land-use legacies can alter ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition. These influences can be both direct and indirect via altering the performance of understorey vegetation. To identify the direct and indirect effects of environmental changes on litter decomposition, we performed an experiment with s...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Contribution of different catalytic types of peptidases to soil proteolytic activity
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Trang Nguyen, Markus Kleber, David D. MyroldAbstractSoil organic nitrogen is largely composed of proteinaceous material, hence, the extracellular peptidases that are widely produced by microorganisms play a critical role in the recycling of soil organic nitrogen. But why do microbes produce such a variety of functionally different peptidases? In theory, this could be an adaptation to substrate heterogeneity, but it may also be an adaptation to variable soil conditions. Here we characterized the contribution of different catalyt...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Linkages of stoichiometric imbalances to soil microbial respiration with increasing nitrogen addition: Evidence from a long-term grassland experiment
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiaobo Yuan, Decao Niu, Laureano A. Gherardi, Yanbin Liu, Ying Wang, James J. Elser, Hua FuAbstractRapidly increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has substantially altered resource availability and the stoichiometry of microbial biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. However, variations of microbial biomass stoichiometry are not paralleled by changes in the stoichiometry of available resources, resulting in stoichiometric imbalances that constrain microbial growth and nutrient cycling and thus affect carbon (C) cycling. How...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Reduced soil respiration beneath invasive Rhododendron ponticum persists after cutting and is related to substrate quality rather than microbial community
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Gruffydd Lloyd Jones, John Scullion, Gordon Allison, Heather Stott, David Johnson, Rhys Owen, Geraint Williams, Dylan Gwynn-JonesAbstractInvasive plants depositing recalcitrant, polyphenol-rich leaf litter may alter decomposition dynamics, leading to an accumulation of soil organic matter. Removing invasives is critical in restoring native habitats, but our understanding of its impacts upon soil processes remains limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that clearing of Rhododendron ponticum leads to increased soil respiration, at...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Data-driven ENZYme (DENZY) model represents soil organic carbon dynamics in forests impacted by nitrogen deposition
This study used a data-driven approach to incorporate extracellular enzyme activity into the Terrestrial ECOsystem (TECO) model, and the updated version was named the Data-driven ENZYme (DENZY) model. DENZY is based on results from an extensive data synthesis, which show that the CN ratio is positively correlated with ligninase activity (R2 = 0.50). The latter is inversely correlated to soil organic carbon storage. The DENZY model was parameterized using the database from a recent meta-analysis and tested for its ability to simulate SOC dynamics at Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA) from 1996 to 2007. DENZY can well sim...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil bacterial and fungal response to wildfires in the Canadian boreal forest across a burn severity gradient
Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Thea Whitman, Ellen Whitman, Jamie Woolet, Mike D. Flannigan, Dan K. Thompson, Marc-André ParisienAbstractGlobal fire regimes are changing, with increases in wildfire frequency and severity expected for many North American forests over the next 100 years. Fires can result in dramatic changes to carbon (C) stocks and can restructure plant and microbial communities, with long-lasting effects on ecosystem functions. We investigated wildfire effects on soil microbial communities (bacteria and fungi) in an extreme fire season...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Deciphering the rhizobium inoculation effect on spatial distribution of phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere of alfalfa under copper stress
In this study, alfalfa was inoculated with a copper (Cu)-resistant rhizobium, and its effect on plant growth and the spatial distribution of phosphatase in the rhizosphere under Cu stress was assessed. Our results showed that rhizobium inoculation alleviated Cu-induced growth inhibition, and increased the nitrogen and phosphorus content in alfalfa tissues. Moreover, inoculated plants had a higher Cu uptake than non-inoculated plants, with a much higher increase in the roots than in the shoots; thus, inoculation with rhizobium was shown to decrease the transfer coefficient and promote Cu phytostabilization. The zymograms il...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Trees in trimmed hedgerows but not tree health increase diversity of oribatid mite communities in intensively managed agricultural land
This study analysed the effect of the most dominant hedgerow tree species on the composition and diversity of soil communities, which we estimated with oribatid mites in the context of an imminent ash dieback outbreak in Northern Ireland. We hypothesised that the environmental heterogeneity created by different tree species and good tree health are beneficial to the abundance and diversity of these soil communities. We found that communities differ, both in terms of species composition and relative abundances, between different trees in the trimmed hedgerows, and between untrimmed and trimmed hedgerows. The presence of tre...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant expansion drives bacteria and collembola community changes under winter climate change in frost-affected tundra
Publication date: Available online 19 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Eveline J. Krab, Sylvain Monteux, James Weedon, Ellen DorrepaalAbstractAt high latitudes, winter warming facilitates vegetation expansion into barren frost-affected soils. The interplay of changes in winter climate and plant presence may alter soil functioning via effects on decomposers. Responses of decomposer soil fauna and microorganisms to such changes likely differ from each other, since their life histories, dispersal mechanisms and microhabitats vary greatly.We investigated the relative impacts of short-term winter warmi...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Long term effects of intensive biomass harvesting and compaction on the forest soil ecosystem
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Tera E. Lewandowski, Jodi A. Forrester, David J. Mladenoff, Erika Marin-Spiotta, Anthony W. D’Amato, Brian J. Palik, Randall K. KolkaAbstractForest soil ecosystems can be negatively affected by intensive biomass harvesting due to losses of organic inputs and soil compaction, ultimately leading to reduced forest productivity. In this research, we revisited a site from the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity study (LTSP) located on a sandy Spodosol within the Huron National Forest in Michigan, USA, to measure the eff...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Perennial grain crop roots and nitrogen management shape soil food webs and soil carbon dynamics
In this study, we quantified root biomass and quality, bacterial and nematode community structure, and labile soil C pools of perennial intermediate wheatgrass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Buckworth and Dewey] and annual winter wheat (Triticum aes L.) across three nitrogen (N) management systems (Organic, Low inorganic N, High inorganic N). After 4 years, the perennial grain crop had significantly greater root quantity and permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC) relative to annual wheat. Mineralizable C was similar between the two plant systems but differed by N management. Perenniality more than management influenced nema...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Why does nitrogen addition to forest soils inhibit decomposition?
Publication date: Available online 20 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Mark TL. Bonner, David Castro, Andreas N. Schneider, Görel Sundström, Vaughan Hurry, Nathaniel R. Street, Torgny NäsholmAbstractEnrichment of forest soils with inorganic nitrogen (N) tends to inhibit oxidative enzyme expression by microbes and reduces plant litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates. Without further explanation than is currently presented in the scientific literature, we argue that upregulation of oxidative enzymes seems a more competitive response to prolonged N enrichment at high rates ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 136Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
Publication date: September 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 136Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Forest-to-agriculture conversion in Amazon drives soil microbial communities and N-cycle
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Luis Fernando Merloti, Lucas William Mendes, Alexandre Pedrinho, Leandro Fonseca de Souza, Beatriz Maria Ferrari, Siu Mui TsaiAbstractSoil microorganisms play an important role in the N cycle; however, these communities are sensitive to soil disturbances. Understanding the influence of anthropogenic activities on soil microbial communities would increase our ability to establish conservation strategies in the Amazon region, where deforestation has become a great concern. We hypothesized that forest-to-agriculture conversion in ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Dominant plant species influence nematode richness by moderating understory diversity and microbial assemblages
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiangtai Wang, Sa Xiao, Xiaoli Yang, Ziyang Liu, Xianhui Zhou, Guozhen Du, Limin Zhang, Aifeng Guo, Shuyan Chen, Uffe N. NielsenAbstractBelowground assemblages are tightly linked to the aboveground vegetation, and often differ between plant species and vegetation types due to direct and indirect influences. However, the relative contribution of these direct and indirect influences of plants on belowground organisms differs among taxa and remains poorly understood. We established a plant removal experiment to better understand t...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatial ecology of soil nematodes: perspectives from global to micro scales
Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Ting Liu, Feng Hu, Huixin LiAbstractSoil spatial heterogeneity is a major determinant of biological diversity and functions. Among soil biota, nematodes are considered as excellent models for understanding spatial soil ecology due to their wide niche breadth in diet, lifestyle and living habitat. Their distribution, community composition and functional diversity in heterogeneous environments provide insight into identification of factors that driving spatial heterogeneity of populations and activities of soil organisms. In this...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil respiration after six years of continuous drought stress in the tropical rainforest in Southwest China
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Liguo Zhou, Yuntong Liu, Yiping Zhang, Liqing Sha, Qinghai Song, Wenjun Zhou, D. Balasubramanian, Gnanamoorthy Palingamoorthy, Jinbo Gao, Youxing Lin, Jing Li, Ruiwu Zhou, Sai Tay Zar Myo, Xianhui Tang, Jin Zhang, Peng Zhang, Shusen Wang, John GraceAbstractClimate models predict that droughts will increase in Southeast Asia, yet little is known about how soil respiration (Rs) and its components heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and autotrophic respiration (Ra) will change following drought years. To clarify this issue and to detect...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of C:N ratio on heterotrophic nitrification in acidic soils
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Yi Zhang, Jing Wang, Shenyan Dai, Jun Zhao, Xinqi Huang, Yongquan Sun, Ji Chen, Zucong Cai, Jinbo ZhangAbstractGenerally, a high carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio is considered an important factor inducing heterotrophic nitrification in acidic soils; however, few studies have investigated the regulation of C:N ratio on heterotrophic nitrification. In the present study, a C:N ratio gradient (C:N 23, C:N 19, C:N 15, C:N 10) was regulated in acidic forest soil (SF) and acidic agricultural soil (SC) under 24 h and 30 days incubation,...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Peatland microbial community response to altered climate tempered by nutrient availability
In this study, we examine the interactive effects of climate, a combination of three temperatures and two moisture regimes, and root exudates on microbial decomposer function, measured as CO2 respiration, biomass, and potential enzyme activity. We had four substrate treatments: two common LMWCC (glycine or glucose + citric acid), chitin to simulate fungal necromass, and DI as the control. Our results support our first hypothesis that increasing temperature will increase C respiration across substrate and moisture treatments. Our second hypothesis was that compared to control and chitin, soluble substrates (i.e., ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 8, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of temperature and moisture on lag phase length of bacterial growth in soil after substrate addition
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Lidia Nicola, Erland BååthAbstractMicroorganisms in soil are commonly limited by available substrate, and removing the limitation will increase activity and growth, with predictable dynamics in growth. The initial phase with a lag period (λ) will usually be followed by exponential growth (also called log phase, with growth rate μ). These two growth phases may be differently affected by environmental conditions, like temperature and moisture. Using glucose addition as a model of a sudden increase in labile C...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 8, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil respiration and organic matter decomposition dynamics respond to legacy fertilizer and weed control treatments in loblolly pine stands
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Praveen Subedi, Eric J. Jokela, Jason G. VogelAbstractMost studies examining how forest soil carbon (C) cycling responds to silvicultural treatments are restricted to a single rotation, with the legacy effects of past management practices being relatively unstudied. Here, we examined soil respiration and organic matter decomposition dynamics (important proxies for C dynamics), climate, and nutrient cycling in a second rotation, 2-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in north Florida. Carryover (C-) effects of the p...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - August 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lucerne (Medicago sativa) alters N2O-reducing communities associated with cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) roots and promotes N2O production in intercropping in a greenhouse experiment
Publication date: Available online 30 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Daniel R.H. Graf, Aurélien Saghaï, Ming Zhao, Georg Carlsson, Christopher M. Jones, Sara HallinAbstractLower emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) are generally observed from intercropped compared to sole cropped systems. This could be due to better N-use efficiency, but differences in microbial communities establishing in the rhizosphere may also play a role as the only known biological sink for N2O is its reduction to nitrogen gas (N2) by bacteria and archaea that possess the nosZ gene encoding the N2O...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Viral abundance and diversity vary with depth in a southeastern United States agricultural ultisol
In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon and virome sequencing were applied to investigate bacterial and viral diversity and provide insight on virus-bacterium interactions in different depths of soil profiles. The results show that bacterial community composition varied with soil depth, driven by an increase in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and a decline in the relative abundance of Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Additionally, landscape position, depth, and virus abundance had the strongest correlation with the bacterial community structure. Virus abundance decreas...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Distributional shifts in ectomycorrizhal fungal communities lag behind climate-driven tree upward migration in a conifer forest-high elevation shrubland ecotone
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Lucía Álvarez-Garrido, Sara Hortal, Jeff Powell, Benjamín Viñegla, José A. CarreiraAbstractIncreasing temperatures are leading to upward migration of plant species in mountains, with elevational shifts of the mountain tree-line being the most commonly documented response (“front-edge” of altitudinal advance). Rapid distributional and compositional shifts in soil microbial communities, especially ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, under climate change are also expected as an indirect effect...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular changes of soil organic matter induced by root exudates in a rice paddy under CO2 enrichment and warming of canopy air
In this study, root exudates of rice and rhizospheric topsoil were collected in a paddy field under 6 years of simulated climate changes respective of CO2 enrichment, canopy air warming, and their combination as compared to the control. The molecular composition of root exudates was analyzed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) while soil organic matter (SOM) was analyzed with pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), along with a phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) for characterizing soil microbial community. Compared to control, root exudation under elevated CO2 was enhanced but the e...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Fungi and bacteria respond differently to changing environmental conditions within a soil profile
In conclusion, fungal C utilization relies mainly on the quantity of recent plant-derived substrates, whereas bacterial access to substrates is additionally controlled by environmental conditions. This study indicates that limited microbial access to their heterogeneously distributed substrates may be an important factor for C accumulation and stabilization in subsoils. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatial distribution of soil nematodes relates to soil organic matter and life strategy
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Casper W. Quist, Gerrit Gort, Paul Mooijman, Dick J. Brus, Sven van den Elsen, Olga Kostenko, Mariette Vervoort, Jaap Bakker, Wim H. van der Putten, Johannes HelderAbstractSoils are among the most biodiverse and densely inhabited environments on our planet. However, there is little understanding of spatial distribution patterns of belowground biota, and this hampers progress in understanding species interactions in belowground communities. We investigated the spatial distribution of nematodes, which are highly abundant and divers...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Archaeal nitrification is a key driver of high nitrous oxide emissions from arctic peatlands
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Henri M.P. Siljanen, Ricardo J.E. Alves, G. Ronkainen Jussi, Richard E. Lamprecht, Hem R. Bhattarai, Alexandre Bagnoud, Maija E. Marushchak, Pertti J. Martikainen, Christa Schleper, Christina BiasiAbstractBare peat surfaces created by frost action and wind erosion in permafrost peatlands show high nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. With global warming, emissions of this highly potent greenhouse gas are expected to increase in Arctic permafrost peatlands. In natural unmanaged soils with low nitrogen deposition, such as Arctic soils, n...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The mineralo-sphere – Succession and physiology of bacteria and fungi colonising pristine minerals in grassland soils under different land-use intensities
Publication date: September 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 136Author(s): Ellen Kandeler, Aurelia Gebala, Runa S. Boeddinghaus, Karolin Müller, Thilo Rennert, Margarida Soares, Johannes Rousk, Sven MarhanAbstractThe mineralo-sphere is an important micro habitat in terrestrial ecosystems. How different groups of microorganisms colonise mineral surfaces and whether the level of grassland land-use intensity (LUI) modifies this micro-habitat is not well known, however. We exposed mesh containers filled with pristine soil minerals (illite/goethite) mixed with 13C labelled root litter of Dactylis glomerata...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A methodological framework to embrace soil biodiversity
Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Stefan Geisen, MariaJ.I. Briones, Huijie Gan, Valerie M. Behan-Pelletier, Ville-Petri Friman, G. Arjen de Groot, S.Emilia Hannula, Zoë Lindo, Laurent Philippot, Alexei V. Tiunov, Diana H. WallAbstractSoils host the vast majority of life on Earth including microorganisms and animals, and supporting all terrestrial vegetation. While soil organisms are pivotal for ecosystem functioning, the assemblages of different biota from a taxonomic and functional perspective, as well as how these different organisms interact, remains poor...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Strong spatial and temporal turnover of soil bacterial communities in South Africa's hyperdiverse fynbos biome
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jan-Hendrik Keet, Allan G. Ellis, Cang Hui, Johannes J. Le RouxAbstractSoil bacteria play an important role in ecosystem functioning and regulate the health and diversity of aboveground plant communities. South Africa's fynbos vegetation, part of a global biodiversity hotspot with a well-characterised flora, is highly threatened and fragmented. Surprisingly, very little is known about the belowground communities that underlie the region's exceptional botanical diversity. Next-generation sequencing was used to investigate the dive...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Multiple selection of resistance genes in arable soil amended with cephalosporin fermentation residue
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Chen Cai, Huiling Liu, Xiaohu Dai, Joann K. WhalenAbstractCephalosporin fermentation residue (CFR) is a byproduct of the pharmaceutical industry that may be disposed through land application. While this organic residue can improve soil physico-chemical properties, the possibility of CFR-induced antibiotic resistance in the native soil microbial community still needs to be investigated. In a lab-based incubation study, the CFR-induced selection for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including changes in the structure of native so...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Observations on two microbial life strategies in soil: Planktonic and biofilm-forming microorganisms are separable
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that soil biofilm and planktonic microbial communities are different. Glass fiber filters were exposed to three different field soils for 12 weeks and biofilms arose on their surfaces. The biofilms were further separated from the planktonic forms by washing the latter out of the filters and both communities were analyzed using next generation sequencing. The results revealed significant differences between biofilm and planktonic communities of bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. Our data indicate common production of motile microbial cells in the soil and specialization of some taxa (...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - July 12, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research