Microbial growth and enzyme kinetics in rhizosphere hotspots are modulated by soil organics and nutrient availability
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Peng Tian, Bahar S. Razavi, Xuechen Zhang, Qingkui Wang, Evgenia BlagodatskayaAbstractThe input of labile organics by plant roots stimulates microbial activity and therefore facilitates biochemical process rates in the rhizosphere compared to bulk soil, forming microbial hotspots. However, the extent to which the functional properties of soil microorganisms are different in the hotspots formed in soils with contrasting fertility remains unclear. We identified the hotspots related to different levels of Zea mays L. root archite...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Nonlinear responses of the Vmax and Km of hydrolytic and polyphenol oxidative enzymes to nitrogen enrichment
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Weixing Liu, Rui Tian, Ziyang Peng, Sen Yang, Xiao xiao Liu, Yashu Yang, Wenhao Zhang, Lingli LiuAbstractThe kinetics of soil microbial extracellular enzymes are important in regulating soil organic matter decomposition and ecosystem function. However, it is still unclear how the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of hydrolytic and polyphenol oxidative enzymes respond to increased nitrogen (N) deposition and to what extent they regulate microbial respiration under N enrichment. We measured the Vmax and Km of seven soil hydrolyti...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil microbial carbon and nutrient constraints are driven more by climate and soil physicochemical properties than by nutrient addition in forest ecosystems
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xin Jing, Xiao Chen, Jingyun Fang, Chengjun Ji, Haihua Shen, Chengyang Zheng, Biao ZhuAbstractSoil enzymes are indicative of soil microbial carbon (C) and nutrient limitations. They are playing an important role in global C and nutrient cycles. However, we know little about whether soil microbial C and nutrient limitations are pervasive across broad spatial scales, and how soil enzymes respond to the addition of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Here we used a nutrient addition network across eight forest ecosystems ranging fro...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Soil microbial populations substitute phospholipids with betaine lipids in response to low P availability
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Charles R. WarrenAbstractSoil microbes can be limited by phosphorus availability. A significant proportion of cellular P is accounted for by the phospholipids that comprise membranes. Experiments with aquatic microbial communities and isolated microbes have shown one way microbes can reduce their cellular P requirements is by substituting phospholipids with P-free polar lipids. We do not know if soil microbial communities can also spare P by using P-free lipids instead of phospholipids.The aims of this study were to examine a ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Expression of major intrinsic protein genes in Sorghum bicolor roots under water deficit depends on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species
In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was inoculated with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, either the standard Rhizophagus irregularis or the desert-adapted Rhizophagus arabicus, and grown in experimental microcosms under well-watered or drought conditions. We investigated gene expression of selected major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) of sorghum in these mycorrhizal plants in comparison to non-inoculated, well-watered controls. Colonization with R. irregularis resulted in the induction of the MIPs SbPIP2.2 and SbPIP2.5, regardless of whether sorghum plants were well watered or not. Root colonization with R. arabicus, howe...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Phylogenetic signature of fungal response to long-term chemical pollution
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Vladimir S. Mikryukov, Olesya V. Dulya, Makar V. ModorovAbstractTerritories around industrial enterprises represent gradients of soil acidity and heavy metal excess. Exploration of soil fungal communities in pollution gradients serves the remediation interests and brings fundamental knowledge about biota response to environmental changes. In this work, using industrial pollution as a model of environmental filtering, we performed high-throughput sequencing of 180 soil samples collected along strong long-term pollution gradient...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Rapid root assimilation of added phosphorus in a lowland tropical rainforest of French Guiana
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Leandro Van Langenhove, Ivan A. Janssens, Lore Verryckt, Laetitia Brechet, Iain P. Hartley, Clement Stahl, Elodie Courtois, Ifigenia Urbina, Oriol Grau, Jordi Sardans, Guille Peguero, Albert Gargallo-Garriga, Josep Peñuelas, Sara ViccaAbstractTheory states that tree growth in lowland tropical forests on old, weathered soils is limited by low phosphorous (P) availability. However, evidence for P limitation from nutrient manipulation experiments remains unclear, which raises the question whether trees are taking up added ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Organic matter priming by invasive plants depends on dominant mycorrhizal association
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Amit Kumar, Richard P. Phillips, Andrea Scheibe, Saskia Klink, Johanna PauschAbstractWhile it has long been held that invasive plants alter ecosystem processes, the magnitude and direction of these effects have rarely been quantified in situ. We measured the effects of an invasive C4 grass (Microstegium vimineum) on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in a deciduous forest in south-central Indiana, USA. The unique 13C signature of the C4 grass relative to the C3 trees allowed us to partition soil CO2 fluxes and estimate M....
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - November 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Biodiversity associations of soil fauna and plants depend on plant life form and are accounted for by rare taxa along an elevational gradient
This study aimed at exploring the alpha and beta diversity associations between plants and soil fauna along an elevational gradient while systematically considering rare to abundant plants and animals, and different plant life forms. We sampled soil fauna (litter fauna and rhizosphere fauna of trees, shrubs and herbs) and investigated plant diversity in 119 plots along an elevational gradient (from 1,020 to 1,770 asl) on Dongling Mountain, China. We calculated alpha diversity from both Rényi's generalized entropy function and Jost's effective species numbers assigning different weights to abundant and rare taxa. Bet...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Body size structure of soil fauna along geographic and temporal gradients of precipitation in grasslands
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Walter S. Andriuzzi, André L.C. Franco, Katharine E. Ankrom, Shuyan Cui, Cecilia M. de Tomasel, Pingting Guan, Laureano A. Gherardi, Osvaldo E. Sala, Diana H. WallAbstractPrecipitation is a global driver of animal abundance and diversity in terrestrial ecosystems, but we know little on how it influences the body size structure of invertebrate communities, particularly soil fauna. It is unclear whether aridity limits the abundance of large-bodied soil invertebrates, and whether temporal precipitation changes can induce l...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhances rhizodeposition and reduces the rhizosphere priming effect on the decomposition of soil organic matter
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jie Zhou, Huadong Zang, Sebastian Loeppmann, Matthias Gube, Yakov Kuzyakov, Johanna PauschAbstractArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) represent an important route for plant carbon (C) inputs into the soil. Nonetheless, the C input via AMF as well as its impact on soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization and C sequestration remains largely unknown. A mycorrhizal wild type progenitor (MYC) and its mycorrhiza defective mutant (reduced mycorrhizal colonization: rmc) of tomato were continuously labeled with 13CO2 to trace root C inpu...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Can naturally-occurring endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of hybrid white spruce sustain boreal forest tree growth on extremely nutrient-poor soils?
Publication date: Available online 26 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Akshit Puri, Kiran Preet Padda, Chris P. ChanwayAbstractThe West Chilcotin region in British Columbia, Canada is located in the Sub-Boreal zone characterized by dry and weakly developed soils lacking essential plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen. Yet, hybrid white spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii) trees thrive on such nitrogen-limited soils, raising a crucial question regarding their nitrogen sources. The presence of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (nitrogen-fixing bacteria living inside the plant tissues) was reported i...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Land-use alters the temperature response of microbial carbon-use efficiency in soils – a consumption-based approach
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Tobias Bölscher, Göran I. Ågren, Anke M. HerrmannAbstractSoil organic carbon (SOC) is a substantial source of atmospheric CO2, but also a large cause of uncertainties in Earth-system models. A principal control on soil CO2 release is the carbon-use efficiency (CUE) of microbial communities, which partitions the carbon (C) allocation between biosynthetic stabilization and CO2 respiration during SOC decomposition. In Earth-system models, CUE is commonly considered as a constant, although it should be susceptible ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Lithological and bioclimatic impacts on soil phosphatase activities in California temperate forests
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Chunhao Gu, Stewart G. Wilson, Andrew J. MargenotAbstractOrganic phosphorus (Po) biogeochemical cycling is known to be impacted by soil forming factors, however, little is known about interactions among soil forming factors on the drivers of Po cycling, activities of phosphatase in soils. A comprehensive assessment of lithological and bioclimatic impacts on soil phosphatases was conducted using lithological and vegetation-constrained climatic (i.e., bioclimatic) gradients in the California areas. We hypothesized that lithology...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparative metagenomics of two distinct biological soil crusts in the Tengger Desert, China
In this study, we compared two types of biocrusts (bacterial-dominated biocrusts and moss-dominated biocrusts) using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Our results showed that Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the microbiomes of bacterial and moss biocrusts, even though the two biocrusts differed in the composition of the following other abundant phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes. The profile of the C- and N- related metabolic pathways of the metagenome differed between the bacterial and moss biocrusts. The results showed that the genes encoding carbon monoxide d...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to Min et al. (2014) “Differential effects of pH on temperature sensitivity of organic carbon and nitrogen decay” [Soil Biology & Biochemistry 76 193–200]
Publication date: December 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 139Author(s): Kyungjin Min, Christoph A. Lehmeier, Ford Ballantyne, Anna Tatarko, Sharon A. Billings (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Water availability regulates negative effects of species mixture on soil microbial biomass in boreal forests
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xinli Chen, Han Y.H. Chen, Chen Chen, Sai PengAbstractSoil microorganisms are critical for the maintenance of terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Both plant diversity and water availability are individually known to influence soil microorganisms; however, their interactive effects remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether the effects of tree species mixtures on microbial biomass and composition were altered by water availability. This was accomplished by sampling soils in the growing season from stand...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Influence of soil properties on N2O and CO2 emissions from excreta deposited on tropical pastures in Kenya
In this study we investigated the importance of soil properties on N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cattle excreta (dung, urine, and manure [dung + urine]) for five typical tropical soils in Kenya. For this, intact soil cores were translocated from Western Kenya (Nandi county) to Nairobi, where N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured over four individual periods (two during dry seasons and two during wet seasons). Fluxes were measured for between 25 and 73 days following surface application of excreta, depending on how quickly emissions returned to baseline. Both dung and manure applications led to increased ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Does ectomycorrhiza have a universal key role in the formation of soil organic matter in boreal forests?
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Mona N. Högberg, Ulf Skyllberg, Peter Högberg, Heike KnickerAbstractForest soil organic matter (SOM) is an important dynamic store of C and N, which releases plant available N and the greenhouse gases CO2 and N2O. Early stages of decomposition of recent plant litters are better known than the formation of older and more stable soil pools of N and C, in which case classic theory stated that selective preservation of more resistant plant compounds was important. Recent insights heighten that all plant matter becomes de...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Warming effects on carbon dynamics and microbial communities in soils of diverse texture
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Sandra F. Yanni, Bobbi L. Helgason, H. Henry Janzen, Benjamin H. Ellert, Edward G. GregorichAbstractClimate change may profoundly influence soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics through effects on soil temperature and water, but the mechanisms and magnitude of those effects remain uncertain. We measured the response of residue-C and native SOC in six soils with diverse texture subjected to artificial heating after transplanting to a common field site. The soils, three from each of two climatic zones in Canada, were amended with 1...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The invasive plant Mikania micrantha affects the soil foodweb and plant-soil nutrient contents in orchards
Publication date: Available online 24 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Feng Sun, Qiaojing Ou, Hanxia Yu, Na Li, Changlian PengAbstractMicrobial-microfaunal interactions play important roles in nutrient release and plant nutrient acquisition. However, the extent of their effects is sensitive to plant species identity, particularly among invasive plants, and the difference in effects can change the proportional abundances of soil functional groups, and subsequently change plant-soil element contents. Although the effects of invasive plants on soil microorganisms have been a widespread focus of ecol...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ants reign over a distinct microbiome in forest soil
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Stafva Lindström, Sari Timonen, Liselotte Sundström, Helena JohanssonAbstractBiotic and abiotic characteristics shape the microbial communities in the soil environment. Manipulation of soil, performed by ants when constructing their nests, radically changes the soil characteristics and creates a unique environment, which differs in its composition, frequency and abundance of microbial taxa, from those in the reference soils. We sampled nests of the mound-building ant Formica exsecta, and the surrounding reference soi...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Understanding how long-term organic amendments increase soil phosphatase activities: Insight into phoD- and phoC-harboring functional microbial populations
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Gongwen Luo, Bo Sun, Ling Li, Minghui Li, Manqiang Liu, Yiyong Zhu, Shiwei Guo, Ning Ling, Qirong ShenAbstractIn context of the use of organic materials as alternatives for mineral fertilizer, it is important to understand how organic amendments influence soil extracellular phosphatase activities which accelerate the mineralization of organic phosphorus (P). To address this, the current study investigates the influence of organic amendments on acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase activities in soils and how organic amendm...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 138Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Microbial utilization of low molecular weight organic carbon substrates in cultivated peats in response to warming and soil degradation
This study provides an important initial step in characterizing the response of the microbial utilization of labile C to temperature change and soil degradation in cultivated peatlands.Graphical abstract (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Is the enzymatic hydrolysis of soil organic phosphorus compounds limited by enzyme or substrate availability?
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): K.A. Jarosch, E. Kandeler, E. Frossard, E.K. BünemannAbstractThe mineralization of soil organic phosphorus (P) is catalysed by extracellular phosphatases that hydrolyse different non-phytate phosphomonoesters (e.g., sugar phosphates and nucleotides), inositol phosphates (e.g., phytic acids), and phosphodiesters (e.g., nucleic acids, phospholipids). The availabilities of both the organic P compound and the respective phosphatase enzyme jointly determine whether the hydrolysis reaction is substrate limited (enzyme availabil...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Competitor and substrate sizes and diffusion together define enzymatic depolymerization and microbial substrate uptake rates
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jinyun Tang, William J. RileyAbstractDiffusion limitations of extracellular enzymes and soluble monomers have been recognized as important mechanisms controlling soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Here we combine diffusion limitation with the geometric sizes of extracellular enzymes, polymer particles, monomers, and bacterial cells to derive testable relationships of SOM kinetic parameters, including (1) maximum reaction rates and (2) binding half saturation constants (also known as substrate affinity parameters). We integrat...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Bacterial communities of soil and earthworm casts of native Palouse Prairie remnants and no-till wheat cropping systems
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Daniel C. Schlatter, Christopher M. Baugher, Kahl Kendall, David R. Huggins, Jodi L. Johnson-Maynard, Timothy C. PaulitzAbstractEarthworms are important ecosystem engineers and modify the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, less is known about how earthworms impact soil microbial communities. We compared bacterial communities of the bulk soil and earthworm casts in native prairie remnants and wheat cropped fields in the Palouse of Eastern Washington using next-generation sequencing. Communities among prairie sit...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The soil priming effect: Consistent across ecosystems, elusive mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiao-Jun Allen Liu, Brianna K. Finley, Rebecca L. Mau, Egbert Schwartz, Paul Dijkstra, Matthew A. Bowker, Bruce A. HungateAbstractOrganic matter input to soils can accelerate the decomposition of native soil carbon (C), a process called the priming effect. Priming is ubiquitous and exhibits some consistent patterns, but a general explanation remains elusive, in part because of variation in the response across different ecosystems, and because of a diversity of proposed mechanisms, including microbial activation, stoichiometry, ...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Large, high-severity burn patches limit fungal recovery 13 years after wildfire in a ponderosa pine forest
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Suzanne M. Owen, Adair M. Patterson, Catherine A. Gehring, Carolyn H. Sieg, L. Scott Baggett, Peter Z. FuléAbstractOver the past three decades, wildfires in southwestern US ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) forests have increased in size and severity. These wildfires can remove large, contiguous patches of mature forests, alter dominant plant communities and increase woody debris, potentially altering fungal community composition. Additionally, post-fire conditions may shift dominant fungal function...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant-plant competition influences temporal dynamism of soil microbial enzyme activity
This study used zymography to detect the spatial and temporal pattern of cellulase and leucine aminopeptidase activity, two enzyme classes involved in soil organic matter turnover. The effect of plant-plant competition on enzyme activity was examined using barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants grown in i) isolation, ii) intra- and iii) inter-cultivar competition. The enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and cellulase were measured from portions of the root system at 18, 25 and 33 days after planting, both along the root axis and in the root associated area with detectable enzyme activity. The activities of cellulase and l...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Calcium exerts a strong influence upon phosphohydrolase gene abundance and phylogenetic diversity in soil
Publication date: Available online 2 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Andrew L. Neal, Margaret J. GlendiningAbstractThe mechanisms by which microbial communities maintain functions within the context of changing environments are key to a wide variety of environmental processes. In soil, these mechanisms support fertility. Genes associated with hydrolysis of organic phosphoesters represent an interesting set of genes with which to study maintenance of function in microbiomes. Here, we shown that the richness of ecotypes for each gene varies considerably in response to application of manure and var...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Turnover rates of roots vary considerably across temperate forage species
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Nami Kagiya, Thorsten Reinsch, Friedhelm Taube, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Christof Kluß, Mario Hasler, Carsten S. MalischAbstractPlant specialized metabolites (PSMs) have been found to reduce the activity of soil microorganisms lowering the decay rates of plant residues, which might positively affect C sequestration. Several PSM are produced by temperature forage species, but the impact of those material on decomposition has primarily been studies in forest ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this study was to i) quantify the r...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - October 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Relative activity of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria determine nitrification-dependent N2O emissions in Oregon forest soils
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Vasileios A. Tzanakakis, Anne E. Taylor, Lars R. Bakken, Peter J. Bottomley, David D. Myrold, Peter DörschAbstractUsing oxic soil slurry incubations supplemented with either the selective AOB inhibitor 1-octyne or the non-specific nitrification inhibitor acetylene, we investigated the relative contributions of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification-dependent N2O production in six Oregon forest soils (pH 3.7–5.3), collected from three different sites (Cascade Head, H.J. Andrews, and McD...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Rice root Fe plaque enhances paddy soil N2O emissions via Fe(II) oxidation-coupled denitrification
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Ting Liu, Shuping Qin, Yaxing Pang, Jinzhi Yao, Xueqing Zhao, Tim Clough, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Shungui ZhouAbstractIron (Fe) plaque, defined as a film of poorly crystalline Fe oxides deposited on the surface of rice roots, potentially mediates paddy-soil N2O emissions. The aims of this study were to test if, and how, Fe plaque affects N2O production and reduction within a rice paddy soil. Rice seedlings were grown so that Fe plaque was either present or absent. With Fe plaque present, emissions of both N2O and N2 double...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Total and active soil fungal community profiles were significantly altered by six years of warming but not by grazing
We examined the responses of total and active soil fungal communities to experimental warming, moderate grazing, and their combination. The six years of field experiments were established in a Tibetan alpine meadow. An infrared heating system was used to simulate warming, and the grazing was conducted by a combination of sheep grazing and clipping. Total and active soil fungal community profiles were determined using MiSeq sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA and RNA, respectively. Fungal abundance and rDNA transcriptional activity were analyzed through real-time PCR. The results showed that the warming sign...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A novel set of traits to describe collembola mouthparts: Taking a bite out of the broad chewing mandible classification
This study described and measured a new set of Collembola mandibular traits in order to better discriminate chewing species based on their mouthpart morphology. Then, we evaluated whether these consumer traits covaried with various litter quality resource traits (physical, chemical or microbial). Out of our 50 studied species, 42 clustered significantly in seven new chewing mandible functional groups. Neither body length, nor phylogeny, were adequate proxies for this set of mandibular traits given tremendous variation across closely related species. Furthermore, when covariation with litter traits occurred, Collembola mand...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comammox Nitrospira play an active role in nitrification of agricultural soils amended with nitrogen fertilizers
Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Chaoyu Li, Hang-Wei Hu, Qing-Lin Chen, Deli Chen, Ji-Zheng HeAbstractThe recent discovery of complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox Nitrospira) challenged the paradigm of the two-step nitrification mediated by two distinct groups of nitrifiers, and raised fundamental questions regarding their niche specialization and relative contribution to nitrification in agricultural soils. Previous studies suggest that comammox Nitrospira have an oligotrophic lifestyle and would outcompete canonical ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing ba...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The microbial community size, structure, and process rates along natural gradients of soil salinity
In conclusion, this study demonstrate differential responses of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria to increasing salinity and that bacteria are directly impacted by soil salinity while fungi are responding to the indirect effect by salinity related to reduced plant C input. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Influence of forest type on dark-spored myxomycete community in subtropical forest soil, China
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Yang Gao, Xian Zhang, Gang He, Oleg N. Shchepin, Shuzhen Yan, Shuanglin ChenAbstractMyxomycetes are the most species-rich Amoebozoa group and one of the major components of soil protist diversity. However, information on their ecology in soil remains surprisingly scarce, since most ecological myxomycete studies focused on microhabitats where fruiting bodies occur. Using DNA metabarcoding method, this study investigated the community of dark-spored myxomycetes in the soil of a subtropical forest in central China. The main pre...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The pH optimum of soil exoenzymes adapt to long term changes in soil pH
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Jérémy Puissant, Briony Jones, Tim Goodall, Dana Mang, Aimeric Blaud, Hyun Soon Gweon, Ashish Malik, Davey L. Jones, Ian M. Clark, Penny R. Hirsch, Robert GriffithsAbstractSoil exoenzymes released by microorganisms break down organic matter and are crucial in regulating C, N and P cycling. Soil pH is known to influence enzyme activity, and is also a strong driver of microbial community composition; but little is known about how alterations in soil pH affect enzymatic activity and how this is mediated by microbi...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Drivers of net methane uptake across Greenlandic dry heath tundra landscapes
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Kyra A. St Pierre, Birgitte Kortegaard Danielsen, Lena Hermesdorf, Ludovica D'Imperio, Lars Lønsmann Iversen, Bo ElberlingAbstractMethane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is naturally produced and consumed in soil. The processes result in that soils may function as either a net sink or source of atmospheric methane. Although dry heath tundra ecosystems have recently been identified as important net sinks of atmospheric CH4, we understand little about how similar dry heath sites compare across both elevational gra...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Plant identity control on soil food web structure and C transfers under perennial bioenergy plantations
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): M.J.I. Briones, D.M.O. Elias, H.K. Grant, N.P. McNamaraAbstractConversion from arable cropping systems to perennial bioenergy crops is increasing across Europe to meet market energy demands, but our understanding of how this land use change is affecting below-ground diversity and C allocation remains limited. Here, we assessed the impact of conversion from arable cropland to Miscanthus and Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow in UK bioenergy commercial plantations on earthworm community structure and abundance. At this same l...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Decomposition of leaf mixtures and absorptive-root mixtures synchronously changes with deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus
Publication date: Available online 16 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Lei Jiang, Liang Kou, Shenggong LiAbstractLeaves and absorptive roots, the plant tissues that acquire resources, decompose quite differently due to their distinct morphology, chemistry, and decomposition microenvironments. Root litters of different species often decompose in mixtures in natural forests or mixed plantations, similar to leaf litters. However, the mechanisms behind leaf mixture decomposition and root mixture decomposition and their responses to nutrient deposition remain poorly understood. We used a nutrient-ad...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Metatranscriptomics reveals climate change effects on the rhizosphere microbiomes in European grassland
In conclusion, our metatranscriptomic study suggests that a near-future level of eCO2 combined with prolonged heat waves may have a significant impact on the interactome between rhizosphere microbiomes and plant roots in European grassland; with a primary effect on fungal activity. (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

15N-amino sugar stable isotope probing (15N-SIP) to trace the assimilation of fertiliser-N by soil bacterial and fungal communities
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Michaela K. Reay, Alice F. Charteris, Davey L. Jones, Richard P. EvershedAbstractAlthough amino sugars represent a major component of soil organic nitrogen (ON), the assimilation of nitrate (NO3− ) and ammonium (NH4+) into amino sugars (AS) by soil bacteria and fungi represents a neglected aspect of the global N cycle. A deeper knowledge of AS responses to N fertiliser addition may help enhance N use efficiency (NUE) within agricultural systems. Our aim was to extend a sensitive compound-specific 15N-stable isotope pro...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 18, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal heterogeneity in extracellular enzyme activities tracks variation in saprotrophic fungal biomass in a temperate hardwood forest
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Meghan G. Midgley, Richard P. PhillipsAbstractSaprotrophic fungi are the dominant producers of organic matter-degrading extracellular enzymes in forest soils, but the extent to which they drive spatio-temporal variation in enzyme activities is unclear. We quantified the relationships between saprotrophic fungal biomass and enzyme activities in a mature temperate hardwood forest by placing soil-filled ingrowth bags inside trenches. Trenches were located in replicate stands (n = 7) dominated by either arbuscular mycorrhiza...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Land use modulates the effects of climate change on density but not community composition of Collembola
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Rui Yin, Iwona Gruss, Nico Eisenhauer, Paul Kardol, Madhav P. Thakur, Anja Schmidt, Zhengfeng Xu, Julia Siebert, Chensheng Zhang, Gao-Lin Wu, Martin SchädlerAbstractCollembola are highly abundant and diverse soil animals and play key roles in litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Given their functional significance, it is important to understand their responses to human-induced global changes, such as climate change and land-use intensification. Here, we utilized an experimental field study, to test the interactive...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Annual dynamics of soil gross nitrogen turnover and nitrous oxide emissions in an alpine shrub meadow
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Soil Biology and BiochemistryAuthor(s): Xiaoxia Hu, Chunyan Liu, Xunhua Zheng, Michael Dannenmann, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Zhisheng Yao, Wei Zhang, Rui Wang, Guangmin CaoAbstractSoil nitrogen (N) transformations play a vital role in maintaining grassland productivity and influencing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. To reveal annual dynamics of soil gross N turnover and its effects on N2O emissions in typical grasslands, we conducted year-round measurements of soil gross N turnover rates, inorganic N pool sizes and N2O fluxes in an alpine shrub meadow of the Qinghai&n...
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 137Author(s): (Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry)
Source: Soil Biology and Biochemistry - September 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research