Quality Improvement in Neonatal Digital Radiography: Implementing the Basic Quality Improvement Tools
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Hedieh K. Eslamy , Beverley Newman , Ed Weinberger A quality improvement (QI) program may be implemented using the plan-do-study-act cycle (as a model for making improvements) and the basic QI tools (used to visually display and analyze variation in data). Managing radiation dose has come to the forefront as a safety goal for radiology departments. This is especially true in the pediatric population, which is more radiosensitive than the adult population. In this article, we use neonatal digital radiography to discuss de...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brainstem White Matter Tracts and the Control of Eye Movements
This article summarizes the anatomy of brainstem tracts and cranial nerves as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, with special emphasis on the structures that are involved in the control of eye movement. It discusses the anatomical structures that can be observed on conventional magnetic resonance images as well as structures that can only be observed using more advanced imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging and tractography. The basic mechanisms of various kinds of ophthalmoplegia are also discussed. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

White Matter Tracts of Speech and Language
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Marion Smits , Lize C. Jiskoot , Janne M. Papma Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been used to investigate the white matter (WM) tracts underlying the perisylvian cortical regions known to be associated with language function. The arcuate fasciculus is composed of 3 segments (1 long and 2 short) whose separate functions correlate with traditional models of conductive and transcortical motor or sensory aphasia, respectively. DTI mapping of language fibers is useful in presurgical planning for patients with dominant hem...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Visual Pathway—Functional Anatomy and Pathology
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): David James Swienton , Adam G. Thomas Visual failure of any kind is a common clinical presentation and indication for neuroimaging. Monocular deficits should concentrate the search to the anterior (prechiasmatic) visual pathway. Bitemporal hemianopia suggests a chiasmatic cause, whereas retrochiasmatic lesions characteristically cause homonymous hemianopic defects. Quadrantanopias usually arise from lesions in the optic radiations. Disorders of visual perception can be broadly divided into “where” and &ldqu...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging and Diseases of the Ascending and Descending Pathways
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Ali Hussain , Michael J. Utz , Wei Tian , Xiang Liu , Sven Ekholm The corticospinal tract and other ascending and descending fibers are important in executing cerebral function. Conventional magnetic resonance and advanced neuroimaging findings of diseases involved in ascending and descending pathways are reviewed, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, secondary degeneration diseases, and intracranial tumors. (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Fornix and Limbic System
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Karl-Olof Lövblad , Karl Schaller , Maria Isabel Vargas The limbic system is predominantly involved in memory and emotional output. Its 2 principle components are the hippocampus (involved in memory as part of the Papez circuit) and the amygdala (involved in emotional responses, memories and drives). The principle clinical manifestations of limbic disease are epilepsy, confusional states, and cognitive impairment. The connections of the limbic system are widespread and are now becoming visible on diffusion tensor ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lesions of the Corpus Callosum and Other Commissural Fibers: Diffusion Tensor Studies
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Christopher G. Filippi , Keith A. Cauley The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the brain, connecting the 2 hemispheres. The functions of the corpus callosum are many and varied, and lesions frequently cause only subtle clinical findings. The range of diseases that can affect the corpus callosum is vast and includes all potential white matter disease. The distribution of lesions in the corpus callosum is disease specific in only a few entities such as Susac syndrome and Marchiafava-Bignami disease. Gr...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain White Matter Tracts: Functional Anatomy and Clinical Relevance
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Amy C. Gerrish , Adam G. Thomas , Robert A. Dineen Diffusion tensor imaging is increasingly available on clinical magnetic resonance scanners and can be acquired in a relatively short time. There has been an explosion of applications in the research field but the use to the practicing radiologist may seem obscure. This paper aims to highlight how diffusion tensor imaging can be used to prompt a dedicated neuroanatomical search for white matter lesions in clinical presentations relating to motor, sensory, language, and ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter From the Guest Editor: Brain White Matter Tracts
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI, Volume 35, Issue 5 Author(s): Adam G. Thomas (Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI)
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Related Foreign Bodies in the Emergency Department
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): John Brunner , Marie Russel , Keith Herr , Elizabeth Benjamin , Lee Myers , Orest Boyko , Paul Jaffray , Sravanthi Reddy , Gary Danton Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common cause of foreign bodies encountered in emergency departments, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. We review the role of imaging and frequent imaging findings in NSSI, illustrated by case examples from a level 1 trauma center with dedicated jail and psychiatric wards in a major US metropolitan teaching hospital. (...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Terrorist Bombings: Foreign Bodies from the Boston Marathon Bombing
Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): John Brunner , Ajay K. Singh , Tatiana Rocha , Joaquim Havens , Eric Goralnick , Aaron Sodickson On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IED) detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston—Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital—will be reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracheobronchial foreign Bodies in children: Imaging Assessment
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Shilpa V. Hegde , Peter K.T. Hui , Edward Y. Lee Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a relatively frequent pediatric emergency and a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality especially in preschool children. Although foreign body aspiration may cause sudden airway obstruction and subsequent death, quite often symptoms are mild and nonspecific; therefore the correct diagnosis may be delayed particularly in pediatric population. A delay in diagnosis increases the rate of complications and can cause substantia...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of Plain Radiography in the Assessment of Ingested Foreign Bodies in the Pediatric Patients
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Antonio Pinto , Cecilia Lanza , Fabio Pinto , Roberta Grassi , Luigia Romano , Luca Brunese , Andrea Giovagnoni Ingestion of various types of foreign bodies such as coins, toy parts, jewelry pieces, needles and pins, fish and chicken bones, and button-type batteries is common among children. The curiosity of children and their need to investigate the world around them place them at higher risk for ingestion of foreign bodies. Fortunately, 80% to 90% of ingested foreign objects that reach the stomach will pass uneventfu...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging Assessment of Gunshot Wounds
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Alfonso Reginelli , Anna Russo , Duilia Maresca , Ciro Martiniello , Salvatore Cappabianca , Luca Brunese Gunshot injuries occur when someone is shot by a bullet or other sort of projectile from a firearm. Wounds are generally classified as low-velocity (less than 2,000ft/sec) or high-velocity (more than 2,000ft/sec). Those with higher velocity may be expected, on this basis, to dissipate more energy into surrounding tissue as they slow and cause more tissue damage but this is only a very approximate guide. However, th...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of Foreign Bodies in Prisoners
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Pooja Sheth , Evan Finkelstein , Danea Campbell , Gary H. Danton Foreign body ingestion or insertion is occasionally encountered by radiologists and is associated with significant morbidity, financial burden and potential mortality. Incarcerated individuals are a unique group where foreign body ingestion or insertion is more common than the general population. Motivations include reprieve from the confines of prison, sexual stimulation or victimization or may be secondary to compulsions in patients with psychiatric dis...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Application of imaging guidelines in patients with foreign body ingestion or inhalation: Literature review
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Roberto Grassi , Angela Faggian , Francesco Somma , Carlo Nicola De Cecco , Andrea Laghi , Filipe Caseiro-Alves Foreign bodies (FBs) ingestion, inhalation and insertion are very common clinical occurrences. In any case, early diagnosis and prompt management are mandatory to avoid severe and life-threatening complications. Radiologists have an important role in revealing the presence, dimension, nature and relationship with anatomic structures of a FB, selecting the most appropriate imaging modality and enabling the bes...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing
Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Giacomo Sica , Franco Guida , Giorgio Bocchini , Francesco Iaselli , Isabella Iadevito , Mariano Scaglione Body packing, pushing and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medico-legal and social implications. Radiologist plays both a social and medico-legal role and its assessment should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must provide accurate information about their number and their exact location in order to prevent any package remains in body packer. Radiologist must also be able t...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Foreign bodies in the maxillofacial region: assessment with MDCT
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2014 Source:Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI Author(s): Alfonso Reginelli , Mario Santagata , Fabrizio Urraro , Francesco Somma , Andrea Izzo , Salvatore Cappabianca , Antonio Rotondo Maxillo-facial region is an anatomically complex district, representing a crossroads of different systems and apparatus. It is defined as the anatomical region laying on the facial skeleton from the inferior outline of maxilla up to an ideal plane passing through the skull base and the inion point, posteriorly. In this area, the digestive and respiratory systems connect to themselves and open ...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - November 6, 2014 Category: Radiology Source Type: research