Neurological Complications of Nutritional Deficiencies
This article summarizes the role of various nutritional factors in the nervous system and the neurologic symptoms that can arise from deficiency or excess. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 28, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Aparna Polavarapu, Daphne Hasbani Source Type: research

Introduction
As neurologists, we are very aware of the primary disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Although common as a group, we tend to neglect that the neurological manifestations of systemic diseases can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The brain activity depends on the tight functioning balance of multiple body organs. They help to maintain a healthy milieu for optimal brain function. This issue will describe the neurological complications of systemic diseases, and their treatment, including cardiac, respiratory, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, rheumatic, oncological, and nutritional. (...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 23, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ignacio Valencia Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Gastrointestinal Disease
This article specifically focuses on the neurological symptoms that manifest because of these disorders and their treatments. Many neurological symptoms have been reported in association with these diseases, including neuropathy, myopathy, ataxia, headache, and seizures, among others. It is currently believed that these neurological symptoms are largely overlooked by practitioners and could be a red flag for earlier diagnosis. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Melissa Shapiro, David A. Blanco Source Type: research

The Neurological Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disease
There is a growing interest in the extra-intestinal manifestations of common pediatric gastrointestinal diseases such as IBD and celiac disease. This chapter specifically focuses on the neurological symptoms that manifest as a result of these disorders and their treatments. Many neurologic symptoms have been reported in association with these diseases, including neuropathy, myopathy, ataxia, headache and seizure, among others. It is currently believed that these neurologic symptoms are largely overlooked by practitioners and could be of potential use for earlier diagnosis of disease. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Melissa Shapiro, David A. Blanco Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Cardiac Disease
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurologic systems. Initially, we focus on neurological complications in children with congenital heart disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease and complications of interventions. We later discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphasis on vasovagal syncope. We also review the diagnosis, classification, and management of children and adolescents with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 16, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nandini Madan, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Cardiac Diseases
This article focuses on the complex interactions between the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Initially we focus on neurological complications in children with Congenital Heart Disease both secondary to the underlying cardiac disease or complications of interventions. We discuss diagnosis and management of common syncope syndromes with emphases in Vasovagal Syncope. We review the diagnosis, classification and management of children and adolescents with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 15, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Nandini Madan, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Respiratory Disease
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system, and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurological sequelae. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Respiratory Diseases
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system, and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurological sequelae. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications of Respiratory Diseases
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system, and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurologic sequelae. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Respiratory Diseases ⁎⁎Disclosure of interests: The authors have no commercial, proprietary, or financial interest in any products or companies described in this article.
The respiratory and central nervous systems are intimately connected. Ventilatory control is strictly regulated by central mechanisms in a complex process that involves central and peripheral chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, the cardiovascular system and specific areas of the brain responsible for autonomic control. Disorders of the lung and respiratory system can interfere with these mechanisms and temporarily or permanently disrupt this complex network resulting in mild to severe neurological sequelae. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - January 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Puja Mehta, Ana Melikishvili, Karen S. Carvalho Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disease
The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Karen S. Carvalho, Tal Grunwald, Francesco De Luca Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disorders
The Endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, ultimately targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Karen S. Carvalho, Tal Grunwald, Francesco De Luca Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Rheumatic Disease
Rheumatic disease represents a broad spectrum of systemic conditions manifested by multisystem involvement and mediated by autoimmunity and inflammation. Their neurological complications may occur at any point in the disease process and are diagnostically challenging. For years central nervous system (CNS) was considered as a system uniquely protected from effects of the immune system because of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, under physiological conditions immune access to CNS is tightly regulated. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 23, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Svetlana Lvovich, Donald P. Goldsmith Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Childhood Cancer
This article focuses primarily on the indirect effects of pediatric cancers and their treatment on the central and peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplantation cause an immune-compromised state and place the patient at risk of infection, the leading cause of mortality in pediatric cancer. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lauren Weaver, Ayman Samkari Source Type: research

Neurological Complications of Renal Disease
Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seizures and coma were frequent complications of acute uremia, whereas peripheral neuropathy and encephalopathy, observed in progressive uremia, were terminal events. Failure to excrete metabolic products causes an accumulation of these products and can lead to severe intoxication. Clinically, the signs and symptoms of uremia can vary widely, depending on the biological characteristics of the patient, the specific type of renal disease, and the time of the uremic intoxication. (Source: Seminar...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: H. Jorge Baluarte Source Type: research

Neurologic Complications in Childhood Cancer
Though the treatment of pediatric cancers has come a long way, acute and chronic effects of cancer are still impacting the life of many children. These effects may be caused not only by the malignancy itself but also by the interventions employed for the purpose of treatment. This review focuses primarily on the indirect effects of pediatric cancers and their treatment on the central and peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplantation cause an immune compromised state and place the patient at risk of infection, the leading cause of mortality in pediatric cancer. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lauren Weaver, Ayman Samkari Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations of Rheumatic disorders
Rheumatologic disorders represent a broad spectrum of systemic conditions manifested by multisystem involvement and mediated by autoimmunity and inflammation. Neurologic manifestations of these disorders may occur at any point in the disease process and are diagnostically challenging. For years CNS was considered a system uniquely protected from effects of the immune system because of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Indeed, under physiologic conditions immune access to CNS is tightly regulated. Over the past decade, new scientific discoveries highlighted pathways by which immune and neurologic systems interact, including va...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - December 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Svetlana Lvovich, Donald P. Goldsmith Source Type: research

Creatine Defects and Central Nervous System
We describe the optimal diagnostic protocol in creatine deficiency syndromes based on biochemical methods, neuroradiological (1H-MRS) and molecular analysis. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Carmen Fons, Jaume Campistol Source Type: research

Neonatal Screening for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in 2016
The scope of newborn screening (NBS) progrmas is continuously expanding. NBS programs are secondary prevention interventions widely recognized internationally in the “field of Public Health. These interventions aimed at early detection of asymptomatic children affected by certain diseases, with the objective to establish a definitive diagnosis and apply the proper treatment to prevent further complications and sequelae and ensure a better quality of life. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Judit Garcia Villoria, Sonia Pajares, Rosa Lopez, Jos é Luis Marin, Antonia Ribes Source Type: research

Diseases of the Synaptic Vesicle: A Potential New Group of Neurometabolic Disorders Affecting Neurotransmission
The general concept of inborn error of metabolism is currently evolving into the interface between classical biochemistry and cellular biology. Basic neuroscience is providing increasing knowledge about the mechanisms of neurotransmission and novel related disorders are being described. There is a necessity of updating the classic concept of “inborn error of neurotransmitters (NT)” that considers mainly defects of synthesis and catabolism and transport of low weight NT molecules. Monogenic defects of the synaptic vesicle (SV), and especially those affecting the SV cycle are a potential new group of NT disorders...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: E. Cort ès-Saladelafont, A. Tristán-Noguero, R. Artuch, X. Altafaj, A. Bayès, A. García-Cazorla Source Type: research

“Diseases of the synaptic vesicle: a potential new group of neurometabolic disorders affecting neurotransmission”
The general concept of inborn error of metabolism is currently evolving and travels to the interface between classical biochemistry and cellular biology. Basic neuroscience is providing increasing knowledge about the mechanisms of neurotransmission and novel related disorders are being described. There is a necessity of updating the classic concept of “inborn error of neurotransmitters” that considers mainly defects of synthesis, catabolism and transport of low weight neurotransmitter (NT) molecules. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: EMD. Cort ès-Saladelafont, A. Tristán-Noguero, R. Artuch, X. Altafaj, A. Bayès, A. García-Cazorla Source Type: research

Pyridoxal Phosphate Supplementation in Neuropediatric Disorders
In this report we review the main pathophysiological factors related with PLP deficiency and our experience in PLP treatment in pediatric patients with low-normal CSF PLP values who presented mainly epilepsy. Only one case had a definite diagnosis (Phelan McDermid Syndrome). The results of extensive metabolic workups and targeted genetic studies were normal for all patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Elisenda Cort ès-Saladelafont, Marta Molero-Luis, HSJD Working Group, Rafael Artuch, Àngels García-Cazorla Source Type: research

Impaired neurotransmission in early-treated phenylketonuria patients
Cerebral neurotransmitter (NT) deficiency has been suggested as a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU), even in early-treated phenylketonuric patients. The study aimed to review dopamine and serotonin status in PKU, and the effect of the impaired neurotransmission. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of PKU, primarily characterized by impaired dopamine and serotonin synthesis. These deficits are related to executive dysfunctions and social-emotional problems, respectively, in early treated patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mar ía Julieta González, Rosa Gassió, Rafael Artuch, Jaume Campistol Source Type: research

Biochemical analyses of cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of neurometabolic conditions. What can we expect?
In this article, we review the state of the art of the analysis of different biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of genetically conditioned, rare, neurometabolic diseases, including glucose transport defects, neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin and GABA) and pterin deficiencies, and vitamin defects (folate, vitamin B6 and thiamine) that affect the brain. The analysis of several key metabolites are detailed, which thus highlights the pre-analytical and analytical factors that should be cautiously controlled to avoid misdiagnosis; moreover, these factors may facilitate an adequate interpretation of the bioc...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Marta Batllori, Marta Molero-Luis, Mercedes Casado, Cristina Sierra, Rafael Artuch, Aida Ormazabal Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Manifestations in Mitochondrial Diseases in Children
Mitochondrial diseases (MiDs) exhibit significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that are the major contributor of ATP, via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).These disorders may be developed at any age, with isolated or multiple system involvement, and in any pattern of inheritance. Defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain impair energy production and almost invariably involve skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves, causing exercise intolerance, cramps, recurrent myoglobinuria, or fixed weakness, which often affects extra ocular muscles and results in droopy eyelids (pt...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Andr és Nascimento, Carlos Ortez, Cristina Jou, Mar O′Callaghan, Federico Ramos, Àngels Garcia-Cazorla Source Type: research

Epilepsy in Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Therapeutic Options
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1,000 diseases, with a global prevalence of about 1:2,000 individuals. Approximately 40 –60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurological signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological bases may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitoc hondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT1 and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechan...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Jaume Campistol Source Type: research

Neurotransmitter Imbalance in Early-Treated Phenylketonuria
Cerebral neurotransmitter deficiency has been suggested as a contributing factor in the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria, even in early-treated phenylketonuric patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mar ía Julieta González, Rosa Gassió, Rafael Artuch, Jaume Campistol Source Type: research

Treatable Inborn Errors of Metabolism Due to Membrane Vitamin Transporters Deficiency
B vitamins act as cofactors for strategic metabolic processes. The SLC19 gene family of solute carriers has a significant structural similarity, transporting substrates with different structure and ionic charge. Three proteins of this family are expressed ubiquitously and mediate the transport of two important water-soluble vitamins, folate and thiamine. SLC19A1 transports folate and SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 transports thiamine. PCFT and FOLR1ensure intestinal absorption and transport of folate through the blood brain barrier and SLC19A25 transports thiamine into the mitochondria. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - November 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Juan Dar ío Ortigoza Escobar, Belén Pérez Dueñas Source Type: research

Introduction
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are genetic disorders with a low prevalence in the general population. These rare diseases are caused by a dysfunction of genes that control specially the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, vitamins, or energy metabolism. IEM may present at any age, from newborn to adulthood, and in general no specific features are related to the type of IEM. Most of them may manifest neurologic symptoms (neurometabolic diseases) and comprise a large group of IEM affecting the brain, particularly in the neonatal period and during infancy. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Jaume Campistol Source Type: research

Introduction
Pain is one of the most ubiquitous symptoms of human suffering. The development of pain, the anticipation, and the fear of persistent pain motivates patients and practitioners alike. In the pediatric population, no other symptom can be more compelling. Pain perception is an important warning signal to avoid injury, herald disease, and identify tissue damage. The understanding of pain pathogenesis would allow more targeted and efficacious interventions. In this volume, the subject of pediatric pain is explored in depth and it includes assessment and measurement, pathogenesis, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments, a...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Francis J. DiMario Source Type: research

Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Pain
This article is directed toward clinicians and would provide an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy, including specific cognitive-behavioral techniques for pediatric pain. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Anna Monica Agoston, Christine B. Sieberg Source Type: research

Preface
Pain is one of the most ubiquitous symptoms of human suffering. The development of pain, the anticipation and the fear of persistent pain motivates patients and practitioners alike. In the pediatric population, no other symptom can be more compelling. Pain perception is an important warning signal to avoid injury, herald disease and identify tissue damage. The understanding of pain pathogenesis will allow more targeted and efficacious interventions. In this volume the subject of pediatric pain is explored in depth and includes assessment and measurement, pathogenesis, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments and the ...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Francis J. DiMario Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Treatment of Pain
Adolescents and children are frequently affected by chronic pain conditions which can lead to disability and distress. The best approach to evaluation and treatment of these conditions involves use of the biopsychosocial model, which includes use of medication management. Chronic pain conditions are treated pharmacologically with a number of different medication classes via several routes of administration as drug delivery systems have progressed. These include anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxers, antiepileptic medicines, antidepressants, opioids, and local anesthetics. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Eapen Mathew, Eugene Kim, William Zempsky Source Type: research

Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Pain
Pain is a complex biopsychosocial experience that is influenced by neurological processes and psychosocial factors1. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of psychological interventions have demonstrated evidence for psychological approaches in treating procedural pain2,3 as well as multiple types of chronic pain, including headaches, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain.4,5. This chapter is directed toward clinicians and will provide an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy, including specific cognitive-behavioral techniques for pediatric pain. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: A. Monica Agoston, Christine B. Sieberg Source Type: research

Pain Amplification Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Approach
Pediatric neurologists frequently encounter patients who present with significant musculoskeletal pain that cannot be attributed to a specific injury or illness, which can often be defined as Pain Amplification Syndrome (PAS). PAS in children and adolescents is the result of a heightened pain sensitivity pathway, which is intensified by significant biological, psychological, and social contributors. Appropriate assessment and multimodal intervention of PAS are crucial to treatment success, including neurology and behavioral health collaborative treatment plans to restore patient function and reduce pain perception. (Source...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lisa B. Namerow, Emily Kutner, Emily Wakefield, Barbara Rzepski, Robert Sahl Source Type: research

Inherited Pain Syndromes and Ion Channels
Individuals rely on the perception of pain to avoid injury, signal disease and warn about tissue inflammation and damage. However, the inheritance of inappropriate, extreme or inadequate pain production is a source of significant human suffering.Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of pain through the study of individuals and families with several specific inherited pain syndromes. These studies have led to the discovery of a number of gene mutations associated with specific ion channel disturbances that produce familial inherited pain sensitivity and insensitivity syn...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Francis J. DiMario Source Type: research

Pediatric Pain Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation
Assessment provides the foundation for diagnosis, selection of treatments, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness for pediatric patients with acute, recurrent, and chronic pain. Extensive research has resulted in the availability of a number of valid, reliable, and recommended tools for assessing children ʼs pain. Yet, evidence suggests childrenʼs pain is still not optimally assessed or treated. In this article, we provide an overview of pain assessment for premature neonates to adolescents. The difference between pain assessment and measurement is highlighted; and the key steps in pain assessment are identified. (Sou...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Renee C.B. Manworren, Jennifer Stinson Source Type: research

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Pediatric Pain Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment provides the foundation for diagnosis, selection of treatments, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness for pediatric patients with acute, recurrent and chronic pain. Extensive research has resulted in the availability of a number of valid, reliable and recommended tools for assessing children ′s pain. Yet, evidence suggests children′s pain is still not optimally assessed or treated. In this article, we provide an overview of pain assessment for premature neonates to adolescents. The difference between pain assessment and measurement will be highlighted; and the key steps in pain asse ssment identi...
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Renee C.B. Manworren, Jennifer Stinson Source Type: research

Neuropathic and Myopathic Pain
The evaluation and management of childhood pain syndromes of neuromuscular origin have distinct challenges, as the patterns of disease presentation and the ability of a child to describe symptoms may differ from that of an adult. Advances in scientific and clinical knowledge are leading to significant progress in the care of affected children. The genetic origins of Fabry disease and the inherited form of erythromelalgia are better understood. The increasing interest in neuroimmunology among pediatric neurologists has led to more sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Anthony C. Rodrigues, Peter B. Kang Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Pain
The pathogenesis of pain sensation includes mechanisms that result in acute and chronic pain. Pain itself is described as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience beginning with a peripheral stimulus that undergoes a physiologic process ultimately resulting in the sensation of pain.1 Biologists recognize pain to be a common sign of potential tissue damage. Hence pain sensation is protective in function. However, pathological states of pain exist secondary to disruption of the nociceptive process both peripherally and centrally and / or secondary to psychological conditions. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Pradeep Dinakar, Alexandra Marion Stillman Source Type: research

Juvenile Fibromyalgia: A Primary Pain, or Pain Processing, Disorder
Juvenile fibromyalgia, a chronic disorder of widespread musculoskeletal pain in combination with autonomic, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction, is responsible for considerable morbidity and impaired quality of life in affected patients and their families. Historically, fibromyalgia has been incorrectly characterized as a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder, but new understanding of the science of pain has demonstrated unambiguously that it is an organic disorder of the pain processing system itself. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Lawrence Zemel, Peter R. Blier, Lawrence Zemel, Peter Blier Source Type: research

Neuropathic and Myopathic Pain Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
The evaluation and management of childhood pain syndromes of neuromuscular origin present distinct challenges, as the patterns of disease presentation and the ability of a child to describe symptoms may differ from that of an adult. Advances in scientific and clinical knowledge are leading to significant progress in the care of affected children. The genetic origins of Fabry disease and the inherited form of erythromelalgia have become better understood. The increasing interest in neuroimmunology among pediatric neurologists has led to more sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Anthony C. Rodrigues, Peter B. Kang Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Sandra L. Helmers, MD, MPH (1957 –2016)
Sandy received her medical degree from the University of Cincinnati, completed internship at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Columbia University, residency at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, and clinical neurophysiology fellowship at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University. Her first academic position was at Children ׳s Hospital, Boston, where she joined the clinical neurophysiology laboratory and epilepsy program. Although Sandy did not train as a pediatric neurologist, this was not evident to her colleagues or patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Sandra L. Helmers, MD, MPH (1957-2016)
Sandy received her medical degree from the University of Cincinnati, completed internship at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Columbia University, residency at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, and clinical neurophysiology fellowship at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University. Her first academic position was at Children ׳s Hospital, Boston, where she joined the clinical neurophysiology laboratory and epilepsy program. Although Sandy did not train as a pediatric neurologist, this was not evident to her colleagues or patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Sandra L. Helmers, MD, MPH (1957-2016)
Sandy received her medical degree from the University of Cincinnati, completed internship at the Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Columbia University, residency at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, and clinical neurophysiology fellowship at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University. Her first academic position was at Children׳s Hospital, Boston, where she joined the clinical neurophysiology laboratory and epilepsy program. Although Sandy did not train as a pediatric neurologist, this was not evident to her colleagues or patients. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Sandra L. Helmers, MD, MPH (1957–2016)
Image 1 (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: John “Jack” Pellock, MD (1944−2016)
Jack received his medical degree from St. Louis University School of Medicine, in St. Louis, MO, in 1971. He completed housestaff training in pediatrics on Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia in 1973 and fellowship training in child neurology at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in 1976. He was on the Virginia Commonwealth University faculty since 1978 and served as chairman of the division of child neurology from 1995-2014. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: John “Jack” Pellock, MD (1944-2016)
Jack received his medical degree from St. Louis University School of Medicine, in St. Louis, MO, in 1971. He completed housestaff training in pediatrics on Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia in 1973 and fellowship training in child neurology at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in 1976. He was on the Virginia Commonwealth University faculty since 1978 and served as chairman of the division of child neurology from 1995-2014. (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research

In Memoriam: John “Jack” Pellock, MD (1944–2016)
Image 1 (Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - June 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gregory L. Holmes Source Type: research