Evidence that the association of childhood trauma with psychosis and related psychopathology is not explained by gene-environment correlation: A monozygotic twin differences approach
Converging evidence supports childhood trauma as possible causal risk for psychosis and related psychopathology. However, studies have shown that baseline psychotic symptoms may actually increase risk for subsequent victimization, suggesting that exposure to CT is not random but may result from pre-existing vulnerability. Therefore, studies testing whether the association between CT and psychopathology persists when accounting for gene-environment correlation are much needed. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aleksandra Lecei, Jeroen Decoster, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Nele Jacobs, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jim van Os, Evert Thiery, Bart P.F. Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Ruud van Winkel Source Type: research

Systems-level analysis of risk genes reveals the modular nature of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder with high heritability. Genetic studies (especially recent genome-wide association studies) have identified many risk genes for schizophrenia. However, the physical interactions among the proteins encoded by schizophrenia risk genes remain elusive and it is not known whether the identified risk genes converge on common molecular networks or pathways. Here we systematically investigated the network characteristics of schizophrenia risk genes using the high-confidence protein-protein interactions (PPI) from the human interactome. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiewei Liu, Ming Li, Xiong-Jian Luo, Bing Su Source Type: research

Childhood trauma and clinical high risk for psychosis
In this study, we examined the relationship of trauma history to symptoms and functioning in individuals diagnosed with the CHR syndrome on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (N  = 103). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel L. Loewy, Sarah Corey, Felix Amirfathi, Sawsan Dabit, Daniel Fulford, Rahel Pearson, Jessica P.Y. Hua, Danielle Schlosser, Barbara K. Stuart, Daniel H. Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov Source Type: research

Cortical thickness correlates of minor neurological signs in patients with first episode psychosis
Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M. Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M. Murray, Paola Dazzan Source Type: research

Of minds and men: Suits, spirits, and psychosis
Steve wore a professorial beard and lush sideburns. He spoke clearly, uncharacteristic of the diagnosis he carried of schizophrenia. He asked us as soon as my classmates and I introduced ourselves and shook his hand: “so when are you letting me out of here?” (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edward Christopher Dee Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The association between psychotic experiences and health-related quality of life: a cross-national analysis based on World Mental Health Surveys
Psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with a range of mental and physical disorders, and disability, but little is known about the association between PEs and aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to investigate the association between PEs and five HRQoL indicators with various adjustments. Using data from the WHO World Mental Health surveys (n  = 33,370 adult respondents from 19 countries), we assessed for PEs and five HRQoL indicators (self-rated physical or mental health, perceived level of stigma (embarrassment and discrimination), and social network burden). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jordi Alonso, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C.W. Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J. Bromet, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oluyomi Esan, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M. Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G. Karam, Georges Karam Source Type: research

Cortisol awakening response is decreased in patients with first-episode psychosis and increased in healthy controls with a history of severe childhood abuse
Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L. Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti, Patricia Zunszain, Craig Morgan, Robin M. Murray, Carmine M. Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli Source Type: research

Reality testing of the efficacy of tDCS on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia
After receiving an email from Psychiatry Advisor with the subject line, “Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Alleviated by tDCS” we read with interest the manuscript by Lee, et al. entitled “The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on auditory hallucination in patients with schizophrenia” published online in Schizophrenia Research (Lee et al., 2018). In this manuscript, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 3 sham-controlled and 3 uncontrolled open label studies and pooled data to assess the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on auditory hallucinations in patients w...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert J. Morgan, Balwinder Singh Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Altered predictive capability of the brain network EEG model in schizophrenia during cognition
The study of the mechanisms involved in cognition is of paramount importance for the understanding of the neurobiological substrates in psychiatric disorders. Hence, this research is aimed at exploring the brain network dynamics during a cognitive task. Specifically, we analyze the predictive capability of the pre-stimulus theta activity to ascertain the functional brain dynamics during cognition in both healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Firstly, EEG recordings were acquired during a three-tone oddball task from fifty-one healthy subjects and thirty-five schizophrenia patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Javier Gomez-Pilar, Jes ús Poza, Carlos Gómez, Georg Northoff, Alba Lubeiro, Benjamín B. Cea-Cañas, Vicente Molina, Roberto Hornero Source Type: research

Development and validation of the client engagement and service use scale: A pilot study
Specialized treatment for first episode psychosis offers clients a menu of services coordinated within a specialized treatment team. To enhance the impact of these services, promoting engagement and preventing early treatment drop-out is critical. However, engagement is poorly tracked and typically quantified through proxy variables such as session attendance, medication adherence, or working alliance. The aim of this study is to introduce and pilot a new measure of engagement for first episode psychosis coordinated specialty care, the Client Engagement and Service Use Scale (CENSUS). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emily R. Kline, Nicole R. DeTore, Kristen Keefe, Larry J. Seidman, Vinod H. Srihari, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Margaret Guyer Source Type: research

Poor oral health in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Increased rates of comorbid physical illness have been commonly reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are fewer data on dental disease in these patients. We systematically evaluated existing data on the oral health survey of schizophrenia patients through meta-analysis. Using the available databases, we performed a systematic search to identify the studies examining the oral health in schizophrenia patients from January 1997 to June 2017, based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mi Yang, Peng Chen, Man-Xi He, Min Lu, Hong-Ming Wang, Jair C. Soares, Xiang-Yang Zhang Source Type: research

Dysbindin-1 contributes to prefrontal cortical dendritic arbor pathology in schizophrenia
This study sought to determine whether MARCKS, its regulatory protein dysbindin-1, and two proteins, identified using microarray data, CDC42BPA and ARHGEF6, were associated with dendritic arbor pathology in the DLPFC from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder subjects. Using western blotting, relative protein expression was assessed in the DLPFC (BA 46) grey matter from subjects with schizophrenia (n  = 19), bipolar disorder (n = 17) and unaffected control subjects (n = 19). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Glenn T. Konopaske, Darrick T. Balu, Kendall T. Presti, Grace Chan, Francine M. Benes, Joseph T. Coyle Source Type: research

Sexual abuse and psychosis: The security of research findings
Sexual abuse is by its very nature likely to have pernicious effects: certainly its psychiatric consequences are extensive. They include a range of affective disorders, eating disorders, and alcohol and drug abuse (Jonas et al., 2011), but also psychotic disorders (Bebbington et al., 2004, 2011; Varese et al., 2012; de Vries et al., 2018) (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paul E. Bebbington Source Type: research

Age-related trajectories of social cognition in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis: An exploratory study
Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Charlie A. Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel H. Mathalon, Scott W Source Type: research

The relationship between the level of exposure to stress factors and cannabis in recent onset psychosis
This study aims to determine the relationship between the level of exposure to stress factors and cannabis use with psychosis and to determine the combination effect among these factors in predicting a psychotic disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sara Arranz, Nuria Monferrer, M. Jose Algora, Angel Cabezas, Montse Sole, E. Vilella, J. Labad, Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau Source Type: research

Polygenic Risk Score and the (neuro)developmental ontogenesis of the schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes
Mistry et al. (Mistry et al., 2017)'s recent overview on schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score (s-PRS) and related phenotypic manifestations clearly indicates the potential of such an approach for understanding the liability for schizophrenia. Briefly, available empirical literature seems to converge on four major key-points: 1) pleiotropy between schizophrenia and other disorders (e.g. schizo-affective, bipolar, depressive and anxiety disorders); 2) less common-variant genetic overlap between schizophrenia and cognition than with other psychopathology; 3) small proportion of variance explained by currently available s-PRS fo...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michele Poletti, Andrea Raballo Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Enhancing stress reactivity and wellbeing in early schizophrenia: A pilot study of individual coping awareness therapy (I-CAT)
Dear Editors: (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Piper S. Meyer-Kalos, Kelsey A. Ludwig, Susan Gaylord, Diana O. Perkins, Karen Grewen, Olafur S. Palsson, Margaret Burchinal, David L. Penn Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic variation and functional connectivity in patients with first-episode schizophrenia
Dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive performance and regulates by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) expression. To clarify the effect of COMT genotype on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia, we performed DNA genotyping, cognitive evaluations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in antipsychotic-na ïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and matched healthy control subjects. We found that all cognitive domains were impaired in patients with FES compared with healthy subjects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hongyan Wang, Bin Zhang, Botao Zeng, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang, Donald C. Goff Source Type: research

Identifying the genetic risk factors for treatment response to lurasidone by genome-wide association study: A meta-analysis of samples from three independent clinical trials
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of response of schizophrenia patients to the atypical antipsychotic drug, lurasidone, based on two double-blind registration trials, identified SNPs from four classes of genes as predictors of efficacy, but none were genome wide significant (GWS). After inclusion of data from a third lurasidone trial, meta-analysis identified a GWS marker and other findings consistent with our first study. The primary end-point was change in Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between baseline and last observation carried forward. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jiang Li, Antony Loebel, Herbert Y. Meltzer Source Type: research

Improving cognitive training for schizophrenia using neuroplasticity enhancers: Lessons from decades of basic and clinical research
Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder that stems from maladaptive plasticity within neural circuits and produces broad cognitive deficits leading to loss of autonomy. A large number of studies have identified abnormalities spanning many neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia, and as a result, a variety of drugs have been developed to attempt to treat these abnormalities and enhance cognition. Unfortunately, positive results have been limited so far. This may be in part because the scope of abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain requires a treatment capable of engaging many different neurotransmi...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G.D. Guercio, M.E. Thomas, J.M. Cisneros-Franco, P. Voss, R. Panizzutti, E. de Villers-Sidani Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Highlights in this issue
This current issue of Schizophrenia Research highlights the diversity, depth, and scope of efforts to better understand, characterize, and advance care for schizophrenia disorders. The research papers summarized below, as well as all articles in this issue, represent important new knowledge towards advancing the biology and treatment of schizophrenic disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John Torous, Matcheri Keshavan Source Type: research

Premature mortality among people with severe mental illness — New evidence from linked primary care data
This study aimed to estimate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with SMI drawn from linked primary and secondary care populations compared to the general population. SMRs were calculated using the indirect method for a United Kingdom population of almost four million between 2004 and 2013. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - May 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ann John, Joanna McGregor, Ian Jones, Sze Chim Lee, James T.R. Walters, Michael J. Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Damon Berridge, Keith Lloyd Source Type: research

Resting-state network connectivity and metastability predict clinical symptoms in schizophrenia
The functional architecture of resting-state networks (RSNs) is defined by their connectivity and metastability. Disrupted RSN connectivity has been amply demonstrated in schizophrenia while the role of metastability remains poorly defined. Here, we undertake a comprehensive characterisation of RSN organization in schizophrenia and test its contribution to the clinical profile of this disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Won Hee Lee, Gaelle E. Doucet, Evan Leibu, Sophia Frangou Source Type: research

Mental health multimorbidity and poor quality of life in patients with schizophrenia
While “dual diagnosis” involving both psychiatric and substance use disorders has long been a focus of schizophrenia research, recent studies have advocated for a shift of focus to multimorbidity, addressing comorbidity from both additional psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. We hypothe sized that more extensive mental health multimorbity would be associated with poorer quality of life (QOL) and functioning, and that additional psychiatric comorbidity in schizophrenia would have similar adverse effects on QOL as substance use comorbidity. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ish P. Bhalla, Elina A. Stefanovics, Robert A. Rosenheck Source Type: research

Modified cariprazine relapse prevention clinical trial results
Our study, “Long-term cariprazine treatment for the prevention of relapse in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” was previously published in Schizophrenia Research (Durgam et al., 2016). As a courtesy, we would like to alert your readers that some of the publ ished results from this study (RGH-MD-06) differ slightly from information in the cariprazine (VRAYLAR©) package insert (Vraylar [package insert], 2017). Due to results of additional analyses requested by the US FDA, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rate of relapse curve in the VRAYLAR package insert (F ig. (...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Willie Earley, Hua Guo, Rachel Luchini Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Spared and impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are the strongest predictor of disability and effective treatment is lacking. This reflects our limited mechanistic understanding and consequent lack of treatment targets. In schizophrenia, impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation correlates with reduced sleep spindle activity, suggesting sleep spindles as a potentially treatable mechanism. In the present study we investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation deficits in schizophrenia are selective. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bengi Baran, David Correll, Tessa C. Vuper, Alexandra Morgan, Simon J. Durrant, Dara S. Manoach, Robert Stickgold Source Type: research

Plasma cytokines in minimally treated schizophrenia
In this study, we examined a large sample of antipsychotic-na ïve/free schizophrenia patients (N = 75) in comparison with healthy controls (N = 102). Plasma cytokines (Interleukins ([IL] 2, 4, 6, 10, 17), Tumor necrosis factor [TNF] and Interferon gamma [IFN-g]) were assessed using cytometric bead array assay. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sunil Vasu Kalmady, Venkataram Shivakumar, Dania Jose, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Bangalore N. Gangadhar, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian Source Type: research

Predictors of ‘all-cause discontinuation’ of initial oral antipsychotic medication in first episode psychosis
Discontinuation of the initial oral antipsychotic prescribed for a first episode of psychosis (FEP) can derail outcome. Our objective was to examine the rate of and time to all-cause discontinuation of the first antipsychotic prescribed and the factors influencing such discontinuation. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sally Mustafa, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, Srividya Iyer, Jai Shah, Ashok Malla Source Type: research

Altered brain cannabinoid 1 receptor mRNA expression across postnatal development in the MAM model of schizophrenia
Altered cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) expression has been reported in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia, a developmental mental illness that usually emerges in late adolescence/early adulthood. However, the developmental period at which changes in the CB1R expression appear in schizophrenia is unknown. To gain insight into this factor, we assessed the postnatal developmental trajectory of CB1R expression in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia. Using in situ hybridization with film and grain analyses, CB1R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were quantified in multiple brain regions, including the medial pre...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Felipe V. Gomes, Jessica R. Edelson, David W. Volk, Anthony A. Grace Source Type: research

Decreased peripheral TNF alpha (TNF- α) mRNA expression in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia
Abnormalities in cytokine production have been implicated in schizophrenia. Among the compendium of cytokines studied in schizophrenia, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) has been shown to be dysregulated in both post-mortem brain (Pandey et al., 2018) and peripheral blood (Francesconi et al., 2011; Pandey et al., 2015; Tian et al., 2014), although negative findings have also been reported (Dean et al., 2013; Erbagci et al., 2001; Fillman et al., 2014). Yet, no s tudy to our knowledge has examined TNF-α in individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Md Shaki Mostaid, Christos Pantelis, Ian P. Everall, Chad A. Bousman Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Patients participating to neurobiological research in early psychosis: A selected subgroup?
Selection bias could be an important limiting factor in psychiatric neurobiological research. The study aim was to compare, within an early psychosis program, patients who agreed to participate to neurobiological research with patients who refused. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philippe Golay, Philipp S. Baumann, Raoul Jenni, Kim Q. Do, Philippe Conus Source Type: research

The effect of implementation of an early detection team: A nationwide register-based study of characteristics and help-seeking behavior in first-episode schizophrenia in Denmark
In an effort to make people with signs of psychosis seek help as early as possible, Region Zealand launched in 2012 an early detection team project as the first and only in Denmark. The project consisted of a combination of easy access and an information campaign targeting the public. This nation-wide study examined characteristics and help-seeking behavior of patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) in the early detection region in comparison with other Danish regions. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lene Halling Hastrup, Ulrik Helt Haahr, Julie Nordgaard, Erik Simonsen Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P): State or trait?
Studies linking neuro-inflammation to psychotic episodes has been rapidly expanding. Assessments of changes in inflammatory biomarkers in prodromal patients who subsequently convert to psychosis may help in predicting those likely to transition to psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rita Khoury, Henry A. Nasrallah Source Type: research

Dysregulation of auditory neuroplasticity in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a complex brain syndrome characterized by an array of positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech), negative symptoms (alogia, apathy, avolition) and cognitive impairments (memory, executive functions). Although investigations of the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have primarily concentrated on disturbances affecting higher-order cognitive processes, there is an increasing realization that schizophrenia also affects early sensory processing, which might, in fact, play a significant role in the development of higher-order cognitive impairments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patrice Voss, Maryse E. Thomas, Gerson D. Guercio, Etienne de Villers-Sidani Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P): State or trait?
Studies linking neuro-inflammation to psychotic episodes has been rapidly expanding. Assessments of changes in inflammatory biomarkers in prodromal patients who subsequently convert to psychosis may help in predicting those likely to transition to psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rita Khoury, Henry A. Nasrallah Source Type: research

Dysregulation of auditory neuroplasticity in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a complex brain syndrome characterized by an array of positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech), negative symptoms (alogia, apathy, avolition) and cognitive impairments (memory, executive functions). Although investigations of the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have primarily concentrated on disturbances affecting higher-order cognitive processes, there is an increasing realization that schizophrenia also affects early sensory processing, which might, in fact, play a significant role in the development of higher-order cognitive impairments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patrice Voss, Maryse E. Thomas, Gerson D. Guercio, Etienne de Villers-Sidani Source Type: research

Association between increased serum d-serine and cognitive gains induced by intensive cognitive training in schizophrenia
Neuroscience-guided cognitive training induces significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia subjects, but the biological mechanisms associated with these changes are unknown. In animals, intensive cognitive activity induces increased brain levels of the NMDA-receptor co-agonist d-serine, a molecular system that plays a role in learning-induced neuroplasticity and that may be hypoactive in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether training-induced gains in cognition were associated with increases in serum d-serine in outpatients with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rogerio Panizzutti, Melissa Fisher, Coleman Garrett, Wai Hong Man, Walter Sena, Caroline Madeira, Sophia Vinogradov Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neuroanatomical correlates of perceptual aberrations in psychosis” [Schizophr. Res. 179 (2017) 125–131]
The authors regret that the number of subjects reported under the Methods subheading of the Abstract is incorrect. The correct numbers are 56 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 42 healthy subjects. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience this caused. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: E.A. Brosey, N.D. Woodward Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Association between increased serum d-serine and cognitive gains induced by intensive cognitive training in schizophrenia
Neuroscience-guided cognitive training induces significant improvement in cognition in schizophrenia subjects, but the biological mechanisms associated with these changes are unknown. In animals, intensive cognitive activity induces increased brain levels of the NMDA-receptor co-agonist d-serine, a molecular system that plays a role in learning-induced neuroplasticity and that may be hypoactive in schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether training-induced gains in cognition were associated with increases in serum d-serine in outpatients with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rogerio Panizzutti, Melissa Fisher, Coleman Garrett, Wai Hong Man, Walter Sena, Caroline Madeira, Sophia Vinogradov Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Neuroanatomical correlates of perceptual aberrations in psychosis” [Schizophr. Res. 179 (2017) 125–131]
The authors regret that the number of subjects reported under the Methods subheading of the Abstract is incorrect. The correct numbers are 56 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 42 healthy subjects. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience this caused. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: E.A. Brosey, N.D. Woodward Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Altered short-term neural plasticity related to schizotypal traits: Evidence from visual adaptation
Abnormalities in synaptic plasticity are argued to underlie the neural dysconnectivity observed in schizophrenia. One way to measure synaptic plasticity is through sensory adaptation, whereby sensory neurons exhibit reduced sensitivity after sustained stimulus exposure. Evidence for decreased adaptation in individuals with schizophrenia is currently inconclusive, possibly due to heterogeneity in clinical and medication status across samples. Here we circumvent these confounds by examining whether altered adaptation is represented sub-clinically in the general population. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katharine N. Thakkar, Anna Antinori, Olivia L. Carter, Jan W. Brascamp Source Type: research

Association of maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy and the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring: A population-based study
This study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. A population-based study was conducted of Israeli children born between 1975 and 1995 and that were registered in the Ministry of Interior and followed up in the Ministry of Health from birth to 2015 for the risk of schizophrenia (N  = 201,048). The association between maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy and the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring was quantified with relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) fitting Cox regression...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yael Weinstein, Itzhak Levav, Marc Gelkopf, David Roe, Rinat Yoffe, Inna Pugachova, Stephen Z. Levine Source Type: research

Altered short-term neural plasticity related to schizotypal traits: Evidence from visual adaptation
Abnormalities in synaptic plasticity are argued to underlie the neural dysconnectivity observed in schizophrenia. One way to measure synaptic plasticity is through sensory adaptation, whereby sensory neurons exhibit reduced sensitivity after sustained stimulus exposure. Evidence for decreased adaptation in individuals with schizophrenia is currently inconclusive, possibly due to heterogeneity in clinical and medication status across samples. Here we circumvent these confounds by examining whether altered adaptation is represented sub-clinically in the general population. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katharine N. Thakkar, Anna Antinori, Olivia L. Carter, Jan W. Brascamp Source Type: research

Association of maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy and the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring: A population-based study
This study tested the hypothesis that maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. A population-based study was conducted of Israeli children born between 1975 and 1995 and that were registered in the Ministry of Interior and followed up in the Ministry of Health from birth to 2015 for the risk of schizophrenia (N  = 201,048). The association between maternal exposure to terror attacks during pregnancy and the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring was quantified with relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) fitting Cox regression...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yael Weinstein, Itzhak Levav, Marc Gelkopf, David Roe, Rinat Yoffe, Inna Pugachova, Stephen Z. Levine Source Type: research

Further evidence for depletion of peripheral blood natural killer cells in patients with schizophrenia: A computational deconvolution study
Dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity is increasingly being recognized as one of core characteristics of schizophrenia pathophysiology. Several studies have revealed that patients with schizophrenia present various alterations in the levels of distinct leukocyte subpopulations. However, studies addressing this point have provided mixed results. Therefore, in this study we translated a computational deconvolution algorithm in order to estimate counts of distinct leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pawe ł Karpiński, Jerzy Samochowiec, Dorota Frydecka, Maria M. Sąsiadek, Błażej Misiak Source Type: research

First psychotic episode risk markers for primary psychosis amongst people who use methamphetamine
Methamphetamine can precipitate a brief paranoid psychosis and can trigger psychotic episodes in individuals who have a primary psychotic disorder (Curran et al., 2004). On first presentation it is not always clear what causative role methamphetamine is playing (Mathias et al., 2008). Differential diagnosis is reliant on the patient's prognosis, and it can take years before the presence of a primary psychotic disorder can be confirmed (Niemi-Pynttari et al., 2013). This can delay treatment for individuals who are on a pathway to developing a psychotic disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rebecca McKetin, Leanne Hides, David J. Kavanagh, John B. Saunders, Sharon Dawe Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Self-assessment of social cognitive ability in schizophrenia: Association with social cognitive test performance, informant assessments of social cognitive ability, and everyday outcomes
In this study, we examined self-assessment of social cognitive ability and related them to assessments of social cognition provided by informants, to performance on tests of social cognition, and to everyday outcomes. The difference between self-reported social cognition and informant ratings was used to predict everyday functioning. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - April 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Juliet M. Silberstein, Amy E. Pinkham, David L. Penn, Philip D. Harvey Source Type: research