A state-independent network of depressive, negative and positive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
Depressive symptoms occur frequently in patients with schizophrenia. Several factor analytical studies investigated the associations between positive, negative and depressive symptoms and reported difficulties differentiating between these symptom domains. Here, we argue that a network approach may offer insights into these associations, by exploring interrelations between symptoms. The aims of current study were to I) construct a network of positive, negative and depressive symptoms in male patients with schizophrenia to investigate interactions between individual symptoms; II) identify the most central symptoms within th...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Geeske van Rooijen, Adela-Maria Isvoranu, Olle H. Kruijt, Claudia D. van Borkulo, Carin J. Meijer, Johanna T.W. Wigman, Henricus G. Ruh é, Lieuwe de Haan, GROUP investigators Source Type: research

Deficits in visual working-memory capacity and general cognition in African Americans with psychosis
On average, patients with psychosis perform worse than controls on visual change-detection tasks, implying that psychosis is associated with reduced capacity of visual working memory (WM). In the present study, 79 patients diagnosed with various psychotic disorders and 166 controls, all African Americans, completed a change-detection task and several other neurocognitive measures. The aims of the study were to (1) determine whether we could observe a between-group difference in performance on the change-detection task in this sample; (2) establish whether such a difference could be specifically attributed to reduced WM cap...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Samuel R. Mathias, Emma E.M. Knowles, Jennifer Barrett, Tamara Beetham, Olivia Leach, Sebastiano Buccheri, Katrina Aberizk, John Blangero, Russell A. Poldrack, David C. Glahn Source Type: research

Response to “Risperidone and sulpiride: Brands vs generics”
We are grateful to Professor Chittaranjan Andrade for the two opinions he raised about our work (Andreade, 2017). The first is that the daily doses used in this study were not previously observed in a randomized clinical trial. As a result, he suggests that the differences in doses of brand-name and generic antipsychotic drugs may be influenced by patients' or clinicians' willingness. The dosing strategies may in fact be influenced by various factors in realistic settings, such as treatment response, side effects, patients' or clinicians' confidence, and therapeutic adherence. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chih-Wei Hsu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang Source Type: research

Rapid vs. slow antipsychotic initiation in schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
How antipsychotics should be initiated/titrated in patients with acute schizophrenia as well as patients undergoing an antipsychotic switch remains a question. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Sadhana Thiyanavadivel, Ofer Agid, Gary Remington Source Type: research

Response to “Risperidone and sulpiride: Brands vs generics”
We are grateful to Professor Chittaranjan Andrade for the two opinions he raised about our work (Andreade, 2017). The first is that the daily doses used in this study were not previously observed in a randomized clinical trial. As a result, he suggests that the differences in doses of brand-name and generic antipsychotic drugs may be influenced by patients' or clinicians' willingness. The dosing strategies may in fact be influenced by various factors in realistic settings, such as treatment response, side effects, patients' or clinicians' confidence, and therapeutic adherence. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chih-Wei Hsu, Sheng-Yu Lee, Liang-Jen Wang Source Type: research

Effects of Omega-3 in the treatment of violent schizophrenia patients
This study was designed to explore the relationship in between the daily consumption of fish oil (360mg DHA+540mg EPA), and reduction of symptoms and violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia. Method: Fifty inpatients meeting ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and scoring more than four of Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) with antipsychotics treatment were randomly assigned to receive either fish oil (N=28) or a placebo (N=22) in a twelve week, double-blind supplementation trial. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi Qiao, Yi Mei, Huiqin Han, FengJu Liu, Xiao Min Yang, Yang Shao, Bin Xie, Bin Long Source Type: research

Emotion discrimination in humans: Its association with HSV-1 infection and its improvement with antiviral treatment
Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) infects over 3.4 billion people, world-wide. Though it can cause encephalitis, in the vast majority it is asymptomatic, with lifelong latent infection in neurons. HSV-1 infected individuals have greater cognitive dysfunction than uninfected individuals, particularly persons with schizophrenia – even without encephalitis. We investigated whether HSV-1 related cognitive dysfunction is progressive or remediable. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Triptish Bhatia, Joel Wood, Satish Iyengar, Sreelatha S. Narayanan, Ram Pratap Beniwal, Konasale M. Prasad, Kehui Chen, Robert H. Yolken, Faith Dickerson, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur, Smita N. Deshpande, Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar Source Type: research

Effects of Omega-3 in the treatment of violent schizophrenia patients
This study was designed to explore the relationship in between the daily consumption of fish oil (360mg DHA+540mg EPA), and reduction of symptoms and violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia. Method: Fifty inpatients meeting ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and scoring more than four of Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) with antipsychotics treatment were randomly assigned to receive either fish oil (N=28) or a placebo (N=22) in a twelve week, double-blind supplementation trial. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yi Qiao, Yi Mei, Huiqin Han, FengJu Liu, Xiao Min Yang, Yang Shao, Bin Xie, Bin Long Source Type: research

Autism and psychosis: Clinical implications for depression and suicide
This study examines the association of autism spectrum traits, depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in individuals with psychotic experiences.In two cross sectional studies, individuals from a non-help seeking university student sample and patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) service completed standardized measures of autism spectrum traits, psychotic experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel Upthegrove, Ahmad Abu-Akel, Katharine Chisholm, Ashleigh Lin, Sofia Zahid, Mirabel Pelton, Ian Apperly, Peter C. Hansen, Stephen J. Wood Source Type: research

Psychotic-like experiences in esoterism: A twilight zone?
Over the past decades, research has suggested the existence of a psychosis continuum ranging from psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in the general population to psychotic symptoms in patients with affective and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Especially individuals interested in esoterism were more often reported having experienced PLEs. However, there is little information on the extent of PLEs in this subculture. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of PLEs in a non-clinical population with interest in esoterism by means of an anonymized clinically used screening questionnaire. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barbara Hinterbuchinger, Zsuzsa Litvan, Elias Laurin Meyer, Fabian Friedrich, Alexander Kaltenboeck, Maria Gruber, Daniel K önig, Stefanie Sueßenbacher, Nilufar Mossaheb Source Type: research

Not just risk: there is also resilience and we should understand its neurobiological basis
In this Issue of Schizophrenia Research, the paper “Risk and resilience brain networks in treatment-resistant schizophrenia” by Ganella et al. (2017) has refreshingly focused not only on investigating which brain networks may confer risk to schizophrenia, but also which ones may confer resilience to the illness in individuals who have a genetic vulnerability but remain well. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Paola Dazzan Source Type: research

Autism and psychosis: Clinical implications for depression and suicide
This study examines the association of autism spectrum traits, depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in individuals with psychotic experiences.In two cross sectional studies, individuals from a non-help seeking university student sample and patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) service completed standardized measures of autism spectrum traits, psychotic experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel Upthegrove, Ahmad Abu-Akel, Katharine Chisholm, Ashleigh Lin, Sofia Zahid, Mirabel Pelton, Ian Apperly, Peter C. Hansen, Stephen J. Wood Source Type: research

Understanding marijuana's effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use disorder: A pilot investigation
Nearly half of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have co-occurring cannabis use disorder (CUD), which has been associated with decreased treatment efficacy, increased risk of psychotic relapse, and poor global functioning. While reports on the effects of cannabis on cognitive performance in patients with SCZ have been mixed, study of brain networks related to executive function may clarify the relationship between cannabis use and cognition in these dual-diagnosis patients. In the present pilot study, patients with SCZ and CUD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) res...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Adina S. Fischer, Angela M. Henricks, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Robert M. Roth, Mary F. Brunette, Alan I. Green Source Type: research

Compensatory cognitive training for people with severe mental illnesses in supported employment: A randomized controlled trial
Treatments for cognitive and functional impairments associated with severe mental illnesses are urgently needed. We tested a 12-week, manualized, Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) intervention targeting prospective memory, attention, learning/memory, and executive functioning in the context of supported employment for people with severe mental illnesses who were seeking work. 153 unemployed, work-seeking outpatients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n=58), bipolar disorder (n=37), or major depression (n=58) were randomized to receive supported employment plus CCT or enhanced supported employment, a robust co...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth W. Twamley, Kelsey R. Thomas, Cynthia Z. Burton, Lea Vella, Dilip V. Jeste, Robert K. Heaton, Susan R. McGurk Source Type: research

Progressive decline of cognition during the conversion from prodrome to psychosis with a characteristic pattern of the theory of mind compensated by neurocognition
This study included 83 individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), from which 26 converted to psychosis (converters) after a follow up period of 18months. Comprehensive cognitive tests (including MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, Faux-Pas Task, and Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks) were administered at baseline. A structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of neurocognition on the ToM functioning in both APS and healthy controls (HC) datasets. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: TianHong Zhang, HuiRu Cui, YanYan Wei, YingYing Tang, LiHua Xu, XiaoChen Tang, YiKang Zhu, LiJuan Jiang, Bin Zhang, ZhenYing Qian, Annabelle Chow, XiaoHua Liu, ChunBo Li, ZePing Xiao, JiJun Wang Source Type: research

Understanding marijuana's effects on functional connectivity of the default mode network in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use disorder: A pilot investigation
Nearly half of patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have co-occurring cannabis use disorder (CUD), which has been associated with decreased treatment efficacy, increased risk of psychotic relapse, and poor global functioning. While reports on the effects of cannabis on cognitive performance in patients with SCZ have been mixed, study of brain networks related to executive function may clarify the relationship between cannabis use and cognition in these dual-diagnosis patients. In the present pilot study, patients with SCZ and CUD (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) res...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Adina S. Fischer, Angela M. Henricks, Jibran Y. Khokhar, Robert M. Roth, Mary F. Brunette, Alan I. Green Source Type: research

Compensatory cognitive training for people with severe mental illnesses in supported employment: A randomized controlled trial
Treatments for cognitive and functional impairments associated with severe mental illnesses are urgently needed. We tested a 12-week, manualized, Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) intervention targeting prospective memory, attention, learning/memory, and executive functioning in the context of supported employment for people with severe mental illnesses who were seeking work. 153 unemployed, work-seeking outpatients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n=58), bipolar disorder (n=37), or major depression (n=58) were randomized to receive supported employment plus CCT or enhanced supported employment, a robust co...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elizabeth W. Twamley, Kelsey R. Thomas, Cynthia Z. Burton, Lea Vella, Dilip V. Jeste, Robert K. Heaton, Susan R. McGurk Source Type: research

Predictors of longer-term outcome in the Vienna omega-3 high-risk study
Longer-term data on ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for prevention of psychosis in (ultra high risk) UHR individuals have initially shown promising results.This analysis aimed to assess clinical predictors of longer-term outcome in UHR individuals treated with ω-3 PUFAs versus placebo.Data derived from an RCT in 81 UHR individuals treated with ω-3 PUFAs versus placebo for 12weeks and follow-up assessment after a median of 6.7years.Baseline GAF, baseline PANSS global score, pre-to-post-intervention change in EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) level were significant predictors of transition to psychosis, PA...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nilufar Mossaheb, Miriam R. Sch äfer, Monika Schlögelhofer, Claudia M. Klier, Stefan Smesny, Patrick D. McGorry, Maximus Berger, G. Paul Amminger Source Type: research

Progressive decline of cognition during the conversion from prodrome to psychosis with a characteristic pattern of the theory of mind compensated by neurocognition
This study included 83 individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), from which 26 converted to psychosis (converters) after a follow up period of 18months. Comprehensive cognitive tests (including MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, Faux-Pas Task, and Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks) were administered at baseline. A structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of neurocognition on the ToM functioning in both APS and healthy controls (HC) datasets. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 17, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: TianHong Zhang, HuiRu Cui, YanYan Wei, YingYing Tang, LiHua Xu, XiaoChen Tang, YiKang Zhu, LiJuan Jiang, Bin Zhang, ZhenYing Qian, Annabelle Chow, XiaoHua Liu, ChunBo Li, ZePing Xiao, JiJun Wang Source Type: research

On the brink of precision medicine for psychosis: Treating the patient, not the disease
With major scientific developments, precision medicine for psychiatry holds the promise for psychosis prevention and accurate prediction of individual treatment response, bringing hope for much needed effective and safe customized treatments. Although, biologically based and highly personalized treatments have already found their way in several medical specialities, precision medicine remains a challenge to psychiatry (DeLisi and Fleischhacker, 2016); in the absence of accurate diagnostic tests or precise biological markers, psychiatrists continue to rely on descriptive psychopathology to diagnose patients and devise corre...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arsime Demjaha Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Differences in the impairment of insight between deficit syndrome and non-deficit syndrome patients with first-episode schizophrenia
Up to one-third of individuals with schizophrenia may have deficit syndrome (DS; L ópez-Díaz et al., in press). These subjects with primary, enduring negative symptoms have more severe cognitive impairments than do non-deficit syndrome (NDS) patients (Bora et al., 2017). Although several studies suggest DS patients have a greater lack of insight than NDS patients (Ekinci et al., 2012; Kirkpatrick et al., 2000; Kösger et al., 2014; Pegoraro et al., 2013; Trotman et al., 2011), evidence of these differences in subjects with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) remains scarce (Trotman et al., 2011). (Source: S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Álvaro López-Díaz, Sara Galiano-Rus, Alfonso Herruzo-Rivas Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Risperidone and sulpiride: Brands vs generics
In a nationwide, population-based study that used information drawn from an insurance database, Hsu et al. (2017) found that, in patients with schizophrenia, those receiving branded risperidone (n=404) ‘required’ (more correctly, were prescribed) about 0.5mg/day lower doses than those receiving generic risperidone (n=145); however, treatment discontinuation, treatment augmentation, and psychiatric hospitalization rates were similar in the two groups. Patients receiving branded sulpiride (n=334 ) ‘required’ (again, more correctly, were prescribed) about 38mg/day lower doses and had lower psychiatric ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chittaranjan Andrade Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features: A selective review
A widely accepted consensus holds that a variety of motor symptoms subsumed under the term ‘catatonia’ have been an integral part of the symptomatology of schizophrenia since 1896, when Kraepelin proposed the concept of dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Until recently, psychiatric classifications included catatonic schizophrenia mainly through tradition, without compelling evidence of its validity as a schizophrenia subtype. This selective review briefly summarizes the history, psychopathology, demographic and epidemiological data, and treatment options for schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features. (Sour...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 14, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabor S. Ungvari, Jozsef Gerevich, Roz ália Takács, Gábor Gazdag Source Type: research

Neuroleptic-free youth at ultrahigh risk for psychosis evidence diminished emotion reactivity that is predicted by depression and anxiety
Although abnormalities in emotional response have long been considered a core feature of the chronic phase of schizophrenia, few investigations have examined emotional response in individuals at ultrahigh-risk (UHR) for psychosis. We investigated whether neuroleptic-free UHR (n=29) and healthy control (n=32) participants differed in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on a laboratory-based task that required reporting levels of positive and negative affect to pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral stimuli. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 12, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: June Gruber, Gregory P. Strauss, Laure Dombrecht, Vijay A. Mittal Source Type: research

Disengagement in immigrant groups receiving services for a first episode of psychosis
Although early intervention (EI) programs for psychosis invest in clients remaining engaged in treatment, disengagement remains a concern. It is not entirely clear whether immigrants are likelier to disengage. The rates and predictors of disengagement for immigrant vis- à-vis non-immigrant clients in a Canadian EI setting were analyzed. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anika Maraj, Franz Veru, Laura Morrison, Ridha Joober, Ashok Malla, Srividya Iyer, Jai Shah Source Type: research

Psychotic symptoms influence the development of anterior cingulate BOLD variability in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with a broad phenotype of clinical, cognitive and psychiatric features. Due to the very high prevalence of schizophrenia (30 –40%), the investigation of psychotic symptoms in the syndrome is promising to reveal biomarkers for the development of psychosis, also in the general population. Since schizophrenia is seen as a disorder of the dynamic interactions between brain networks, we here investigated brain dynamics, asse ssed by the variability of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals, in patients with psychotic sympt...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniela Z öller, Maria Carmela Padula, Corrado Sandini, Maude Schneider, Elisa Scariati, Dimitri Van De Ville, Marie Schaer, Stephan Eliez Source Type: research

Attenuated psychotic symptoms in children and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia
To compare the offspring of patients with SZ (SZoff) with those of a community control group (CC-off) to determine the variables associated with attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS), general symptomatology and functioning that may help to differentiate those at genetic risk for SZ. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ana Noguera, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Soledad Romero, Elena de la Serna, Gisela Sugranyes, Vanessa S ánchez-Gistau, Dolores Moreno, Covadonga M. Díaz-Caneja, Jessica Merchán-Naranjo, Cloe Llorente, Inmaculada Baeza Source Type: research

Increased prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia
Treatment response to antipsychotics is highly variable, ranging from functional remission to treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS). In spite of compelling evidence that infection with Toxoplasma gondii (TG) increases the likelihood of schizophrenia (Sutterland et al., 2015) and influences its clinical presentation (Esshili et al., 2016), there is no data whether TG infection relates to treatment-resistance. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of TRS with TG seropositivity and with different demographic and clinical features in 210 inpatients aged 18 to 65years, diagnosed (according to DSM-IV criteria...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Suzana Vlatkovic, Marina Sagud, Dubravka Svob Strac, Mario Sviben, Maja Zivkovic, Maja Vilibic, Bjanka Vuksan-Cusa, Alma Mihaljevic-Peles, Nela Pivac Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Schizophrenia and psychosis: Does changing the label change the beliefs?
Renaming schizophrenia has been proposed as a potential strategy to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with this disorder (Lasalvia and Tansella, 2013; Keshavan et al., 2013). Two recent reviews have extensively examined the effects of the proposed changes on stigma-related outcomes. Lasalvia et al. (2015) concluded that the advantages of renaming schizophrenia far outweigh the disadvantages. Yamaguchi et al. (2017) reported that in countries where schizophrenia had been officially renamed there were improvements in adults' attitudes and increases in the announcement of the diagnosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 9, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: L. Magliano, M. Petrillo, G. Ruggiero, G. Schioppa Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Avoidance of accelerated aging in schizophrenia?: Clinical and biological characterization of an exceptionally high functioning individual
To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of an exceptionally high functioning index person (IP) with schizophrenia in her mid-50s, which may represent compensatory mechanisms, and potentially, avoidance of the accelerated aging typically associated with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barton W. Palmer, Raeanne C. Moore, Lisa T. Eyler, Luz L. Pinto, Elyn R. Saks, Dilip V. Jeste Source Type: research

Medial septum modulates hippocampal gamma activity and prepulse inhibition in an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist model of schizophrenia
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30 –100Hz) oscillations. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: L. Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma Source Type: research

Avoidance of accelerated aging in schizophrenia?: Clinical and biological characterization of an exceptionally high functioning individual
To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of an exceptionally high functioning index person (IP) with schizophrenia in her mid-50s, which may represent compensatory mechanisms, and potentially, avoidance of the accelerated aging typically associated with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Barton W. Palmer, Raeanne C. Moore, Lisa T. Eyler, Luz L. Pinto, Elyn R. Saks, Dilip V. Jeste Source Type: research

Medial septum modulates hippocampal gamma activity and prepulse inhibition in an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist model of schizophrenia
We reviewed the participation of the septohippocampal system in an animal model of schizophrenia that was acutely induced by systemic injection of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist such as phencyclidine, MK-801 and ketamine. The NMDA receptor antagonist-induced model of schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral and electrophysiological disruptions, including a decrease in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI), hyperlocomotion, decrease in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials and robust increase in hippocampal gamma (30 –100Hz) oscillations. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: L. Stan Leung, Jingyi Ma Source Type: research

Psychotic experiences and disability: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys
Psychotic experiences are associated with a number of poor clinical outcomes, including multimorbid psychopathology, suicidal behavior, and poor treatment response. We wished to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and disability, including the following domains: cognition, mobility, self-care, social interaction, role functioning, and days out of role. We used three nationally representative and racially/ethnically diverse samples of the general US adult population: the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS), and the National Survey of A...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hans Oh, Ai Koyanagi, Ian Kelleher, Jordan DeVylder Source Type: research

Impaired theta and alpha oscillations underlying stopsignal response inhibition deficits in schizophrenia
Poor inhibitory control is a factor in schizophrenia patients (SZ) who are slow to stop initiated behaviours (response inhibition) in the stopsignal-task (slow stop-signal RT, SSRT) (Hughes et al., 2012). Faster SSRT is linked to greater activation of right inferior-frontal gyrus (rIFG) (Aron, 2011; Hughes et al., 2013) including theta-alpha oscillations (4 –12Hz) (Jha et al., 2015); unsurprisingly, Stop-related rIFG activity is diminished in SZ (Hughes et al., 2012). Here we analyse electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations from archival data (Hughes et al., 2012) time-locked to stop-signals and SSRT; in the latter ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patrick S. Cooper, Matthew E. Hughes Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Transglutaminase-5 related schizophrenia
We previously identified de novo mutations in 5 genes from 14 parent-offspring trios with sporadic schizophrenia from Jerusalem (Kranz et al., 2015), one of which was a disruptive mutation in the transglutaminase-5 (TGM5) gene. Subsequently, we found 4 more rare and potentially damaging TGM5 variants in four of 48 cases with chronic psychosis from a thoroughly characterized New York sample. The genetic architecture of schizophrenia entails an excess of de novo mutations and rare gene variants (Fromer et al., 2014; Purcell et al., 2014; Geisheker et al., 2017), of which TGM5 is one of many. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter Joe, Mara Getz, Samantha Redman, Thorsten Manfred Kranz, Moses V. Chao, Shannon Delaney, Lea Ann Chen, Dolores Malaspina Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Investigating the role of metastability in the disturbed brain functional connectivity observed under the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenia
The interaction of the brain oscillations under specific circumstances could characterize abnormal brain functioning usually observed in nosological entities such as schizophrenia where the neuronal connectivity is disturbed (Uhlhaas et al., 2008; Moran and Hong, 2011). The study by Angelopoulos and colleagues (Angelopoulos et al., 2011) provided indications for increased intra- and inter-hemispheric temporal coupling during persistent Auditory Verbal Hallucinatory (AVHs) states. These results supported the assumption of an α-EEG band oscillation involvement, by means of erroneous phase coupling, in the processes und...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elias Koutsoukos, Elias Angelopoulos Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Working toward changing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP)
The Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is a measure of public health relevance. This should not surprise anyone familiar with the tortuous journeys that individuals and their families must often undertake to engage with available treatment. The time between the onset of florid psychosis (however defined) and the receipt of treatment (of various standards, and in various settings) is robustly associated with a broad range of relevant outcomes (Marshall et al., 2005; Perkins et al., 2005). But is DUP a modifiable prognostic marker or a mere confound that travels with poor prognosis Schizophrenia? (McGlashan, 1999). (Sourc...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vinod H. Srihari Source Type: research

Preliminary psychometric properties of the brief Negative Symptom Scale in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis
Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gregory P. Strauss, Hannah C. Chapman Source Type: research

A tale of two sites: Differential impairment of frequency and duration mismatch negativity across a primarily inpatient versus a primarily outpatient site in schizophrenia
Deficits in mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the best replicated neurophysiological deficits in schizophrenia, with reduced amplitude reflecting impaired information processing at the level of supratemporal auditory cortex. Differential patterns of MMN dysfunction according to deviant types have been reported across studies, with some research groups showing impairment in duration MMN but not frequency MMN, and other research groups reporting both findings. We evaluate the hypothesis that recruitment setting, reflecting current functional status, might be an important determinant of the pattern of MMN dysfunc...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Migyung Lee, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C. Dias, Gail S. Silipo, Joshua T. Kantrowitz, Antigona M. Martinez, Daniel C. Javitt Source Type: research

Negative symptoms and the formation of social affiliative bonds in schizophrenia
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are characterized by deficits in normative experiences and expression of emotion, and they are associated with poor social functioning. Negative symptoms relating to deficits in motivation and pleasure may hinder the development of affiliative bonds. The current study used a novel procedure to examine the relation between negative symptoms and the development of social affiliation within a laboratory setting. Fifty-five men (35 controls; 20 with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder) completed three Social Affiliation Enhancement Tasks with an experimenter partner. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julie M. McCarthy, Kristen R. Bradshaw, Lauren T. Catalano, Cristina P. Garcia, Asia Malik, Melanie E. Bennett, Jack J. Blanchard Source Type: research

Thought, language, and communication deficits and association with everyday functional outcomes among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia
Older adults with schizophrenia experience poorer community integration and social functioning compared to same-age peers with no mental health disorders; these individuals are at elevated risk for functional decline and early institutionalization in long-term care facilities. Deficits in thought, language, and communication (TLC; that is, thought disorder and alogia) are core features of schizophrenia and may worsen with age; however, little research focuses on the functional sequelae of these impairments among older adults with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anjana Muralidharan, Anastasia Finch, Christopher R. Bowie, Philip D. Harvey Source Type: research

Comorbidity of chronic somatic diseases in patients with psychotic disorders and their influence on 4-year outcomes of integrated care treatment (ACCESS II study)
People with psychotic disorders fulfilling criteria of a severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) display a high risk of somatic comorbidity (SC). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martin Lambert, Friederike Ruppelt, Anna-Katharina Siem, Anja Christine Rohenkohl, Vivien Kraft, Daniel Luedecke, Mary Sengutta, Romy Schr öter, Anne Daubmann, Christoph U. Correll, Jürgen Gallinat, Anne Karow, Klaus Wiedemann, Daniel Schöttle Source Type: research

Translating cognitive behavioral interventions from bench to bedside: The feasibility and acceptability of cognitive remediation in research as compared to clinical settings
This study evaluated the fit between the program conditions and treatment model in research and clinical settings, with the goal of informing future research on the contextual challenges associated with the implementation of CR. Data was drawn from an initiative by New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH), to implement CR programs for adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) in 16 state operated outpatient clinics. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alice Medalia, Matthew D. Erlich, Charlotte Soumet-Leman, Alice M. Saperstein Source Type: research

Pre-onset risk characteristics for mania among young people at clinical high risk for psychosis
Psychosis and mania share conceptual, genetic and clinical features, which suggest the possibility that they have common antecedents. Participants identified to be at-risk for psychosis might also be at-risk for mania. We aimed to identify the rate and predictors of transition to mania in a cohort of youth with clinical or familial risk for psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Aswin Ratheesh, Susan M. Cotton, Christopher G. Davey, Ashleigh Lin, Stephen Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Andreas Bechdolf, Patrick D. McGorry, Alison Yung, Michael Berk, Barnaby Nelson Source Type: research

Mismatch negativity in preclinical models of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with profoundly disruptive positive and negative symptomology that result in difficulties building close relationships with others, performing daily tasks and sustaining independent living, resulting in poor social, vocational and occupational attainment (functional outcome). Mismatch Negativity (MMN) is a change in the sensory event-related potential that occurs in response to deviation from an established pattern of stimulation. Patients with schizophrenia show a reduction in MMN that is positively associated with impaired cognition and poor functional outcome. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert E. Featherstone, Olya Melnychenko, Steven J. Siegel Source Type: research

Completing the puzzle: The search for pieces in the understanding of psychosis risk in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
In this issue of Schizophrenia Research, Kates and colleagues provide an exemplary study examining the longitudinal trajectories of cortical thickness as a potential biomarker for later developing psychosis for younger individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS). Although parallel efforts in first episode schizophrenia have produced such connections, Kates et al. provide some of the first data showing a linkage between brain architecture and later psychotic presentation in this well-known genetic condition using a longitudinal design. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stephen R. Hooper, Vandana Shashi Source Type: research

Promoting long-term functional improvement after cognitive remediation in schizophrenia
Cognitive remediation interventions have emerged as effective approaches for treating core cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The efficacy of these approaches has been demonstrated in early course (Fisher et al. 2015) and long-term (Hogarty et al. 2004) patients, with evidence of improved neurocognitive, social-cognitive, symptom, and functional outcomes (Kurtz and Mueser 2008; Wykes et al. 2011. Meta-analytic reviews have often observed that the impact of these interventions on functional outcome are markedly enhanced when cognitive remediation is integrated within broader rehabilitation or psychosocial s...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shaun M. Eack Source Type: research