The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) consortium: A collaborative cognitive and neuroimaging genetics project
This article describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabri ëlla A.M. Blokland, Elisabetta C. del Re, Raquelle I. Mesholam-Gately, Jorge Jovicich, Joey W. Trampush, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Lynn E. DeLisi, James T.R. Walters, Jessica A. Turner, Anil K. Malhotra, Todd Lencz, Martha E. Shenton, Aristotle N. Voin Source Type: research

Depression during first episode psychosis and subsequent suicide risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Evidence suggests first episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with suicide, and the influence of depression on suicidal behaviour in cross sectional studies is clear. However the influence of depression during FEP on longer-term mortality is not certain. Existing evidence was synthesised to understand the influence of depressive symptoms during FEP on subsequent suicidal behaviour. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 2, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jessica McGinty, M. Sayeed Haque, Rachel Upthegrove Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

In This Issue September 2017
As always, we attempt to bring together several different topics about schizophrenia etiology, pathophysiology and treatment within one issue so that they can “cross-fertilize” one another and thus contribute new insights about the illness. Thus, we have here brought together a much researched MRI measurement (cortical thickness) as a biological marker, inflammatory mechanisms, the cannabinoid system, treatment of facial affect recognition impairments , negative symptoms, and treatment resistant schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lynn E. DeLisi Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Structural anomalies of the peripheral olfactory system in psychosis high-risk subjects
Olfactory impairments are prominent in both schizophrenia and the preceding at-risk state. Their presence prior to illness predicts poor functional outcome. In schizophrenia, these impairments reflect peripheral olfactory structural abnormalities, which are hypothesized to arise during early embryonic development. If this is correct, then similar structural anomalies should be apparent among clinical high-risk subjects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bruce I. Turetsky, Paul J. Moberg, Megan Quarmley, Erich Dress, Monica E. Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Karthik Prabhakaran, Raquel E. Gur, David R. Roalf Source Type: research

Influence of Venus and Mars in the cognitive sky of schizophrenia. Results from the first-step national FACE-SZ cohort
Sex differences can yield important clues regarding illness pathophysiology and its treatment. Schizophrenia (SZ) has a lower incidence rate, and a better prognosis, in women versus men. The present study investigated the cognitive profiles of both sexes in a large multi-centre sample of community-dwelling SZ patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G. Fond, L. Boyer, M. Leboyer, O. Godin, P.M. Llorca, M. Andrianarisoa, F. Berna, L. Brunel, B. Aouizerate, D. Capdevielle, I. Chereau, T. D'Amato, C. Dubertret, J. Dubreucq, C. Faget, F. Gabayet, J. Mallet, D. Misdrahi, R. Rey, C. Lancon, C. Passerieux, Source Type: research

Structural anomalies of the peripheral olfactory system in psychosis high-risk subjects
Olfactory impairments are prominent in both schizophrenia and the preceding at-risk state. Their presence prior to illness predicts poor functional outcome. In schizophrenia, these impairments reflect peripheral olfactory structural abnormalities, which are hypothesized to arise during early embryonic development. If this is correct, then similar structural anomalies should be apparent among clinical high-risk subjects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bruce I. Turetsky, Paul J. Moberg, Megan Quarmley, Erich Dress, Monica E. Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Karthik Prabhakaran, Raquel E. Gur, David R. Roalf Source Type: research

Influence of Venus and Mars in the cognitive sky of schizophrenia. Results from the first-step national FACE-SZ cohort
Sex differences can yield important clues regarding illness pathophysiology and its treatment. Schizophrenia (SZ) has a lower incidence rate, and a better prognosis, in women versus men. The present study investigated the cognitive profiles of both sexes in a large multi-centre sample of community-dwelling SZ patients. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G. Fond, L. Boyer, M. Leboyer, O. Godin, P.M. Llorca, M. Andrianarisoa, F. Berna, L. Brunel, B. Aouizerate, D. Capdevielle, I. Chereau, T. D'Amato, C. Dubertret, J. Dubreucq, C. Faget, F. Gabayet, J. Mallet, D. Misdrahi, R. Rey, C. Lancon, C. Passerieux, Source Type: research

Targeted neural network interventions for auditory hallucinations: Can TMS inform DBS?
The debilitating and refractory nature of auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders has stimulated investigations into neuromodulatory interventions that target the aberrant neural networks associated with them. Internal or invasive forms of brain stimulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) are currently being explored for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The process of developing and implementing DBS is limited by symptom clustering within psychiatric constructs as well as a scarcity of causal tools with which to predict response, refine targeting or guide clinical decisions. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph J. Taylor, John H. Krystal, Deepak C. D'Souza, Jason Lee Gerrard, Philip R. Corlett Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among patients admitted to treatment for drug use disorders
This study aimed to assess drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among a national cohort of patients with a history of schizophrenia admitted to DUD treatment. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristine R ømer Thomsen, Birgitte Thylstrup, Michael Mulbjerg Pedersen, Mads Uffe Pedersen, Erik Simonsen, Morten Hesse Source Type: research

Neighbourhood ethnic density and psychosis — Is there a difference according to generation?
For different migrant groups living in an area with few people from the same ethnic background is associated with increased psychosis incidence (the ethnic density effect). We set out to answer the question: are there generational differences in this effect? (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter Schofield, Malene Thygesen, Jayati Das-Munshi, Laia Becares, Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Esben Agerbo, Carsten Pedersen Source Type: research

Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in recent onset psychosis patients
The reasoning bias of jumping to conclusions (JTC) consists of a tendency to make assumptions having little information. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lucas Elio Gonz ález, Raquel López-Carrilero, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Eva Grasa, Ana Barajas, Esther Pousa, Fermín González-Higueras, Isabel Ruiz-Delgado, Jordi Cid, Esther Lorente-Rovira, Trinidad Pélaez, the Spanish Metacognition Study Group, Susana Source Type: research

Pregnancy exposure to quetiapine – Therapeutic drug monitoring in maternal blood, amniotic fluid and cord blood and obstetrical outcomes
This prospective study is the first to measure and correlate quetiapine concentrations in maternal blood, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood to account for the distribution of quetiapine. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Paulzen, Tamme W. Goecke, Maxim Kuzin, Marc Augustin, Gerhard Gr ünder, Georgios Schoretsanitis Source Type: research

Targeted neural network interventions for auditory hallucinations: Can TMS inform DBS?
The debilitating and refractory nature of auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders has stimulated investigations into neuromodulatory interventions that target the aberrant neural networks associated with them. Internal or invasive forms of brain stimulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) are currently being explored for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The process of developing and implementing DBS is limited by symptom clustering within psychiatric constructs as well as a scarcity of causal tools with which to predict response, refine targeting or guide clinical decisions. (S...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joseph J. Taylor, John H. Krystal, Deepak C. D'Souza, Jason Lee Gerrard, Philip R. Corlett Tags: Invited commentary Source Type: research

Drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among patients admitted to treatment for drug use disorders
This study aimed to assess drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among a national cohort of patients with a history of schizophrenia admitted to DUD treatment. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristine R ømer Thomsen, Birgitte Thylstrup, Michael Mulbjerg Pedersen, Mads Uffe Pedersen, Erik Simonsen, Morten Hesse Source Type: research

Neighbourhood ethnic density and psychosis — Is there a difference according to generation?
For different migrant groups living in an area with few people from the same ethnic background is associated with increased psychosis incidence (the ethnic density effect). We set out to answer the question: are there generational differences in this effect? (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peter Schofield, Malene Thygesen, Jayati Das-Munshi, Laia Becares, Elizabeth Cantor-Graae, Esben Agerbo, Carsten Pedersen Source Type: research

Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in recent onset psychosis patients
The reasoning bias of jumping to conclusions (JTC) consists of a tendency to make assumptions having little information. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lucas Elio Gonz ález, Raquel López-Carrilero, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Eva Grasa, Ana Barajas, Esther Pousa, Fermín González-Higueras, Isabel Ruiz-Delgado, Jordi Cid, Esther Lorente-Rovira, Trinidad Pélaez, the Spanish Metacognition Study Group, Susana Source Type: research

Pregnancy exposure to quetiapine – Therapeutic drug monitoring in maternal blood, amniotic fluid and cord blood and obstetrical outcomes
This prospective study is the first to measure and correlate quetiapine concentrations in maternal blood, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood to account for the distribution of quetiapine. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 29, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael Paulzen, Tamme W. Goecke, Maxim Kuzin, Marc Augustin, Gerhard Gr ünder, Georgios Schoretsanitis Source Type: research

White matter microstructure and cognitive remediation outcomes in schizophrenia
Cognitive remediation has emerged as an effective approach for the treatment of cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia that can aid in significantly improving functional recovery from the disorder (McGurk et al., 2007; Wykes et al., 2011). Most cognitive remediation protocols are predicated upon the assumption of neuroplasticity and that with repeated exercise, targeted cognitive training may be able to alter brain functions (Ramsay and MacDonald, 2015) or structure (Eack et al., 2010) in ways that meaningfully improve outcomes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sinead M. Kelly, Shaun M. Eack Source Type: research

Peripheral oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with clinical symptom severity and cognitive functioning in midlife women with chronic schizophrenia
Neuroendocrine factors may contribute to cognitive and clinical symptom severity in schizophrenia, particularly among midlife women who may be a particularly vulnerable subpopulation given menopausal-related hormonal changes. Numerous studies demonstrate influences of both sex steroid hormones and sexually dimorphic neurohormones including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cognition and symptomatology in schizophrenia (Bergemann et al., 2007; Kulkarni et al., 2015; Rubin et al., 2014; Rubin et al., 2013; Rubin et al., 2010; Rubin et al., 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leah H. Rubin, Heidi J. Wehring, Haley Demyanovich, C. Sue Carter, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Stephanie M. Feldman, Amber K. Earl, Sharon August, James M. Gold, Deanna L. Kelly Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The effects of curcumin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) with potential as a complementary treatment for people with schizophrenia. In preclinical studies, curcumin has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and pro-cognitive properties, as well as increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Dong et al., 2012; Fanaei et al., 2016; Motaghinejad et al., 2017). The effects of curcumin on BDNF and neurocognition are particularly relevant for schizophrenia as well-documented lower levels of BDNF and neurocognitive deficits have been reported (Green et...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathan K. Wynn, Michael F. Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Kumari Karunaratne, Michael C. Davis, Stephen R. Marder Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

White matter microstructure and cognitive remediation outcomes in schizophrenia
Cognitive remediation has emerged as an effective approach for the treatment of cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia that can aid in significantly improving functional recovery from the disorder (McGurk et al., 2007; Wykes et al., 2011). Most cognitive remediation protocols are predicated upon the assumption of neuroplasticity and that with repeated exercise, targeted cognitive training may be able to alter brain functions (Ramsay and MacDonald, 2015) or structure (Eack et al., 2010) in ways that meaningfully improve outcomes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sinead M. Kelly, Shaun M. Eack Source Type: research

Peripheral oxytocin and vasopressin are associated with clinical symptom severity and cognitive functioning in midlife women with chronic schizophrenia
Neuroendocrine factors may contribute to cognitive and clinical symptom severity in schizophrenia, particularly among midlife women who may be a particularly vulnerable subpopulation given menopausal-related hormonal changes. Numerous studies demonstrate influences of both sex steroid hormones and sexually dimorphic neurohormones including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) on cognition and symptomatology in schizophrenia (Bergemann et al., 2007; Kulkarni et al., 2015; Rubin et al., 2014; Rubin et al., 2013; Rubin et al., 2010; Rubin et al., 2015). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Leah H. Rubin, Heidi J. Wehring, Haley Demyanovich, C. Sue Carter, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Stephanie M. Feldman, Amber K. Earl, Sharon August, James M. Gold, Deanna L. Kelly Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The effects of curcumin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognition in schizophrenia: A randomized controlled study
Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound derived from the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa) with potential as a complementary treatment for people with schizophrenia. In preclinical studies, curcumin has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and pro-cognitive properties, as well as increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Dong et al., 2012; Fanaei et al., 2016; Motaghinejad et al., 2017). The effects of curcumin on BDNF and neurocognition are particularly relevant for schizophrenia as well-documented lower levels of BDNF and neurocognitive deficits have been reported (Green et...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathan K. Wynn, Michael F. Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Kumari Karunaratne, Michael C. Davis, Stephen R. Marder Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A widening longevity gap between people with schizophrenia and general population: A literature review and call for action
Individuals with schizophrenia have higher mortality rates than the population at large. General mortality rates have declined in developed countries since the early 1970s, extending average lifespan by nearly a decade. This review of eight longitudinal studies of mortality in schizophrenia found that the mean standardized mortality ratio (SMR, a measure of mortality rate in schizophrenia compared to the general population) increased 37%, from 2.2 in the pre-1970s studies to 3.0 in the post-1970s reports. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellen E. Lee, Jinyuan Liu, Xin Tu, Barton W. Palmer, Lisa T. Eyler, Dilip V. Jeste Source Type: research

Exploration of clinical high-risk dropouts
Research into those at clinical high-risk (CHR) of psychosis is steadily increasing. Since these young people are difficult to find, and at times difficult to retain in longitudinal studies that often require lengthy clinical and biomarker assessments, drop-outs are not uncommon. For example, in the EPOS study 25.6% of participants were lost to follow-up over an 18-month follow-up (Ruhrmann et al., 2010). Since a major aim of CHR research is to understand more about the development of psychosis, it is important to know whether those who dropout do so with increased symptoms and are potentially more likely to be later conve...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacqueline Stowkowy, Lu Liu, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Ming T. Tsuang, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Scott W. Woods, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Elaine F. Walker, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel H. Mathalon, Jean Addington Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A widening longevity gap between people with schizophrenia and general population: A literature review and call for action
Individuals with schizophrenia have higher mortality rates than the population at large. General mortality rates have declined in developed countries since the early 1970s, extending average lifespan by nearly a decade. This review of eight longitudinal studies of mortality in schizophrenia found that the mean standardized mortality ratio (SMR, a measure of mortality rate in schizophrenia compared to the general population) increased 37%, from 2.2 in the pre-1970s studies to 3.0 in the post-1970s reports. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ellen E. Lee, Jinyuan Liu, Xin Tu, Barton W. Palmer, Lisa T. Eyler, Dilip V. Jeste Source Type: research

Exploration of clinical high-risk dropouts
Research into those at clinical high-risk (CHR) of psychosis is steadily increasing. Since these young people are difficult to find, and at times difficult to retain in longitudinal studies that often require lengthy clinical and biomarker assessments, drop-outs are not uncommon. For example, in the EPOS study 25.6% of participants were lost to follow-up over an 18-month follow-up (Ruhrmann et al., 2010). Since a major aim of CHR research is to understand more about the development of psychosis, it is important to know whether those who dropout do so with increased symptoms and are potentially more likely to be later conve...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacqueline Stowkowy, Lu Liu, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Ming T. Tsuang, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Scott W. Woods, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Elaine F. Walker, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel H. Mathalon, Jean Addington Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The influence of MIR137 on white matter fractional anisotropy and cortical surface area in individuals with familial risk for psychosis
The rs1625579 variant near the microRNA-137 (MIR137) gene is one of the best-supported schizophrenia variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and microRNA-137 functionally regulates other GWAS identified schizophrenia risk variants. Schizophrenia patients with the MIR137 rs1625579 risk genotype (homozygous for the schizophrenia risk variant) also have aberrant brain structure. It is unclear if the effect of MIR137 among schizophrenia patients is due to potential epistasis with genetic risk for schizophrenia or other factors of the disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bob O. Vogel, Tristram A. Lett, Susanne Erk, Sebastian Mohnke, Carolin Wackerhagen, Eva J. Brandl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Kristina Otto, Janina I. Schweiger, Heike Tost, Markus M. N öthen, Marcella Rietschel, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H. Witt, An Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine use in schizophrenia
I read with interest the paper by Mehta et al. (2017) addressing the issue of eszopiclone use for negative symptoms in schizophrenia as it points out to the novel therapeutic targets. Authors report on eszopiclone use in add-on therapy to antipsychotics being efficacious for persistent deficit symptoms in schizophrenia treatment including cognitive decline. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs produce its hypnotic effects via the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex sharing pharmacodynamics with benzodiazepines, in particular, in higher doses (Cuba ła and Landowski, 2007). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adam W łodarczyk Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The influence of MIR137 on white matter fractional anisotropy and cortical surface area in individuals with familial risk for psychosis
The rs1625579 variant near the microRNA-137 (MIR137) gene is one of the best-supported schizophrenia variants in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and microRNA-137 functionally regulates other GWAS identified schizophrenia risk variants. Schizophrenia patients with the MIR137 rs1625579 risk genotype (homozygous for the schizophrenia risk variant) also have aberrant brain structure. It is unclear if the effect of MIR137 among schizophrenia patients is due to potential epistasis with genetic risk for schizophrenia or other factors of the disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bob O. Vogel, Tristram A. Lett, Susanne Erk, Sebastian Mohnke, Carolin Wackerhagen, Eva J. Brandl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Kristina Otto, Janina I. Schweiger, Heike Tost, Markus M. N öthen, Marcella Rietschel, Franziska Degenhardt, Stephanie H. Witt, An Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine use in schizophrenia
I read with interest the paper by Mehta et al. (2017) addressing the issue of eszopiclone use for negative symptoms in schizophrenia as it points out to the novel therapeutic targets. Authors report on eszopiclone use in add-on therapy to antipsychotics being efficacious for persistent deficit symptoms in schizophrenia treatment including cognitive decline. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs produce its hypnotic effects via the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex sharing pharmacodynamics with benzodiazepines, in particular, in higher doses (Cuba ła and Landowski, 2007). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adam W łodarczyk Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Objective assessment of exploratory behaviour in schizophrenia using wireless motion capture
This study evaluated deficits in exploratory behaviour in an open-field setting using wireless motion capture. Twenty-one stable adult outpatients with schizophrenia and twenty matched healthy controls completed the Novelty Exploration Task, in which participants explored a novel environment containing familiar and uncommon objects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 24, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ishraq Siddiqui, Gary Remington, Paul J. Fletcher, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Jason W. Fong, Sarah Saperia, Gagan Fervaha, Susana Da Silva, Konstantine K. Zakzanis, George Foussias Source Type: research

First-episode psychosis patients display increased plasma IL-18 that correlates with cognitive dysfunction
Growing evidence implicate low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as indicated by increased central and peripheral levels of cytokines. Patients with chronic schizophrenia show elevated levels of blood interleukin (IL)-18 (Tanaka et al., 2000; Xiu et al., 2012), a pleiotropic cytokine with a broad range of cellular effects related to adaptive and innate host defense mechanisms (Nakanishi et al., 2001). Here we analyze plasma and CSF levels of IL-18 in a well-characterized cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls derived from the Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (see Orha...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Funda Orhan, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lilly Schwieler, Simon Cervenka, Lena Flyckt, Carl M. Sellgren, Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) consortium, G öran Engberg, Sophie Erhardt Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

A systematic review of metabolite biomarkers of schizophrenia
Current diagnosis of schizophrenia relies exclusively on the potentially subjective interpretation of clinical symptoms and social functioning as more objective biological measurement and medical diagnostic tests are not presently available. The use of metabolomics in the discovery of disease biomarkers has grown in recent years. Metabolomic methods could aid in the discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. This systematic review focuses on biofluid metabolites associated with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jennifer Davison, Aoife O'Gorman, Lorraine Brennan, David R. Cotter Source Type: research

The incidence rate of cancer in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies
Numerous studies report that cancer prevalence in patients with schizophrenia might be different from the general population, but findings remain controversial. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hailong Li, Jiasi Li, Xiya Yu, Huiwen Zheng, Xu Sun, Yue Lu, Yanbo Zhang, Chunbo Li, Xiaoying Bi Source Type: research

An ambiguous psychiatric diagnosis resolved by genetic investigations
The possibility of overlaps between schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) raises the question of the exactness of the diagnosis in psychiatry. As shown in the following case, the breakthrough of genetic screening in psychiatry may provide some answers. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Poisson, E. Favre, E. Peyroux, A. Nicolas, C. Schlutz Bolard, C. Demily Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The incidence rate of cancer in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies
Numerous studies report that cancer prevalence in patients with schizophrenia might be different from the general population, but findings remain controversial. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hailong Li, Jiasi Li, Xiya Yu, Huiwen Zheng, Xu Sun, Yue Lu, Yanbo Zhang, Chunbo Li, Xiaoying Bi Source Type: research

An ambiguous psychiatric diagnosis resolved by genetic investigations
The possibility of overlaps between schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) raises the question of the exactness of the diagnosis in psychiatry. As shown in the following case, the breakthrough of genetic screening in psychiatry may provide some answers. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Poisson, E. Favre, E. Peyroux, A. Nicolas, C. Schlutz Bolard, C. Demily Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Historical and conceptual aspects of motor disorders in the psychoses
Historical epistemology is a useful method to understand the longitudinal construction of the movement disorders in psychiatry. Four periods can be identified in such a process. The first, extending from Classical times to the work of Griesinger, included disorders such as catalepsy, crocidism, epilepsy and paralysis. The second period, stretching from Griesinger to Kahlbaum, concentrated on the study of melancholia attonita, stupor and catatonia. The third period, covering the time from Kahlbaum to WWI, witnessed important conceptual shifts such as: the transformation of madness into psychoses; the redefinition of movemen...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: German E. Berrios, Ivana S. Markov á Source Type: research

Individualized prediction of psychosis in subjects with an at-risk mental state
Early intervention strategies in psychosis would significantly benefit from the identification of reliable prognostic biomarkers. Pattern classification methods have shown the feasibility of an early diagnosis of psychosis onset both in clinical and familial high-risk populations. Here we were interested in replicating our previous classification findings using an independent cohort at clinical high risk for psychosis, drawn from the prospective FePsy (Fruherkennung von Psychosen) study. The same neuroanatomical-based pattern classification pipeline, consisting of a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a Recursive Featu...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eleni Zarogianni, Amos J. Storkey, Stefan Borgwardt, Renata Smieskova, Erich Studerus, Anita Riecher-R össler, Stephen M. Lawrie Source Type: research

Brief executive function training for individuals with severe mental illness: Effects on EEG synchronization and executive functioning
Executive Functioning (EF) is an important factor for community functioning for people with severe mental illness. Cognitive remediation programs often improve EF, but do so by using multiple therapeutic techniques. Little is known regarding how individual treatment elements promote cognitive improvement. Oscillatory brain activity is a potential neurophysiological mechanism that may change as a result of targeted training on computerized exercises. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a brief EF training program on EEG and neurocognitive measures. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael W. Best, Daniel Gale, Tanya Tran, Mashal K. Haque, Christopher R. Bowie Source Type: research

Impact of lifetime traumatic experiences on suicidality and likelihood of conversion in a cohort of individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis
Recent research suggests that trauma history (TH) is a strong socio-environmental risk factor for the development of psychosis. While reported rates of childhood trauma are higher among individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis than in the general population, little research has explored the effects of trauma upon the severity of attenuated positive symptoms. We aimed to explore the specific relationships between TH and baseline symptom severity; likelihood of conversion to full-blown psychosis; suicidal ideation (SI); and suicidal behavior (SB) in a cohort of 200 help-seeking CHR individuals. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Margaux M. Grivel, Wei Leong, Michael D. Masucci, Rebecca A. Altschuler, Leigh Y. Arndt, Samantha L. Redman, Lawrence H. Yang, Gary Brucato, Ragy R. Girgis Source Type: research

Intimate partner violence and psychotic experiences in four U.S. cities
A large body of research has established a relationship between trauma exposure, particularly during childhood, and psychotic experiences. Yet, there remains a general lack of research on adult trauma exposure, including intimate partner violence (IPV), as a risk factor for psychotic experiences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between IPV and psychotic experiences in U.S. cities. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Roma Shah, Tara Von Mach, Lisa Fedina, Bruce Link, Jordan DeVylder Source Type: research

Deficient single item maintenance following intact updating in schizophrenia
Working memory is a core cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (Lee and Park, 2005; Silver et al., 2003), observed across modalities including visuospatial, auditory, and verbal working memory (Longenecker et al., 2010; Manglam et al., 2010; Park and Gooding, 2014). Baddeley proposed a working memory model in which a central executive controls how information is distributed and processed by lower level systems, the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, which carry out auditory and visual information processing respectively (Baddeley, 1992; Baddeley, 2003). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 18, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tarra Combs, Jarett E. Roseberry, Leah H. Rubin, S. Kristian Hill Source Type: research