Acaricidal potential of volatile oils from Croton species on Rhipicephalus microplus
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of the volatile oils of three species of Croton, Euphorbiaceae, against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID and their acaricidal activity was evaluated by the larval packet test and adult immersion test. The volatile oils from Croton conduplicatus Kunth, Croton pulegiodorus Baill., and two different collections of Croton grewioides Baill. (CG1 and CG2) showed eucalyptol (24.09%), p-cymene (23.13%) and methyl chavicol (83.59% and 95.38%) as the major compounds, respectiv...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Biological properties of volatile oil from Brazilian brown propolis
This study aimed at evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of volatile oil from Brazilian brown propolis. It was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile oil from brown propolis exhibited strong antibacterial activity against H. pylori (MIC 3.25 µg/ml), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC 50 µg/ml) and M. avium (MIC 62.5 µg/ml). It was evaluated in vitro for antioxidant activity by DPPH (IC50 25.0 µg/ml) and ABTS (IC50 30.1 µg/ml) meth...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of semi-purified fractions from stems of Clusia hilariana on the development of Dysdercus peruvianus
ABSTRACT Plants represent a huge source of substances, with pharmacological potential. Brazil has a diversity of agricultural insect pests and an urgent need for safer methods of insect control. Dysdercus peruvianus (Guerin-Meneville, 1831), Pyrrhocoridae, is an economically important species of the Order Hemiptera and a pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvaceae). Secondary metabolites in stems of Clusia hilariana Schltdl., Clusiaceae, such as terpenes and benzophenones, have been reported to be insecticidal. The present study investigated the effects of semi-purified fractions of hexane crude extracts from male C. ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro growth inhibition and bactericidal activity of spathulenol against drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ABSTRACT Spathulenol was isolated from an extract of Azorella compacta Phil., Apiaceae, by various chromatographic method; identification of the chemical structure was confirmed by comparing its spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of spathulenol was evaluated on MDR, pre-XDR, and XDR clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, as well as on the reference susceptible strain H37Rv and its cytotoxic activity was evaluated on the Vero Cell Line. The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of spathulenol was twice as potent against the MDR, pre-XDR, and XDR clinical isolates (6...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Damage and drying modify the composition of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata leaves
This study compared the influence of mechanical damage and drying on the chemical composition of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Sch.Bip. ex Baker, Asteraceae, leaves. Leaves were collected 1-24 h after damage. Oven-drying at 40 ºC and shade-drying at ambient temperature were compared to lyophilization. Samples were extracted in 70% ethanol and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Significant (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exploring threatened traditional knowledge; ethnomedicinal studies of rare endemic flora from Lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan
ABSTRACT Himalayas are one among the world biodiversity hotspots harboring many endemic medicinal plants. Despite augmentation in the documentation of ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plant species, information regarding endemic species is still underway. Current paper highlights the traditional medicinal uses of rare endemic and unexplored group of plants having potential for novel chemical constituents with effective pharmacological activities. In total, 142 informants (91 male and 51 female) including seventeen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire, personal observations and...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A herbal oil in water nano-emulsion prepared through an ecofriendly approach affects two tropical disease vectors
ABSTRACT Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Br. ex Britton& P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is considered a great source of a bioactive volatile oil. Due to the wide range of known chemotypes, its chemical analysis is very important. Among the several activities of this volatile oil, a potential larvicidal action against Culicidae species is highlighted. However, the low water miscibility of volatile oils limits their application in aqueous media. Oil in water nano-emulsions are in the spotlight of novelty to solve this main problem. Thus, the aim of the present study was to obtain this nanostructured system with L. alba volatile oil (ci...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic disposition of erythraline in rats after intravenous administration
This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythraline after intravenous administration in rats. For the analysis of erythraline in rat plasma, a method was developed and validated using UHPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. The metabolite 8-oxo-erythraline observed in previous biomimetic model studies was monitored during in vivo experiments. The quantification limit was 5 ng/ml within a linear range of 5-2000 ng/ml. After an intravenous dose of 1 mg/kg, the following pharmacokinetic parameters were observed: elimination half-life of 44.2 min; total cl...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Growth retardation and apoptotic death of tumor cells by Artemisia herba-alba oral administration in Ehrlich solid carcinoma bearing mice
ABSTRACT At present, there is a rapidly growing interest in studying the cytotoxic effects of Artemisia herba alba Asso, Asteraceae, in various cancer cell lines. However, its antitumor effectiveness has not been investigated. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effect of A. herba alba extract on the proliferation and growth of solid tumor cells in Ehrlich Solid Carcinoma bearing mice. Oral administration of A. herba alba extract resulted in significant reductions in tumor size, tumor weight and mice body weight, as well as caused concurrent significant increases in the DNA breakages and apoptotic DNA d...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

β-Carboline-1-propionic acid alkaloid: antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects
ABSTRACT Pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B remain as the main drugs to treat human leishmaniasis. However, the high toxicity and variable efficacy of treatment have stimulated the search for novel drug candidates. Naturally occurring alkaloids have a long history of antileishmanial activity. Here, we investigate the effects of the β -carboline-1-propionic acid alkaloid isolated from Quassia amara L., Simaroubaceae, against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infatum. The alkaloid was isolated after liquid-liquid fractionation followed by chromatographic purification of the Q. amara methanol extract. The ant...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Selective BuChE inhibitory activity, chemical composition, and enantiomer content of the volatile oil from the Ecuadorian plant Clinopodium brownei
ABSTRACT This paper describes the chemical composition and the enantiomer content of the volatile oil hydrodistilled from Clinopodium brownei (Sw.) Kuntze, Lamiaceae. The plant was collected in the South of Ecuador. Thirty one components were identified by GC-MS, which accounted for the 96.15% of the volatile oil. The major components were pulegone (48.44%), menthone (34.55%) and β -acorenol (3.41%). Oxygenated monoterpenes (86.06%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (5.36%) constituted the most abundant fractions. The enantiomeric compositions of β -pinene, sabinene, 3-octanol, menthone, pulegone and menthyl...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of orcinol glucoside by LC-MS in Curculigo orchioides and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
This study was designed to explore the pharmacokinetic regularity of the plasma concentration, tissue distribution and excretion of orcinol glucoside from aqueous extracts of raw and processed Curculigo orchioides Gaertn., Hypoxidaceae. The experiment first used an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach with multiple reaction monitoring and a positive mode to separate orcinol glucoside from naringin to obtain the plasma concentration curves, bar graph of tissue distribution and excretion curves. These results might be beneficial for reasonable clinical application of C. orchioides and...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents of leaves of Persea americana (avocado) and their protective effects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage
ABSTRACT Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae, commonly known as the avocado, is native to tropical and subtropical regions, including Brazil. From the leaves of P. americana, one previously undescribed flavonol glycoside (1) together with ten known flavonoids (2-11), four megastigmane glycosides (12-15) and two lignans (16-17) were isolated. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data. This is the first investigation that reports megastigmane glycoside and lignan classes within the genus Persea. All the isolated compounds have ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Natural products from marine red and brown algae against Trypanosoma cruzi
ABSTRACT Various extracts obtained from the red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville Howe& Taylor), including a fraction containing crude 5-chloro-1-(E)-chlorovinyl-2,4-dibromo-1,5-dimethylcyclohexane (1) and another containing a mixture of halogenated monoterpenes (F), as well as atomaric acid meroditerpene (2) isolated from brown alga Stypopodium zonale (J. V. Lamouroux) Papenfuss, were evaluated for their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. The cytotoxic and trypanosomicidal effects of these extracts were evaluated in Vero cells and clinically relevant forms of T. cruzi (amastigotes and trypomastigotes). All extract...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Parietin as an efficient and promising anti-angiogenic and apoptotic small-molecule from Xanthoria parietina
ABSTRACT Lichens that are exclusive symbiotic organisms composed of fungus and alga, are considered as a wealthy source of biologically and pharmacologically active small-molecules thanks to the tight metabolic relationship between symbiotic partners. We herein report cytotoxic, anti-angiogenic and apoptotic profile of a lichen derived small-molecule named parietin. Parietin was isolated from the acetone extract of Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr (1860), Teloschistaceae, which was gathered from Afyon, Turkey. AlamarBlue ™ cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage and PicoGreen ™ dsDNA quantitation a...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fumigant toxicity and biochemical properties of (α + β) thujone and 1, 8-cineole derived from Seriphidium brevifolium volatile oil against the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
In this study fumigant toxicity and enzyme inhibition activities of the S. brevifolium volatile oil collected from the highlands of Skardu Baltistan, Pakistan, was evaluated against the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta. The phytochemical studies indicated that monoterpenes were the most abundant constituents, accounting for 88% of the total oil. The major dominant constituents were 2-bornanone (28.2%), 1,8-cineole (19.9%), α -thujone (7.5%), β -thujone (6.7%) which accounts for 62.3% of total constituents identified, with volatile oil yield of 4.11% (w/w). The fumigation assay indicated that the volatile...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Clathriamide, an hexapeptide isolated from the marine sponge Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae
ABSTRACT Chemical investigation of the aqueous fraction of the ethanol extract from the Brazilian endemic marine sponge Clathria (Clathria) nicoleae Vieira de Barros, Santos& Pinheiro, 2013, Microcionidae, sampled from a 55 m deep rhodolith bed at the Amazon River mouth, led to the isolation of a new hexapeptide, clathriamide (1). HP-20 resin was used to capture compound 1 from the aqueous fraction, which was purified by additional chromatographic steps. The absolute configuration of the amino acids of 1 was determined by advanced Marfey's analysis using 5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl-N α -L-tryptophanamide. The amin...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification and quantification of limonoid aglycones content of Citrus seeds
ABSTRACT Citrus fruits are recognized as an important source of bioactive molecules such as limonin and nomilin. However, these molecules exhibit low bioavailability, therefore, obtaining these molecules using biotechnological techniques may be an alternative to harvesting them directly from fruits. The aim of this study was to quantify and identify limonoids in the dichloromethane extracts of Citrus seeds of Criolla orange, Oneco tangerine, Tangerine-lemon, Sour orange and Valencia orange from department of Antioquia-Colombia by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, and high-resolution mass sp...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of macaenes and macamides in maca using an HPLC method and analysis using a chemometric method (HCA) to distinguish maca origin
ABSTRACT Macamides and Macaenes are the bioactive marker compounds in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp., Brassicaceae) tuber. To simultaneously quantify these two types of compound, HPLC method was studied. To distinguish and group the growing regions of different maca samples, Hierarchical cluster analysis, a chemometric method, was applied to analyze the HPLC data. The calibration curves obtained using the HPLC method showed satisfactory linearity with determination coefficients>0.9998. The precision and repeatability relative standard deviation values were
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomical characterization and LC-MS profiling of Adenophora roots from Korea
ABSTRACT “ Sasam ( 沙 參 ) ” is a crude drug that is defined in the in Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia as the root of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Regel.) Hara or A. stricta Miq., Campanulaceae. The dried roots of the Adenophora spp. are available in markets, and the roots of various species are similar to each other in shape, making it difficult to distinguish one from another using only the outer morphological appearance. Therefore, the present study aimed to establish quality control parameters for pharmacognostic evaluation and differentiation of five Adenophora species and two varieties grown in Korea...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - February 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Validation of an HPLC-DAD method for the determination of plant phenolics
Abstract A selective, sensitive and precise reversed phase HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six phenolic acids in the aqueous extract and their hydrolyzed forms prepared from Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav., Solanaceae, Ampelocissus acapulcensis (Kunth) Planch., Vitaceae, or Brosimum alicastrum Sw., Moraceae. The new method showed good linearity (r> 0.999) in a relatively wide concentration range (0.5 – 100 mg/l). The limits of detection and quantification for the compounds were in the range of 0.097 – 0.467 mg/l and 0.097 – 0.496 mg/l, respectively. The rec...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Argentinean medicinal plants and isolation of their bioactive compounds as an alternative for the control of postharvest fruits phytopathogenic fungi
Abstract One of the main problems that fruit health goes through in recent years is the difficult eradication of their fungal pathogens after harvesting. This concern to the whole world because it represents huge losses of production, fruit export restrictions and consumers distrust. One of the alternatives to solve this problem could be the exploration of plants and their active compounds, which have proven to be antifungal against human pathogens, but now applied to the treatment of fruits health. In this work, eighteen plant species that grow in Argentina were evaluated against four phytopathogenic fungi that greatly af...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Obtaining and characterization of anthocyanins from Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dry extract for nutraceutical and food preparations
Abstract The main constituents of the Euterpe oleracea Mart., Arecaceae, fruits (a çaí) are anthocyanins. This paper aimed to standardize the extraction process and characterize an anthocyanin-rich dry extract obtained from this fruit. A 23 full factorial design was used. The volumes of ethanol 92% and acetic acid and the extraction time were used as factors. Total solids and an thocyanins content were used as feedback. The dry extract was obtained by freeze-drying. The content of anthocyanins was determined spectrophotometrically. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, Th...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quantitative ethnopharmacological profiling of medicinal shrubs used by indigenous communities of Rawalakot, District Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Abstract This paper presents the first comprehensive report on traditional uses of medicinal shrubs of Rawalakot city, district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Ethobotanical data obtained from 120 informants were analyzed by relative frequency citation, use value, family use value, informant consensus factor, fidelity level and Jaccard index. In total, 41 shrubs belonging to 24 families and 34 genera were documented. Rosaceae was reported the most dominant family in the area (six species) and Berberidaceae showed maximum family use value (0.68). Leaves (35%) and fruits (33%) were the most commonly used plant part...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Petiveria alliacea, a plant used in Afro-Brazilian smoke rituals, triggers pulmonary inflammation in rats
Abstract Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, a plant used in Afro-Brazilian religious smoke rituals is reported to have "harmonic properties" (anxiolytic effect) by ethnobotanical survey. In the present work, we analyzed the chemical composition of volatiles produced by leaves of P. alliacea, using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and its potential anxiolytic and toxic effects in smoke-exposed rats. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were allocated into groups, according to substance administration: acute (locomotor activity) or chronic (anxiety-like behavior) burning charcoal or to smo...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Children's versus adult's knowledge of medicinal plants: an ethnobotanical study in Tremezzina (Como, Lombardy, Italy)
Abstract The study was developed in order to collect information about knowledge on medicinal plant uses by students from some primary school classes located in a small community on the western shore of Lake Como (northern Italy). This information was compared with the one collected from the students' relatives and from other people they were in contact with, in order to evaluate differences and similarities between the children's and the adults' knowledge. Two workshops were led in each of the classes taking part in the project. The first one was performed to introduce our research and the topic of healing plants to the s...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effect of kinsenoside on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice
Abstract Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl., Orchidaceae, is a Chinese medicinal plant which can be effective for some diseases such as hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonia. Its active ingredient is kinsenoside. The mechanisms of kinsenoside on the liver-protective effect have not been fully explored until today. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of kinsenoside on acute alcoholic liver injury. The protected activity of kinsenoside (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were investigated on acute alcoholic liver injury in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with non-fat feed for 30 days and oral a...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Trapa natans pericarp extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic mice
In this study, extracts of Trapa natans pericarp were tested both in vitro and in vivo through a high-fat diet with a single medium dosage streptozotocin injection induced type 2 diabetic mice. Different solvent extracts of Trapa natans pericarp showed α -amylase and α -glucosidase inhibitory activity. After four weeks administration, the ethyl acetate extract of Trapa natans pericarp (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) reduced fasting blood glucose level, ameliorated oral glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, improved serum lipids alterations in type 2 diabetic mice as well. Additionally, ethyl acetate extract signifi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical screening and anti-implantation activity of Asparagus africanus root extract in female Sprague–Dawley rats
In conclusion, the aqueous extract A. africanus has anti-implantation effect in female rats and is safe up to 2000 mg/kg bw. In addition, it contains some potential steroidal saponins, which could be used to explain its an ti-implantation activity, however this finding needs further pharmacological studies to confirm the antifertility activities. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anxiolytic-like and proneurogenic effects of Trichilia catigua ethyl-acetate fraction in mice with cerebral ischemia
In conclusion, T. catigua ethyl-acetate fraction promoted functional recovery and restored hippocampal neurogenesis in ischemic mice. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical characterization and toxicological assessment of hydroethanolic extract of Mandevilla velame xylopodium
Abstract The present study was aimed to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the cytotoxicity and sub-chronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium Mandevilla velame (A.St.-Hil.) Pichon, Apocynaceae. Chemical profile was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cytotoxic potential of hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium M. velame was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. The sub-chronic assessment was done on rats with hydroethanolic extract of the xylopodium M. velame (50, 200 and 800 mg/kg) was orally administered daily for 30 consecutive days. High performance liquid ch...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A newly validated HPLC–DAD-UV method to study the effects of medicinal plants extracts, fractions and isolate compounds on gastric emptying in rodents
In conclusion, the newly-validated analytical method is adequate for studying the effects of medicinal plants on gastric emptying. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rhus coriaria (sumac) extract reduces migration capacity of uterus cervix cancer cells
In this study, we showed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of R. coriaria reduces uterus cervix cell migration capacity. We have also found that R. coriaria has a growth inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells in a time- and a concentration-dependent manner. We have carried out a phytochemical compound analysis of R. coriaria extract using liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry method in order to identify bioactive compounds in R. coriaria extract that could potentially induce its anti-cancer effects. Our results are promising to involve R. coriaria as a therapeutic drug candidate for uterus cervix cancer. (Sou...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical study of Waltheria viscosissima and evaluation of its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti
Abstract The species Waltheria viscosissima A.St. – Hil, Malvaceae, which is known as ‘ malva-branca', is traditionally used in the Brazilian northeast for the treatment of coughs. This research looks towards reporting the isolation of phytoconstituents of W. viscosissima, as well as the quantification of its phenolics, total flavonoid content, and free radical scavenging potential, along with an evaluation of its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae. Chromatographic techniques were used to isolate the compounds and a structural elucidation was performed by 1D and 2D NMR. The quantification of total...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from the fruits of Schisandra sphenanthera and their cytotoxicity activity
Abstract Schisandra sphenanthera Rehder& E.H. Wilson, Schisandraceae, is well known as a type of traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatitis, diarrhea and insomnia in Asia. It was also reported to have antiviral and anti-HIV activities. Using various chromatographic resins and isolation techniques, a new lignan (1), erythro-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2yl-3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, along with fifteen known compounds, were isolated from fruits of S. sphenanthera. The structures of the compounds were identified by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including 1D and 2D NMR and MS dat...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

RP-HPLC and LC–MS–MS determination of a bioactive artefact from Ipomoea pes-caprae extract
This study aimed to correlate the chromatographic profile with biological activity of Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br., Convolvulaceae, extracts obtained with hydroethanolic extraction. Thus, aerial parts of I. pes-caprae were extracted with different concentration of ethanol (50, 70 and 90 °GL) and the obtained extracts were analysed by HPLC – UV. HPLC data were studied employing chemometrics to discriminate the samples. Moreover these samples were further characterized by using UPLC – QTOF/MS data. The extracts were also biomonitored through the paw-oedema and spontaneous nociception induced by trypsin in m...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morphological, phytochemical and anti-hyperglycemic evaluation of Brachychiton populneus
Abstract Brachychiton populneus (Schott& Endl.) R.Br., Malvaceae, is one of five Brachychiton species cultivated in Egypt. Little information was found concerning the morphological, phytochemical and biological investigations of B. populneus. Morphological investigations of B. populneus were performed on fresh and dried leaves. Air-dried, ground leafy branches were extracted with 70% methanol/water yielding B. populneus extract. Seventeen flavonoids were isolated and identified using different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques; eleven of them were reported for the first time from this plant. Potential activi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kalanchoe laciniata and Bryophyllum pinnatum: an updated review about ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology
Abstract The species Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC. and Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam) Pers. are native from Brazil and Madagascar, respectively. Both belonging to the Crassulaceae family and being widely used by population as a natural anti-inflammatory agent. These species have similar leaf morphology and for this reason, they are known by the same popular name as “ sai ão ” or “ coirama ” . Several studies have been published involving different parts and preparations of these species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an update overview about the traditional uses, chemical constitution, ph...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical diversity and activity profiles of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors from plants
Abstract Current challenges to antiretroviral therapy have opened new vistas in the search for novel drugs from natural products. This review focusses on plants as sources of inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Based on a systematic search of the literature, anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity was recorded for 132 plant species in 100 genera and 51 families. Seven families comprise 52.6% of plant species with anti-reverse transcriptase activity: Lamiaceae (13.7%), Fabaceae (10.7%), Euphorbiaceae (9.9%), Clusiaceae (6.1%), Asteraceae (4.6%), Combretaceae (4.6%), and Morace...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

GC–MS and LC–MS/MS workflows for the identification and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant extracts, a case study: Echium plantagineum
Abstract Workflows based on gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the identification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in plants were developed and applied to Echium plantagineum L., Boraginaceae, extracts. GC – MS based determinations need reduction and derivatization steps prior to MS analysis, which is performed using a Full Scan and Single Ion Monitoring sequence for screening, identification and quantification purposes. The LC – (ESI) – MS/MS determination was performed directly from the extract without derivatization. Acetyl lycopsamine, echimidine, echimidine N-oxide...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Galanthamine and other Amaryllidaceae related alkaloids are inhibitors of α7, α4β2 and α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Abstract Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae-derived acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. There is evidence that galanthamine, in addition to its effects on acetylcholinesterase, may enhance or inhibit brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which could increase or decrease the therapeutic efficacy of galanthamine, respectively. Here, we evaluated the effects of galanthamine and two others Amaryllidaceae acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (haemanthamine and tazettine) analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry and identified by comparing thei...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cathepsin V inhibitor from stems of Bowdichia virgilioides
Abstract Bioassay-guided fractionation of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Fabaceae, extracts has led to the isolation of cathepsin V inhibitors. The investigation of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts allowed the characterization of eleven compounds: lupeol, lupenone, β -sitosterol and stigmasterol in mixture, trans p-coumaric acid ester derivative, syringaresinol, bowdenol, 8-methoxycoumestrol, 3,4-hydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone, 7,3 ′ -dihydroxy-4 ′ -methoxyisoflavone, and 5,4 ′ -dihydroxy-7 ′ -methoxyisoflavone. Structures of compounds were stablished by 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Amon...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation of erythrinan alkaloids from the leaves and flowers of Erythrina speciosa
Abstract In this paper, we describe the extraction of three alkaloids from the leaves and flowers of Erythrina speciosa, a plant documented in the literature to possess a range of potential medicinal applications. Two alkaloids were isolated from both leaves and flowers, with erythrartine being isolated from both plant parts. In agreement with the literature, we also isolated erysotrine from the flowers. The second alkaloid isolated from the leaves, and reported in this species for the first time, was (+)-11 β -hydroxyerysotramidine. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of compounds from chufa (Eleocharis dulcis) peels with inhibitory acrylamide formation activity
Abstract Five compounds were isolated from the peels of chufa (Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Trin. ex Hensch., Cyperaceae). The chemical structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, and by comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the peels of chufa. Compounds orcinol glucoside, leonuriside A, 2-hydroxymethyl-6-(5-hydroxy-2-methyl-phenoxy-methyl)-tetra-hydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol, and 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-4-O- β -D-glucopyranoside showed good acrylamide formation activity, and acrylamide inhibition rates were 30.24, 32.81,...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A valepotriate-enriched fraction from Valeriana glechomifolia Meyer inhibits leukocytes migration and nociception in formalin test in rodents
This study demonstrated for the first time that a valepotriate-enriched fraction obtained from V. glechomifolia display a peripheral anti-inflammatory like activity. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract reverses the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder
Abstract Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae, has been used worldwide in traditional medicinefor treatment ofsome neurological disorderssuch as depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder developed in peoplewho experience stressful events. Since stress has been proposed tocause thehypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction in post-traumatic stress disorder patients, this study aimed at investigating the effect of saffron aqueous extract on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in rats of post-traumatic stress disorder model. Here, Post-traumatic stress disorder animals received an acute electro foo...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect against splenocytes of Balb/c mice of biflorin obtained from Capraria biflora by a new isolation method
Abstract Biflorin (6,9-dimethyl-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl) benzo[de]chromene-7,8-dione) is a promising substance that has been increasingly studied in the past decades due to its diverse pharmacological properties (i.e. antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, antimicrobial activity etc.). Aiming the comprehension of its antitumoral activity we investigated the cell proliferation and cytotoxicity habilities of biflorin against mice splenocytes Balb/c. Biflorin was able to stimulate mice splenocytes Balb/c in 48 h of incubation at a concentration of 20.2 µM. Its immunostimulation promoted the production of cytokines s...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in rat plasma after oral administration of Trichilia catigua (catuaba) extract and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
Abstract Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, known as catuaba in Brazil, is traditionally used for the treatment of stress, sexual impotence and memory deficits. To our knowledge, there is no analytical method described in literature for simultaneous quantification of catuaba extract marker substances in biological matrices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a bioanalytical method by LC – MS/MS to quantify epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in rat plasma after administration of standardized extract of T. catigua. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a C18 column, methanol and 0.1% aqueous formi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antitumor effect of depsidones from lichens on tumor cell lines and experimental murine melanoma
This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of hypostictic and salazinic acids against tumor cell lines (B16-F10, PC-03, MCF7, HT-29, HEP-G2, K562 and 786-0) by the SRB assay in vitro and antitumor activity in experimental murine melanoma in vivo. Activation of caspase-3 was quantified by flow cytometry. The murine experimental melanoma model B16-F10 was used in BALB/c mice for evaluation of antitumor activity. Hypostictic acid showed significant antiproliferative activity in K562 cells (GI50 2.20 µM), B16-F10 (GI50 13.78 µM) and 786-0 (GI50 14.24 µM), whereas salazinic acid was more active agains...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In-vitro cardiovascular protective activity of a new achillinoside from Achillea alpina
Abstract Achillinoside was isolated from methanol extract of Achillea alpina L., Asteraceae. The structure of the compound was characterized based on various spectrum data, including IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The cardiovascular protective effect of achillinoside was tested on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. In our research, achillinoside could increase the cell viability dose-dependently in H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. In addition, the levels of caspase-3/9 cells were significantly decreased in H2O2 and achillinoside incubated H9c2 cells. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research