Kalanchoe laciniata and Bryophyllum pinnatum: an updated review about ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology
Abstract The species Kalanchoe laciniata (L.) DC. and Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam) Pers. are native from Brazil and Madagascar, respectively. Both belonging to the Crassulaceae family and being widely used by population as a natural anti-inflammatory agent. These species have similar leaf morphology and for this reason, they are known by the same popular name as “ sai ão ” or “ coirama ” . Several studies have been published involving different parts and preparations of these species. Therefore, this review aims to provide an update overview about the traditional uses, chemical constitution, ph...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical diversity and activity profiles of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors from plants
Abstract Current challenges to antiretroviral therapy have opened new vistas in the search for novel drugs from natural products. This review focusses on plants as sources of inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Based on a systematic search of the literature, anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity was recorded for 132 plant species in 100 genera and 51 families. Seven families comprise 52.6% of plant species with anti-reverse transcriptase activity: Lamiaceae (13.7%), Fabaceae (10.7%), Euphorbiaceae (9.9%), Clusiaceae (6.1%), Asteraceae (4.6%), Combretaceae (4.6%), and Morace...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

GC–MS and LC–MS/MS workflows for the identification and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant extracts, a case study: Echium plantagineum
Abstract Workflows based on gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the identification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in plants were developed and applied to Echium plantagineum L., Boraginaceae, extracts. GC – MS based determinations need reduction and derivatization steps prior to MS analysis, which is performed using a Full Scan and Single Ion Monitoring sequence for screening, identification and quantification purposes. The LC – (ESI) – MS/MS determination was performed directly from the extract without derivatization. Acetyl lycopsamine, echimidine, echimidine N-oxide...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Galanthamine and other Amaryllidaceae related alkaloids are inhibitors of α7, α4β2 and α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Abstract Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae-derived acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. There is evidence that galanthamine, in addition to its effects on acetylcholinesterase, may enhance or inhibit brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which could increase or decrease the therapeutic efficacy of galanthamine, respectively. Here, we evaluated the effects of galanthamine and two others Amaryllidaceae acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (haemanthamine and tazettine) analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry and identified by comparing thei...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New cathepsin V inhibitor from stems of Bowdichia virgilioides
Abstract Bioassay-guided fractionation of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Fabaceae, extracts has led to the isolation of cathepsin V inhibitors. The investigation of the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts allowed the characterization of eleven compounds: lupeol, lupenone, β -sitosterol and stigmasterol in mixture, trans p-coumaric acid ester derivative, syringaresinol, bowdenol, 8-methoxycoumestrol, 3,4-hydroxy-7-methoxyisoflavone, 7,3 ′ -dihydroxy-4 ′ -methoxyisoflavone, and 5,4 ′ -dihydroxy-7 ′ -methoxyisoflavone. Structures of compounds were stablished by 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Amon...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation of erythrinan alkaloids from the leaves and flowers of Erythrina speciosa
Abstract In this paper, we describe the extraction of three alkaloids from the leaves and flowers of Erythrina speciosa, a plant documented in the literature to possess a range of potential medicinal applications. Two alkaloids were isolated from both leaves and flowers, with erythrartine being isolated from both plant parts. In agreement with the literature, we also isolated erysotrine from the flowers. The second alkaloid isolated from the leaves, and reported in this species for the first time, was (+)-11 β -hydroxyerysotramidine. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of compounds from chufa (Eleocharis dulcis) peels with inhibitory acrylamide formation activity
Abstract Five compounds were isolated from the peels of chufa (Eleocharis dulcis (Burm.f.) Trin. ex Hensch., Cyperaceae). The chemical structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis methods, including 1D and 2D NMR, and by comparison with literature data. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the peels of chufa. Compounds orcinol glucoside, leonuriside A, 2-hydroxymethyl-6-(5-hydroxy-2-methyl-phenoxy-methyl)-tetra-hydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol, and 1,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-4-O- β -D-glucopyranoside showed good acrylamide formation activity, and acrylamide inhibition rates were 30.24, 32.81,...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A valepotriate-enriched fraction from Valeriana glechomifolia Meyer inhibits leukocytes migration and nociception in formalin test in rodents
This study demonstrated for the first time that a valepotriate-enriched fraction obtained from V. glechomifolia display a peripheral anti-inflammatory like activity. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract reverses the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder
Abstract Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae, has been used worldwide in traditional medicinefor treatment ofsome neurological disorderssuch as depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder developed in peoplewho experience stressful events. Since stress has been proposed tocause thehypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction in post-traumatic stress disorder patients, this study aimed at investigating the effect of saffron aqueous extract on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in rats of post-traumatic stress disorder model. Here, Post-traumatic stress disorder animals received an acute electro foo...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect against splenocytes of Balb/c mice of biflorin obtained from Capraria biflora by a new isolation method
Abstract Biflorin (6,9-dimethyl-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl) benzo[de]chromene-7,8-dione) is a promising substance that has been increasingly studied in the past decades due to its diverse pharmacological properties (i.e. antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflamatory, antimicrobial activity etc.). Aiming the comprehension of its antitumoral activity we investigated the cell proliferation and cytotoxicity habilities of biflorin against mice splenocytes Balb/c. Biflorin was able to stimulate mice splenocytes Balb/c in 48 h of incubation at a concentration of 20.2 µM. Its immunostimulation promoted the production of cytokines s...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in rat plasma after oral administration of Trichilia catigua (catuaba) extract and its application to a pharmacokinetic study
Abstract Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, known as catuaba in Brazil, is traditionally used for the treatment of stress, sexual impotence and memory deficits. To our knowledge, there is no analytical method described in literature for simultaneous quantification of catuaba extract marker substances in biological matrices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a bioanalytical method by LC – MS/MS to quantify epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in rat plasma after administration of standardized extract of T. catigua. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a C18 column, methanol and 0.1% aqueous formi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antitumor effect of depsidones from lichens on tumor cell lines and experimental murine melanoma
This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of hypostictic and salazinic acids against tumor cell lines (B16-F10, PC-03, MCF7, HT-29, HEP-G2, K562 and 786-0) by the SRB assay in vitro and antitumor activity in experimental murine melanoma in vivo. Activation of caspase-3 was quantified by flow cytometry. The murine experimental melanoma model B16-F10 was used in BALB/c mice for evaluation of antitumor activity. Hypostictic acid showed significant antiproliferative activity in K562 cells (GI50 2.20 µM), B16-F10 (GI50 13.78 µM) and 786-0 (GI50 14.24 µM), whereas salazinic acid was more active agains...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In-vitro cardiovascular protective activity of a new achillinoside from Achillea alpina
Abstract Achillinoside was isolated from methanol extract of Achillea alpina L., Asteraceae. The structure of the compound was characterized based on various spectrum data, including IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. The cardiovascular protective effect of achillinoside was tested on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. In our research, achillinoside could increase the cell viability dose-dependently in H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. In addition, the levels of caspase-3/9 cells were significantly decreased in H2O2 and achillinoside incubated H9c2 cells. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cardiac glycosides from Cascabela thevetioides by HPLC-MS analysis
Abstract The present work investigates the chemical composition of seeds of Cascabela thevetioides (Kunth) Lippold, an ornamental shrub of M éxico. Six thevetia cardiac glycosides or thevetosides (thevetin A, B, and C, acetylthevetin A, B and C) were identified from the methanol extract of seeds of C. thevetioides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and by comparison of mass spectral fragmentation patterns. Enzymatic hydrolysis of a sample of thevetosides from methanol extract of seeds and subsequent High-Performance Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry analysis yielded the...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Convection combined microwave drying affect quality of volatile oil compositions and quantity of curcuminoids of turmeric raw material
Abstract The aim of the work was to estimate the quality of some compositions in turmeric volatile oil and quantity of individual and total curcuminoids in turmeric powder dried under different conditions. Effect of convection time (0 – 30 min) and microwave time (20 – 60 min) on quality of volatile oil compositions and quantity of curcuminoids were investigated using computer software. Quality of volatile oil obtained from the hydrodistillation of dried turmeric was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. The quantity of individual curcuminoids (bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and cu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomical and histochemical characterization of Dipteryx odorata and Taralea oppositifolia, two native Amazonian species
Abstract Dipteryx odorata (Aubl.) Willd. and Taralea oppositifolia Aubl., Fabaceae: Dipterygeae, are two Amazonian species of great economic and pharmacological potential. The anatomy of these species, however, remains poorly studied. The aim of this work was to inventory leaf anatomical characteristics of D. odorata and T. oppositifolia and to locate and identify secretory structures and determine the main classes of metabolites they store. Vegetative branches were collected in Parque Ecol ógico de Gunma, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Some of the branches were destined for herborization while the rema...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

“Arnicas” from Brazil: comparative analysis among ten species
Abstract The “ arnicas ” found in Brazil are examples of different species of the family Asteraceae used in popular medicine for its attributed anti-inflammatory action. Among the species known and used as “ arnica ” we selected: Calea uniflora Less., Chaptalia nutans (L.) Pol ák, Lychnophora ericoides Mart., Lychnophora pinaster Mart., Lychnophora salicifolia Mart., Lychnophora diamantinana Coile& S.B.Jones, Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass., Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng.) R.M.King& H.Rob., Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, and Solidago chilensis Meyen, due to their exte...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Brazilian stingless bee propolis and geopropolis: promising sources of biologically active compounds
ABSTRACT Stingless bee products such as honey, pollen, propolis, and geopropolis have been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several illnesses. Investigation of the biological activity of stingless bee products, especially propolis and geopropolis, has revealed promising therapeutic properties. About 20% of total Neotropical stingless bees can be found in Brazil. Despite the species diversity, studies on their biological activity are scarce. The present review focuses on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of propolis and geopropolis from Brazilian stingless bees. In addition, the tox...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Colombian propolis as starting material for the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers
ABSTRACT The value of propolis is scientifically and commercially measured through the content of biologically active molecules as phenolic compounds and flavonoids; on the other hand, a high percentage of waxes in the propolis composition makes it a substandard beekeeping product. Colombian propolis is characterized by a high content of waxes; however, this drawback turns into an advantage when this material is used for preparing lipid nanocarriers. Accordingly, in this research work, a propolis-extracted material obtained by Randall method is characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ra...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Photoprotective activity and increase of SPF in sunscreen formulation using lyophilized red propolis extracts from Alagoas
ABSTRACT The excessive sun exposure, coupled with lack of sun protection represents one of the biggest risks to the occurrence of skin cancer and photoaging. Recent strategies for photoprotection have included the incorporation of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, into sunscreens, and the oral administration of natural antioxidant extracts. In this work, we use Brazilian red propolis extract because its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sun protection factor and antioxidant activity of different hydroalcoholic extracts of red propolis (70% and 75%) pre...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Micellar propolis nanoformulation of high antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity
ABSTRACT The present study reports a promising antioxidant protection by a recently developed micellar propolis formulation, against oxidative stress in in vitro and in vivo models of toxicity. The formulation, based on poplar propolis encapsulated in poly(ethylene oxide) – β -poly(propylene oxide) – β -poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PEO26 – PPO40 – PEO26) micelles is characterized by small size (D h = 20 nm), enhances aqueous solubility and good colloidal stability. In vitro, propolis-loaded PEO26 – PPO40 – PEO26 micelles (20 – 100 µg/ml) significantly in...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pentacyclic triterpenes and other constituents in propolis extract from Melipona beecheii collected in Yucatan, México
ABSTRACT Thirteen pentacyclic triterpenes, methyl 3-oxours-12-en-23-oate, marsformosanone, taraxerone, β -amyrenone, α -amyrenone, lupenone, 24-methylencycloartan-3-one, moretenol acetate, β -amyrin acetate, germanicol acetate, 24-methylencycloartanyl acetate, β -amyrin, and α -amyrin were identified in a chloroform-methanol propolis extract from Melipona beecheii. Additionally, were identified in this propolis, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and 1-triacontanol. The purification of the propolis extract was carried out using different chromatographic techniques, i...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Headspace analysis and characterisation of South African propolis volatile compounds using GCxGC–ToF–MS
In this study, the headspace volatiles of propolis (n = 39) collected from various locations in South Africa (Gauteng, Northern Cape and Western Cape Provinces) were explored for the first time using GCxGC – ToF – MS. Several GCxGC parameters were optimised including; incubation time, temperature and modulation period. Multivariate data analysis techniques (principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses) were applied on the GCxGC – ToF – MS data to investigate trends and clustering patterns within propolis samples. The results demonstrated that headspace volatiles of propolis varied between l...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Determination of phenolic profile by HPLC–ESI-MS/MS, antioxidant activity, in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-herpetic activity of propolis from the Brazilian native bee Melipona quadrifasciata
This study determined the chromatographic and mass spectrometry profile along with the biological activity of propolis produced by the native Brazilian bee Melipona quadrifasciata. A hydroalcoholic crude extract was prepared and partitioned in solvents of different polarities, generating aqueous, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and insoluble fractions. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also determined in crude aqueous and methanolic extracts as well. The antioxidant activity was determined by three different methods and correlated with the phenolic and flavonoid content. Extracts and fractions were tested agai...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a high-performance thin layer chromatography method for the simultaneous quantitation of α- and γ-mangostins in Thai stingless bee propolis
ABSTRACT Stingless bees (Apoidea) are widely distributed and commercially cultivated in artificial hives in fruit gardens. Their propolis are commonly used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases (e.g., abscesses, inflammations, and toothaches) and as a constituent of numerous health products. Thus, this study aimed to (i) develop and validate a high-performance thin layer chromatography method for the quantitation of major active constituents ( α - and γ -mangostins) in propolis produced by five stingless bee species (Tetragonula fuscobalteata Cameron, T. laeviceps Smith, T. pagdeni Schwarz, Lepidotr...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Propolis polyphenolic compounds affect the viability and structure of Helicobacter pylori in vitro
ABSTRACT To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the major polyphenol compounds of propolis and their cellular damage, both as single molecule or in combination. Honey bees propolis were fractionated by using CPC and preparative HPLC. Four major polyphenols (chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester) were identified by thin layer chromatography – mass spectroscopy and liquid chromatography – mass spectroscopy. These compounds inhibited both ATCC and clinical H. pylori strains, with caffeic acid phenethyl ester being the most active. The four compounds presented minimum inhibit...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Partial characterization of ethanolic extract of Melipona beecheii propolis and in vitro evaluation of its antifungal activity
ABSTRACT The ethanolic extract of Melipona beecheii Bennett 1831, propolis from Yucat án Mexico was evaluated in vitro for the determination of its phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity and antifungal activity. The results were compared against those of the ethanolic extract of Apis mellifera propolis. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and flavanones – dihydroflavonols content were assessed by colorimetric methods. The antifungal activity was assessed in vitro against Candida albicans. For the ethanolic extract of M. beecheii propolis; total phenolic content, was 263.25 ± 8.78 &mic...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and anti-HIV activities of a Brazilian propolis from Ceará state
ABSTRACT Propolis (bee glue) a product of Apis mellifera L. is a resinous mixture containing chiefly beeswax and resin harvested by bees from plant leaves, buds and exudates. Extracts of a propolis sample from Salitre, a municipality of Cear á state (northeast Brazil) were obtained with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). A chemical profile was carried out by GC – EI-MS and HPLC – DAD – ESI-MS/MS. Lupenone, lupeol, octanoic acid tetracosyl ester and octanoic acid hexacosyl ester were identified by GC – EI-MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The role of seasonality on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of Polish propolis in human erythrocytes
ABSTRACT Propolis extracts possess beneficial biological effects, such as antioxidant activity. However, the composition of propolis and biological properties of its extracts depend on many factor, including time of harvesting. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the phenolic profile of Polish propolis extracts and their antioxidant activity. Propolis samples were collected from the same apiary during three seasons of the year. The chemical composition (contents of phenolic acids and flavonoids) of ethanolic propolis extracts was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography equipp...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical composition of propolis extract and its effects on epirubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
ABSTRACT Propolis is a natural substance, produced by honeybees from the resin of various plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract of propolis from Tigzirt, against the toxicity induced by epirubicin which is a anticancer agent, and belongs to the family of antracyclines. The study included thirty male Wistar albino rats divided into five groups. The rats received the extraction of propolis or the quercetin orally for 15 days. The hepatotoxicity was promoted by injection epirubicin (i.v.) with a cumulative dose of 9 mg/kg. ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antileishmanial activity and chemical composition from Brazilian geopropolis produced by stingless bee Melipona fasciculata
This study evaluated the antileishmanial activity in vitro, cytotoxicity and chemical composition of geopropolis produced by M. fasciculata in the savannah region of Maranh ão, Brazil. The geopropolis extract was obtained through maceration using in 70% ethanol. The hydroalcoholic extract of geopropolis after liquid – liquid partition yielded the hexane, chloroformic, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic fractions. Antileishmanial activity was evaluated against promastigote and intracellular amastigote of Leishmania amazonensis. Cytotoxic was realized in BALB/c mice peritoneal macrophages. Chemical analysis was pe...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Geopropolis gel for the adjuvant treatment of candidiasis – formulation and in vitro release assay
This study analyzed the antifungal activity of the geopropolis extract from Candida spp., developed a gel formulation with this extract and analyzed the delivery of bioactives (kinetics release) in the formulation and their chemical profile by UH PLC-PDA-qTOF-MS/MS. Three different gels were prepared using the geopropolis extract, carbomer, propylene glycol, and water. Formulations with different amounts of propylene glycol were investigated. Physical, visual, pH, viscosity, adhesion, spreadability, leakage, and in vitro release tests were p erformed in the proposed formulations. Antifungal tests with the geopropolis ethan...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Bulgarian propolis on the oral microflora in adolescents with plaque-induced gingivitis
In conclusion, the addition of Bulgarian propolis to the toothpaste improved the gingival health in adolescents with moderate plaque-induced gingivitis and resulted in increas ed activity against potential periodontal and cariogenic pathogens. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

An eco-friendly method for extraction and quantification of flavonoids in Dysphania ambrosioides
ABSTRACT Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants (Syn: Chenopodium ambrosioides L.), Amaranthaceae, is a plant with antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiparasitic and antitumor properties that is commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine. In this work we performed the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of flavonoids in the aerial parts of D. ambrosioides. The flavonoid concentrations, as rutin equivalents, were quantified with the aid of a validated spectrophotometric method. The Box – Behnken (33) design with response surface methodology, for the independent variables, extraction time, te...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of in vitro micropropagation on lycorine biosynthesis and anticholinesterase activity in Hippeastrum goianum
This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of lycorine in extracts from in vitro H. goianum plantlets, as well as evaluate a possible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The ethanol extract of plantlets produced by in vitro seed germination and micropropagation of bulblets was obtained from seedlings from in vitro germination, while the ethanol extract micropropagtion of bulblets was obtained from a subculture of those seedlings. The presence of lycorine was detected in only in the micropropagation of bulblets. The micropropagation of bulblets was more active than the plantlets produced by in vitro seed germination, wi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

An optimization approach of dynamic maceration of Centella asiatica to obtain the highest content of four centelloids by response surface methodology
ABSTRACT Centella asiatica (L.) Urb., Apiaceae, is commonly used as food, food supplement, and medicine. Development of the extraction process to obtain the high extent of the active compound is necessary. So, the response surface methodology was used in this work to optimize the dynamic maceration of C. asiatica to obtain the highest content of the four centelloids including asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Two factors: extraction temperature and extraction time, were studied. The content of four centelloids was observed. After the extraction of C. asiatica using ethanol, the content of four...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chronic hypoglycemic effect and phytochemical composition of Smilax moranensis roots
In conclusion, this study confirms that the roots of S. moranensis have hypoglycemic properties and suggests that the isolated compounds are potentially involved in this effect. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vivo anti-hyperuricemic activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora species
ABSTRACT Hyperuricemia is the main cause of gout, an inflammation induced by uric acid deposition in joints. Drugs available present side effects, so there is a need for new treatment alternatives. Lychnophora species are used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, rheumatism and muscle pain. Goyazensolide (10 mg/kg), eremantholide C (25 mg/kg) and lychnopholide (25 mg/kg), sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Lychnophora species were previously studied and showed anti-hyperuricemic effects in mice. However, the mechanisms of this effect were not elucidated. The methodology of this study consisted in treatment of hyperuri...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Withania somnifera on gentamicin induced renal lesions in rats
ABSTRACT Gentamicin induced renal complications are well known in humans and animals. Medicinal properties of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Solanaceae, are recognized to improve renal functions. However, the pharmacological function of W. somnifera is not completely understood. We sought to unravel medicinal therapeutic function of W. somnifera on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in wistar rats. Twenty-four adult male wistar rats evenly divided into four groups to evaluate in vivo nephroprotective and nephrocurative function of W. somnifera in gentamicin induced nephrotoxic rats. Experimental design as follows: Group I, ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Volatile oil of Croton zehntneri per oral sub-acute treatment offers small toxicity: perspective of therapeutic use
In conclusion, the sub-acute per oral treatment with volatile oil no longer than ten weeks in rats offers small toxicity at doses below 250 mg/kg. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Alcesefoliside protects against oxidative brain injury in rats
This study investigated the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of alcesefoliside, isolated from Astragalus monspessulanus L., Fabaceae, against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced brain injury in Wistar rats. Iron sulphate/ascorbic acid lipid peroxidation was induced in rat brain microsomes and pre-incubated with alcesefoliside and silybin. Male rats were treated in vivo with alcesefoliside and with silymarin alone; animals challenged with CCl4; and pre-treated with alcesefoliside or silymarin in respective doses for 7 days, challenged with CCl4, followed by curative treatment (additional 14 days). The activi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Characterization of hepatoprotective metabolites from Artemisia annua and Cleome droserifolia using HPLC/PDA/ESI/MS–MS
ABSTRACT The hepatoprotective activities of two traditionally used plants, Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Delile, Cleomaceae, and Artemisia annua L., Asteraceae, were recently reported. However, the biologically active metabolites responsible for this activity were not identified. The aqueous extract of C. droserifolia aerial parts, and the polar fraction of A. annua leaves were screened for their antioxidant activities using the 2,2 ′ -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. The in vitro viability of HepG-2 cells treated with CCl4 and the extracts were assessed by MTT assay. The effects of the extr...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mangostanaxanthone VIIII, a new xanthone from Garcinia mangostana pericarps, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and molecular docking studies
ABSTRACT A new xanthone: mangostanaxanthone VIIII [1,3,5,6,7-pentahydroxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbut-1-enyl) xanthone] (5) and four known xanthones: mangostanaxanthones I (1) and II (2), γ -mangostin (3), and mangostanaxanthone VII (4) were separated and characterized from the acetone fraction of Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae (mangosteen) pericarps. Their structures were established based on various spectroscopic analyses in addition to HRMS and comparison with the literature. The α -amylase inhibitory potential of the isolated metabolites was evaluated. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 had the h...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Protective effect of Schisandra chinensis total lignans on acute alcoholic-induced liver injury related to inhibiting CYP2E1 activation and activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
In conclusion, these results suggested that the inhibition of alcohol-induced liver injury by S. chinensis total lignans is associated with its ability to inhibiting CYP2E1 activation and activating the Nrf2/Antioxidant response element(ARE) signaling pathway. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical composition and biological properties of Ipomoea procumbens
ABSTRACT Natural products have been the most valuable source of chemical compounds in the discovery of novel medicines. Secondary metabolites from terrestrial and marine organisms have found considerable use in the treatment of numerous diseases and have been considered lead molecules both in their natural form and as templates for medicinal chemistry. Brazil has an exceptionally rich biodiversity, and a valuable source of secondary metabolites that can be useful for the development of bioproducts. Ipomoea species, Convolvulaceae, are mostly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions, including South America and many are u...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development and validation of a quantification method for α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene in Cordia verbenacea by high performance liquid chromatography
ABSTRACT Acheflan ® herbal medicine is the first medicine developed and produced in Brazil using Cordia verbenacea DC., Boraginaceae, essential oil as a constituent. C. verbenacea has anti-inflammatory properties, which have been directly related to α -humulene and trans-caryophyllene. Currently, the quantification of α -humulene and trans-caryophyllene in C. verbenacea has only been described by GC-MS. Although this technique is widely used it cannot be directly applied to finished medicinal products since they contain aqueous constituents. In this context, the objective of this work was to develop a metho...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous HPTLC quantification of three caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves and their commercial products in Thailand
ABSTRACT In Thai traditional medicine, Pluchea indica (L.) Less., Asteraceae, leaf has been widely used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, tumors, hypertension, cystitis, and wounds. P. indica herbal tea is commercially available in Thailand as a health-promoting drink. The study was conducted to develop and validate a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the quantitative analysis of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in P. indica leaf extract and their commercial products in Thailand. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The propose...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HPLC profile and simultaneous quantitative analysis of tingenone and pristimerin in four Celastraceae species using HPLC-UV-DAD-MS
ABSTRACT A validated method for the identification and authentication of tingenone and pristimerin was developed using HPLC. The chromatographic profile analysis was combined with simultaneous quantification in Crossopetalum rhacoma Crantz, Cassine xylocarpa Vent, Semialarium mexicanum (Miers) Mennega (known as cancerina), and Maytenus phyllanthoides Benth, through microwave-assisted extraction. The HPLC profiles of the four analyzed species showed three similar signals, which corresponded to the main chemotaxonomic markers of the Celastraceae family: quinonemethide triterpenes. HPLC profile analysis was used as a tool to ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HPLC-PDA method validated for the determination of hibalactone in Hydrocotyle umbellata subterraneous parts and its ultrasound-assisted extraction optimization
ABSTRACT In this work, we developed and validated a HPLC-PDA method for the quantification of hibalactone in Hydrocotyle umbellata L., Araliaceae, subterraneous parts extracts and optimized its ultrasound-assisted extraction. Chromatographic separations were carried out with an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/methanol/water (10:65:25), a flow of 0.8 ml min − 1, detection at 290 nm and C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The method validation parameters were determined according to Brazilian legislation. The optimization of the hibalactone ultrasound-assisted extraction was performed using Box – ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of five N-alkylamides in the root of Anacyclus pyrethrum by HPLC and profiling of components in its methanolic root extract by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS
ABSTRACT The root of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag., Asteraceae, is very widely used for treating various diseases in Traditional Uygur Medicine, particularly in the treatment of vitiligo. However, there have been few studies on the quality standards of A. pyrethrum in China. A. pyrethrum contains abundant N-alkylamides, which are considered to be the principal components. Therefore, based on the previous research in our group, six N-alkylamides were obtained by using column chromatography. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine the mass spectrometry cleavage...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - May 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research