Fabaceae medicinal flora with therapeutic potential in Savanna areas in the Chapada do Araripe, Northeastern Brazil
The objective of this study was to evaluate the most versatile Fabaceae species and the agreement of use among the informants, in the Chapada do Araripe Savanna. The research included five rural communities located in the municipalities of Nova Olinda, Crato, Barbalha, Moreil ândia and Exu, covering the states of Ceará and Pernambuco. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 126 informants, adopting the snowball technique and using a standardized form. The relative importance and the Informant Consensus Factor were analyzed for the selection of species with therape utic potential. Twenty-six medicinal spec...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of FPZ, a total flavonoids ointment topical application from Pouzolzia zeylanica var. microphylla, on mice skin infections
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effect of FPZ, a total flavonoids ointment topical application from Pouzolzia zeylanica var. microphylla (Wedd.) Masam, Urticaceae, on skin infections in mice. FPZ ointment anti-infective effect was investigated on Staphylococcus aureus-induced skin abscess and skin ulcers in mice by evaluating the variation in abscess volume, histopathology of skin tissue and healing rate. Secondary, it is topical anti-inflammatory activities on carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice was estimated. Besides, FPZ ointment fingerprint was performed by using ultra-performance liqu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of the treatment of Copaifera duckei oleoresin (copaiba) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
This study was based on the induction of diabetes mellitus by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i.p.) in Wistar rats and treated with doses of C. duckei oleoresin (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.). Subsequently, the clinical, biochemical and histopathological of the pancreas parameters were evaluated. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that β -bisabolene (22.29%), β -caryophyllene (21.25%) and α -farnesene (15.58%) sesquiterpenes were the major components of the C. duckei oleoresin. In streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus, it was possible to observe that the C. duckei oleoresin treatment had a significant effect (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lupin gamma conglutin protein: effect on Slc2a2, Gck and Pdx-1 gene expression and GLUT2 levels in diabetic rats
In conclusion, our results indicate that gamma conglutin up-regulates Slc2a2 gene expression in liver and normalizes GLUT2 protein content in pancreas of streptozotocin-induced rats. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nutritional and biological evaluation of Phoenix canariensis pollen grains
ABSTRACT The nutritional value of pollens of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud, Arecaceae, was evaluated. HPLC analysis of vitamins revealed the predominant presence of vitamin C (109.13 ppm), followed by vitamin A (53.71 ppm) and vitamin E (40.60 ppm) and the total carbohydrates (28.12%), proteins (17.10%). In addition, 16 amino acids of which nine are essential (75.07%), and seven are non-essential (24.93%) were determined. On the other hand, two steroidal saponins (dioscin and methyl protodioscin) were isolated from the pollens, their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques, including 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Their ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antiproliferative potential of solidagenone isolated of Solidago chilensis
In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of the hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts of S. chilensis, as well as their chemical constituents quercitrin and solidagenone against the five human tumor cell lines in vitro. The dichloromethane extract showed a promisor antiproliferative effects in vitro, especially against glioma cell line. Besides, the hydroalcoholic extract and quercitrin were inactive. The diterpene solidagenone showed highly potent antiproliferative effects against breast (MCF-7), kidney (786-0), and prostate cancer (PC-3) cells (total growth inhibition: TGI
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Deguelia duckeana
ABSTRACT Candida spp. is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections and is considered a major cause of blood stream infections. In humans, Cryptococcosis is a disease of the lungs caused by the fungi Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans. It can be potentially fatal, especially in immune-compromised patients. In a search for antifungal drugs, Deguelia duckeana extracts were assayed against these two fungi and also against Candida albicans, which causes candidiasis. Hexane branches and CH2Cl2 root extracts as well as the substances 4-hydroxylonchocarpine, 3,5,4 ′ -trimethoxy-4-prenylstilb...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Extract from byproduct Psidium guajava standardized in ellagic acid: additivation of the in vitro photoprotective efficacy of a cosmetic formulation
ABSTRACT The fruits of guava, Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, are cultivated as food and used in agroindustries, generating byproducts or waste that represent environmental problems and require adequate destination. However, these byproducts present high levels of secondary metabolites and have been awakened interest regarding to its reusing. The extract was standardized in ellagic acid concentration by high performance liquid chromatography. The additivation capacity in the in vitro photoprotective efficacy of guava byproduct extract standardized in ellagic acid was verified as a result of its incorporation in cosmetic for...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Virtual screening of secondary metabolites of the genus Solanum with potential antimicrobial activity
ABSTRACT Infectious diseases are a health problem today and have high mortality rates with a wide diversity of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Research that is based either on the search for new drugs from plants or on the improvement of phytotherapeutics is prominent and continues to play an important role nowadays. From this perspective, use of in silico studies to carry out investigations of new molecules potentially active for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using an in-house database with 421 different secondary metabolites selected from the literature from Solanum genus was per...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Caryocar brasiliense induces vasorelaxation through endothelial Ca2+/calmodulin and PI3K/Akt/eNOS-dependent signaling pathways in rats
ABSTRACT Caryocar brasiliense Cambess., Caryocaraceae (pequi) is a typical Brazilian Cerrado tree. A previous study showed that the butanolic fraction of pequi leaves promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation mediated by nitric oxide and that it causes reversible hypotension in rats. In the present study, we investigated the cell signaling pathways associated with the butanolic fraction-induced nitric oxide release, and we characterized the chemical composition of its fraction. Vascular reactivity tests, a western blotting analysis, and a chemiluminescence assay were used to investigate the signaling pathways involved in t...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro activities of glycoalkaloids from the Solanum lycocarpum against Leishmania infantum
ABSTRACT Leishmania infantum is an etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis. This disease is a neglected disease that can be fatal if not treated and additionally, the few therapeutic option present several drawbacks, including difficult route of administration and toxicity, which turn the search for new therapeutic alternatives necessary. Herein, we evaluated the leishmanicidal in vitro activity of the solanum extract from Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae, and the isolated alkaloids solasodine, solamargine and solasonine against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum. Solasodine (IC50-pro = ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development and validation of reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in oromucosal spray from cannabis extract
ABSTRACT A simple, fast, precise, accurate and responsive high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated carefully for determining an amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. A reverse phase Zorbax C-18 column 4.6 mm × 100 mm, 3.5 µm was eluted by using a mixture (85:15) of methanol and water as the mobile phase in an isocratic system with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and the injection volume was 10 µl, at a wavelength of 220 nm. The method was developed and validated through linearity, accuracy, precision and d etection and quantitation limits studies. A good linear...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Application of high performance liquid chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques for evaluating the stability of Orthosiphon aristatus ethanolic extract and its nano liposomes
This study aimed to carry out accelerated stability studies on O. aristatus ethanolic extract and its nano liposomes. The extracts were exposed to four different temperatures at 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C for 6 months. The samples were analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months by high performance liquid chromatography using rosmarinic acid, 3 ′ -hydroxy-5,6,7,4 ′ -tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin and eupatorin as markers. Different chemical kinetic parameters of the markers were evaluated by Arrhenius equation to predict shelf life (t90) at different storage conditions and at room temperature. Moreover, the stabil...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isocryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta promotes LDL uptake in HepG2 cells
ABSTRACT About 31 percent of deaths worldwide result from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Hyperlipidemia remains the major risk factor for this disease and therefore, it is necessary to identify antihyperlipidemic compounds for drug development. The crude ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr., Apocynaceae, has demonstrated antihyperlipidemic properties. However, the chemical constituents responsible for this action are unknown. Hence, to identify chemical constituent(s) of C. sanguinolenta with anti-hyperlipidemic effect, five indoloquinoline alkaloids were isolated and evaluated in 1,1 &p...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combined OPLS-DA and decision tree as a strategy to identify antimicrobial biomarkers of volatile oils analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT Bioguided isolation to discriminate antimicrobial compounds from volatile oils is a time- and money-consuming process. Considering the limitations of the classical methods, it would be a great improvement to use chemometric techniques to identify putative biomarkers from volatile oils. For this purpose, antimicrobial assays of volatile oils extracted from different plant species were carried out against Streptococcus mutans. Eight volatile oils that showed different antimicrobial effects (inactive, weakly active, moderately active and very active) were selected in this work. The volatile oils' composition was dete...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomy and microscopic characteristics of Picris japonica
This study attempted to fill this need by producing permanent and semi-permanent slides of different organs (root, stem, leaf, pollen grain, fruit and powder of the whole plant) using safranine staining, safranine-fast green double staining and common methods. Furthermore, several featured microscopic structures of P. japonica are described herein. The results obtained provide us with valuable information for botanical quality control and species identification and enable us to detect adulterations in commercial samples of Picris or in laboratory samples. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Microscopic characterization and HPTLC of the leaves, stems and roots of Fadogia agrestis – an African folk medicinal plant
ABSTRACT Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. ex Hiern (Vangueria agrestis (Schweinf. ex Hiern) Lantz), Rubiaceae, is an African traditional medicinal plant also used as a dietary supplement in the US. The present paper is the first report of the pharmacognostic study of the leaf, stem and root of F. agrestis by microscopy, HPTLC and total phenolic/flavonoid content analyses. Noteworthy microscopic features that can help in identification and quality control are septate and lignified non-glandular trichomes on leaf and stem epidermises, paracytic stomata on leaf abaxial epidermis, numerous cells containing yellow substances of presu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - December 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Thermal and chemical characterization of Dicksonia sellowiana extract by means of thermal analysis
Abstract Dicksonia sellowiana Hook., Dicksoniaceae, is a tree-fern which is being recently used in medicine mainly for its phytotherapic activities. While several other studies have focused on D. sellowiana extract characterization in terms of its biological and antioxidant activity, the novelty of this work aims to understand the fate of this extract during thermal disposal through thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis, to further characterize this plant's extract. Thermal analysis revealed mass loss within three w...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nanosuspension of quercetin: preparation, characterization and effects against Aedes aegypti larvae
Abstract Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the main vector of some neglected diseases, including dengue. It is very important to develop formulations that increase effectiveness of vector control with low toxicity. Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that modulates the development of some insects. The low water solubility of quercetin impairs the development of water-dispersible commercial products. To circumvent this problem, the preparation of nanoformulations is considered promising. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of bulk and quercetin nanosuspension against A. aegypti larvae and also to investigat...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Optimization of flavonoid extraction from Passiflora quadrangularis leaves with sedative activity and evaluation of its stability under stress conditions
Abstract Passiflora species have been widely used in folk medicine as tranquilizers, and previous pharmacological studies have reported sedative activity for P. quadrangularis L., Passifloraceae, leaf extracts. The aim of this work was to contribute to the standardization of P. quadrangularis leaf extract with sedative activity. For this purpose, the extraction of total flavonoids was optimized, evaluating variables such as drug-solvent ratio, extraction solvents and extraction time, using Response Surface Methodology. The stability of total and individual flavonoids on the optimized extract of P. quadrangularis leaves und...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antitumor activity and toxicity of volatile oil from the leaves of Annona leptopetala
Abstract Annona leptopetala (R.E.Fr.) H. Rainer, Annonaceae, is used in folk medicine like antitumor and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to determine chemical composition, toxicity and antitumor activity of A. leptopetala leaves volatile oil. Fresh leaves were hydrodistilled and then the volatile oil chemical composition was assessed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Toxicity was assessed using haemolysis, micronucleus and acute toxicity protocols. Antitumor effects were determined in vitro and in vivo, using sulforhodamine B assay and sarcoma 180 murine tumor model, respectively. Spathulenol was th...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenolic-antioxidant capacity of mango seed kernels: therapeutic effect against viper venoms
In this study, mango seed kernels extract contained a considerable amount of phenolics and flavonoids (17,400 and 3325 mg/100 g seed, respectively). The HPLC profiling revealed that hesperidin was the major phenolic compound of the mango seed kernels extract. This is the first report find hesperidin in mango extracts. The phenolic compounds of mango seed kernels extract were effective in scavenging free radicals of DPPH and ABTS with IC50 values of 47.3 and 7.9 µg/ml, respectively. The total antioxidant activity of mango seed kernels extract based on the reduction of molybdenum was also measured. The phenolic compoun...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hydroethanolic extract of Tropaeolum majus promotes anxiolytic effects on rats
This study investigated the central pharmacological actions of the prolonged treatment with a hydroethanolic extract of T. majus in male Wistar rats in the elevated plus maze and hole-board behavioral models. For this, rats were daily treated with distillated water (negative control); diazepam (1 mg/kg) or hydroethanolic extract of T. majus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg), for 29 days (by gavage) and were submitted to elevated plus maze and hole-board. Animals treated with all hydroethanolic extract of T. majus or diazepam doses increased the percentage of entries in open arms when compared to control group. However, only treatmen...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

LC–MS/MS determination of deoxyelephantopin, a novel anti-tumor candidate in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats
Abstract A specific, sensitive and robust LC – MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of deoxyelephantopin in rat plasma using simvastatin as an internal standard as per regulatory guidelines of Bioanalytical Method Validation. Plasma sample was prepared through liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agela-C18 analytical column (1.8 µm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.05% formic acid (dissolved in acetonitrile) and water (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The column oven was maintained at 40 ºC and the i...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacological and chemical properties of some marine echinoderms
Abstract Echinoderms have attracted the attention of scientists over the past few years after identifying a variety of unique structures endowed by interesting biological properties. However, the Moroccan coast biodiversity is still uninvestigated. In our ongoing attempts to valorize the rich Moroccan marine environment, this study aimed at assessing the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from three echinoderms Astropecten irregularis, Luidia sarsi and Ophiura albida against the human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, th...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of a neurosteroidal alkaloid from the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda venom
In conclusion, the isolated neurosteroidal alkaloid from Cassiopea andromeda was a potent antiAChE agent with strong binding to both the catalytic and peripheral sites of acetylcholinesterase that correlated well with the experimental data. Further s tudies are required to determine whether androtoxin B could be a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Salvastearolide, a new acyl-glyceride, and other constituents from the seeds of Salvadora persica
Abstract The chemical investigation of the n-hexane fraction of Salvadora persica L., Salvadoraceae, seeds afforded a new stearic acid ester, salvastearolide, together with five other phytosteroids identified as stigmasterol, β -sitosterol, Δ 7-campesterol, Δ 7-avenasterol and campesterol. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HRESI mass spectrometry. In addition, salvastearolide and the isolated fractions were tested for their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HT-29. The n-hexane fraction e...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Carnosol from Lepechinia mutica and tiliroside from Vallea stipularis: Two promising inhibitors of BuChE
Abstract Lepechinia mutica (Benth.) Epling, Lamiaceae, and Vallea stipularis L.f., Elaeocarpaceae, are the object of the present study. These plants are endemic to the Andean region and have attracted our attention on the basis of interesting results obtained in a preliminary anticholinesterase screening. Actually, carnosol and tiliroside, isolated from L. mutica and V. stipularis, respectively, have shown a promising selective inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase. Specifically, the anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity of carnosol was 5.15 µM and that of tiliroside was 52.9 µM, compared to 8.568 &pl...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activity of compounds isolated from the roots of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba
Abstract Five coumarins (5,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin (1), sabandin (2), cubreuva lactone (3), 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (5) and braylin (6)), seven furoquinoline alkaloids (isopimpinelin (4), pteleine (7), maculine (8), skimianine (10), robustine (11), y-fagarine (12) and dictamine (13) and the furofuran type lignin syringaresinol (9)) have been identified for the first time in the roots of Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae. Pure compounds 1, 6, 9, 12 were tested against Leishmania amazonensis parasites and epimastigotes forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. All the tested products displayed an antiparasitic activity similar t...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Trifolium pratense: Friable calli, cell culture protocol and isoflavones content in wild plants, in vitro and cell cultures analyzed by UPLC
Abstract Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae, is a rich source of isoflavones and has become the focus of several studies related to its phytoestrogenic activity. The aim of this study was to establish germination and cell cultures protocol for T. pratense and quantify isoflavones content in cell cultures, in vitro cultured and wild plants harvested in two different seasons. Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid and kinetin was able to produce the highest formation of friable calli. Calli cultures were analyzed qualitatively after 60 days of culture, and in vitro plants after 30, 45 and 60 days of cu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comprehensive chemical analysis of the flower buds of five Lonicera species by ATR-FTIR, HPLC-DAD, and chemometric methods
Abstract Lonicera japonica Thunb., Caprifoliaceae, has been employed in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. However, it is frequently confused with closely related species, and thus, a mixture of these species is commonly used. The sources of Lonicera species must be accurately and rapidly determined to ensure the clinical efficacy of herbal medicines. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector, combined with chemometrics methods, were used to comprehensively evaluate the Lonicera quality. The infrared fingerpr...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantitative analysis of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin for identification and authentication of Phyllanthus niruri from related species
Abstract A precise and accurate method for the identification and authentication of Phyllanthus niruri L. from P. debilis Klein ex Willd. and P. urinaria L., Phyllanthaceae, was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis was combined with simultaneous quantification of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin for the developed method. Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were successfully separated and quantified under this proposed method. The highest amount of phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin was found in P. niruri compared to P. debilis and P. urinaria. Fingerprint chromatogram of the ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacognostical studies of Premna microphylla
Abstract Various traditional systems of medicine enlightened the importance of Premna microphylla Turcz., Lamiaceae, medicinally. The present study was carried out to provide a scientific basis of the identification and the authenticity of P. microphylla with the help of pharmacognostical parameters, which is not done before. Roots, stems, and leaves of P. microphylla were collected for pharmacognostical studies involving macros, microscopic evaluation, physicochemical parameters analysis like fluorescence analysis and thin layer chromatography, in addition with DNA barcodes of internal transcribed spacer and psbA-trnH reg...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morpho-anatomical characters of Limonium brasiliense leaves
Abstract Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a coastal herb of the Southern Brazilian states and Rio de Janeiro State. In folk medicine, it is used in the treatment of female genitourinary tract infections and menstrual cycle irregularities. The aim of this study was to describe morpho-anatomical characters with details on venation pattern of L. brasiliense leaves, collected on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil. Leaf samples fixed in FAA50 (5% formaldehyde, 5% acetic acid and 90% ethanol: water mixture 50:50 v/v) and 1% glutaraldehyde and preserved in 70% ethanol, were histologic...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - October 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Traditional phytomedicines for gynecological problems used by tribal communities of Mohmand Agency near the Pak-Afghan border area
In conclusion, the documented flora that is particularly important to medicinal plants may be researched in the future to discover new pharmaceutical, neutraceutical and other pharmacological agents against gynecological complaints. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro release and anti-herpetic activity of Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil-loaded nanogel
This study aimed to prepare hydrogel containing Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf, Poaceae, volatile oil encapsulated in poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles and to evaluate its in vitro anti-herpetic activity. Polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by solvent emulsification-diffusion method and incorporated in carbomer hydrogels. In vitro release profiles for the nanogel, loaded nanoparticles and hydrogel containing free oil were evaluated by dialysis. Inhibitory activities against Herpes simplex for the formulations were investigated in Vero cells. Hydrogel was developed using nanoparticles with mean diameter of 21...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Syringa oblata leaves ethanol extract with the indicator of glutathione S-transferase A1
Abstract The leaves of Syringa oblata Lindl., Oleaceae, had been extensively used as a folk medicine to treat various infections, heal inflammations, icteric hepatitis and acute mastitis. The study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of S. oblata leaves ethanol extract against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in primary hepatocytes and mice with the indicator of glutathione S-transferase alpha 1. The hepatoprotective effects of S. oblata leaves ethanol extract were evaluated on the basis of liver histopathology and biochemical parameters as well as hepatic oxidative stress markers. The results showed that CCl...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Different processing methods change the oral toxicity induced by Sophora alopecuroides seeds and the contents of five main toxic alkaloids from the ethanol extracts determined by a validated UHPLC–MS/MS assay
This study investigated the influence of different processing methods on the oral toxicity of Sophora alopecuroides L., Fabaceae, seeds in mice and on the contents of five known toxic-effective quinolizidine alkaloids from the ethanol extracts quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. It provides an evidence to elucidate the possible reasons why vinegar-processing and parching methods significantly decrease the acute oral toxicity induced by S. alopecuroides and why wine-processing method increases it instead (demonstrated by measurement of LD50 and histopathologi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

1H NMR-based nontargeted metabonomics study of plasma and urinary biochemical changes in Kudouzi treated rats
Abstract Kudouzi (Sophora alopecuroides L., Fabaceae) is an effective folk medicine, but it always causes a hepatic and renal toxicity in clinical therapy. The toxic mechanism remains unclear. This paper detected the urinary and plasma metabolites alteration by 1H NMR-based metabonomics study in Kudouzi-induced rats to evaluate the toxic mechanism for clinical security. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 0.5 and 1 g Kudouzi/kg weight once per day for consecutive 14 days. Urine samples were collected at day − 1 (before treatment), and days 7, 14, and 21 for NMR analysis, respectively. Plasma samples w...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

(2R,3S)-Pinobanksin-3-cinnamate promotes osteoblast differentiation through cAMP and cGMP pathways
In this study, we investigated the effects of a new flavone (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate, isolated from the metabolites of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Acanthus ilicifolius L., Acanthaceae, on osteoblast differentiation by using MC3T3-E1 cells. It was observed that (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate promoted osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by increased mineralization process and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as expression of genes encoding the bone differentiation. Moreover (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate treatment upregulated the gene expression of wingless-type MMTV integration site fam...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Zeaxanthin from Porphyridium purpureum induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells expressing the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation and sensitizes them to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib
Abstract Zeaxanthin, an abundant carotenoid present in fruits, vegetables and algae was reported to exert antiproliferative activity and induce apoptosis in human uveal melanoma cells. It also inhibited uveal melanoma tumor growth and cell migration in nude mice xenograft models. Here we report that zeaxanthin purified from the rhodophyte Porphyridium purpureum (Bory) K.M.Drew& R.Ross, Porphyridiaceae, promotes apoptosis in the A2058 human melanoma cell line expressing the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation. Zeaxanthin 40 µM (IC50) induced chromatin condensation, nuclear blebbing, hypodiploidy, accumulation of cells i...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quantitative determination of monotropein in rat plasma and tissue by LC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies
Abstract A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry was developed and validated for accurate determination of monotropein in rat plasma and tissues. All biological samples were prepared by simple protein precipitation method using catalpol as an internal standard. The analyte and internal standard were separated on a C18 analytical column with 2 min of run time, at flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with negative-ion electrospray ionization by selected-reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 389 → 147 fo...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioactive components, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the wood of Albizia myriophylla
Abstract The scientific basis corresponding with the folkloric use of Albizia myriophylla Benth., Fabaceae, for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases was established by measuring antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2 ′ -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) free radicals, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays as well as anti-inflammatory effect using nitrite assay and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP)-induced rat ear edema model. Both ethanol extract (DPPH, IC50 46.23 µg/ml; ABTS, IC50 57.14 µg/ml; FRAP, 950.14 mM Fe (II)/g) and dichloromethane fraction (DPPH...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physicochemical, biological and release studies of chitosan membranes incorporated with Euphorbia umbellata fraction
Abstract Formulations containing chitosan incorporated with methanolic fraction of Euphorbia umbellata (Pax) Bruyns, Euphorbiaceae, were studied aiming future applications of this new material as medicine. In order to investigate potential interactions between chitosan and the methanolic fraction (10, 50 and 100% in relation to the amount of chitosan) physicochemical characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, density, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and colorimetry techniques. The phenolic compounds released from the chitos...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The role of tannins as antiulcer agents: a fluorescence-imaging based study
Abstract Condensed tannins have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat gastric problems. The mechanism of action that explains why tannins improve gastritis symptoms is based on their ability to chelate metals, antioxidant activity, and their complexation power with other molecules. Even though these uses are well-known, the requirements to become an herbal medicine are much more complex. Herein, we analyzed Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., Fabaceae, extract using MALDI for tannin characterization and carried out a fluorescence-imaging study to prove the gastroprotective effects of tannins as coating agents...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A new feruloyl glyceride from the roots of Asian rice (Oryza sativa)
This study represents the first report of feruloyl glycerides (1 – 2) identified in O. sativa. In addition, the identification of compound 3 is reported from Asian rice (O. sativa) for the first time. The cytotoxic activities of the isolates 1 – 3 were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the chemical composition and variability of the volatile oils from Trembleya parviflora leaves
This study provides data that can be applied for the quality control of powdered leaves and is the first description of the chemical composition and variability of the volatile oils from the leaves of T. parviflora. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Multivariate statistical analysis of morpho-anatomical data of nine sect. Caulopterae species (Baccharis – Asteraceae) used in folk medicine
Abstract Baccharis species belonging to sect. Caulopterae are difficult to identify. Most countries are controlling the quality of herbal medicines destined for the internal market or export. "Carquejas" are used arbitrarily for the same medicinal purposes and only three species of sect. Caulopterae are official herbal medicines. In the present study, a morpho-anatomical and statistical analysis was performed with nine species of sect. Caulopterae: Baccharis articulata, B. crispa, B. gaudichaudiana, B. microcephala, B. penningtonii, B. phyteumoides, B. sagittalis, B. triangularis and B. trimera, emphasizing the i...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morphoanatomical and histochemical characterization of Larrea species from Northwestern of Argentina
Abstract Larrea divaricata Cav., L. cuneifolia Cav. and L. nitida Cav., Zygophyllaceae, are evergreen xerophytic shrubs occurring in Northwestern Argentina used in traditional medicine. The aim of this work was to characterize the morphology, anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of three Larrea species by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to provide supporting data for their correct identification and to determine the site of synthesis and accumulation of its main active compounds. The shape, number and percentage of coalescence of leaflets, presence or absence of mucrones and rachis and the sh...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Leaf morphoanatomy of "mororĂ³" (Bauhinia and Schnella, Fabaceae)
Abstract Bauhinia L. and Schnella (Raddi.) Wund. are popularly known in Brazil as "moror ó". The leaves and stem bark are used in folk medicine for various purposes, especially against diabetes. Morphoanatomical studies of the leaves of Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong.) Steud., B. pentandra (Bong.) Steud., B. ungulata L. and Schnella outimouta (Aublet) Wund., tribe Cercidae, subtribe Bauhini inae (Benth.) Walp., were carried out as subsidies to the quality control of their etnodrugs and their derivatives, as well as an additional support to their taxonomy. The morphological and anatomical studies employed tradit...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - August 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research