An overview of odoriferous marine seaweeds of the Dictyopteris genus: insights into their chemical diversity, biological potential and ecological roles
ABSTRACT Since the middle of the twentieth century the marine algae have attracted attention as a source of new drugs. Dictyopteris is an important group of marine seaweeds and is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. This genus is known by its characteristic “ ocean smell ” . Some species show a distinct phytochemistry, with specific secondary metabolites, including C11-hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds and quinone derivatives, not usually found in marine seaweeds and described for the first time in the literature. Furthermore, several terpenes, steroids and halogenated compounds have...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Antitussive and expectorant properties of growing and fallen leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)
ABSTRACT Folium Eriobotryae, the dried leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica, (Thunb.) Lindl., Rosaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat cough with phlegm in China. Fallen and growing loquat leaves were tested for their effect on coughing and expectoration in mice. HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS analyses of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fallen or growing leaves were used to identify the chemical components responsible for this effect. Both the aqueous and ethanol extracts of growing and fallen leaves of loquat contained antitussive and expectorant activities. Moreover, an aqueous extract of growing loquat leaves ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from ethanol extract of Polyalthia rumphii branches and their cytotoxicity evaluation
ABSTRACT Twelve known compounds, including eight alkaloids, three lignans and one gossypol derivative, were isolated from the branches of Polyalthia rumphii (Blume ex Hensch.) Merr., Annonaceae. The chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. All the isolates were evaluated the cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines: Hela, MCF-7 and A549, the results showed that partial of isolates displayed weak cytotoxicities with the IC50 values ranging from 25 to 40 µg/ml. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nitric oxide inhibitory and anti-Bacillus activity of phenolic compounds and plant extracts from Mesua species
ABSTRACT Species from the genus Mesua, Calophyllaceae, are rich source for phenolic compounds such as coumarin xanthone, and benzophenone derivatives. An investigation on the potential biologically active phenolic compounds 1 – 5 and crude extracts from the stem bark of Mesua hexapetala (Hook. f.) P.S. Ashton and Mesua beccariana (Baill.) Kosterm. for nitric oxide inhibitory activity on RAW 264.7 macrophage as well as anti-Bacillus activity on selected Bacillus were carried out. Hexapetarin (1), which we reported as a new compound isolated from M. hexapetala showed very good nitric oxide inhibitory activity with an I...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phenylacylated-flavonoids from Peucedanum chryseum
ABSTRACT Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Peucedanum chryseum (Boiss.& Heldr.) D.F.Chamb., Apiaceae, led to the isolation of a dihydrofuranochromone, cimifugin (1); a phloroacetophenone glucoside, myrciaphenone A (2); and a flavonoid glycoside, afzelin (3) along with two phenylacylated-flavonoid glycosides: rugosaflavonoid C (4), and isoquercitrin 6"-O-p-hydroxybenzoate (5). The structures of compounds 1 – 5 were elucidated by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis in combination with MS experiments and comparison with the relevant literature. All compounds ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Morpho-anatomy of native species used as substitute of quina (Cinchona spp.) in Brazilian traditional medicine: Esenbeckia febrifuga
ABSTRACT Esenbeckia febrifuga (A.St.-Hil.) A. Juss. ex Mart., Rutaceae, is known by several popular names including quina-do-mato. This name is a reference to the use of its bark as febrifuge and in the past was employed as a substitute of Cinchona sp. for treatment of malaria symptoms. This confusion may have been reinforced by the fact that the bark of these plants are similar in appearance and have a bitter taste. In view thereof this study presents the description morphological and anatomical and the histochemistry of the stem bark and contributes to the pharmacobotanical study of plant drugs identified as Brazilian qu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Randomized controlled trial of Panax ginseng in patients with irritable bowel syndrome
ABSTRACT The irritable bowel syndrome is defined as the presence of continuing or recurrent abdominal pain and it is associated with altered bowel habit. Experimental studies with Panax ginseng C.A. Mey., Araliaceae, have demonstrated the antinociceptive action on calcium and sodium channels, as well as on primary sensory neurons. A clinical double-blind, randomized, prospective and experimental trial was conducted for sixty days, comparing the action of dry extract of P. ginseng (300 mg/day) with trimebutine (600 mg/day). Patients were assessed at four visits for abdominal pain, using the Likert scale, and adverse events....
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development and clinical efficacy evaluation of anti-greasy green tea tonner on facial skin
ABSTRACT Green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Theaceae) polyphenols have activities against skin disorders; however, anti-sebum efficacy of green tea cosmetic has sparely been reported. The facial tonner containing green tea was therefore developed and clinical evaluated. The base formulas which stabled following accelerated tests were sensorial assessed in ten volunteers. The base with hydroxyethyl cellulose, glycerin and panthenol (totally 3.6%) with the significant (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vivo study of a homeopathic medicine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in dairy cow
This study evaluated the efficacy of a homeopathic preparation to control natural tick infestations. The evaluations were conducted with 24 taurine dairy cows during 12 months. The homeopathic medicine (30 CH + Sulfur 30 CH) was administered in a proportion of 1:100 (v/w) in a formulation with sugar, added to 30 kg of mineral salt. This preparation was supplied along with concentrated feed (2 kg/animal/day). The control group received the same feed mixture without the medicine. The groups were kept in separate paddocks. Data were collected on body weight, packed cell volume and number of engorged female ticks on each anima...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vivo anti-arthritic and antioxidant effects from the standardized ethanolic extract of Moussonia deppeana
ABSTRACT Moussonia deppeana (Schltdl.& Cham.) Klotzsch ex Hanst., Gesneriaceae, known as tlachichinole, is a Mexican medicinal plant used for treatment of chronic inflammation-related diseases such as arthritis. In this paper, the main metabolite verbascoside was quantified in ethanolic extract; anti-arthritic and antioxidant activities were also evaluated in Complete Freund's Adjuvant induced arthritis in mice, with complete hematological evaluation, and oxidative stress measure in edema and ganglionic tissues on day 28. In popliteal ganglion, CD4+ lymphocytes and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration were measure...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Zornioside, a dihydrochalcone C-glycoside, and other compounds from Zornia brasiliensis
ABSTRACT The secondary metabolites of the aerial parts of Zornia brasiliensis Vogel, Fabaceae, and the biological activity of one of these secondary metabolites were characterized in this study. A phytochemical investigation was performed using chromatographic techniques including analytical and preparative reverse-phase HPLC column sequences, which resulted in the isolation of fourteen compounds: one previously undescribed C-glycosylated dihydrochalcone (zornioside), one cyclitol (D-pinitol), one glycosylated megastigmane (roseoside) and eleven phenolic compounds: 7-methoxyflavanone, 7,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, medicarpin, ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Comparison of bioactive compounds content in leaf extracts of Passiflora incarnata, P. caerulea and P. alata and in vitro cytotoxic potential on leukemia cell lines
ABSTRACT Passiflora caerulea L., P. alata Curtis and P. incarnata L. (synonym for P. edulis Sims), are the most popular representatives of the Passiflora genus in South America. In recent years, a growing attention is paid to the biological activity and phytochemical profiles of crude extracts from various species of Passiflora in worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare of anti-leukemic activity of the dry crude extracts from leaves of three Passiflora species from greenhouse of Poland in two human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines: CCRF-CEM and its multidrug resistant variant. Two systems of ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Artichoke edible parts are hepatoprotective as commercial leaf preparation
ABSTRACT Chemical profile analyses of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., Asteraceae) edible parts (fleshy receptacle, inner bracts) as well as roots are compared with the commercially usable leaf extract using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS via chlorogenicacid as a marker. Overall polyphenolic constituents demonstrated by means of LC/MS profiling. The nutritional values and inulin contents of different assessed parts were investigated. The present study was designed to determine the effect of artichoke: leaves, bracts, receptacles and roots alcoholic extracts against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity and hyperlipidemia in rats by means of hi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of six bioactive components of total flavonoids of Scorzonera austriaca in rat tissues by LC-MS/MS: application to a tissue distribution study
ABSTRACT A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of six bioactive constituents including vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, 2"-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl isoorientin, 2"-O- β -D-xylopyranosyl isovitexin, and 6-C-L- α -arabipyranosyl vitexin in rats ’ various tissues using isoquercitrin as the internal standard. Biological samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Optimization of baicalin water extraction process from Scutellaria baicalensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) by using orthogonal test and HPLC
In this study, we optimized the baicalin water extraction process from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Lamiaceae (a traditional Chinese medicine). Orthogonal test design L9(3)4 was used to analyze the optimization of water extraction process of baicalin from S. baicalensis. The effect of solid – liquid ratio, extraction time and soaking time on the yield of baicalin were investigated and optimized by orthogonal test. High-performance liquid chromatography was employed for the determination of extraction yield of baicalin. Analysis of variance was carried out to study the effects of the above three factors. The result...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Optimization of extraction method and HPLC analysis of six caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves from different provenances in Thailand
This study aimed to develop and validate an HPLC method to quantitatively analyze six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, viz. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in P. indica leaf extract. HPLC was carried out in a Hypersil BDS C18-column eluted with 0.5% acetic acid in water and methanol using gradient elution with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 326 nm. The method validation was performed to assure its linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. Several extra...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of abiotic environmental factors on the main constituents of the volatile oils of Tithonia diversifolia
ABSTRACT Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray, Asteraceae, commonly known as Mexican sunflower, is a wide distributed invasive species encountered around the world. We proposed herein to establish the relationship between different abiotic environmental factors and the variation in the production of volatile compounds in T. diversifolia, during a period of one year. Samples of leaf and inflorescence volatile oils obtained from individuals located at two different regions of Brazil were analyzed by GC – MS and the data were submitted to chemometric analysis. Based on the main constituents, the analysis allowed us to...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomy and volatile oil chemistry of Eucalyptus saligna cultivated in South Brazil
ABSTRACT Eucalyptus saligna Sm., Myrtaceae, commonly known as Sydney blue gum, is often confused with several other species in the genus. The leaf volatile oils of the species have been reported to have antimicrobial, insecticidal, nematicidal, repellent and cytotoxicity properties. The present work provides anatomy as well as volatile oil chemistry of the species collected from South Brazil. The anatomy and histochemistry of the leaves and stems were investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the leaf and stem volatile oils were analyzed by GC – MS. Amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, presence...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - June 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Validation of a photostability indicating method for quantification of furanocoumarins from Brosimum gaudichaudii soft extract
ABSTRACT A validation study of a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantification of two furanocoumarins (psoralen and bergapten) in soft extract obtained from Brosimum gaudichaudii Tr écul, Moraceae, roots was conducted. The developed method was sensitive, rapid, reproducible, easy and precise, and showed linearity (r> 0.99) in the range of 10 – 64 µg/ml for psoralen, and 9 – 56 µg/ml for bergapten. It also showed a good efficiency for the photodegradation analysis of psoralen and bergapten in the soft extract. The photostability results showed that the H...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dynamic maceration of Matricaria chamomilla inflorescences: optimal conditions for flavonoids and antioxidant activity
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper was to study and optimize the dynamic maceration process to obtain Matricaria chamomilla L., Asteraceae, inflorescences extracts with optimum flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using a multivariate approach. Hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by dynamic maceration in lab scale and the influence of extraction temperature, ratio of plant to solvent, ethanol strength; extraction time and stirring speed on the flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were unveiled using a fractional factorial design. The ethanol strength, ratio of plant to solvent and temperature were the three facto...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components
ABSTRACT Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss) M üll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the developmen t of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J), their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention o...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chromatographic profiles of extractives from leaves of Eugenia uniflora
This study provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical profile from leaves of E. uniflora. The HPLC analysis was carried out on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) by gradient elution with methanol and water (acidified with trifluoracetic acid); and silica gel Plates 60-F 254 with 10 – 12 µm and 5 – 6 µm particles, respectively for TLC and High HPTLC analysis. The chromatographic data obtained from HPLC, TLC and HPTLC presented bands and peaks related to flavonoids (myricitrin and derivatives) and tannins (gallic and ellagic acids), which were observed from different ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Celtis iguanaea on markers of cardiovascular diseases and glucose metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from C. iguanaea on markers of cardiovascular diseases and the glucose metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. Therefore, hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol) were orally treated with C. iguanaea extract (C-150, CI-300, or CI-600 mg/kg) or simvastatin (4 mg/kg) (n = 6) once a day (30 days) with a hypercholesterolemic diet. A control group (C) was given saline. C. iguanaea extract showed significant decreases in serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HMG-CoA-reductase, interleukin-1 and 6, TNF- α and IFN- γ when compared to group C (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enzymes inhibitory and radical scavenging potentials of two selected tropical vegetable (Moringa oleifera and Telfairia occidentalis) leaves relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus
In this study, the inhibitory activities and the radical scavenging potentials of these vegetables on relevant enzymes of type 2-diabetes ( α -amylase and α -glucosidase) were evaluated in vitro. HPLC-DAD was used to characterize the phenolic constituents and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's pancreas was investigated. Various radical scavenging properties coupled with metal chelating abilities were also determined. However, phenolic extracts from the vegetables inhibited α -amylase, α -glucosidase and chelated the tested metals (Cu2+ and Fe2+) in a concentration-dependent manner. More so, th...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of Aegle marmelos augmented with piperine co-administration in paracetamol model
ABSTRACT The current study explored hepatoprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr êa, Rutaceae, leaves extract. Potentiation of A. marmelos hepatoprotective effect with piperine co-administration was also explored. Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: (i) normal control, (ii) paracetamol group, (iii) silymarin group, (iv) extract-25 group (25 mg/kg body), (v) ext ract-50 group: (50 mg/kg), (vi) extract-100 group (100 mg/kg) and (vii) extract-25 + piperine group. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering paracetamol orally in a dose of 400 mg/kg for seven days. The drugs were administered 30 mi...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the Impatiens noli-tangere and Stachys officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Impatiens noli-tangere L., Balsaminaceae, and of Stachys officinalis L., Lamiaceae, polyphenolic-rich extracts obtained by nanofiltration process. Results showed the great potential and efficiency of the nanofiltration process to concentrate the herbal extract's main polyphenolic compounds (over 91% phenolic acids and flavonoids retention). S. officinalis polyphenolic-rich extracts had high antioxidant activities (IC50 2.5 µg/ml) compared to I. noli-tangere polyphenolic-rich extracts (IC50 19.3 µg/ml) and similar with that of ascorbic acid...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Warifteine, an alkaloid of Cissampelos sympodialis, modulates allergic profile in a chronic allergic rhinitis model
This study evaluated the effect of inhaled warifteine in an allergic ovalbumin rhinitis model. Inhaled warifteine (2 mg/ml) treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice significant decreased total and differential number of cells on the nasal cavity and decreased ovalbumin-specific IgE serum levels. Hematoxylin& eosin staining of histological preparations of ovalbumin nasal tissues showed changes such as congestion and a massive cell infiltration in the perivascular and subepithelial regions characterizing the nasal inflammatory process. However, inhaled warifteine or dexamethasone treatment decreased cell infiltratio...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Xanthorrhizol contents, α-glucosidase inhibition, and cytotoxic activities in ethyl acetate fraction of Curcuma zanthorrhiza accessions from Indonesia
In this study, C. zanthorrhiza accessions have a high in xanthorrhizol contents and cytotoxic activities that showed a high potential of studied accessions for breeding programs on a commercial scale. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rhodolirium andicola: a new renewable source of alkaloids with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, a study from nature to molecular docking
ABSTRACT Acetylcholinesterase is an important target for control of neurodegenerative diseases causing cholinergic signaling deficit. Traditionally, galanthamine has been used as an Amaryllidaceae-derived acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, although new Amaryllidaceae plants could serve as source for better acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the alkaloid composition from bulbs of Rhodolirium andicola (Poepp.) Traub, a native Chilean Amaryllidaceae specie, and assess their inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase by in vitro and in silico methodologies. Alkaloidal extr...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic activity of abietane diterpenoids from roots of Salvia sahendica by HPLC-based activity profiling
This study reveals that the HeLa cells are more sensitive to all tested compounds than the Caco-2 cells. In silico molecular docking study showed a rigid binding of the compounds to tyrosine kinase pp60src, and proved their cytotoxic activity. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Some triterpenic compounds in extracts of Cecropia and Bauhinia species for different sampling years
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the chemical composition of triterpenes in widespread used folk medicine species, through the development and validation of eleven compounds using HPLC-UV detection. The compounds were separated using isocratic elution, on a reverse phase column (Kinetex C18, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:tetrahydrofuran (90:10, v/v), flow-rate of 0.5 ml/min and detection in 210 nm. Diverse validation parameters were successfully evaluated. The samples of Bauhinia variegata L., B. variegata var. candida Voigt, Fabaceae, Cecropia pal...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical composition and seasonality variability of the Spiranthera odoratissima volatile oils leaves
This study analyzed the chemical composition of volatile oils from leaves of S. odoratissima and verified the seasonal variability of its chemical composition. The volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The main chemical components found in samples of volatile oils were β -caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, δ -cadinene, amorphous-4,7(11)-diene, α -epi-muurolol, α -cadinol, α -muurolol and γ -cadinene. The hierarchical clustering identified three groups: the first was characterized by...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomy and microscopy of Piper caldense, a folk medicinal plant from Brazil
ABSTRACT Piper caldense C. DC., Piperaceae, commonly known as “ pimenta-d ’ água ” , “ pimenta-darda ” or “ paguarandy ” in Brazil, is a shrub that grows mainly in humid and shaded habitats. The present study investigates the anatomy of the leaves and stems of P. caldense by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to provide supporting data for correct identification of the species. The leaves are hypostomatic, have a 2-layered hypodermis, and posses pearl glands. The midrib shows a ‘ U ’ -shaped stele comprised of about ten collateral vascular bundles. T...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Anatomical characters and chemical profile of leaves of three species in Lauraceae family
ABSTRACT The Lauraceae family is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical climates, has more than 2500 species and in the taxonomic point of view, it is one of the most difficult families to identify species. The aim of this study was to analyze the leaf anatomy of three species of Lauraceae (Ocotea indecora (Schott) Mez, Nectandra barbellata Coe-Teix. and Endlicheria paniculata (Spreng.) J.F.Macbr.) and identify the chemical profile of essential oil extracted from the leaves by hydrodistillation method. The leaves of the three species were obtained in “ Parque Estadual Intervales ” , Atlantic Forest, S &...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - March 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Justicia pectoralis, a coumarin medicinal plant have potential for the development of antiasthmatic drugs?
ABSTRACT Justicia pectoralis Jacq., Acanthaceae, is a medicinal plant found Central America. In the Northeast of Brazil, it is popularly known as “ chamb á ” being extensively used in homemade preparations for the treatment of cough, bronchitis and asthma. The species is part of a public phytotherapy program in Brazil entitled “ Farm ácias Vivas ” , National Record of Plants of Interest to the National Health System and the National Formulary of Herbal medicines. This paper aims to critically review the available scientific literature regarding the health promoting effects of J. pector...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Himatanthus drasticus: a chemical and pharmacological review of this medicinal species, commonly found in the Brazilian Northeastern region
In conclusion, although the literature shows several works on species of the Himatanthus genus, including H. drasticus, dealing with some bioactive compounds as triterpenes, translational studies focusing upon the clinical uses of this medicinal species are still in great need. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from Casearia spp. (Flacourtiaceae/Salicaceae sensu lato)
ABSTRACT Chemical investigation of the leaves of Casearia gossypiosperma Briq., Salicaceae, led to the isolation of two known flavonoids, (+)-taxifolin and quercetin, the leaves of Casearia decandra Jacq. have afforded hydroquinone, the leaves of Casearia rupestris Eichler and Casearia lasiophylla Eichler have afforded a diterpene, (E)-phytol, and the leaves of C. rupestris and Casearia obliqua Spreng. have afforded sitosterol. The twigs of Casearia lasiophylla Eichler led to the isolation of two compounds (+)-pinoresinol, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine, and the twigs of C. obliqua have afforded N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-t...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chrysosplenetin, in the absence and presence of artemsininin, alters breast cancer resistance protein-mediated transport activity in Caco-2 cell monolayers using aristolochic acid I as a specific probe substrate
ABSTRACT The present study describes the impact of chrysosplenetin, in the absence and presence of artemisinin, on in vitro breast cancer resistance protein-mediated transport activity in Caco-2 cell monolayers using aristolochic acid I as a specific probe substrate. We observed that novobiocin, a known breast cancer resistance protein active inhibitor, increased Papp (AP-BL) of aristolochic acid I 3.13 fold (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Impact of chrysosplenetin, per se or in combination with artemisinin, on breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp)/ABCG2 mRNA expression levels in mice small intestine
This study, therefore, further addressed the impact of chrysosplenetin, per se or in combination with artemisin, on Bcrp/ABCG2 mRNA expression levels in mice small intestine determined by western blot and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. The drugs were intragastrically administrated once per day for 7 days. Novobiocin, a known Bcrp inhibitor, was observed to have no impact on Bcrp/ABCG2 levels with or without artemisinin versus vehicle. Interestingly, artemisinin alone attenuated Bcrp level while chrysosplenetin alone increased it (p
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Relative popularity level of medicinal plants in Talagang, Punjab Province, Pakistan
ABSTRACT This is the first ethnobotanical exploration with the aim to document the traditional medicinal usage of plants with the therapeutic values in Tehsil Talagang of Punjab province, Pakistan. The study shows the dependence of local people on medicinal plants in their daily life and provides practical evidence regarding the traditional usage of medicinal plants in health care practices. A total of 196 respondents including residents of the study area with gender representation and traditional healers were interviewed by using visual appraisal approach and rapid rural appraisal methods along semi-structured interviews ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical composition and chronic hypoglycemic effect of Rhizophora mangle cortex on STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats
ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in Mexico, as it is in other countries, is a chronic condition that develops when the body cannot produce enough insulin or cannot use it appropriately. Both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance lead to high blood glucose levels. In Mexico, people with diabetes are known to use the decoction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae) bark to control blood glucose levels. Therefore, in this study, we sought to investigate the chronic hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of R. mangle; we also elucidate some of the major phytochemical compounds of R. mangle...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In vitro antitubercular activity of extract and constituents from the stem bark of Disthemonanthus benthamianus
ABSTRACT A new C-glycosylflavone, apigenin 7-methyl ether 6-C-[ β -xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)- β -glucopyranoside] named distemonanthoside was isolated from the stem bark of Distemonanthus benthamianus Baill., Fabaceae, along with six known compounds, sitosterol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside, 4-methoxygallic acid, syringic acid, quercetin, 6"-O-acetylvitexin, quercetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside. The structures of those compounds and others were determined through spectral analyses. Compounds distemonanthoside, sitosterol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside, 4-methoxygallic acid and quercetin were tested aga...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera improves redox status and decreases the severity of alcoholic hepatotoxicity
ABSTRACT The metabolism of ethanol occurs mainly in the liver, promoting increase of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, leading to redox imbalance. Therefore, antioxidants can be seen as an alternative to reestablish the oxidizing/reducing equilibrium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae, in a model of hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. The extract was characterized and in vitro tests were conducted in HepG2 cells. It was evaluated the cells viability exposed to aqueous extract for 24 h, ability to scavenging th...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Isolation and identification of cytotoxic compounds from a fruticose lichen Roccella montagnei, and it's in silico docking study against CDK-10
ABSTRACT Roccella montagnei B él. belongs to lichen family Roccelleceae growing luxuriantly along the coastal regions of India. As Roccella has been shown to be bioactive, we prepared methanolic extract and assessed its anticancer potential. The methanolic extract showed significant in vitro cytotoxic activity against four huma n cancer cell lines such as colon (DLD-1, SW-620), breast (MCF-7), head and neck (FaDu). This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds through column chromatography. Two compounds roccellic acid and everninic acid have been isolated, out of which everninic acid is reported for the first tim...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

UPLC/Q-TOF-MS profiling of phenolics from Canarium pimela leaves and its vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities
ABSTRACT Canarium pimela K.D. Koenig, Burseraceae, have a long history of use in the Chinese traditional medicine treatment of various ailments including hypertension, and our research team has reported the anti-hypertensive activity and delineated the mechanism involved in the action. The following research aims to evaluate the vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from C. pimela leaves and to analyze its chemical composition by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) that may correlate with their pharmacological activities. The results showe...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical constituents from Bauhinia acuruana and their cytotoxicity
ABSTRACT Phytochemical investigation of Bauhinia acuruana Moric., Fabaceae, resulted in the isolation of sixteen constituents, including two new compounds 2'-hydroxy-2,3,5-trimethoxybibenzyl (1), (2R,3S)-2-(3,4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-6-methylchroman-3,7-diol (2), together with fourteen known ones (3 – 16). The structures of the compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data, followed by comparison with previously reported data from the literature. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, which turned out to be marginal in a panel of six hu...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Biological activities and phytochemical profile of Passiflora mucronata from the Brazilian restinga
In conclusion, Passiflora mucronata presented relevant biological potential and should be considered for further studies using in vivo pulmonary tuberculosis model. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Plectraterpene, a new ursane-type triterpene ester and other steroids from the aerial parts of Plectranthus montanus
ABSTRACT A new ursane-type triterpene ester, plectraterpene [3 β -(decanoyloxy)-19-hydroxy-urs-12-ene] and four known steroidal compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of Plectranthus montanus Benth. (syn. Plectranthus cylindraceus Hochst. ex Benth.), Lamiaceae. The known compounds were stigmasterol, sitosteryl ferulate, cholest-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside and stigmasterol-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside. Compounds plectraterpene, sitosteryl ferulate and stigmasterol-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside are reported for the first time from this plant whereas compound cholest-5-en-3-O- β -D-glucopyrano...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous HPLC analysis of crebanine, dicentrine, stephanine and tetrahydropalmatine in Stephania venosa
ABSTRACT Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng., Menispermaceae, has been traditionally used as tonic drug and treatment of various diseases in South East Asian countries. In order to evaluate the quality and standardization of S. venosa roots, the HPLC method for quantification of the content of major components in S. venosa was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Hypersil BDS C18 column using gradient system of 100 mM ammonium acetate in water and methanol with flow rate 1 ml/min. Detection wavelength was set at 210 nm for tetrahydropalmatine, 280 nm for dicentrine and crebanine, and 270 ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of growth regulators on distribution of trichomes and the production of volatiles in micropropagated plants of Plectranthus ornatus
ABSTRACT The profile of volatile organic compounds, the glandular and non-glandular trichomes of Plectranthus ornatus, obtained by in vitro cultivation, was evaluated in plants grown in Murashide and Skoog medium supplemented with benylaminopurine at 4.5, 9.0, and 18.0 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid at 5.37 µM, kinetin at 4.7, 9.3 and 18.5 µM + naphthaleneacetic acid (5.37 µM) or Murashide and Skoog 0 medium (as a control). Scanning Electron Microscopy was performed on samples of the third leaf node of the 90 days old plants obtained from treatment with 4.5 or 9. 0 µM benylaminopurine, and 4.7 or...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - January 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research