Polarization of x-ray radiation after electron-impact excitation of ions in plasmas
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Zhanbin ChenAbstractA new relativistic model for calculating (magnetic sublevel) electron-impact excitation process in plasmas is proposed in this paper, which is essential to predict the polarization property of x-ray radiation. Our model focuses on weakly coupled plasmas (assuming that the plasma is of low density and very hot), where we use a Debye-Hückel potential to represent the interactions among the charged particles, in order to calculate plasma shielding effects. As a practical example, we present results of ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 17, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Assessment of photon energy and dose rate dependence of U-NIPAM polymer gel dosimeter
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Abtahi, Vahid Anaraki, Bagher Farhood, Seied Rabi MahdaviAbstractOne of the main drawbacks of NPAM gel dosimeter is its relatively low R2-dose sensitivity. Recently, the sensitivity of NIPAM gel dosimeter has been improved by adding urea and this new formula gel dosimeter was named U-NIPAM (Urea and NIPAM). In the current project, photon energy and dose rate dependence of optimized U-NIPAM gel dosimeter (with 3% urea) was assessed by MRI technique. The gel samples were fabricated under normal atmospheri...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 17, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Determination of photon-shielding features and build-up factors of nickel–silver alloys
In this study, a comprehensive study on photon and fast neutron interactions was conducted to determine the possible uses of four different copper-based Nickel–Silver (NS) alloys as alternative protective materials. For this purpose, photon interaction parameters (μ, μm, X1/2, σT, Zeff, Neff, Ceff) of NS alloys which have Cu65Ni18Zn17, Cu62Ni18Zn20, Cu64Ni12Zn24 and Cu55Ni18Zn27 compositions were presented experimentally in the photon energy range of 30–1333 keV using ideal transmission geometry conditions. In order to compare experimental and theoretical results and to a comprehensive evaluation ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 16, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Background radiation in the production area of hokutolite in Taiwan
In this study, measurements were carried out for gross α/β activities, radium-isotope and tritium activities in water, major naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, sludge and plants, and radon-isotope activities in air. The ambient dose rate, effective dose rate, direct radiation dose from surface of the ground as well as the annual effective dose to the public was estimated. Gross α/β activities detected in hot spring water indicated that the hot spring water is undrinkable in this area. Gamma activity in water was mainly from daughters of 228Ra and 226Ra, which decreased downstream the Beitou Cr...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Mechanical and radiation shielding properties of flexible material based on natural rubber/ Bi2O3 composites
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Sirilak Intom, Ekwipoo Kalkornsurapranee, Jobish Johns, Siriprapa Kaewjaeng, Suchart Kothan, Wirapron Hongtong, Wuttichai Chaiphaksa, Jakrapong KaewkhaoAbstractThe purpose of this investigation have been developed lead-free and flexible radiation shielding materials. Composites of natural rubber (NR) were prepared by incorporating bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with various loading levels. The variation mechanical properties of the composite with different loading levels have been studied. The gamma ray shielding properties were mea...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 14, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

The dose enhancement of MAGAT gel dosimeter doped with zinc oxide at 6 MV photon beam
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): A.S. Mustaqim, N.Z. Yahaya, N.N.A. Razak, H. ZinAbstractThe cancer treatment modalities have been developed rapidly with the aim to maximize the absorbed dose toward the cancer cells while sparing the healthy tissues. The use of high atomic number, Z nanomaterials has become interest as it offers the possibilities such as destroying cancer tumor with minimal damage to the healthy tissues. The study aimed to evaluate the role of methylene blue as it reduced the self-polymerization as well as to measure the dose enhancement ef...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A novel, population-based approach to astronaut radiation risk assessment
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Rajarshi Pal Chowdhury, Nicholas N. Stoffle, Ryan R. Rios, Luke A. Stegeman, Amir A. BahadoriAbstractRisk due to space radiation exposure is one of the prime concerns for astronaut health and safety on deep space missions. NASA's current radiation risk limit is 3% risk of exposure-induced death (REID) at the upper 95% tolerance limit. Sex and age dependence in existing radiation risk models and large uncertainties, mostly due to lack of knowledge of biological effects of highly energetic and heavy charged particles, presentl...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Shielding efficiency of novel tungsten rubber against radionuclides of 99mTc, 131I, 18F and 68Ga
Conclusion: Tungsten-containing rubber has adequate radiation shielding efficiency for radionuclides. The protection with tungsten-containing rubber of radionuclides in consideration of HVL, the half-life, energy and activity are safe and efficient, and could, therefore, be employed as shield in clinical site. (Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry)
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Activation study of a 15 MeV LINAC via Monte Carlo simulations
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Sara Vichi, Devis Dean, Silvia Ricci, Federico Zagni, Paola Berardi, Domiziano MostacciAbstractMedical linear accelerators are increasingly used in radiotherapy. During the operational life of the accelerator, the different components of the LINAC head become radioactive due to photonuclear reactions. Activation induced has to be evaluated to assess not only the dose due to residual activation but also the amount of radioactive waste that has to be managed in the dismantling phase of the facility. The aim of this work is to ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dosimetric assessment in different tumour phenotypes with auger electron emitting radionuclides: 99mTc, 125I, 161Tb, and 177Lu
According to this study, the hypothetical use of different electron beam qualities directed to different tumor phenotypes of the same tumor could act as a radio-sensitizer and, at the same time, minimize dose to the surrounding healthy tissues. (Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry)
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

X-ray absorption spectroscopy examination of Cr, Co, and Cu binding on fluorescent carbon dots
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Budsaya Moonsuang, Benjamaporn Thaitong, Penphitcha Amonpattaratkit, Ngamjit Praingam, Pornpimol PrayongpanAbstractFluorescent carbon dots (CDs) synthesized from tartaric acid and triethylenetetramine showed potential for the detection of Cr6+, Co2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solution, with the most effective sensing being based on fluorescence quenching for Co2+. A good linear relationship between the concentration of Co2+ and the relative fluorescent intensity was obtained at 1.7–167.7 μM (R2 = 0.9993) with a limit...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Intercomparison of personal and ambient dosimeters in extremely high-dose-rate pulsed photon fields
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): G. Zorloni, I. Ambrožová, P. Carbonez, M. Caresana, S. Ebert, V. Olšovcová, A. Pitzschke, O. Ploc, F. Pozzi, M. Silari, F. Trompier, R. Trunecek, Z. ZelenkaAbstractRecent advances in laser driven accelerators boosted the development of high dose-rate fast pulsed systems all over the world. The stray radiation comprises primarily high-energy photons, resulting in extremely high dose rates within pico-/femto-second pulses. Dose measurements in such conditions have to be evaluated to validate methods. To t...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Toxicity and color reduction of a textile effluent containing reactive red 239 dye by electron beam irradiation
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Vanessa S.G. Garcia, Jorge M. Rosa, Sueli I. BorrelyAbstractTextile effluents are a mixture of dyestuff, surfactants, dispersants, acids, alkalis and bleaching agents, among other compounds, and some of these are highly soluble and relatively recalcitrant. Suitable improvement of textile effluents may require combined treatment processes, such as Conventional Treatments and Advanced Oxidative Process (AOPs). Electron beam irradiation (EBI) has been proposed as a possible technology for the treatment of textile effluents. In ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Modification of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) with polyallylamine by gamma radiation
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): David Rosado, H. Iván Meléndez-Ortiz, Alejandra Ortega, Carlos Gallardo-Vega, Guillermina BurilloAbstractThe major challenge for tissue engineering is the development of biomaterials that possess suitable chemical, mechanical, and topographical properties for cell culture. Functional polymers have shown promising results. This work showed a different methodology to synthesize a new functional polymer rich in primary amines on surface, using as substrate polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is a biocompatible p...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Comparison of conventional and reactive sintering techniques for Lead–Free BCZT ferroelectric ceramics
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Buatip, M. Dhanunjaya, P. Amonpattaratkit, P. Pomyai, T. Sonklin, K. Reichmann, P. Janphaung, S. PojprapaiAbstractPiezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of a ceramic material greatly influenced by the synthesis technique and prepared condition. In this work, the efforts have been made to prepare barium calcium zirconium titanate (BCZT) ceramics and used to study the effectiveness of conventional sintering (CS) and reactive sintering (RS) methods. Specific composition of BCZT ceramic (Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Availability of PLA/SIS blends for packaging and medical applications
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Ana-Maria Luchian-Lupu, Traian Zaharescu, Eduard-Marius Lungulescu, Maria Râpă, Horia IovuAbstractThe samples consisting of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and styrene-isoprene-styrene triblock polymers (SIS) were investigated for the evaluation of their stability qualification. The accelerated degradation was achieved by γ-exposure when structural modifications were watched. Three SIS loadings (10, 20 and 30 wt%) were blended in PLA matrix. The concentration effect of minor component reveals the higher stability for...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Patient dose optimization for computed radiography using physical and observer-based measurements as image quality metrics
In this study, patient dose optimization was implemented for a computed radiography (CR) system used in general x-ray examinations, considering physical and observer-based measurements as image quality metrics. An anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate the patient under clinical conditions of chest and abdominal x-rays. Entrance surface doses (ESDs) were measured using a solid-state dose detector positioned at phantom entrance surface during simulated x-rays with different combinations of tube potential (kV) and tube current-time product (mAs), including the kV-mAs used clinically. Agfa's CR System with CR12-X digiti...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Portuguese population exposure to ionizing radiation due to x-ray and nuclear medicine procedures from 2013 to 2017
This study intends to raise awareness to the need of optimization of radiation dose in medical procedures. (Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry)
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Monte Carlo studies on dose conversion factors from graphite to water for high energy X-ray beams
Publication date: June 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 171Author(s): Y.H. Kim, C.Y. Yi, I.J. Kim, B.C. Kim, J.H. Kim, Y.M. Seong, H.M. KimAbstractAn evaluation of the dose conversion factor from graphite to water is essential to measure the absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. However, it is difficult to obtain the conversion factors from measurements. In the present study, Monte Carlo (MC) studies were performed to evaluate the absorbed dose conversion factor from graphite to water. Based on the Electron Gamma Shower MC codes from National Research Council Canada, the modeling of the me...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

A combined study of the thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance of point defects in ZrO2:Er3+
Publication date: July 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 172Author(s): H.S. Lokesha, M.L. ChithamboAbstractThis work describes thermoluminescence of beta irradiated zirconium oxide (ZrO2) doped with erbium. The sample was synthesized by the solution combustion method. Kinetic analysis of the thermoluminescence is reported and paramagnetic defects sensed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been investigated. Using X-ray diffraction, the phase of the sample was determined to be monoclinic. Glow curves measured at 1 °C s−1 show two peaks at 50°C (peak 1) and at 112°C (peak 2). The...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 13, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Changes of the abundances of Fe, Ni, Zr isotopes due to neutron radiative capture reactions in heavy water reactors
Publication date: June 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 171Author(s): Zengqi Cui, Huaiyong Bai, Haoyu Jiang, Yi Lu, Jinxiang Chen, Guohui ZhangAbstractThe abundances of the nuclides in nuclear materials change over time in reactors because of neutron-induced reactions like (n, γ), (n, α), (n, p), etc. Among them, the effect caused by (n, γ) reactions is especially significant in heavy water reactors because they have a large proportion of thermal neutron flux, and the cross sections of (n, γ) reactions for most nuclides are dominant in the thermal region than in regions of higher ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Shielding calculations for the design of new beamlines at ALBA synchrotron
The objective of the FLUKA simulations performed in this work is to establish the requirements for all the Beamline shielding elements to ensure a public dose (dose rate lower than 0.5 μSv/h) outside the shielding during Beamline operation. Results from the simulations set the general requirements for all the Beamline shielding elements, from a radiation protection point of view. (Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry)
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Study of the influence of radon in water on radon levels in air in a closed location
Publication date: June 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 171Author(s): A. Noverques, B. Juste, M. Sancho, B. García-Fayos, G. VerdúAbstractRadon, radioactive gas that comes from uranium and radium decay was considered as a carcinogenic element by the World Health Organization in 1988. The hazard of this gas resides in two of its descendants, the 214Po and 218Po, solid particles that adhere to the aerosols present in the air and are deposited in human lungs causing damage to its tissue. In closed spaces, radon tends to accumulate in the air reaching levels above the legislative limits establi...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 12, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Efficient removal of uranium from diluted aqueous solution with hydroxypyridone functionalized polyethylene nonwoven fabrics
Publication date: June 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 171Author(s): Mingxing Zhang, Mengjia Yuan, Maojiang Zhang, Minglei Wang, Junchang Chen, Rong Li, Long Qiu, Xinxin Feng, Jiangtao Hu, Guozhong WuAbstractIt is still a challenge that directly reducing the uranium concentration of wastewater or radioactive wastes by adsorption to or below the criterion (30 ppb), especially from the system of low uranium concentration due to weak affinity and bad collection. Herein we have successfully introduced hydroxypyridone (HOPO) groups onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric (PENWF) surface denoted as PENWF-HOPO ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 8, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Establishment of diagnostic X-ray air kerma standard in Taiwan
Publication date: June 2020Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Volume 171Author(s): Tseng-Te Huang, Chien-Hau Chu, Shih-Wen Wang, Yi-Chun LinAbstractDiagnostic X-ray air kerma standards were established at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan) in accordance with the recommendations of IEC 61267. The radiation qualities established by INER include IEC 61267 RQR (RQR 3-10), RQA (RQA 3-10) and RQT. Among them, RQR is used to simulate the energy spectrum generated from the X-ray machine, RQA is used to simulate the energy spectrum after passing through the human body, and RQT is used to simulate the ener...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 8, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Doping effect of manganese on the structural and electrochemical properties of Li2FeSiO4 cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Narinthorn Wiriya, Patcharapohn Chantrasuwan, Songyoot Kaewmala, Jeffrey Nash, Sutham Srilomsak, Nonglak Meethong, Wanwisa LimphiratAbstractLi2MSiO4, with two Li ions per molecule operates on both of the M2+/M3+ and M3+/M4+ redox couples resulting in a higher theoretical capacity that is > 300 mAh.g−1. In this work, synthesis of a Li2Fe1-xMnxSiO4/C (LFMS) composite was done using a sol-gel method. XRD patterns can be indexed in the monoclinic phase with P21/n space group. Li2Fe0.8Mn0.2SiO4/C provides higher disc...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Modification of PDMS with acrylic acid and acrylic acid/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate by simultaneous polymerization assisted by gamma radiation
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): M.A. Velazco-Medel, L.A. Camacho-Cruz, E. BucioAbstractThe addition of hydrophilic functional groups to hydrophobic polymers has been extensively used for the development of new medical devices with potential applications both for antibacterial substrates and for biocompatible materials. Having this into account, this work sought to modify PDMS films by grafting a copolymer of acrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (AAc/EGDMA) to increase the hydrophilicity of the films, and thus modifying the swelling properties of...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 7, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Characterization of an extrapolation chamber in beta radiation beams and Monte Carlo modelling
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Ivón Oramas Polo, William Souza Santos, Linda V.E. CaldasAbstractAt the Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of the IPEN/CNEN, studies are in development on the establishment of a standard composed by the beta radiation sources for the dosimetry and calibration for personal monitoring in Brazil. For this purpose is used the Böhm extrapolation chamber (PTW model 23392). This chamber was already characterized at LCI in 90Sr/90Y beams using two different entrance windows: one of aluminized Mylar and another of PET (polyethy...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 5, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Effect of surface contamination on XANES analysis of DLC films
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Jidapa Lomon, Thanit Saisopa, Phitsanu Poolcharuansin, Nitisak Pasaja, Artit Chingsungnoen, Ratchadaporn Supruangnet, Hideki Nakajima, Narong Chanlek, Prayoon SongsiriritthigulAbstractThe effect of adventitious contamination on total-electron-yield XANES analyses of carbon species of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was investigated. XPS and XANES measurements on a DLC sample with different amounts of contamination were carried out in the same analysis chamber. The amount of contamination was adjusted by 0.5-keV Ar-ion sputte...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 5, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Irradiation aging of the CMS Drift Tube muon detector
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): G. Abbiendi, J. Alcaraz Maestre, A. Álvarez Fernández, B. Álvarez González, N. Amapane, I. Bachiller, J.M. Barcala, L. Barcellan, C. Battilana, M. Bellato, G. Bencze, M. Benettoni, N. Beni, A. Benvenuti, L.C. Blanco Ramos, A. Boletti, A. Bragagnolo, J.A. Brochero Cifuentes, V. Cafaro, A. CalderonAbstractDuring the High Luminosity LHC, the Drift Tube chambers installed in the CMS detector need to operate with an integrated dose ten times higher than expected at the LHC due to the increase in integr...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 5, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

The current status of time-resolved XAS beamline at SLRI and application on in situ experiments
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Wanwisa Limphirat, Narinthorn Wiriya, Surangrat Tonlublao, Sarunyu Chaichoy, Piyawat Pruekthaisong, Suriya Duandmanee, Phitsamai Kamonpha, Dechmongkhon Kaewsuwan, Nonglak Meethong, Rungtiva P. Poo-arporn, Prayoon Songsiriritthigul, Josef Hormes, Yingyot Poo-arpornAbstractTime-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TRXAS) beamline (BL2.2) was constructed to utilize a synchrotron radiation produced by a 1.2 T bending magnet from a 1.2 GeV storage ring at the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Thailand. The main ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Calibration of neutron dosimeters for radiation protection use at the ALBA synchrotron experimental hall
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): M.J. García-Fusté, A. Devienne, M. Romero-Expósito, M.A. Caballero-Pacheco, C. DomingoAbstractBright beams of synchrotron radiation are produced from a 3 GeV electron accelerator at the Spanish synchrotron facility ALBA. The electron acceleration and storage mechanisms lead to complex secondary radiation fields. These fields include electrons, photons and neutrons of a wide energy range, and have an important pulsed behaviour and very significant spatial variations. In order to perform correct dose ass...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Study of gamma irradiation effects on the physico-chemical properties of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum, L.)
Publication date: Available online 3 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): B.R. Manupriya, Lathika, H.M. Somashekarappa, S.L. Patil, K.B. ShenoyAbstractThe present study deals with the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 kGy) on the physico-chemical properties of wheat flour. The physico-chemical properties of control and irradiated wheat flours are analyzed by the standard methods. After irradiation, no significant (p ≤ 0.05) changes are observed in the properties of wheat flour such as water absorption capacity, water absorption index, swelling property, loose bulk de...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Anisotropic thermal, physical and neutron attenuation studies of borated acrylamide composites
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Wageeh Ramadan, Khaled Sakr, Magda Sayed, Nabila Maziad, Nabil El-FaramawyAbstractThe present work was carried-out to study the shielding properties of hydrogel using Pu-α-Be neutron source. Hydrogel block copolymers based on acrylamide (AAm) and boric acid have been prepared by radiation copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) and boric acid in gamma cell. The influence of dose, acrylamide concentration and relative contents of boric acid on linear thermal expansion, glass transition and physical properties such as densi...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

New single-cell multi-size detector electrochemical etching system
In this study, a new single-cell multi-size detector ECE system was invented for processing circular PCTDs of different sizes especially with ∼7.0, ∼10.0, ∼16.0, ∼19.0 cm effective diameters of 250 μm thick detectors as used. From many physical and chemical parameters controlling the amplification of particle tracks in these detectors, effective etched area and position sensitivity of the detector as well as field strength were investigated on detection responses of alpha particles of fixed fluence ∼1.0x104 alphas.cm-2 at 8 distinct energies within ∼0.3 to ∼4.0 MeV energy range. While n...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 4, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dose optimisation in paediatric CT examination: Assessment on current scanning protocols associated with radiation dose
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Muhammad Kabir Abdulkadir, Nur Atikah Yusra Mat Rahim, Nur Syazwani Mazlan, Norfataha Mohd Daud, Ibrahim Lutfi Shuaib, Noor Diyana OsmanAbstractRequest for paediatric CT imaging has been increasing recently, and thus assessment of current paediatric CT protocols is of crucial importance as to assess the associated potential risk and possibly identify the need to modify the current practice. The aim of this study was to optimise the current local practice through investigation on the radiation dose distribution and existing r...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 2, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

X-ray absorption spectroscopy set-up for unstable gases: A study of 5p hydrides
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): R. Hauko, J. Padežnik Gomilšek, A. Kodre, I. ArčonAbstractAn absorption cell is constructed for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of reactive, unstable or hazardous gases at room temperature. In conjunction with in-situ micro-synthesis technique relying on handling the gas in syringes it enabled a first measurement of x-ray absorption spectra in the region of K and L edges for the series of hydrides of 5p elements (SnH4, SbH3, TeH2, HI). The signal-to-noise ratio above 103 was achieved, whereby fine detail is discerned ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 2, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Fabrication of thermo-responsive cell-culture membranes with Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) by electron-beam graft polymerization
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Ryoya Shimura, Yoshitaka Suematsu, Hiroto Horiuchi, Shinji Takeoka, Akihiro Oshima, Masakazu WashioAbstractCell-sheet engineering aims to generate tissues and organs through lamination and transplantation of acquired cell sheets. The technique has become used in the field of regenerative medicine, and the development of cell-culture plates equipped with a switching function for cell adhesion/cell-sheet detachment has been in progress. Our research group has produced thermo-responsive cell-culture membranes by grafting poly(N...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 2, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Measuring the total L-Shell X-Ray production cross sections of Te element using 6–30 keV electron impact
We report the absolute measurements of X-ray production cross sections for L-shell ionization of Te element by electron impact in an energy range of 6–30 keV with a step of 1 keV. The measurements were conducted using a scanning electron microprobe with a high-resolution X-ray silicon drift detector (SDD). The measured total L-shell X-ray production cross sections of Te were compared with the theoretical results using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) and plane-wave Born approximation with Coulomb and exchange corrections (PWBA-C-Ex). Good agreement was observed between the measured and theoretic...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - February 2, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Methylene blue removal by poly(acrylic acid)-grafted pineapple leaf fiber/polyester nonwoven fabric (PPNWF-g-PAA) adsorbent and its comparison with removal via gamma or electron beam irradiation
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Janronel Pomicpic, Gian Carlo Dancel, Patrick Jay Cabalar, Jordan MadridAbstractThis work aimed to synthesize poly(acrylic acid)-grafted pineapple leaf fiber/polyester nonwoven fabric (PPNWF-g-PAA) through radiation-induced graft polymerization. The synthesized PPNWF-g-PAAs were used as adsorbents for methylene blue (MB) adsorption in aqueous solution. The grafting was performed with a systematic variation of experimental parameters in order to produce PPNWF-g-PAA with a degree of grafting of at least 150%. Based on the resu...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 31, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Detection of irradiated components in mixtures of herbs and spices by thermoluminescence
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Ivana Sandeva, Hristina Spasevska, Margarita Ginovska, Lihnida Stojanovska-GeorgievskaAbstractTreatment of food with ionizing radiation is used for reducing the number of harmful microorganisms and toxins, delaying ripening and preventing sprouting. A number of methods have been developed for detection of irradiated food. Photostimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence are physical methods for detection of irradiated food containing silicate minerals.Measurements for this study are done by photostimulated luminescence an...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 30, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Elastic scattering of electrons by DNA bases
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): S. Mokrani, H. Aouchiche, C. ChampionAbstractThe corrected independent-atom model, taking into account the correlation-polarization and exchange effects and the coherent and multiple scattering, is here developed to calculate the differential and total cross sections of electrons elastically scattered by DNA bases, namely, adenine (C5H5N5), guanine (C5H5N5O), thymine (C5H6N2O2) and cytosine (C4H5N3O). The effects of the short-range spherical potential and the long-range correlation-polarization and exchange contributions are...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 30, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Dosimetric characterization of 3D printed phantoms at different infill percentages for diagnostic X-ray energy range
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): D. Villani, O. Rodrigues, L.L. CamposAbstractThe aim of this paper is to characterize 3D printed phantoms and printing set-ups with different infill percentages for diagnostic energy beams attenuation. 3D printing performance was studied using the fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing with PLA (Polylactic Acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) filaments. Phantom plates were printed and, using the Pantak Seifert X-ray system with different beam qualities in the diagnostic range, the attenuation coefficients we...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 30, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Compton spectrometry applied to clinical CT axial beams from tubes stopped and in revolution
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): R.A. Terini, D.Y. Nerssissian, M.C.S. Campelo, V. Morice, E.M. YoshimuraAbstractIn order to reduce radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) procedures, a deeper knowledge of the characteristics of the incident beam and its interactions with patient tissues are much desirable. The energy spectra of X-ray beams used in CT serve to get parameters that characterize beam quality and equipment performance, as well as transmission and absorption characteristics in patient tissues. However, CT photon fluxes are too intense to be d...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 30, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Monte Carlo simulation of non-target organ doses and radiation-induced secondary cancer risk in Tanzania from radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal by using Co-60 source
This study was designed to assess non-target organ doses from Co-60 teletherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer and to estimate the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancer. Specific organ-absorbed doses were evaluated in anatomically realistic 15-year-old and adult male phantoms based on Monte Carlo simulation. The assessed organ doses were used to calculate the lifetime secondary cancer risks in non-target organs according to the BEIR VII risk models. Survival information and the baseline cancer risks were associated with statistical data for the Tanzanian population. The average absorbed doses in non-target or...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

An innovative Fe3+ selective ligand for Fricke-gel dosimeter
In this study, a novel Fe3+ selective ligand is proposed to overcome several limitations related to the use of the reference ligand, Xylenol Orange (XO). For this purpose, an affordable iron (III) ligand with an easy synthetic route was used. The complexation mechanism was investigated, and a single stoichiometry Fe3+-Ligand complex was identified, thus allowing a more accurate and feasible dose evaluation. The Fricke-gel dosimeter prepared with this new ligand was fully characterized by means of both optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analysis. In particular, a reduction of the optical artefacts, the so-called d...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Influence of gamma irradiation on the properties of PbS thin films
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Syed Mansoor Ali, M.S. AlGarawi, S. Aldawood, S.A. Al Salman, S.S. AlGamdiAbstractThin films of lead sulfide (PbS) were prepared on glass substrates using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. To investigate the gamma-induced properties, the deposited thin films were sequentially exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses varying from 0 to 75 kGy. X-ray diffraction analysis of the pristine and irradiated samples showed that the crystallinity of the PbS thin films increased with the gamma dose. Field-emissi...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 29, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Microdosimetry with a sealed mini-TEPC and a silicon telescope at a clinical proton SOBP of CATANA
Publication date: Available online 26 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): A. Bianchi, A. Selva, P. Colautti, D. Bortot, D. Mazzucconi, A. Pola, S. Agosteo, G. Petringa, G.A.P. Cirrone, B. Reniers, A. Parisi, L. Struelens, F. Vanhavere, V. ConteAbstractA sealed miniaturized Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (mini-TEPC) able to work in gas-steady modality was developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL – INFN, Legnaro, Italy).The aim of the present work is to compare the response of this mini-TEPC with that of a silicon microdos...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 27, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

The effect of soluble boron and gadolinium distribution on neutronic parameters of small modular reactor assembly
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): S.S. Mustafa, E.A. AminAbstractEarly commercial PWR first cores started up without using burnable absorbers. This results in short first core cycle lengths, positive moderator temperature coefficients and high relative power peaking. Burnable absorbers are introduced to address these first core limitations. In the present work, the first part studies the effect of boron (as burnable poisons) concentration on a number of the small modular reactor assembly neutronic parameters. Among these parameters are the infinite multiplic...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 26, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Kinetic studies of radiation induced grafting of N-vinylformamide onto polyethylene/polypropylene fibrous sheets and testing its hydrolysed copolymer for CO2 adsorption
In this study, the kinetic behaviour of grafting of N-vinylformamide (NVF) monomer onto polyethylene coated polypropylene (PE/PP) fibrous sheet was investigated with respect to the dependence of degree of grafting (G%) on various reaction parameters like monomer concentration, absorbed dose, and reaction temperature for the first time. The kinetic analysis covered not only the initial polymerisation rate (rp0), radical recombination rate and delay time (t0) but also orders evaluations of the grafting rate dependence on the monomer concentration, absorbed dose and temperature. The chemical and morphological changes caused b...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - January 26, 2020 Category: Physics Source Type: research