Global research trends in the medical therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension 2000–2014
Conclusions This first bibliometric study in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension shows that a significant amount of scientific research was performed within the last 14 years mainly in North America, Asia and Europe. As current trends in this field of research we identified combination therapies and Asian countries being a new hatchery for emerging experimental and clinical studies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 2, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Azithromycin differentially affects the IL-13-induced expression profile in human bronchial epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 28 May 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tinne C.J. Mertens, Pieter S. Hiemstra, Christian Taube The T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine interleukin(IL)-13 is a central regulator in goblet cell metaplasia and induces the recently described Th2 gene signature consisting of periostin (POSTN), chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) and serpin B2 (SERPINB2) in airway epithelial cells. This Th2 gene signature has been proposed as a biomarker to classify asthma into Th2-high and Th2-low phenotypes. Clinical studies have shown that the macrolide antibiotic azithromyci...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pirfenidone inhibits p38 mediated generation of procoagulant microparticles by human alveolar epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tommaso Neri, Stefania Lombardi, Francesca Faìta, Silvia Petrini, Cristina Balìa, Valentina Scalise, Roberto Pedrinelli, Pierluigi Paggiaro, Alessandro Celi Pirfenidone is a drug recently approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but its mechanisms of action are partially unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contain procoagulant microparticles that activate coagulation factor X to its active form, Xa, a proteinase that si...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 27, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inflammatory markers as exacerbation risk factors after asthma therapy switch from inhaled steroids to montelukast
Conclusions After switching treatment from a low-dose ICS, montelukast maintained control of asthma symptoms in 75% of patients. High sEos before the treatment change was the strongest exacerbation risk factor. In patients with asthma controlled by low-dose ICS and low inflammatory markers, treatment could be safely switched to montelukast. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 25, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Structural characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of two novel polysaccharides from the sea squirt, ascadellia aspersa
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Derek Thomson, Claire Moss, Radhakrishnan Venkatasamy, Charalampos G. Panagos, Joanne Robinson, Charles D. Bavington, John Hogwood, Barbara Mulloy, Dušan Uhrín, Domenico Spina, Clive P. Page (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 22, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mitigation of tight junction protein dysfunction in lung microvascular endothelial cells with pitavastatin
Conclusion Our results indicate that the maintenance of lung microvascular endothelial cells by pitavastatin prevents tight junction protein dysfunctions induced by CS. These findings may ultimately lead to new and novel therapeutic targets for patients with COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 21, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A novel dissociative steroid VBP15 reduces MUC5AC gene expression in airway epithelial cells but lacks the GRE mediated transcriptional properties of dexamethasone
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 38 Author(s): Lindsay M. Garvin, Yajun Chen, Jesse M. Damsker, Mary C. Rose Overproduction of secretory mucins contributes to morbidity/mortality in inflammatory lung diseases. Inflammatory mediators directly increase expression of mucin genes, but few drugs have been shown to directly repress mucin gene expression. IL-1β upregulates the MUC5AC mucin gene in part via the transcription factors NFκB while the glucocorticoid Dexamethasone (Dex) transcriptionally represses MUC5AC expression by Dex-activated GR binding to t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 21, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchodilator treatment for COPD in primary care of four Latin America countries: The multinational, cross-sectional, non-interventional PUMA study
Conclusions Up to 60% of COPD patients by spirometry and 10% of those with prior medical diagnosis attending a primary care sample of four Latin American countries did not use BDs. LA-BDs are widely underused on a regular-basis (2.6% and 8.3% of patients with spirometric and medical-diagnosis, respectively) This represents a considerable gap between guideline recommendations and BD prescribing pattern in these centres. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 21, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Downregulation of the cough reflex by aclidinium and tiotropium in awake and anesthetized rabbits
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 38 Author(s): Donatella Mutolo, Elenia Cinelli, Ludovica Iovino, Tito Pantaleo, Fulvia Bongianni Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) have been reported to attenuate cough in preclinical and clinical studies. The present study was performed on rabbits to compare aclidinium and tiotropium efficacy in the downregulation of the cough reflex. This reflex was evoked by citric acid inhalation in unanesthetized animals and by both citric acid inhalation and mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in anestheti...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 21, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blood eosinophils and treatment response in hospitalized exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case-control study
Conclusions In severe acute exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalization, blood eosinophilia identifies a subgroup of subjects characterized by a prompt response to treatment with shorter hospital stay. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 25, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Blood eosinophils and treatment response in hospitalised exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case-control study
Conclusions In severe acute exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalization, blood eosinophilia identifies a subgroup of subjects characterized by a prompt response to treatment with shorter hospital stay. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 18, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The role of tyrosine kinase inhibitor “Lapatinib” in pulmonary hypertension
Conclusion Lapatinib might be associated with the development of PAH. PASP should be evaluated in patients who become short of breath while on treatment, and stopping the drug in cases where no other reasons are identified could be associated with reversibility of the elevated pulmonary artery pressure. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 15, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Role of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor "Lapatinib" in Pulmonary Hypertension
Conclusion Lapatinib might be associated with the development of PAH. PASP should be evaluated in patients who become short of breath while on treatment, and stopping the drug in cases where no other reasons are identified could be associated with reversibility of the elevated pulmonary artery pressure. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of carbocisteine in prevention of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CAPRI study): an observational study
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Antonietta Esposito, Maria Rosaria Valentino, Dario Bruzzese, Marialuisa Bocchino, Antonio Ponticiello MDPhD, Anna Stanziola, Alessandro Sanduzzi Background Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction, airway inflammation , oxidative stress and, often, mucus hypersecretion. The aim of thisstudy is to determine if carbocisteine, a mucolytic and antioxidant agent, administered daily for 12 months, can reduce exacer...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological effects of lysozyme on COPD and bronchial asthma with sputum: A randomized, placebo-controlled, small cohort, cross-over study
Conclusion LYS, a mucolytic agent, has capability to improve the function of peripheral airways in patients with COPD, which leads to improvements of the patients' symptoms and QOL. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of low- versus high-dose fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate combination therapy on AMP challenge in asthmatic patients: A double-blind, randomised clinical trial
Conclusions A significant dose-response was found between low- and high-dose fluticasone/formoterol in the post hoc subgroup (patients who received both doses), but not in the overall population, with the higher dose demonstrating a greater reduction in airway responsiveness to AMP. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

RIP140 down-regulation alleviates acute lung injury via the inhibition of LPS-induced PPARγ promoter methylation
In this study, we examined RIP140 and PPARγ protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells and lung tissue following LPS-induced ALI. RIP140 shRNA adenoviral knockdown significantly elevated PPARγ expression, inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, treatment with a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) reversed these outcomes. Furthermore, co-IP showed that endogenous and exogenous RIP140 interacted with DNMT3b in RAW 264.7 cells. Bisulfite conversion, pyrosequencing and activity assays demonstrated that PPARγ promoter methylation levels were increased...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides cause airway contraction and lung neutrophil infiltration via formyl peptide receptor activation
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 37 Author(s): Camilla Ferreira Wenceslau, Theodora Szasz, Cameron G. McCarthy, Babak Baban, Elizabeth NeSmith, R. Clinton Webb Respiratory failure is a common characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MITs) are DAMPs that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides, and are potent immune system activators. Recently, we obs...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of the clinical effects of combined salmeterol/fluticasone delivered by dry powder or pressurized metered dose inhaler
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 37 Author(s): Masayuki Hojo, Toshihiro Shirai, Junko Hirashima, Motoyasu Iikura, Haruhito Sugiyama The salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) inhaler is currently the most widely used maintenance drug for asthmatics worldwide. Although the effectiveness of SFC as either a dry powder inhaler (DPI) or a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) is well documented, there is limited data comparing the clinical efficacies of the two devices. To address this issue, we carried out a randomized crossover trial in which asthmatic patien...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro aerodynamic characterization of the dose emitted during nebulization of tobramycin high strength solution by novel and jet nebulizer delivery systems
Conclusions The HSTS can be nebulized by all tested nebulisers but the high frequency NE-U22 Omron® and Aeroneb Go® are more efficient. When the HSTS compared to TOBI®, the respirable inhaled dose was increased to more than 73%. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of indacaterol and mometasone furoate delivered alone or in a free or fixed dose combination in healthy subjects
Conclusions The QMF149 fixed dose combination treatment showed comparable systemic exposure to the free combination and monotherapy treatments in terms of AUC0-24h,ss and Cmax,ss for both indacaterol and mometasone furoate, indicating an absence of clinically relevant PK or biopharmaceutical interactions. These data support further development of QMF149 without dose adjustment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of rituximab on pulmonary function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Conclusion Although no cases of symptomatic lung injury were observed, the progressive DLCO decline seems to indicate the presence of subclinical RTX-induced pulmonary toxicity. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of early effects of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol for asthma patients requiring step-up from inhaled corticosteroid monotherapy
Conclusion As compared with the FF/VI group, the SMART group achieved a greater improvement in FeNO, small airway parameters regarding IOS and ACQ score, in patients with airway inflammation and uncontrolled symptoms treated with a medium dose of ICS alone. In this 4-week study, these two ICS/LABA combination therapies showed different treatment outcomes; they must be investigated further to clarify suitable patient characters and the long term efficacies for each combination. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchodilator effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of PSX1002-GB, a novel glycopyrronium bromide formulation, in COPD patients; a randomised crossover study
Conclusion Single doses of PSX1002-GB (12.5-100μg) were well tolerated. PSX1002-GB 50 and 100mcg delivered by pMDI produced rapid onset bronchodilation that was sustained over a 24 hour period. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Update on Molecular Mechanisms of Corticosteroid Resistance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Zhilong Jiang, Lei Zhu Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory and irreversible pulmonary disorder that is characterized by inflammation and airway destruction. In recent years, COPD has become a global epidemic due to increased air pollution and exposure to cigarette smoke. Current therapeutics using bronchiodialator and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids are most widely used for all patients with persistent COPD, but these approaches are disappointing due to limited improvement in ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 25, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough and environmental air pollution in China
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Qingling Zhang, Minzhi Qiu, Kefang Lai, Nanshan Zhong With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in interstitial lung disease
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Justin Garner, Peter M. George, Elisabetta Renzoni Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the unde...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Michal Hennel, Mariana Brozmanova, Marian Kollarik The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough r...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role of the dorsal medulla in the neurogenesis of airway protection
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Donald C. Bolser, Teresa E. Pitts, Paul W. Davenport, Kendall F. Morris The dorsal medulla encompassing the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and surrounding reticular formation (RF) has an important role in processing sensory information from the upper and lower airways for the generation and control of airway protective behaviors. These behaviors, such as cough and swallow, historically have been studied in isolation. However, recent information indicates that these and other airway protective behaviors ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evidence for neuropathic processes in chronic cough
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Akio Niimi, Kian Fan Chung Chronic cough is a very common symptom for which patients seek medical attention but can often be difficult to manage, because associated causes may remain elusive and treatment of any associated causes does not always provide adequate relief. Current antitussives have limited efficacy and undesirable side-effects. Patients with chronic cough typically describe sensory symptoms suggestive of upper airway and laryngeal neural dysfunction. They often report cough triggered by low-level phy...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Eighth 2014 International London Cough Symposium
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Kian Fan Chung (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inter- and intrasubject variability of the inflammatory response to segmental endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteers
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): O. Holz, L. Tan, F. Schaumann, M. Müller, D. Scholl, R. Hidi, A. McLeod, N. Krug, J.M. Hohlfeld Segmental endotoxin challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used as a pharmacodynamic model to safely induce a transient airway inflammation in the peripheral lung of healthy subjects and to test the anti-inflammatory efficacy of investigational new drugs. In contrast to whole lung LPS challenge only a fraction of the dose is required that can be precisely administered to a specific lung region and a ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Faster reduction in hyperinflation and improvement in lung ventilation inhomogeneity promoted by aclidinium compared to glycopyrronium in severe stable COPD patients. A randomized crossover study
This study evaluated the effects of aclidinium bromide 400 μg and glycopyrronium bromide 50 μg on these parameters. Patients with stable severe/very severe COPD were randomized in this double-blind, double-dummy, crossover, Phase IV study. Patients received single doses of each drug on separate days. Primary endpoints were changes in residual volume (RV) and intra-thoracic gas volume (ITGV), assessed by full-body plethysmography. Other endpoints included changes variations in lung ventilation inhomogeneity (Phase III slope of single-breath nitrogen washout test, SBN2), dyspnoea visual analogue scale, and pulmona...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antifibrotic properties of receptor for advanced glycation end products in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 35 Author(s): Hui Ding, XiuHai Ji, Ruhua Chen, Tieliang Ma, Zhiwei Tang, Yan Fen, Hourong Cai Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive chronic interstitial lung disease with poor survival. Previous reports suggested the contributory effect of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) to the pathogenesis of IPF. But the findings are controversial. The present in vivo study with RAGE null mice, we further confirmed the evidence that lack of RAGE evolves worse bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis co...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Roflumilast for asthma: Safety findings from a pooled analysis of ten clinical studies
Conclusions The severity and incidence of AEs reported from this pooled safety analysis confirm that roflumilast is generally well tolerated by patients with asthma. This reflects the general safety profile reported previously in patients with COPD. All studies were funded by Takeda. Trial registration numbers available on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00073177, NCT00076076, NCT00163527. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A comparison of the efficacy of once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterole with twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome
Conclusions FF/VI, the first once-daily ICS/LABA, can provide substantial improvement in lung functions, indicating that FF/VI should be considered for the regular treatment of ACOS. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Roflumilast for asthma: Efficacy findings in placebo-controlled studies
Conclusion Together these studies show that roflumilast has potential as an effective anti-inflammatory therapy for the treatment of asthma. Additional beneficial effects are observed when given in combination with ICS, which warrant further investigation. All studies were funded by Takeda. Trial registration numbers available on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00073177, NCT00076076, NCT00163527. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

An evaluation of comparative treatment effects with high and low dose fluticasone propionate/formoterol combination in asthma
Conclusion In this exploratory comparison a high dose of fluticasone/formoterol in asthmatic patients appears to provide additional improvement in symptom-based rather than spirometric outcomes. Additional benefits from high versus low dose treatment are most likely in patients with severe airway obstruction, although the doses at which ceiling effects are attained may vary between individuals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00734318; EudraCT number: 2007-001633-34. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro aerodynamic characterization of the dose emitted during nebulization of tobramycin high strength solution by novel and jet nebulizer delivery systems
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): M. Mashat, B.J. Clark, K.H. Assi, H. Chystyn The aim of tobramycin inhalation therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary infection is to deliver high amounts of drug directly to the site of infection. Nebulization of high strength dose of tobramycin (200 mg/ml) has been assessed in this study by using different selected high performance nebulizer delivery systems: two different designs of jet nebulizers, and three new nebulizers based on vibrating mesh technology. The aerosol p...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Benefit of adjunctive tacrolimus in connective tissue disease-interstitial lung disease
We report adverse events attributed to tacrolimus. Seventeen patients with CTD-ILD were included in adverse event analysis; twelve were included in efficacy analysis. Length of tacrolimus therapy ranged from 6 to 110 months (mean 38.8 months ± 31.4). The mean improvement in percent predicted total lung capacity was 7.5% ± 11.7 (p=0.02). Forced vital capacity mean improvement was 7.4% ± 12.5 (p=0.06). The average decrease in corticosteroid dose at follow-up was 20.3mg ± 25.2 (p=0.02) with complete discontinuation in six patients. No patients experienced a life-threatening adverse event attributed...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic advantage of inhaled tacrolimus-bound albumin nanoparticles in a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model
In conclusion, Tac Alb-NPs offer great potential as an inhalation delivery formulation for treating pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, these NPs would be particularly useful as an effective and safe prototype for delivering practically insoluble therapeutic agents into the lungs. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Long-term azithromycin ameliorates not only airway inflammation but also remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma
Conclusions This study suggests that in a murine model of chronic asthma, long-term azithromycin treatment ameliorates not only airway inflammation but also airway remodeling by influencing on neutrophilc-related mediators, BRP-39 and MAPK/NF-κB signal pathways. Macrolide therapy might be an effective adjuvant therapy in a chronic, severe asthma with remodeling airway. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of prenatal steroidal inhibition of sPLA2 in a rat model of preterm lung
Conclusions Antenatal steroids decrease secretory phospholipase A2 in rat model of preterm lung. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of CFTR modifiers on arylsulfatase B activity in cystic fibrosis and normal human bronchial epithelial cells
Conclusion The CFTR potentiator increased ARSB activity and expression and associated effects. This suggests that a critical interaction between CFTR and ARSB is related to CFTR function in regulation of a ligand-gated anion channel at the cell membrane, rather than to CFTR processing and intracellular trafficking. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A study on the involvement of GABA-transaminase in MCT induced pulmonary hypertension
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 36 Author(s): Poorella Lingeshwar, Gurpreet Kaur, Neetu Singh, Seema Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla, Rachumallu Ramakrishna, Tulsankar Sachin Laxman, Rabi Sankar Bhatta, Hefazat H. Siddiqui, Kashif Hanif Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is associated with cardiovascular diseases but its role has not been completely explored in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Increased SNS activity is distinguished by elevated level of norepinephrine (NE) and activity of γ-Amino butyric acid Transminase (GAB...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Interaction between corticosteroids and muscarinic antagonists in human airways
Conclusions Our study provides for the first time the pharmacological rationale for combining low doses of an ICS plus a LAMA. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Roflumilast for asthma: Efficacy findings in non-placebo-controlled comparator and dosing studies
Conclusions Roflumilast improves FEV1 and asthma symptoms in patients with mild to moderate asthma, and is non-inferior compared with both BDP and montelukast. It deserves further study as a potentially effective anti-inflammatory treatment for asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 9, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cutaneous hypersensitivity and eosinophilia associated with treprostinil
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Aparna Das, Amna Shabbir, Sameep Sehgal, Kristin B. Highland (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exploring the monocrotaline animal model for the study of pulmonary arterial hypertension: a network approach
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Rita Nogueira-Ferreira, Rui Vitorino, Rita Ferreira, Tiago Henriques-Coelho Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is responsible for the premature death mainly because of progressive and severe heart failure. This disease is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular tone, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular remodeling and occlusion of vessels with thrombi, frequently leading to right heart failure. Aiming to better comprehend the complexity of PAH and find novel therapeutic strategies or impro...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clarithromycin ameliorates pulmonary inflammation induced by short term cigarette smoke exposure in mice
Conclusion We demonstrate that CAM administration resolves enhanced pulmonary inflammation induced by short term cigarette smoke exposure in mice. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research