The role of sphingolipid metabolism disruption on lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice
Conclusion Blockage of sphingomyelinases and the de novo pathways improved and aggravated lung injury, respectively, putatively suggesting specific targets to therapeutic strategies in LPS-induced lung injury. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In vivo and in vitro investigation of anti-inflammatory and mucus-regulatory activities of a fixed combination of thyme and primula extracts
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jan Seibel, Kirill Kryshen, Judit E. Pongrácz, Martin D. Lehner Hypersecretion of viscous mucus is one of the hallmark symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis and typically develops secondary to an inflammation of the airway epithelium. Bronchipret® TP film-coated tablets (BRO), an herbal medicinal product containing a fixed combination of thyme herb and primula root extracts, has been successfully used clinically for the treatment of acute bronchitis for more than two decades. However, the underlyi...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 25, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Characterisation of 40  mg/ml and 100 mg/ml tobramycin formulations for aerosol therapy with adult mechanical ventilation
Conclusion Aerosolized tobramycin 100 mg/ml solution delivered higher lung dose compared to tobramycin 40 mg/ml solution. Tracheal tube type or size did not influence the aerosol characteristics and delivery parameters. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 19, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Targeting the RhoA-ROCK pathway to regulate T-cell homeostasis in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension
Conclusions Activation and inhibition of RhoA-ROCK pathway by LPA and FSD modulated the homeostasis of Th17/Treg cells via regulating STAT3/STAT5 phosphorylation in hypoxic PAH. Thus, Apart from influence of pulmonary vascular remodeling, regulation of Th17/Treg homeostasis by RhoA-ROCK pathway play a key role in hypoxic PAH. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 18, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Intravenous fosfomycin for pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis: Real life experience of a large adult CF centre
Conclusion Antibiotic regimens including fosfomycin appear to be clinically effective and safe. Fosfomycin should, therefore, be considered as an add-on therapy in patients who failed to respond to initial treatment and with multiple drug allergies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Overreliance link between asthmatic subjects and short-acting β2 agonists
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Luis J. Nannini In this brief communication, it was described the overreliance link generated between a young asthmatic subject and Short Acting Beta agonist (SABA) bronchodilator. It was an attempt to delineate the stages of this conflicting link where predominated the overreliance on SABA that might be one of the main circumstances surrounding near fatal asthma attack. New approach is needed from international guidelines to avoid development of such a problematic link between asthmatic subjects and SABA. (Sou...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 11, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment of statin-induced interstitial pneumonia in patients treated for hyperlipidemia using a health insurance claims database in Japan
This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors for statin-induced interstitial pneumonia (IP). Method We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a large Japanese health insurance claims database. We determined the statin-induced IP incidence in patients treated with statins for hyperlipidemia (n = 194,814) with 12-month screening and 3-month observation periods. Statin-induced IP was defined as: (1) diagnosis with IP (ICD-10 codes: J70.2-J70.4, J84.1, and J84.9) within 3 months after starting statins; (2) steroid administration starts after starting statins; (3) undergoing laboratory tests for sialyl...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of fluticasone propionate and budesonide on the expression of immune defense genes in bronchial epithelial cells
Conclusions Treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with BUD results in significantly higher expression of specific immune defense genes than treatment with FP. The differential regulation of these immune defense genes may help to explain the clinical observation that BUD and FP treatment differ with respect to the risk of developing pneumonia in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling and optimization of nebulizers' performance in non-invasive ventilation using different fill volumes: Comparative study between vibrating mesh and jet nebulizers
Conclusions Modeling of aerosol-delivery by JN and VMN using different fill-volumes in NIV circuit was successful in demonstrating the effect of different variable on dose-delivery to NIV patient. Artificial neural networks model showed that VMN increased pulmonary-bioavailability and systemic-absorption compared to JN. VMN was less affected by fill-volume change compared to JN which should be diluted to increase delivery. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Serum lipoproteins are not associated with the severity of asthma
Conclusions The current findings confirm a role of LDL as a potential biomarker in the diagnostic process for asthma, and suggest that LDL cannot be used as marker of severity of the disease. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (ciprofloxacin DPI): Technical design and features of an efficient drug –device combination
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Pamela J. McShane, Jeffry G. Weers, Thomas E. Tarara, Alfred Haynes, Preeti Durbha, Danforth P. Miller, Tobias Mundry, Elisabeth Operschall, J. Stuart Elborn Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by a cycle of bacterial infection and inflammation, resulting in increasing airway damage. Exacerbations are an important cause of morbidity and are strongly associated with disease progression. Many patients with bronchiectasis suffer from two or more exacerbations p...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Astilbin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis via blockade of Hedgehog signaling pathway
Conclusions Astilbin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis via blockade of Hedgehog signaling pathway and has potential therapeutic value for lung fibrosis treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Theodoros Karampitsakos, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Serafeim Chrysikos, Demosthenes Bouros, Iraklis Tsangaris, Wassim H. Fares Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a broad and heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases with common functional characteristics. Their diagnosis and management require a multidisciplinary approach. This multidisciplinary approach involves the assessment of comorbid conditions including pulmonary hypertension (PH) that exerts a dramatic impact on survival. The current Worl...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Emerging biological therapies for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pairwise and network meta-analysis
This study demonstrates that targeting the pathway activated by IL-5 may have a beneficial impact in eosinophilic COPD patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Modeling of pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and hemodynamic effects of macitentan in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension
Conclusions Modeling identified statistically significant inter-patient differences; simulations to assess the magnitude of the effects permitted clinical judgment. The same approach will allow for extrapolation to children. Hemodynamic markers might be better markers of treatment effects than 6-MWD. Trial registration The SERAPHIN study and its open-label extension are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov with identifiers NCT00660179 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00660179) and NCT00667823 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00667823) and with EudraCT with identifiers 2007-002440-14 (https://www.clinicaltri...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Better airway resistance reduction profile in intubated COPD patients by personalized bronchodilator dosing: A pilot randomized control trial
Conclusion Personalized dosing of inhaled bronchodilator administered to invasively ventilated COPD patients can produce a better reduction in Raw. Further studies with larger sample size are required to verify the conclusion of this pilot study. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effects of hemoglobin glutamer-200 and iNO on pulmonary vascular tone and arterial oxygenation in an experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome
Conclusion Application of HBOC led to an increase of systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance in this animal model of ARDS. The increase in RVP was reversed by iNO. Pulmonary vasoconstriction by hemoglobin glutamer-200 in combination with iNO did not improve arterial oxygenation in ARDS. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Compatibility of medication with PRISCUS criteria and identification of drug interactions in a large cohort of patients with COPD
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 49 Author(s): Jana Graf, Tanja Lucke, Ronald Herrera, Henrik Watz, Rolf Holle, Claus Vogelmeier, Joachim H. Ficker, Rudolf A. Jörres Patients with COPD are often of advanced age and have a high number of medications due to their lung disease and comorbidities. Thus they are at risk for unwanted effects from drugs, either due to age or due to interactions between drugs. These issues are not clarified. We therefore assessed the number of medications and potential adverse effects in a large cohort of patients with COPD. The analysi...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Characterization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prescribing patterns in the United States
Conclusion This study describes patients with COPD from a nationally representative sample. The percentage of maintenance medication prescribing indicates further opportunity for medication optimization in the outpatient setting for patients with COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Small and large airway reactions to osmotic stimuli in asthma and chronic idiopathic cough
Conclusion The asthma group reacted in a predictable way with impaired lung function from osmotic provocations, whereas the patients with CIC demonstrated peripheral airway changes from hypertonic saline, also known to be a noxious stimulus. The IOS method uncovers differences between patients with CIC and control participants that contribute to our ability to provide a correct diagnosis. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhaled hexadecyl-treprostinil provides pulmonary vasodilator activity at significantly lower plasma concentrations than infused treprostinil
This study examined the ability of INS1009 to inhibit vasoconstriction in the pulmonary vasculature of rats and dogs and the extent to which local activity within the lung contributes to its activity. Rats received a single dose of INS1009 by nose-only inhalation or were given a continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion of TRE, followed by an i.v. challenge of the thromboxane mimetic pulmonary vasoconstrictor U46619 and the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) was measured. In beagle dogs, INS1009 was given by inhalation via face mask and TRE was given by continuous i.v. infusion; vasoconstriction was then induced by...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic administration of inhaled INS1009, a treprostinil prodrug formulation, inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats
In this study, we evaluated the effect of the inhaled treprostinil prodrug hexadecyl-treprostinil (C16TR) formulated in a lipid nanoparticle (INS1009) administered therapeutically in a fibrotic rat model. Male Fischer 344 rats challenged with intra-tracheal saline instillation were then treated with daily inhaled phosphate buffered saline (PBS) while rats challenged with bleomycin sulfate (3.5–4.0 mg/kg) instillation were treated with either daily inhaled PBS, daily inhaled INS1009 (10, 30, or 100 μg/kg), or twice-daily orally with the anti-fibrotic compound pirfenidone (100 mg/kg). Dosing started on day 10 ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue
This study pharmacologically characterized the effect of LPS on the responsiveness of equine bronchial tissue. Equine isolated bronchi were incubated overnight with LPS (0.1–100 ng/ml) and then stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS). The role of capsaicin sensitive-sensory nerves (capsaicin desensitization treatment), neurokinin-2 (NK2) receptors (blocked by GR159897), transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors (TRPV1; blocked by SB366791), and neurokinin A (NKA) were investigated. Untreated bronchi were used as control tissues. LPS (1 ng/ml) significantly increased the EFS-evoked contra...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cardiovascular safety profile of a fixed-dose combination of glycopyrrolate and formoterol fumarate delivered via metered dose inhaler using co-suspension delivery technology
Conclusions No clinically significant effects on cardiovascular safety occurred at therapeutic or supratherapeutic doses of GFF MDI, apart from a small and transient increase in heart rate following supratherapeutic dose of GFF MDI 144/38.4 μg. Furthermore, there were no unexpected safety findings reported in either healthy volunteers or patients with COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Safety and efficacy of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A real-life observational study in Greece
Conclusion Nintedanib demonstrated an acceptable safety and efficacy profile in our real-world observational study. Prospective observational studies in the context of registries that collect well-defined supporting data over time are sorely needed to answer residual questions on drug's performance. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Acute lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion is altered in obese female mice
Conclusion Obesity predisposes female mice to increased pulmonary oedema and deterioration in gas exchange, which is accompanied by an increase in iNOS expression in the lung. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological profiles of long-acting muscarinic antagonists in human bronchus
Conclusions and implications The observed differences in the LAMAs' in vitro pharmacological profiles in the human bronchus provide a compelling pharmacological rationale for the differences in the drugs' respective recommended daily doses and frequencies of administration. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

99mTc-vinorelbine tartrate loaded spherulites: Lung disposition study in Sprague-Dawley rats by gamma scintigraphy
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 49 Author(s): Rahul Dhande, Amit Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Hetal Thakkar Vinorelbine Tartrate (VLB) is the first line chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, whose non-specific distribution causes unwanted side effects. The aim of the present investigation was to formulate VLB loaded spherulites intended for targeting the lung. Spherulites were composed of Soyabean Phosphatidylcholine (SPC), Cholesterol (Chol), Potassium oleate and Mannitol. Lipid film prepared using SPC, Chol and Potassium oleate, was d...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Selectively targeting prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated cell signalling pathways: Implications for lung health and disease
Publication date: April 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 49 Author(s): Leonard F. Lebender, Laura Prünte, Nowshin N. Rumzhum, Alaina J. Ammit Arachidonic acid is metabolized by cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) into various prostanoids which exert different functions in mammalian physiology. One of these prostanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interacts with four different G protein-coupled receptors, named EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4, to initiate different downstream signalling pathways. Prostanoid receptors are diversely expressed throughout different tissues all over the body and PGE2 is r...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Realising the potential of various inhaled airway challenge agents through improved delivery to the lungs
This article reviews the main challenge agents that are in use today (methacholine, mannitol, adenosine, allergens, endotoxin) and emphasises the importance of controlling how these agents are administered. There is a danger that the optimal value of these challenge agents may not be realised due to suboptimal inhaled delivery; thus considerations for effective and reproducible challenge delivery are provided. This article seeks to increase awareness of the importance of precise delivery of inhaled agents used to challenge the airways for diagnosis and research, and is intended as a stepping stone towards much-needed stand...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The pharmacokinetics of three doses of budesonide/glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler compared with active controls: A Phase I randomized, single-dose, crossover study in healthy adults
In conclusion, BGF MDI 320/14.4/10 μg had a similar budesonide PK profile to BUD/FORM MDI 320/9 μg. No PK drug–drug interactions were observed when budesonide was added to glycopyrronium and formoterol fumarate dihydrate. These data support the use of budesonide 320 μg and 160 μg in future clinical trials of BGF MDI in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 2, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A comment on “Ability of using different dry powder inhalers during COPD exacerbations”
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers- in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation
Conclusions These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that breath-related nebulizers can be estimated using an in vitro model; however, the JN and VMN delivered inhaled drug mass differed between models. There was a significant correlation between respiratory rate and inhaled mass, and the inhaled drug dose generated by VMN correlated with minute ventilation. This study demonstrated that the VMN produced greater inhaled drug dose and lowest residual dose, whereas the BEN, BAN, and MTN produced lower exhaled drug dose in both in vitro and ex vivo models. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 4, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of adding roflumilast or ciclesonide to glycopyrronium on lung volumes and exercise tolerance in patients with severe COPD: A pilot study
This study provides further evidence of the efficacy of glycopyrronium 44 μg once daily, confirming that improvements in airflow are associated with increases in IC and improvements in exercise tolerance. The addition of anti-inflammatory drugs, regardless of class used, does not seem to add benefits on lung function and exercise tolerance, likely because of the large effect induced by glycopyrronium. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 31, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) 2018 report: Highlighting an incorrect information
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Jaya Muneswarao, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 29, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The research of the possible mechanism and the treatment for capsaicin-induced cough
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Li zhang, Tieying Sun, Longteng Liu, Lifang Wang Unexplained chronic cough (UCC) affects millions of patients worldwide. New therapeutic approaches to this condition are urgently needed, since current treatment options provide only symptomatic relief. Cough reflex hypersensitivity has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of UCC. The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is present on peripheral terminals of airway sensory nerves and modulation of its activity represents a ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ability of using different dry powder inhalers during COPD exacerbations
Conclusion Most patients hospitalized for AECOPD, are able to receive treatment with long acting bronchodilators administered via DPIs. The possible beneficial effects of such an intervention should be tested in further studies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 20, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers-in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation
Conclusions These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that breath-related nebulizers can be estimated using an in vitro model; however, the JN and VMN delivered inhaled drug mass differed between models. There was a significant correlation between respiratory rate and inhaled mass, and the inhaled drug dose generated by VMN correlated with minute ventilation. This study demonstrated that the VMN produced greater inhaled drug dose and lowest residual dose, whereas the BEN, BAN, and MTN produced lower exhaled drug dose in both in vitro and ex vivo models. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Correlations between FEV1 and patient-reported outcomes: A pooled analysis of 23 clinical trials in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions These data suggest that FEV1 improvements post-bronchodilation correlate with PRO improvements. Further improvements in patient outcomes may be expected by maximizing lung function improvements. Trial registration Registration details for the 23 randomised controlled studies used in this pooled analysis are supplied in Additional File 4. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 19, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of tiotropium bromide on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice exposed to organic dust
Conclusions Tiotropium decreased the OD-induced increase of specific cytokines without influencing the OD-induced increase of airway responsiveness and neutrophil infiltration into the lungs. We conclude that the cholinergic pathway contributes to the pro-inflammatory effects caused by inhalation of OD from pig barns. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 14, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoxic challenge of hyperoxic pulmonary artery myocytes increases oxidative stress due to impaired mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity
In this study, we examined whether a transient hypoxic episode exposes antioxidant defense defects in hyperoxic PA myocytes. PA myocytes of term newborn piglets were cultured in hyperoxia (60% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) for 72 h; cells from both groups were challenged with transient hypoxia (10% O2) for 2 h. We measured NOX activity, SOD activities (fractionated by centrifugation and concavalin A- Sepharose chromatography), total ROS and superoxide generation, 8-isoprostane, and calcium responses to thromboxane mimetic. NOX activity increased in hyperoxic myocytes. Hyperoxia increased SOD1 activity but decreased SO...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of erdosteine on chronic bronchitis and COPD: A meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Clive Page, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera A previous meta-analysis suggested that the treatment with erdosteine was associated with significant amelioration of the cumulative global efficacy index and symptoms in comparison to placebo or other mucolytics. However, this conclusion was criticized because the meta-analysis, as it had been done, made it impossible to preclude the potential operation of selection biases within and across trials, and identify any realised b...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 10, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Ninth 2016 International London Cough Symposium
Publication date: December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 47 Author(s): Kian Fan Chung (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Neuropeptides and breathing in health and disease
This article provides a concise review of the possible role and functions of several selected neuropeptides in the process of breathing in health and disease and in lung pathologies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

On the pharmacokinetics of two inhaled budesonide/formoterol combinations in asthma patients using modeling approaches
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): K. Soulele, P. Macheras, V. Karalis Dry powder inhalers containing the budesonide/formoterol combination have currently a well-established position among other inhaled products. Even though their efficacy mainly depends on the local concentrations of the drug they deliver within the lungs, their safety profile is directly related to their total systemic exposure. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the absorption and disposition kinetics of the budesonide/formoterol combination delivered via t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tiotropium inhibits mucin production stimulated by neutrophil elastase but not by IL-13
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Kosaku Komiya, Shuichi Kawano, Isao Suzaki, Tomohiro Akaba, Jun-ichi Kadota, Bruce K. Rubin Tiotropium, a muscarinic antagonist, is approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poorly controlled asthma. Because mucus hypersecretion is characteristic of both of these diseases, and muscarinic agonists stimulate mucus secretion, we hypothesized that tiotropium would attenuate airway MUC5AC expression. We grew normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to a goblet cell phenotype with 1 or 5...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, efficacy and toxicity profiling of a potential nitrofuranyl methyl piperazine derivative IIIM-MCD-211 for oral tuberculosis therapy via in-silico –in-vitro–in-vivo approach
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 48 Author(s): Asmita Magotra, Anjna Sharma, Samsher Singh, Probir Kumar Ojha, Sunil Kumar, Naveen Bokolia, Priya Wazir, Shweta Sharma, Inshad Ali Khan, Parvinder Pal Singh, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Gurdarshan Singh, Utpal Nandi Recent tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery programme involve continuous pursuit for new chemical entity (NCE) which can be not only effective against both susceptible and resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) but also safe and faster acting with the target, thereby shortening the prolonged TB treatm...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

M3 receptor is involved in the effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride reduced endothelial injury in LPS-stimulated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell
This study is to investigate whether the effect of PHC on microvascular endothelial injury is related to its inhibition of M3 receptor or not. HPMVECs were treated with specific M3 receptor shRNA or PBS, and randomly divided into LPS group (A group), LPS+PHC group (B group), LPS + M3 shRNA group (C group) and LPS + PHC + M3 shRNA group (D group). Cells were collected at 60 min after LPS treatment to measure levels of LDH, endothelial permeability, TNF-α and IL-6 levels, NF-κB p65 activation, I-κB protein expression, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 activations as well as M3 mRNA expr...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 9, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for pulmonary arterial hypertension: A network meta-analysis
Conclusion Overall, we recommend EAP as the optimal choice for patients with PAH in clinical practice and PAE as suboptimal in view of their desirable performance in efficacy. Most of the combination therapies performed better than monotherapies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics of nintedanib in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions The developed model provides further details about the pharmacokinetics of nintedanib in patients with IPF and can be used for simulations exploring covariate effects and exposure-response analyses in this patient population. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2017 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research