Safety and efficacy of the human neutrophil elastase inhibitor BAY 85-8501 for the treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusions1 mg BAY 85-8501 OD had a favourable safety and tolerability profile when administered for 28 days to patients with non-CF BE. Further studies with a longer treatment duration are needed to evaluate the potential clinical efficacy in this study population. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic cough in the elderly
Publication date: Available online 23 March 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Woo-Jung Song, Ha-Kyeong Won, Jin An, Sung-Yoon Kang, Eun-Jung Jo, Yoon-Seok Chang, Byung-Jae Lee, Sang-Heon ChoAbstractChronic cough is a multi-factorial syndrome commonly presenting as cough hypersensitivity in adult patients. It is a common medical condition in the communities but is more prevalent in older adults. Elderly patients (≥65 years) frequently suffer from multiple comorbidities, which may lead to more clinical heterogeneity in chronic cough and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Hyposensitiv...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 24, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

BLU-5937: A selective P2X3 antagonist with potent anti-tussive effect and no taste alteration
In conclusion, BLU-5937 was selected as a drug candidate for the treatment of chronic cough due to its high potency and selectivity for P2X3 homotrimeric receptors, strong anti-tussive effects, excellent tolerability and predicted pharmacokinetic properties in humans. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 20, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Update on the clinical development of gefapixant, a P2X3 receptor antagonist for the treatment of refractory chronic cough
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): David Muccino, Stuart GreenAbstractChronic cough, or cough lasting>8 weeks, is often associated with underlying medical conditions (ie, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and upper-airway cough syndrome). In some patients with chronic cough, treatment of these underlying conditions does not resolve the cough (refractory chronic cough [RCC]), or none of these conditions are present (unexplained chronic cough [UCC]). Despite appropriate medical evaluation, patients with RC...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Long acting β2-agonist's activation of cyclic AMP cannot halt ongoing mitogenic stimulation in airway smooth muscle cells
This study compared the anti-proliferative effect of LABA in human primary ASMC, in situations where LABA were applied before, together, or after platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). Cells obtained from controls (n = 5), and asthma patients (n = 5) were stimulated by PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml) before or after the application of formoterol or salmeterol. Proliferation was determined by direct cell counts over three days, cell cycle control proteins p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), signalling proteins Erk1/2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were detected by immuno-blotting. PDGF-BB induced proliferation was s...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 13, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological characterization of the interaction between tiotropium bromide and olodaterol on human bronchi and small airways
In this study we have characterized the interaction between the LAMA, tiotropium bromide, and the LABA, olodaterol, on the contractile tone of human medium bronchi and small airways. The response to a combination of tiotropium bromide and olodaterol was assessed at sub-maximal contractile tone induced by carbachol. The duration of action was studied in tissue contracted by transmural stimulation. Relaxation of bronchial tone was expressed as % of maximal response to papaverine. Drug interactions were analyzed by the Bliss Independence method and Unified Theory. Tiotropium bromide/olodaterol combinations induced a significa...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Targeting C-fibers for peripheral acting anti-tussive drugs
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Mayur J. Patil, Hui Sun, Fei Ru, Sonya Meeker, Bradley J. UndemAbstractActivation of vagal C-fibers is likely involved in some types of pathological coughing, especially coughing that is associated with airway inflammation. This is because stimulation of vagal C-fibers leads to strong urge to cough sensations, and because C-fiber terminals can be strongly activated by mediators associated with airway inflammation. The most direct manner in which a given mediator can activate a C-fiber terminal is through interacting ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antitussive therapy: A role for levodropropizine
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Surinder Birring, Francesco de Blasio, Peter Dicpinigaitis, Giovanni Fontana, Luigi Lanata, Clive Page, Federico Saibene, Alessandro ZanasiAbstractCough is a protective reflex that serves to clear the airways of excessive secretions and foreign matter and which sometimes becomes excessive, and troublesome to patients. Cough is one of the most common reasons why individuals seek medical attention. A range of drugs have been developed in the past with antitussive activity and different mechanisms of action, but there a...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 11, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Why chronic cough in children is different
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Ahmad Kantar, Manuela SeminaraAbstractRecently, there have been robust changes in our knowledge of the neurophysiology of cough and novel clinical etiologies. Specifically, cough hypersensitivity in adults and protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) in children have been increasingly investigated, and differences between chronic cough in children and adults have been widely reported. In young children, postinfectious cough, bronchiectasis, airway malacia, PBB, and asthma appear to be the main causes of cough; however, b...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 55Author(s): (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 6, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Chronic cough and obesity
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Laurent GuilleminaultAbstractWith respective prevalence of 13% and 9.6%, obesity and chronic cough are two common conditions worldwide. The crucial role of obesity has been highlighted in the development and progression of many respiratory diseases. According to the results of epidemiological studies, obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, may also be associated with chronic cough (CC). CC seems to be more severe in obese patients compared to normal-weight subjects. The management of CC may differ slightly in ob...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 26, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological interventions for chronic cough: The past, present and future
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): S. Chamberlain Mitchell, J. Ellis, S. Ludlow, A. Pandyan, S.S. BirringAbstractNon-pharmacological interventions have been explored in people with refractory chronic cough. Normally delivered by Physiotherapists and or Speech and Language Therapists, these interventions aim to educate patients about their cough, provide them with cough suppression techniques and breathing exercises, improve vocal/laryngeal hydration and psychoeducational counselling to help them gain greater control of their cough. Six key studies ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aminophylline increases parasternal muscle action in awake canines
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Jenny V. Suneby Jagers, Michael Ji, Bruce Rothwell, Paul A. EastonAbstractThe traditional theophylline bronchodilator, aminophylline, is still widely used, especially in the treatment of COPD. The effects of aminophylline on ventilation and action of the costal diaphragm have been previously defined, but other respiratory muscles – notably the chest wall, are not well determined. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aminophylline on the Parasternal intercostal, a key obligatory inspiratory muscle, exami...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 22, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Precision-cut lung slices from bleomycin treated animals as a model for testing potential therapies for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
In this study we have described precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) prepared from bleomycin treated mice as an in vitro model for testing of novel compounds with antifibrotic activity. We have shown that PCLS during in vitro incubation retain characteristics of bleomycin model with increased expression of fibrosis related genes ACTA2 (α-smooth muscle actin), COL1A1 (collagen 1), FN1 (fibronectin 1), MMP12 (matrix metalloproteinase 12) and TIMP1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases). To further evaluate PCLS as an in vitro model, we have tested ALK5 inhibitor SB525334 which was previously shown to attenuate fibrosis i...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 15, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in exercise and athletes
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Louis-Philippe Boulet, Julie TurmelAbstractIn the general population, particularly in individuals with asthma, cough is a common symptom, often reported after exertion, although regular exercise may be associated with a reduction in the prevalence of cough. In athletes, exercise-induced cough is also a particularly frequent symptom. The main etiologies of cough in athletes are somewhat similar to non-athletes, including asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness, upper airways disorders such as allergic or non-allergic rhi...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 14, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of cough neurobiology: Clinical implications
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Stuart B. Mazzone, Michael J. FarrellAbstractCough is an important protective mechanism for clearing the airways but becomes a troublesome, and often difficult to treat, symptom in respiratory disease. Although cough can be produced as a reflex in response to the presence of irritants within the airways, emerging research demonstrates an unappreciated complexity in the peripheral and central neural systems that regulate cough. This complexity includes multiple primary sensory neurons that can induce or facilitate ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhalable dry powder prepared from folic acid-conjugated docetaxel liposomes alters pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties relevant to lung cancer chemotherapy
In this study, we compared the physicochemical property, anti-cancer activity, tumor targeting and pharmacokinetic behavior of docetaxel-loaded folic acid-conjugated liposomes (LPs-DTX-FA) with those of dry powder prepared by co-spray-drying LPs-DTX-FA. The particle size and PDI after re-dispersion of the powder were increased. The re-dispersed liposomes showed increased cellular uptake via micropinocytosis and exhibited higher cytotoxicity than LPs-DTX-FA. Tumor targeting of re-dispersed liposomes was less effective compared with LPs-DTX-FA but the metabolism of re-dispersed liposomes was decreased. Tracheal administratio...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 8, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in pulmonary tuberculosis: Existing knowledge and general insights
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Richard Douglas TurnerAbstractCough is a prominent symptom of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), one of the oldest and most prevalent infectious diseases. Coughing probably has a pivotal role in transmission of the causative organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite this, little research to date has addressed this subject. Current knowledge of the mechanisms of cough in TB and how exactly coughing patterns predict infectiousness is scant, but this is changing. This overview summarises the existing evidence for the inf...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 2, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

SUMOylation of Vps34 by SUMO1 promotes phenotypic switching of vascular smooth muscle cells by activating autophagy in pulmonary arterial hypertension
In this study, we explored the role of SUMO1 in the dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and PAH in vivo and in vitro.ResultsIn a mouse model of hypoxic PAH, SUMO1 expression was significantly increased, which was associated with activation of autophagy (increased LC3b and decreased p62), dedifferentiation of pulmonary arterial VSMCs (reduced α-SMA, SM22 and SM-MHC), and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Similar results were obtained in a MCT-induced PAH model. Overexpression of SUMO1 significantly increased VSMC proliferation, migration, hyp...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 28, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adrenomedullin mediates pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in asthma and COPD
ConclusionsThese data suggest that AM mediates the secretion of pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a cell-type and/or a disease-specific way, explaining its association with clinical outcomes in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 25, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Limitations of the results from randomized clinical trials involving intravenous and nebulised magnesium sulphate in adults with severe acute asthma
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Eugen Javor, Sanja Popović GrleAbstractThe role of intravenous (IV) or nebulised magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of severe acute asthma in adults is unclear. A controversy exists regarding its efficacy. In children MgSO4 has a more evident clinical effect, but the child population has not been considered in this work. The applicability of the results from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving MgSO4 in adult population is questioned in the optimal treatment of asthma exacerbations. According to th...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 18, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D prevents experimental lung fibrosis and predicts survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Vasilios Tzilas, Evangelos Bouros, Ilianna Barbayianni, Thodoris Karampitsakos, Sofia Kourtidou, Maria Ntassiou, Ioanna Ninou, Vassilis Aidinis, Demosthenes Bouros, Argyris TzouvelekisAbstractBackgroundVitamin D (VitD) is a steroid hormone with cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Epidemiological studies have suggested a link between VitD deficiency and risk of development of chronic lung diseases. Its role in lung fibrosis is largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of VitD in ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 17, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 54Author(s): (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Alteplase and DNase for the treatment of pleural empyema in rats
ConclusionsAlteplase, DNase and alteplase + DNase changed significantly physical and chemical properties of experimental empyema at fibrinopurulent phase: alteplase reduced molecular size larger than 135 nm and DNase reduced viscosity. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The anti-proliferative effects of adiponectin on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and oxidative stress involvement
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): E. Nigro, P. Stiuso, M.G. Matera, M.L. Monaco, M. Caraglia, M. Maniscalco, F. Perrotta, G. Mazzarella, A. Daniele, A. BiancoAbstractAdiponectin (Acrp30) plays an important role in energy metabolism and inflammation. Recently, in vivo serum Acrp30 levels have been reported to be correlated to risk of developing several types of cancers such as lung cancer, and in vitro studies have demonstrated a role for Acrp30 in the control of cell proliferation and survival. However, the molecular effects of Acrp30 on lung cance...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 16, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Penehyclidine effects the angiogenic potential of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Peilin Xie, Zhen Zheng, Lihua Jiang, Songwei WuAbstractThe present study sought to determine the pharmacological effects of penehyclidine, an anticholinergic agent, on the angiogenic capacity of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). In vitro Matrigel network formation assay, cell proliferation assay, cell-matrix adhesion assay, and wound-healing assay were performed in PMVECs with or without exposure to penehyclidine or, in some cases, glycopyrrolate or acetylcholine, over a concentration range. In ad...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 12, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

GYY4137 attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury via heme oxygenase-1 modulation
This study investigated the role of GYY4137 in acute lung injury (ALI) via HO-1 regulation. Lung injury was assessed in mice challenged with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of GYY4137 was investigated in mice and RAW264.7 cells. GYY4137 reduced the LPS-mediated pulmonary injury and neutrophil infiltration, and inhibited the LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Moreover, GYY4137 suppressed the LPS-evoked NF-κB activation in RAW264.7 cells. GYY4137, not time-expired G...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 1, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Analysis of the drop-out rate in patients receiving mepolizumab for severe asthma in real life
We describe herein the drop-out rate observed with mepolizumab in real life, because this datum can indirectly reflect the safety and tolerability aspects. The demographic and clinical data of patients receiving mepolizumab for severe asthma were collected, and the number and reasons for discontinuation of the treatment were analyzed. The database involves 143 patients (67 male, age range 19–80 year) who received at least one dose of mepolizumab. The observed discontinuation rate was 6/143 (4.2%). Five out of 6 discontinuations were due to lack of response, and one was an adverse event (urticaria) probably related to...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of a novel nitric oxide generator for the treatment of neonatal pulmonary hypertension: Experimental and clinical studies
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Fernanda Blasina, Lucía Vaamonde, Fernando Silvera, Gonzalo Solla, Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Carmen Gutiérrez, Pilar Beltramo, Irene García, Miguel MartellAbstractPersistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a complex pathology resulting from a failure of the post-natal reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to hypoxemia. The standard therapy is inhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) improving oxygenation but its availability is limited, especially in hospitals with restr...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Arbutin attenuates LPS-induced lung injury via Sirt1/ Nrf2/ NF-κBp65 pathway
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Jinyan Ye, Minqiang Guan, Yao Lu, Dan Zhang, Chengye Li, Caicun ZhouAbstractThe main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of arbutin (AR) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. A lung injury rat model was established by intravenous LPS administration. We found that levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both serum and lung tissue were significant increased after LPS challenge. In addition...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 6, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The effect of erdosteine on airway defence mechanisms and inflammatory cytokines in the settings of allergic inflammation
ConclusionIn summary, we can state, that erdosteine is multi-action drug and it seems to have many beneficial and complementary effect in the management of chronic inflammatory airway diseases complicated by viscous mucus. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 28, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of mesenchymal stromal (stem) cell (MSC) transplantation in asthmatic animal models: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Li-Bo Zhang, Min HeAbstractBackgroundOver the years, mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) have been pre-clinically applied in the treatment of variety kinds of diseases including asthma and chronic lung diseases. Aim of the current study was to systematically review and to conduct meta-analysis on the published studies of MSC treatment in asthma animal models.MethodsPublications on the MSC and asthma treatment was thoroughly searched in the electronic databases. Statistical analysis was then performed using the...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 27, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Attenuation of pulmonary fibrosis in type I collagen-targeted reporter mice with ALK-5 inhibitors
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Hideki Terashima, Misato Aonuma, Hiroshi Tsuchida, Kotaro Sugimoto, Mika Yokoyama, Mikio KatoAbstractIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease, and consequently, effective antifibrotic drugs are strongly desired. Although we have previously reported a validated Col1a1-Luc Tg rat model for fibrosis, there are only a few mouse models that enable the evaluation of fibrosis in a short time period and with high sensitivity. Therefore, we generated a Col1a1-internal ribosome entry site (IRES...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 53Author(s): (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 16, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Insight into pulmonary drug delivery: Mechanism of drug deposition to device characterization and regulatory requirements
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Nagarjun Rangaraj, Sravanthi Reddy Pailla, Sunitha SampathiGraphical abstract (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence of Arnold nerve reflex in subjects with and without chronic cough: Relevance to Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome
ConclusionsThe greater than 11-fold prevalence of the Arnold nerve reflex in adults with chronic cough compared with healthy volunteers and adults with respiratory disease but without chronic cough, supports the concept of the Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome (CHS), in which vagal hypersensitivity is proposed to underlie chronic refractory cough. The absence of increased prevalence among children with chronic cough suggests that CHS is an acquired condition, perhaps triggered by viral respiratory infection or other environmental factor. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Omalizumab lowers asthma exacerbations, oral corticosteroid intake and blood eosinophils: Results of a 5-YEAR single-centre observational study
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Corrado Pelaia, Cecilia Calabrese, Sarah Barbuto, Maria Teresa Busceti, Mariaimmacolata Preianò, Luca Gallelli, Rocco Savino, Alessandro Vatrella, Girolamo PelaiaAbstractOmalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which binds to human immunoglobulins E (IgE), thus preventing their interactions with both high affinity and low affinity IgE receptors. Therefore, omalizumab is currently recommended for add-on biological therapy of uncontrolled allergic asthma, mainly characterized by type 2 airway eosinophilic...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 8, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Varenicline for long term smoking cessation in patients with COPD
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Rafael J. Hernández Zenteno, Danitza Fernández Lara, Alejandra Ramírez Venegas, Raúl H. Sansores, Justino Regalado Pineda, Fernando Flores Trujillo, José Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Maria Gabriela Matera, Mario CazzolaAbstractBackgroundQuitting smoking is key for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Standard recommendations for quitting smoking are implemented for COPD as well. Varenicline Tartrate (VT) is the most effective drug to help quit smoking, but ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 3, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antifibrotic effects of a novel pirfenidone derivative in vitro and in vivo
ConclusionPBD-617 not only inhibited TGF-β1-induced HELF proliferation, but also attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, with efficacy to some extent higher than that of pirfenidone at the same effective dosage. PBD-617 attenuated pulmonary fibrosis effectively by suppressing activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 and p38 signaling pathways. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 29, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Inhaled calcium salts inhibit tobacco smoke-induced inflammation by modulating expression of chemokines and cytokines
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Paulette W. Andreotta, Steve Arold, Jennifer Kenyon, Diane Spicer, Paul Woodman, Elizabeth Berry, Tim Brogan, Sophanna Kong, Pamela Okerholm, Vince Russell, Robert W. Clarke, David L. HavaAbstractTobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) worsens with disease progression and acute exacerbations caused by respiratory infections. Chronic therapies to manage COPD center on bronchodilators to improve lung function and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to help reduc...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 23, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Erdosteine: Drug exhibiting polypharmacy for the treatment of respiratory diseases
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Roberto Dal Negro, Edoardo Pozzi, Silvano G. CellaAbstractMucoactive drugs are commonly used in the treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases, such as lower and acute respiratory infection and chronic bronchitis (CB) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in which an increased mucus secretion is one of main clinical features. Indeed these drugs are designed to promote secretion clearance and to specifically alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus, restoring an effective mucociliary clearance and red...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 21, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Oncogenic activity of insulin in the development of NSCLC: What is there behind the scenes?
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Raffaella Mormile (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aspirin use and racial differences in Non-Small cell lung cancer survival: What is the plot?
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Raffaella Mormile (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 12, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Building reliable evidence from real-world data: Needs, methods, cautiousness and recommendations
We described the research areas in which HCU databases may be particularly useful, jointly with strength, weakness and potential of this approach. It is concluded that HCU data cannot substitute RCTs but they can usefully complement RCT data for adequately supporting healthcare decision-makers. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Salvianolic acid B as an anti-emphysema agent I: In vitro stimulation of lung cell proliferation and migration, and protection against lung cell death, and in vivo lung STAT3 activation and VEGF elevation
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Sneha Dhapare, Masahiro SakagamiAbstractEmphysema causes progressive and life-threatening alveolar structural destruction/loss, yet remains irreversible and incurable to date. Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling has been proposed as a new pathogenic mechanism, and if so, VEGF recovery may enable reversal of emphysema. Thus, we hypothesized that salvianolic acid B (Sal-B), a polyphenol in traditional Chinese herbal danshen, is an alveolar structural recovery agent for emphysema by virtue of V...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - October 5, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Andrographolide prevented toluene diisocyanate-induced occupational asthma and aberrant airway E-cadherin distribution via p38 MAPK-dependent Nrf2 induction
This study elucidates the therapeutic potential of AGP in the control and management of chemical-induced allergic asthma. To the best of our knowledge, the potential anti-asthma activity of AGP in TDI-induced occupational asthma has not been reported previously.Graphical abstract (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 22, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 52Author(s): (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 20, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of doxofylline compared to theophylline in asthma: A pooled analysis of functional and clinical outcomes from two multicentre, double-blind, randomised studies (DOROTHEO 1 and DOROTHEO 2)
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Luigino Calzetta, Nicola A. Hanania, Frank L. Dini, Marc F. Goldstein, William R. Fairweather, William W. Howard, Mario CazzolaAbstractThis pooled analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials aimed to investigate the Impact of DOxofylline compaRed tO THEOphylline (DOROTHEO 1 and DOROTHEO 2 studies) on functional and clinical outcomes in asthma. Patients with asthma ≥16 years of age with (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] ≥50% and
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 15, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of the novel LAMA/LABA fixed-dose combination of glycopyrronium/formoterol fumarate dihydrate metered dose inhaler, formulated using co-suspension delivery technology, in Japanese healthy subjects
ConclusionsThe addition of FF 10 μg to GP MDI 28.8 μg or 14.4 μg in a fixed-dose combination did not appreciably alter the PK of GP, nor did an increase in GP dose from 14.4 μg to 28.8 μg in a fixed-dose combination with FF 10 μg appreciably alter the PK of formoterol. Both formulations of GFF MDI and GP MDI were well tolerated in healthy Japanese subjects. Data from this study support further evaluation of GFF MDI in Japanese patients with COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 14, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Real-life evaluation of the clinical, functional, and hematological effects of mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma: Results of a single-centre observational study
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology & TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Corrado Pelaia, Maria Teresa Busceti, Sabina Solinas, Rosa Terracciano, Girolamo PelaiaAbstractMepolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody which targets interleukin-5 (IL-5) and is nowadays available in many countries for add-on biological therapy of severe eosinophilic asthma. Although the approval of mepolizumab use in clinical practice has been made possible by several successful pre-marketing controlled trials, so far only a very few studies have been performed in a real-life setting. Within such a context...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 13, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research