Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors for pulmonary arterial hypertension: A meta-analysis focusing on 6MWD
Conclusions The results of present meta-analysis suggest that treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors improves the 6MWD, clinical symptoms, hemodynamic parameters, and a tendency of survival benefits. In patients treated with PDE-5 inhibitor monotherapy, the 6MWD significantly increased when compared to combination therapies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic efficacy of liposomes containing 4-(5-pentadecyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)pyridine in a murine model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusion These results confirm and extend the reported highly efficient anti-mycobacterial activity of this lipophilic oxidazole derivative when it is carried by liposomes in mice suffering from late progressive pulmonary TB induced by drug-sensitive, and most prominently by, MDR strains. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway
In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of BI 671800, an oral CRTH2 antagonist, in poorly controlled asthma as sole controller and in the presence of inhaled corticosteroid treatment
In this study, BI 671800 (50, 200 or 400 mg) and fluticasone propionate (220 μg) all given twice daily (bid) were compared with bid placebo in symptomatic controller-naïve adults with asthma (Trial 1), and BI 671800 400 mg bid compared with montelukast 10 mg once daily (qd), and matching placebo bid, in patients with asthma receiving inhaled fluticasone (88 μg bid) (Trial 2). The primary endpoint in both trials was change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percent predicted. After 6 weeks’ treatment, adjusted mean treatment differences (SE) for the primary endpoint compared...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Change in serum marker of oxidative stress in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions Serum oxidative stress values increased with disease progression in IPF patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Agonist-induced β2-adrenoceptor desensitization and downregulation enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 30 Author(s): Susanne Oehme , Anja Mittag , Wieland Schrödl , Attila Tarnok , Karen Nieber , Getu Abraham It is not clear whether increased asthma severity associated with long-term use of β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists can be attributed to receptor degradation and increased inflammation. We investigated the cross-talk between β-AR agonist-mediated effects on β2-AR function and expression and cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells. In 16HBE14o− cells grown in the presence and absence...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size
Conclusions The systemic exposure to the active ingredients of a fixed dose combination of beclometasone/formoterol administered via pMDI with AeroChamber Plus™ correlates with the nominal dose independently of patient age and body size. Thus, dose reduction in relation to age when using a pMDI with VHC may be unnecessary for reducing the systemic exposure in children. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aminophylline increases respiratory muscle activity during hypercapnia in humans
Conclusion Aminophylline administered at the usual clinical therapeutic dose increases ventilation and EMG activity of both inspiratory and expiratory muscles during hypercapnia in healthy humans. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adult and paediatric cough guidelines: Ready for an overhaul?
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Surinder S. Birring , Joanne Kavanagh , Kefang Lai , Anne B. Chang Cough is one of the most common reasons that patients seek medical attention. Cough guidelines from numerous countries and societies are available to assist the clinician to investigate and manage patients with cough. We review some of the recent progress in the field of cough that may lead to revision of these guidelines. In adults with chronic cough, new causes such as obstructive sleep apnoea have been identified. A new terminology, cough...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P blocks lung inflammation in swine barn dust-instilled mice
In this study we test the ability of a CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist, CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P (G31P) to block many of the features of lung-inflammation in response to challenge with SBE in an established mouse exposure system. Injection of G31P concurrent with SBE nasal instillation over a course of 3 weeks significantly reduced neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of barn dust exposed animals compared to those given SBE alone. There was a similar reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 in SBE plus G31P-treated mice. In addition to excreted products, the receptors ICAM-1, CXCR1, and CXCR2, which al...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Which factors affect the choice of the inhaler in chronic obstructive respiratory diseases?
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Nicola Scichilone , Alida Benfante , Marialuisa Bocchino , Fulvio Braido , Pierluigi Paggiaro , Alberto Papi , Pierachille Santus , Alessandro Sanduzzi Inhalation is the preferred route of drug administration in chronic respiratory diseases because it optimises delivery of the active compounds to the targeted site and minimises side effects from systemic distribution. The choice of a device should be made after careful evaluation of the patient's clinical condition (degree of airway obstruction, comorbiditi...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Budesonide increases TLR4 and TLR2 expression in Treg lymphocytes of allergic asthmatics
Conclusions Budesonide potentiates the activity of Treg by increasing TLR4, TLR2 and IL-10 expression. This event is associated to the decreased release of IL-6 and TNF-α in PBMC treated with budesonide. These findings shed light on new mechanisms by which corticosteroids, drugs widely used for the clinical management of bronchial asthma, control T lymphocyte activation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessing the clinical value of fast onset and sustained duration of action of long-acting bronchodilators for COPD
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mario Cazzola , Kai M. Beeh , David Price , Nicolas Roche The long-acting inhaled bronchodilators available for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary in their pharmacological class (β2-adrenergic agonist or antimuscarinic/anticholinergic, alone or combined), durations of action and speed of onset of bronchodilator effect. In the early stages of development of a maintenance bronchodilator, the goals are to identify a molecule with the theoretically ‘ideal’ profile of fast ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Conor P. Kerley , Basil Elnazir , John Faul , Liam Cormican Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates lung ischemia/reperfusion injury by HSP70 and thioredoxin redox system: NF-kB pathway involved
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Weijun Cao , Manhui Li , Jianxiong Li , Chengwei Li , Xin Xu , Weiqing Gu Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been clinically used as an anti-ulcer drug. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of GGA on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that GGA ameliorated the lung biochemical and histological alterations induced by IRI, which was reversed by HSP70 inhibition. To further explore the mechanism of GGA action, we focused on NF-kB and thiore...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 2: A review of human studies
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Conor P. Kerley , Basil Elnazir , John Faul , Liam Cormican Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide, with adverse effects on bone health but also potentially other unfavorable consequences. VDD and asthma-incidence/severity share many common risk factors, including winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, dark skin pigmentation, and high latitude. Multiple anatomical areas relevant to asthma contain both the enzyme responsible for producing activated vitamin D and the vitamin D rec...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Brain natriuretic peptide modulates calcium homeostasis and epidermal growth factor receptor gene signalling in asthmatic airways smooth muscle cells
This study provides evidence that the effect of BNP on relaxing bronchial in ASM cells is mediated from epithelium and associates to rapid changes of EGFR and calcium homeostasis-associated gene levels. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The safety and tolerability of oral AZD5069, a selective CXCR2 antagonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD
Conclusions AZD5069 was well tolerated overall in those patients who completed study treatment, with no increase in infection rates in either dosage group compared with placebo. Further studies with AZD5069 appear to be warranted. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of treatment with indacaterol in patients with COPD: A post-hoc analysis according to GOLD 2011 categories A to D
Conclusions Treatment selection according to patient’s symptoms as well as lung function is an important consideration in maintenance treatment of COPD. Indacaterol 150 and 300 μg effectively improved lung function and symptoms in patients across all GOLD 2011 categories. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 3, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Atorvastatin in combination with inhaled beclometasone modulates inflammatory sputum mediators in smokers with asthma
Conclusion Short-term treatment with atorvastatin alone or in combination with inhaled beclometasone reduces several sputum cytokines, chemokines and growth factors concentrations unresponsive to inhaled corticosteroids alone, in smokers with asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of harmfulness information on citric acid induced cough and urge-to-cough
Conclusions Our findings show that harmfulness information influences urge-to-cough, corroborating the role of cortical mechanisms in modulating the urge-to-cough and suggesting that cognitive manipulations may contribute to cough treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Omalizumab for severe allergic asthma in clinical trials and real-life studies: What we know and what we should address
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Marco Caminati , Gianenrico Senna , Massimo Guerriero , Anna Rita Dama , Fulvia Chieco-Bianchi , Giorgia Stefanizzi , Marcello Montagni , Erminia Ridolo Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for the assessment of any therapeutic intervention. Real-life (R-L) studies are needed to verify the provided results beyond the experimental setting. This review aims at comparing RCTs and R-L studies on omalizumab in adult severe allergic asthma, in order to highlight the concurring results and the di...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Do children with stable asthma benefit from addition of montelukast to inhaled corticosteroids: Randomized, placebo controlled trial
Conclusion It is reasonable to add montelukast to ICS therapy in asthmatic children during the school year, to lower cumulative ICS dose in children with well controlled asthma symptoms, as well as to reduce number of exacerbations, and to achieve better control of EIB. Trial registration NCT01266772. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comments on Zhuo et al.: Prolonged treatment with macrolides in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 30 Author(s): Mingxing Li , Deqi Jiang , Shanshan Yu , Yan Wang , Yong Wang (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ivacaftor therapy in siblings with cystic fibrosis-the potential implications of Itraconazole in dosage and efficacy
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): M.J. Harrison , N.J. Ronan , K.A. Khan , G. O’Callaghan , D.M. Murphy , B.J. Plant (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Canakinumab for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Paola Rogliani , Luigino Calzetta , Josuel Ora , Maria Gabriella Matera COPD is a preventable and treatable disease associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response. In addition to chronic inflammation other mechanisms have been proposed that is likely to be involved in the development and progression of COPD. Recent evidence in the literature suggests a role for the inflammasome in the airway inflammation observed in COPD. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that facilitate the a...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Novartis view on emerging drugs and novel targets for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: October 2013 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 26, Issue 5 Author(s): C. Compton , D. McBryan , E. Bucchioni , F. Patalano Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating lung disease characterized by airflow limitation and chronic inflammation in the lungs. The mainstay of drug therapy for COPD is represented by long-acting bronchodilators, an important aspect of Novartis' development program. Novel once-daily dosing bronchodilators, such as the long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) glycopyrronium and the LAMA/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) fixed-dose co...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pre-clinical studies in cough research: Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels
Publication date: October 2013 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 26, Issue 5 Author(s): Megan S. Grace , Eric Dubuis , Mark A. Birrell , Maria G. Belvisi Cough is a protective reflex and defence mechanism in healthy individuals, which helps clear excessive secretions and foreign material from the lungs. Cough often presents as the first and most persistent symptom of many respiratory diseases and some non-respiratory disorders, but can also be idiopathic, and is a common respiratory complaint for which medical attention is sought. Chronic cough of various aetiologies is a regular presentation t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Three monthly doses of palivizumab are not adequate for 5-month protection: A population pharmacokinetic analysis
Publication date: December 2013 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 26, Issue 6 Author(s): William V. La Via , Gerard F. Notario , Xiang-Qing Yu , Shringi Sharma , Peter A. Noertersheuser , Gabriel J. Robbie Recent guidelines in British Columbia, Canada have suggested that the use of a maximum of 3 monthly doses of palivizumab 15 mg/kg intramuscularly for RSV immunoprophylaxis of high risk infants born prior to the RSV season is adequate to provide protection against severe RSV disease for a 5-month RSV season. Efficacy was established, however, with 2 large, randomized controlled clinical s...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol combination via a dry powder inhaler (NEXThaler®) or pMDI and beclomethasone monotherapy for maintenance of asthma control in adult patients: A randomised, double-blind trial
Conclusion NEXThaler® is an effective and well-tolerated delivery device for treatment of patients with asthma who need a regular treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessment Of The Internal Structure Of Gold 2011 System
Conclusions The available evidence suggests that GOLD 2011 strategy presented a low reliability, and its theorized multidimensionality was not confirm by EFA. Comorbidities appears as a separate and independent domain. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comments on zhuo et al.: Prolonged treatment with macrolides in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mingxing Li , Deqi Jiang , Shanshan Yu , Yan Wang , Yong Wang (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 28, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Desmethyl bosentan displays a similar in vitro interaction profile as bosentan
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that desmethyl bosentan exhibits a similar pharmacokinetic interaction profile as bosentan and might contribute to the inducing effects of the parent compound. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Desmethyl bosentan displays a similar in vitro interaction profile as bosentan
In conclusion, our data demonstrate that desmethyl bosentan exhibits a similar pharmacokinetic interaction profile as bosentan and might contribute to the inducing effects of the parent compound. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: An emerging target in right ventricle dysfunction associated with pulmonary hypertension
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Gurpreet Kaur , Neetu Singh , Poorella Lingeshwar , Hefazat H. Siddiqui , Kashif Hanif Recently, inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) was shown to be protective in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) and prevented right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) associated with it. However, molecular mechanism behind cardioprotection by PARP1 inhibition in PH still needs detailed exploration. Therefore, effect of inhibition of PARP1 on the right ventricle (RV) dysfunction was studied in monocrotaline...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase1: An emerging target in right ventricle dysfunction associated with pulmonary hypertension
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Gurpreet Kaur , Neetu Singh , Poorella Lingeshwar , Hefazat H. Siddiqui , Kashif Hanif Recently, inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) was shown to be protective in experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH) and prevented right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) associated with it. However, molecular mechanism behind cardioprotection by PARP1 inhibition in PH still needs detailed exploration. Therefore, effect of inhibition of PARP1 on the right ventricle (RV) dysfunction was studied in monocrotaline ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 4, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of tiotropium on neural respiratory drive during exercise in severe COPD
Conclusion Tiotropium significantly reduces neural respiratory drive at rest and improves the efficiency of neural respiratory drive during exercise, which might account for the improvement in exercise tolerance in COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 28, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of Captopril on Cardiovascular Reflexes and Respiratory Mechanisms in Rats Submitted to Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Conclusions The present study demonstrates that MCT-induced PAH induces compensatory respiratory responses, dysautonomia, and baroreflex dysfunction and increases chemoreflex responses. The data also indicate that CPT was effective in reversing these cardio-respiratory disorders, suggesting that ACEi could be a potential therapeutic target for PAH. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 21, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Utility of animal and in vivo experimental infection of humans with rhinoviruses in the development of therapeutic agents for viral exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Alfred M. Del Vecchio , Patrick J. Branigan , Elliot S. Barnathan , Susan K. Flavin , Philip E. Silkoff , Ronald B. Turner There is an association with acute viral infection of the respiratory tract and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although these exacerbations are associated with several types of viruses, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are associated with the vast majority of disease exacerbations. Due to the lack of an animal species that is naturally permissive for ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Utility of animal and in vivo experimental infection of humans with rhinoviruses in the development of therapeutic agents for viral exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Alfred M. Del Vecchio , Patrick J. Branigan , Elliot S. Barnathan , Susan K. Flavin , Philip E. Silkoff , Ronald B. Turner There is an association with acute viral infection of the respiratory tract and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although these exacerbations are associated with several types of viruses, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are associated with the vast majority of disease exacerbations. Due to the lack of an animal species that is naturally permissive for ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pathogen characteristics reveal novel antibacterial approaches for interstitial lung disease
In conclusion, aminoglycosides and carbapenems may be selected as a priority for secondary infection to control ILD progression. Meanwhile, the use of anti-MRSA/MRCNS drugs may be considered for Staphylococcus infection. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Thrombomodulin for acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A proof of concept study
Conclusion AE-IPF-patients were found to have significantly higher levels of coagulation. The rhTM administration in the surviving AE-IPF-patients led to significant differences in the oxygenation and intravascular coagulation disturbance. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Novel drug targets for asthma and COPD: Lessons learned from in vitro and in vivo models
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Katie E. Baker , Sara J. Bonvini , Chantal Donovan , Rachel E. Foong , Bing Han , Aruni Jha , Yasin Shaifta , Marieke Smit , Jill R. Johnson , Lyn M. Moir Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent respiratory diseases characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Whilst current therapies, such as β-agonists and glucocorticoids, may be effective at reducing symptoms, they do not reduce disease progression. Thus, there is a nee...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Hatem Alkhouri , Wilfred Jelco Poppinga , Navessa Padma Tania , Alaina Ammit , Michael Schuliga Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue remodelling, but also have an important role in pulmonary inflammation. This review will describe the immunomodulato...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pathological changes in the COPD lung mesenchyme – Novel lessons learned from in vitro and in vivo studies
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Oluwaseun Ojo , Anna L. Lagan , Vijayanand Rajendran , Anita Spanjer , Ling Chen , Sukhwinder Singh Sohal , Irene Heijink , Robin Jones , Harm Maarsingh , Tillie L. Hackett Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, in contrast to the trend for cardiovascular diseases, mortality rates still continue to climb. This increase is in part due to an aging population, being expanded by the “Baby boomer” generation who grew up when smoking ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ca2+ handling and sensitivity in airway smooth muscle: Emerging concepts for mechanistic understanding and therapeutic targeting
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): T. Koopmans , V. Anaparti , I. Castro-Piedras , P. Yarova , N. Irechukwu , C. Nelson , J. Perez-Zoghbi , X. Tan , J.P.T. Ward , D.B. Wright Free calcium ions within the cytosol serve as a key secondary messenger system for a diverse range of cellular processes. Dysregulation of cytosolic Ca2+ handling in airway smooth muscle (ASM) has been implicated in asthma, and it has been hypothesised that this leads, at least in part, to associated changes in both the architecture and function of the lung. Significant...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Airway smooth muscle in asthma: Linking contraction and mechanotransduction to disease pathogenesis and remodelling
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 29, Issue 2 Author(s): Peter B. Noble , Chris D. Pascoe , Bo Lan , Satoru Ito , Loes E.M. Kistemaker , Amanda L. Tatler , Tonio Pera , Bindi S. Brook , Reinoud Gosens , Adrian R. West Asthma is an obstructive airway disease, with a heterogeneous and multifactorial pathogenesis. Although generally considered to be a disease principally driven by chronic inflammation, it is becoming increasingly recognised that the immune component of the pathology poorly correlates with the clinical symptoms of asthma, thus highlighting a potentia...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Differences in the efficacy and safety among inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) combinations in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Role of ICS
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): M. Latorre , F. Novelli , B. Vagaggini , F. Braido , A. Papi , A. Sanduzzi , P. Santus , N. Scichilone , P. Paggiaro Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are frequently recommended for the treatment of asthma and COPD, often in combination with long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), depending on the severity of the disease and/or on the specific phenotype. Several ICS/LABA combinations are currently available that differ in their pharmacokinetic characteristics and dose of both components. Thus, this review assesses di...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Azithromycin inhibits MUC5AC induction via multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in human airway epithelial cells
We examined whether macrolides inhibit MUC5AC production that is induced by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB). MUC5AC production in bronchial cells after MDRAB stimulation was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. For the inhibition study, cells were treated with azithromycin (AZM) or clarithromycin (CAM) simultaneously along with MDRAB stimulation. Western blotting was performed was performed to determine potential rules for signal modules. MDRAB induced MUC5AC production and gene expression. The EGFR-ERK/JNK-NF-κB pathway was involved ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects of long-acting bronchodilators and prednisolone on inspiratory lung function parameters in stable COPD
Conclusions After a single dose of long-acting bronchodilator salmeterol, significant improvements are observed in all ILPs and in FIV1 and PIF after tiotropium. Two weeks of oral corticosteroid treatment improved the FIV1 and FEV1. The dyspnea VAS score was only significantly correlated with the ILPs after 2 weeks of oral corticosteroid treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research