Different inhaled allergen challenge models give reproducible results
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Wha-Yong Lee , Thomas Southworth , Dave Singh (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Current and future therapies for invasive aspergillosis
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Matteo Bassetti , Davide Pecori , Paola Della Siega , Silvia Corcione , Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa Invasive fungal infections have increase worldwide and represent a threat for immunocompromised patients including HIV-infected, recipients of solid organ and stem cell transplants, and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies. High mortality rates and difficulties in early diagnosis characterize pulmonary fungal infections. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has been reviewed focussing on therapeutic management. Altho...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic approach to respiratory infections in lung transplantation
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Carolina Clajus , Francesco Blasi , Tobias Welte , Mark Greer , Thomas Fuehner , Marco Mantero Lung transplant recipients (LTRs) are at life-long risk for infections and disseminated diseases owing to their immunocompromised state. Besides organ failure and sepsis, infection can trigger acute and chronic graft rejection which increases mortality. Medical prophylaxis and treatment are based on comprehensive diagnostic work-up including previous history of infection and airway colonisation to reduce long-term complication...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Facing multi-drug resistant tuberculosis
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Giovanni Sotgiu , Giovanni Battista Migliori Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to at least two of the most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs (i.e., isoniazid and rifampicin). Therapeutic regimens based on second- and third-line anti-tuberculosis medicines showed poor efficacy, safety, and tolerability profiles. It was estimated that in 2012 the multi-drug resistant tuberculosis incidence ranged from 300,000 to 600,000 cases, mainly diagnosed in the Easte...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

New antimicrobial approaches to gram positive respiratory infections
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Adamantia Liapikou , Catia Cilloniz , Josep Mensa , Antonio Torres Nowadays, we face growing resistance among gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens that cause respiratory infection in the hospital and in the community. The spread of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococci, Community–acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (Ca-MRSA), the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant staphylococci underline the need for underline the need for therapeutic alternatives. A number of new therapeutic agent...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pneumococcal vaccines and the prevention of community-acquired pneumonia
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Susanna Esposito , Nicola Principi Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a disease that frequently affects children and adults throughout the world. As it places a considerable burden on society and, particularly, healthcare resources, any means of reducing its incidence and impact arouses great interest. A substantial number of paediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae but, fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that are likely to have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, s...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Antibiotic prophylaxis in COPD: Why, when, and for whom?
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Marc Miravitlles , Antonio Anzueto One of the main goals of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the prevention of exacerbations. Bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories are the first line therapy for treatment of COPD; however, these drugs are not effective in suppressing all infective exacerbations. In fact, the use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD and chronic bronchial infection may even increase the bacterial load in the airways and increase the risk of pneumonia. In this cont...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Respiratory infections management: Still a challenge
Publication date: June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 32 Author(s): Francesco Blasi , Antoni Torres (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Cough in obstructive sleep apnoea
Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Kevin Chan , Alvin Ing , Surinder S. Birring Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Oxidative stress as activators of sensory nerves for cough
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Thomas E. Taylor–Clark Excessive activation of the cough reflex is a major clinical problem in respiratory diseases. The cough reflex is triggered by activation of nociceptive sensory nerve terminals innervating the airways by noxious stimuli. Oxidative stress is a noxious stimuli associated with inhalation of pollutants and inflammatory airway disease. Here, we discuss recent findings that oxidative stress, in particular downstream of mitochondrial dysfunction, evokes increased electrical activity in air...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of erdosteine 900 versus 600 mg/day in reducing oxidative stress in patients with COPD exacerbations: Results of a double blind, placebo-controlled trial
Conclusions Results confirm the antioxidant dose- and time-dependent activity of erdosteine, and support the utility of including erdosteine it in the therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, which frequently leads to AECOPD occurrence. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand correlate with the severity of pulmonary hypertension
In conclusion, serum sTRAIL could be a biomarker for diagnosis and effective therapy for PH patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bradykinin and capsaicin induced airways obstruction in the guinea pig are platelet dependent
Conclusion Airways obstruction induced by bombesin, capsaicin and bradykinin is platelet dependent, but not secondary to platelet aggregation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro effect of ursolic acid on the inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its cell wall mycolic acid
In this study, the action of UA against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was evaluated, and the inhibitory concentration was found to range between 10 and 20 μg/ml in a resazurin assay and MGIT 960 instrument. The total mycolic acid in UA-treated H37Ra was detected and compared with INH-treated and non-treated bacterium by LC-MS/MS. Quantitative LC-MS/MS data confirmed that both UA and INH decreased mycolic acid biosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Thin-layer chromatogram (TLC) analysis showed that all mycolic acid subtypes were affected by UA treatment in the wild type but not in strains resistant to UA. Elect...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic novelties of inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators in asthma
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 33 Author(s): Fabio L.M. Ricciardolo , Francesco Blasi , Stefano Centanni , Paola Rogliani Orally inhaled agents are a key therapeutic class for treatment of asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective anti-inflammatory treatment for asthma thus representing the first-line therapy and bronchodilators complement the effects of ICSs. A significant body of evidence indicates that addition of a β2-agonist to ICS therapy is more effective than increasing the dose of ICS monotherapy. In this paper, pharmacological f...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Revising old principles of inhaled treatment in new fixed combinations for asthma
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 33 Author(s): Nicola Scichilone , Andrea Rossi , Andrea Melani The major influencing factors on persistent asthma control are the selected treatment(s), the drug delivery route and patient's adherence to therapy, together with the influence of lifestyle (i.e. sedentary habit), comorbid conditions and specific asthma phenotypes. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) are the gold standard for management of persistent asthma, with maximal local targeting and minimal systemic side effect...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Interpretation of data from studies of effects of nintedanib on surfactant protein-D expression in human lung epithelial cells
Publication date: August 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 33 Author(s): Lutz Wollin (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - June 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of an Anti-Reflux Medical Device in the Control of Deflation Cough: a Placebo-Controlled Comparative Study with an Antacid Drug in Chronic Coughers
Conclusions Pre-treatment with anti-reflux agents with a substantially different composition are equally effective in inhibiting DC. The liking of the two compounds used in the present experiments differed considerably and may be important to improve adherence to treatment in patients undergoing long-term therapy for reflux-related symptoms. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Reproducibility of biomarkers in induced sputum and in serum from chronic smokers
Conclusion Serum Pulmonary Surfactant Associated Protein D proved to be a biomarker that fulfilled the criteria for reproducibility in both study groups. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The 24-h lung-function profile of once-daily tiotropium and olodaterol fixed-dose combination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrated improvements in lung function over 24 h with an FDC of tiotropium + olodaterol over tiotropium or olodaterol alone, with no observed difference in tolerability. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01559116. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Risk and Outcomes of Pneumonia in Patients on Inhaled Corticosteroids
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Oriol Sibila , Natalia Soto-Gomez , Marcos I. Restrepo Corticosteroids are frequently prescribed anti-inflammatory medications. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are indicated for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma. ICSs are associated with a decrease in exacerbations and improved quality of life in COPD, however multiple studies have linked the chronic use of ICSs with an increased risk of developing pneumonia, though the effect on mortality is unclear. We review the association of ICS with the ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

γ-Tocotrienol reduces human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration
Publication date: Available online 5 May 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Tomoya Harada , Akira Yamasaki , Hiroki Chikumi , Kiyoshi Hashimoto , Ryota Okazaki , Miki Takata , Takehito Fukushima , Masanari Watanabe , Jun Kurai , Andrew J. Halayko , Eiji Shimizu Aims Vitamin E is an antioxidant that occurs in 8 different forms (α, β, γ, and δ tocopherol and tocotrienol). Clinical trials of tocopherol supplementation to assess the impact of antioxidant activity in asthma have yielded equivocal results. Tocotrienol exhibits greater antioxidant activity than tocopherol...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 6, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sub-lingual administration of a Polyvalent Mechanical Bacterial Lysate (PMBL) in patients with Moderate, Severe, or Very Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) according to the GOLD spirometric classification: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase IV study (AIACE study: Advanced Immunological Approach in COPD Exacerbation)
In conclusion, the results of this trials showed that Ismigen, in addition to guideline-suggested treatment, could not significantly reduce the number of exacerbations in the considered population; nevertheless, the secondary outcome results demonstrated potential benefits of this compound for relevant clinical outcomes. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacological characterization of the interaction between the dual phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3/4 inhibitor RPL554 and glycopyrronium on human isolated bronchi and small airways
Conclusions RPL554 and glycopyrronium demonstrated a synergistic interaction in relaxing both human medium and small isolated bronchi, in terms of peak relaxation and an extended duration of action, suggesting that this combination may have a beneficial role in the treatment of asthma or COPD. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 21, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors for pulmonary arterial hypertension: A meta-analysis focusing on 6MWD
Conclusions The results of present meta-analysis suggest that treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors improves the 6MWD, clinical symptoms, hemodynamic parameters, and a tendency of survival benefits. In patients treated with PDE-5 inhibitor monotherapy, the 6MWD significantly increased when compared to combination therapies. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Therapeutic efficacy of liposomes containing 4-(5-pentadecyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)pyridine in a murine model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis
Conclusion These results confirm and extend the reported highly efficient anti-mycobacterial activity of this lipophilic oxidazole derivative when it is carried by liposomes in mice suffering from late progressive pulmonary TB induced by drug-sensitive, and most prominently by, MDR strains. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway
In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate t...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of BI 671800, an oral CRTH2 antagonist, in poorly controlled asthma as sole controller and in the presence of inhaled corticosteroid treatment
In this study, BI 671800 (50, 200 or 400 mg) and fluticasone propionate (220 μg) all given twice daily (bid) were compared with bid placebo in symptomatic controller-naïve adults with asthma (Trial 1), and BI 671800 400 mg bid compared with montelukast 10 mg once daily (qd), and matching placebo bid, in patients with asthma receiving inhaled fluticasone (88 μg bid) (Trial 2). The primary endpoint in both trials was change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percent predicted. After 6 weeks’ treatment, adjusted mean treatment differences (SE) for the primary endpoint compared...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Change in serum marker of oxidative stress in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions Serum oxidative stress values increased with disease progression in IPF patients. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - April 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Agonist-induced β2-adrenoceptor desensitization and downregulation enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 30 Author(s): Susanne Oehme , Anja Mittag , Wieland Schrödl , Attila Tarnok , Karen Nieber , Getu Abraham It is not clear whether increased asthma severity associated with long-term use of β2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) agonists can be attributed to receptor degradation and increased inflammation. We investigated the cross-talk between β-AR agonist-mediated effects on β2-AR function and expression and cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells. In 16HBE14o− cells grown in the presence and absence...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size
Conclusions The systemic exposure to the active ingredients of a fixed dose combination of beclometasone/formoterol administered via pMDI with AeroChamber Plus™ correlates with the nominal dose independently of patient age and body size. Thus, dose reduction in relation to age when using a pMDI with VHC may be unnecessary for reducing the systemic exposure in children. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Aminophylline increases respiratory muscle activity during hypercapnia in humans
Conclusion Aminophylline administered at the usual clinical therapeutic dose increases ventilation and EMG activity of both inspiratory and expiratory muscles during hypercapnia in healthy humans. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Adult and paediatric cough guidelines: Ready for an overhaul?
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Surinder S. Birring , Joanne Kavanagh , Kefang Lai , Anne B. Chang Cough is one of the most common reasons that patients seek medical attention. Cough guidelines from numerous countries and societies are available to assist the clinician to investigate and manage patients with cough. We review some of the recent progress in the field of cough that may lead to revision of these guidelines. In adults with chronic cough, new causes such as obstructive sleep apnoea have been identified. A new terminology, cough...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P blocks lung inflammation in swine barn dust-instilled mice
In this study we test the ability of a CXCR1/CXCR2 antagonist, CXCL8(3-74)K11R/G31P (G31P) to block many of the features of lung-inflammation in response to challenge with SBE in an established mouse exposure system. Injection of G31P concurrent with SBE nasal instillation over a course of 3 weeks significantly reduced neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of barn dust exposed animals compared to those given SBE alone. There was a similar reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-6, KC, and MIP-2 in SBE plus G31P-treated mice. In addition to excreted products, the receptors ICAM-1, CXCR1, and CXCR2, which al...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Which factors affect the choice of the inhaler in chronic obstructive respiratory diseases?
Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Nicola Scichilone , Alida Benfante , Marialuisa Bocchino , Fulvio Braido , Pierluigi Paggiaro , Alberto Papi , Pierachille Santus , Alessandro Sanduzzi Inhalation is the preferred route of drug administration in chronic respiratory diseases because it optimises delivery of the active compounds to the targeted site and minimises side effects from systemic distribution. The choice of a device should be made after careful evaluation of the patient's clinical condition (degree of airway obstruction, comorbiditi...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Budesonide increases TLR4 and TLR2 expression in Treg lymphocytes of allergic asthmatics
Conclusions Budesonide potentiates the activity of Treg by increasing TLR4, TLR2 and IL-10 expression. This event is associated to the decreased release of IL-6 and TNF-α in PBMC treated with budesonide. These findings shed light on new mechanisms by which corticosteroids, drugs widely used for the clinical management of bronchial asthma, control T lymphocyte activation. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Assessing the clinical value of fast onset and sustained duration of action of long-acting bronchodilators for COPD
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mario Cazzola , Kai M. Beeh , David Price , Nicolas Roche The long-acting inhaled bronchodilators available for use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary in their pharmacological class (β2-adrenergic agonist or antimuscarinic/anticholinergic, alone or combined), durations of action and speed of onset of bronchodilator effect. In the early stages of development of a maintenance bronchodilator, the goals are to identify a molecule with the theoretically ‘ideal’ profile of fast ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 1: A review of potential mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Conor P. Kerley , Basil Elnazir , John Faul , Liam Cormican Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide. The classical role for vitamin D is to regulate calcium absorption form the gastrointestinal tract and influence bone health. Recently vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolic enzymes have been discovered in numerous sites systemically supporting diverse extra-skeletal roles of vitamin D, for example in asthmatic disease. Further, VDD and asthma share several common risk factors including...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates lung ischemia/reperfusion injury by HSP70 and thioredoxin redox system: NF-kB pathway involved
Publication date: Available online 3 March 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Weijun Cao , Manhui Li , Jianxiong Li , Chengwei Li , Xin Xu , Weiqing Gu Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been clinically used as an anti-ulcer drug. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of GGA on lung ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that GGA ameliorated the lung biochemical and histological alterations induced by IRI, which was reversed by HSP70 inhibition. To further explore the mechanism of GGA action, we focused on NF-kB and thiore...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in asthma. Part 2: A review of human studies
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Conor P. Kerley , Basil Elnazir , John Faul , Liam Cormican Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent worldwide, with adverse effects on bone health but also potentially other unfavorable consequences. VDD and asthma-incidence/severity share many common risk factors, including winter season, industrialization, poor diet, obesity, dark skin pigmentation, and high latitude. Multiple anatomical areas relevant to asthma contain both the enzyme responsible for producing activated vitamin D and the vitamin D rec...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Brain natriuretic peptide modulates calcium homeostasis and epidermal growth factor receptor gene signalling in asthmatic airways smooth muscle cells
This study provides evidence that the effect of BNP on relaxing bronchial in ASM cells is mediated from epithelium and associates to rapid changes of EGFR and calcium homeostasis-associated gene levels. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The safety and tolerability of oral AZD5069, a selective CXCR2 antagonist, in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD
Conclusions AZD5069 was well tolerated overall in those patients who completed study treatment, with no increase in infection rates in either dosage group compared with placebo. Further studies with AZD5069 appear to be warranted. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 12, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of treatment with indacaterol in patients with COPD: A post-hoc analysis according to GOLD 2011 categories A to D
Conclusions Treatment selection according to patient’s symptoms as well as lung function is an important consideration in maintenance treatment of COPD. Indacaterol 150 and 300 μg effectively improved lung function and symptoms in patients across all GOLD 2011 categories. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - March 3, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Atorvastatin in combination with inhaled beclometasone modulates inflammatory sputum mediators in smokers with asthma
Conclusion Short-term treatment with atorvastatin alone or in combination with inhaled beclometasone reduces several sputum cytokines, chemokines and growth factors concentrations unresponsive to inhaled corticosteroids alone, in smokers with asthma. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The impact of harmfulness information on citric acid induced cough and urge-to-cough
Conclusions Our findings show that harmfulness information influences urge-to-cough, corroborating the role of cortical mechanisms in modulating the urge-to-cough and suggesting that cognitive manipulations may contribute to cough treatment. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Omalizumab for severe allergic asthma in clinical trials and real-life studies: What we know and what we should address
Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Marco Caminati , Gianenrico Senna , Massimo Guerriero , Anna Rita Dama , Fulvia Chieco-Bianchi , Giorgia Stefanizzi , Marcello Montagni , Erminia Ridolo Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for the assessment of any therapeutic intervention. Real-life (R-L) studies are needed to verify the provided results beyond the experimental setting. This review aims at comparing RCTs and R-L studies on omalizumab in adult severe allergic asthma, in order to highlight the concurring results and the di...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Do children with stable asthma benefit from addition of montelukast to inhaled corticosteroids: Randomized, placebo controlled trial
Conclusion It is reasonable to add montelukast to ICS therapy in asthmatic children during the school year, to lower cumulative ICS dose in children with well controlled asthma symptoms, as well as to reduce number of exacerbations, and to achieve better control of EIB. Trial registration NCT01266772. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Comments on Zhuo et al.: Prolonged treatment with macrolides in adult patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Volume 30 Author(s): Mingxing Li , Deqi Jiang , Shanshan Yu , Yan Wang , Yong Wang (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Ivacaftor therapy in siblings with cystic fibrosis-the potential implications of Itraconazole in dosage and efficacy
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): M.J. Harrison , N.J. Ronan , K.A. Khan , G. O’Callaghan , D.M. Murphy , B.J. Plant (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Canakinumab for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Paola Rogliani , Luigino Calzetta , Josuel Ora , Maria Gabriella Matera COPD is a preventable and treatable disease associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response. In addition to chronic inflammation other mechanisms have been proposed that is likely to be involved in the development and progression of COPD. Recent evidence in the literature suggests a role for the inflammasome in the airway inflammation observed in COPD. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that facilitate the a...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 5, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research