Gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of sleep disturbance in general hospital outpatients
Sleep disturbance, which is characterized as having difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or experiencing early-morning awakening (Cao et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2000), appears to be one of a major public health concern with significant morbidities (Hou et al., 2017). Epidemiological surveys across different countries have reported a wide range of estimates of the prevalence of sleep disturbance, from 6% to 76.3% (Leger and Poursa in, 2005; Ohayon and Lemoine, 2002; Rocha et al., 2002; Xiang et al., 2008), reflecting both the variation between populations and differences in how sleep dist...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wei Zheng, Xin-Ni Luo, Hai-Yan Li, Xiao-Yin Ke, Qing Dai, Chan-Juan Zhang, Ryan M Cassidy, Xiang-Yang Zhang, Yu-Ping Ning Source Type: research
Approach and avoidance: Relations with the thin body ideal in women with disordered eating behavior
Women in the western world are exposed to images of attractiveness, beauty, and ideal body shape and size by daily mass media. As early as 1999, Malkin and colleagues reported that the beauty ideal is young and especially thin (Malkin et al., 1999). Today, models presented by the mass media usually have a body weight 15% below their healthy weight (Martin, 2010), and a high drive for thinness (Swami and Szmigielska, 2013) which are known as core symptoms of eating disorders. Nevertheless, this ideal is associated with beauty, fitness, and health (Hassel, 2002) and a lot of women strive for that “perfect body”. ...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Judith Leins, Manuel Waldorf, Ines Kollei, Mike Rinck, Sabine Loeber Source Type: research
Depression with or without comorbid social anxiety: Is attachment the culprit?
Numerous cross-sectional studies have documented high rates of comorbidity between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), as well as increased chronicity and impairment associated with it (Kessler et al., 1999; Nelson et al., 2000; Ohayon and Schatzberg, 2010). Several prospective studies have established that, in most cases, SAD precedes MDD and increases the risk for MDD in all ages (Beesdo, 2007; Stein, 2006; Stein et al., 2001). In particular, in the presence of SAD, MDD has a more malignant course, increased duration of episodes, increased suicidality, and additional comorbidity (Dalrymple ...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G. Camelia Adams, Andrew J. Wrath, Prosanta Mondal, Gordon J.G. Asmundson Source Type: research
Testing the association of serum uric acid levels with behavioral and clinical characteristics in subjects with major affective disorders: A cross-sectional study.
In recent years, several observational studies have investigated uric acid levels among individuals with major affective disorders (Albert et al., 2015; Bartoli et al., 2017b; Black et al., 2018; Peng et al., 2016). Uric acid is a C5H4N4O3 heterocyclic compound deriving from the purinergic metabolism of both adenosine and guanosine (Maiuolo et al., 2016). It has been hypothesized that uric acid might be a marker of dysfunctions in adenosine transmission (Cheffer et al., 2017; Lindberg et al., 2015; Ortiz et al., 2015) and antioxidant system (Bowman et al., 2010; Jim énez-Fernández et al., 2015), in different ...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Mattia Bava, Gloria Castagna, Carmen Di Brita, Ilaria Riboldi, Giulia Trotta, Enrica Verrengia, Massimo Clerici, Giuseppe Carr à Source Type: research
Suicidal ideation and behaviors within the school context: Perceived teacher, peer and parental support
Fatal suicidal behaviors are still the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Systematic reviews suggest that approximately 10% of adolescents report at least one suicide attempt across life, and almost 30% report thinking about death by suicide at some point (Evans et al., 2005; May and Klonsky, 2011). Suicide ideation significantly predicts suicide attempts (Klonsky et al., 2016; Musci et al., 2016), and therefore, a prolific line of research has focused on risk factors for suicidal ideation and behaviors. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nir Madjar, Sophie D. Walsh, Yossi Harel-Fisch Source Type: research
Evaluating Social Skill in Individuals with Schizophrenia with the Brief Impression Questionnaire (BIQ)
Deficits in social cognition and social functioning have been repeatedly observed in individuals with schizophrenia (Savla et al., 2012). Social cognition encompasses theory of mind, emotion perception, social perception, and attributional style (Pinkham et al., 2015). Social functioning is defined as one's ability to engage with and fulfill social roles within one's social network (Bosc et al., 2000). Poor social cogn ition and functioning are important indicators of recovery from psychosis and protective factors against relapse (Barrowclough and Tarrier, 1990; Ritsner et al. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Isabelle Lanser, Julia Browne, Amy E. Pinkham, Philip D. Harvey, L. Fredrik Jarskog, David L. Penn Source Type: research
The Clinical Relationship Between Cognitive Impairment and Psychosocial Functioning in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review
A well-established body of research suggests that cognitive dysfunction accompanies psychiatric disorders including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), with impaired ability to think, concentrate and make decisions appearing in the diagnostic criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). While the association between cognitive dysfunction and functional deficits in everyday life has been thoroughly explored in schizophrenia and Bipolar (Martínez-Arán et al., 2004; Thomas et al., 2004)), this relationship requires further investigation in MDD (Knight and Baune, 2018a; Mc Intyre et al., 2...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Olivia R. Cambridge, Matthew J. Knight, Natalie Mills, Bernhard T. Baune Source Type: research
The Effects of Mother's Education on College Student's Depression Level: The Role of Family Function
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders among social groups of different ages. In recent years, the rates of increase in the diagnosis of major depression were rapid among the youngest and oldest age groups, the lowest income and highest income groups, and those with the highest education levels (Weinberger et al., 2017). Depression has been identified as a major risk factor that leads to serious individual and societal consequences (Holden, 2000). A growing number of children and adolescents experiencing significant increases in the prevalence of depression brought great attention to this public health issue...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sibo Zhao, Guo Yiyue Source Type: research
Patients with schizophrenia assessing Psychiatrists ’ communication skills
The doctor-patient relationship is as old as medicine itself (Hell ín, 2002) and has undergone changes throughout the ages (Kaba and Sooriakumaran, 2007). It is considered the matrix of the entire medical practice, extending today to integrative care in interdisciplinary teams. One way in which doctors develop a positive rapport with their patients is through appr opriate communication. However, evidence suggests that doctors do not communicate with their patients as they should (Maguire and Pitceathly, 2002). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Adriana Pestana-Santos, Lu ís Loureiro, Vítor Santos, Irene P. Carvalho Source Type: research
Neurocognitive performance predicts treatment outcome with cognitive behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been established as an effective treatment for depression (Luty et al., 2007; Thase et al., 2007). However, CBT for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) yields remission in only a minority of patients, with remission rates ranging from 20-50% (Cascalenda et al., 2002; DeRubeis et al., 2005; Driessen et al., 2013; Elkin et al., 1989). Identifying robust predictors of outcome with CBT for MDD could improve effective matching of patients to this treatment. CBT aims to correct maladaptive thinking which in turn decreases distress and depressive symptoms (DeRubeis...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Allison V. Metts, John G. Keilp, Ronit Kishon, Maria A. Oquendo, J. John Mann, Jeffrey M. Miller Source Type: research
Prevalence and characteristics of multi-modal hallucinations in people with psychosis who experience visual hallucinations
Hallucinations are “a sensory experience which occurs in the absence of corresponding external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ, has a sufficient sense of reality to resemble a veridical perception over which the subject does not feel s/he has direct and voluntary control, and which occurs in the awake stat e ” (David, 2004; p.108). Accordingly, hallucinations are more likely to be present if they have the following elements: (i) that they are experienced as percepts (and not as generated by the person), (ii) that they lack a representation in the external world (and so are not distortions or illusio n...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Dudley, Charlotte Aynsworth, Rea Cheetham, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Daniel Collerton Source Type: research
Primary care patient beliefs and help-seeking preferences regarding depression in China
Depressive disorder represents a major public health issue internationally. The prevalence of depression among global population is 4.4% in 2015, with a total of 322 million patients (WHO, 2017). According to the National Health and Family Planning Commission, the prevalence of mood disorders was 4.06% in China and depressive disorder was 3.59% (National Health and Family Planning Commission PRC, 2017). Major depressive disorder was the second leading global cause of years lived w ith disability (YLDs) in 2010, accounting for 12.1% of the total YLDs and 2.5% of the total disability-adjusted life-years (DALY...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yuxing Jiang, Hillary R. Bogner, Xiaoqing Wang, Jiayu Wang, Tingfei Zhu, Yeates Conwell, Shunlin Chen Source Type: research
Could schizotypy protect against the negative outcomes of borderline traits on alcohol consumption? A cluster analytic study
The high rates of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence in adolescents and young adults are significant public health concerns (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2016). Data showed that college students drink more alcohol than non-college individuals of similar age during periods when the peak of consumption is the highest (S.ske et al., 2004). Comprehensive understanding and early prevention of these phen omena are therefore major issues. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathan Bronchain, Henri Chabrol, Patrick Raynal Source Type: research
Kynurenine Pathway Changes in Late-life Depression with Memory Deficit
Late-life depression (LLD) is the most common mental illness in old age, with a diagnosis in 0.04% to 13.4% of elderly individuals (Guerra, Prina, Ferri, Acosta, Gallardo, Huang et al., 2016) and is associated with a high cost of medical expenses and nursing (Donohue and Pincus, 2007). In addition, patients with LLD have a higher risk of developing cognitive deficit than those without depression (Yeh, Tsang, Lin, Kuo, Yen, Chen et al., 2011). Some authors have also proposed that LLD with cognitive deficit is a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Heser, Bleckwenn, Wiese, Mamone, Riedel-Heller, Stein et al., 2016)...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yujie Wu, Naikeng Mai, Xiaomei Zhong, Yuguan Wen, Yanling Zhou, Haiyan Li, Dewei Shang, Lijun Hu, Xinru Chen, Ben Chen, Min Zhang, Yuping Ning Source Type: research
Sex differences in the association between childhood adversities and schizotypal personality traits
Adverse experiences in childhood, such as physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, are associated with an increased risk of psychosis (Janssen et al., 2004; Read et al., 2005; Varese et al., 2012). Moreover, studies have reported a dose-response relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and the expression of psychotic symptoms (e.g., Muenzenmaier et al., 2015; Scott et al., 2007). Specific types of childhood trauma have also been associated with the development of different profiles of symptoms. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Diamantis Toutountzidis, Tim M Gale, Karen Irvine, Shivani Sharma, Keith R Laws Source Type: research
Inhibition of iNOS ameliorates traumatic stress-induced deficits in synaptic plasticity and memory
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life (Sorrell, 2013). Imaging studies have demonstrated that there was a reduction of hippocampus volume in PTSD patients, which was correlated with illness severity and the degree of cognitive deficit (Bremner et al., 1999). Accordingly, the hippocampal formation (HF), a key brain structure for explicit memor y, is one of the most affected areas in PTSD, presenting functional abnormalities (Hughes and Shin, 2...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Xiaoliang Wang, Huifang Wang, Huafang Li Source Type: research
Is suicide risk a predictor of diagnosis conversion to bipolar disorder?
The prevalence of bipolar disorder range from 1% to 7.5% in epidemiological studies (Moreira et al., 2017; Jansen et al., 2011). The rate of suicide attempts and completed suicide is exceedingly high in bipolar disorder. A recent systematic review showed that the rate of suicide attempts spans 25% to 50%, and that 8% to 19% of patients with bipolar disorder will complete suicide (Latalova et al., 2014). In addition, the authors showed that the main risk factors for suicide include a younger age of onset of the illness, history of past suicidal behavior, family history of suicide acts, comorbid borderline personality disord...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Tha íse Campos Mondin, Laura Barzoni, Luísa Toralles, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza Source Type: research
Emotional intelligence, emotion regulation and affectivity in adults seeking treatment for obesity
Prevalence of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) today has become a growing concern worldwide (WHO, 2016). In addition to the well-documented physical health risks, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, hypertension and certain types of cancer (Mensink et al., 2013), obesity carries out several adverse effects on psycholo gical well-being. For instance, adults with obesity experience poorer quality of life and more mental distress compared to the general population (e.g., Abilés et al., 2010; Kolotkin et al., 2012; Luppino et al., 2010), and individuals diagnosed with binge eating disorder (BED) ar...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Federica Andrei, Chiara Nuccitelli, Giacomo Mancini, Giulio Marchesini Reggiani, Elena Trombini Source Type: research
Impact of PTSD on Post-Concussive Symptoms, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Pain in Post-9/11 Veterans with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Prior work suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) worsens post-concussive symptoms (PCS), neuropsychological functioning, and pain-related outcomes in post-9/11 veterans. However, the impact of PTSD in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is not entirely clear. We evaluated possible differences among veterans with deployment-related mTBI with and without PTSD, and a comparison group. We hypothesized that veterans with comorbid mTBI and PTSD would report more PCS, perform worse on neuropsychological tasks, and report greater pain intensity and maladaptive pain coping relative to those without PTSD...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Darrin M. Aase, Joseph M. Babione, Eric Proescher, Justin E. Greenstein, Julia A. DiGangi, Christopher Schroth, Amy E. Kennedy, Stacey Feeley, Michelle Tan, David Cosio, K. Luan Phan Source Type: research
Rejection Sensitivity and Borderline Personality Disorder Features: A Mediation Model of Effortful Control and Intolerance of Ambiguity
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious and complex mental illness, which causes substantial challenges for patients, mental health professionals (Langley and Klopper, 2005), and their families (Lazarus et al., 2014). Disturbed interpersonal relationships are one of the core features and important factors underlying the variety of symptoms in BPD (Lazarus et al., 2014; Sanislow et al., 2002). Although robust evidence indicates that BPD patients experience interpersonal problems, the mechanisms underlying these problems are still not well understood. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Momoko Sato, Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten Source Type: research
Korean adults ’ beliefs about and social distance toward attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder
The Korean media recently showed mothers of children with disabilities kneeling before other residents to appeal for their consent to build a special education school in their neighborhood. The residents were against the school, as they were concerned that it would reduce the value of their houses (Chang, 2017). This issue demonstrated the stigma and social exclusion that children with disabilities and their families face in Korean society. Negative social attitudes are particularly strong toward those with mental, rather than physical, illnesses with more blaming view and perception of unpredictability and negative outcom...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Chul Eung Kim Source Type: research
Sleep quality components and mental health: Study with a non-clinical population
The relationship between sleep quality and mental health has been previously addressed and resulting data has attested it (Kilicaslan et al., 2017; João et al., 2016; João et al., 2018; Reddy et al., 2017). Studies have established a strong relationship between sleep disturbances, depression (Kalmback et al., 2014; Plumb et al., 2014; Riemann, 2014), anxiety (Kalmback et al., 2014; Mellman, 2006; Plumb et al., 2014; Roth e t al., 2006) and stress (Almojali et al., 2017; Meerlo et al., 2008). Yet, this evidence is more abundant in clinical populations whe...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Karine Alexandra Del Rio Jo ão, Saul Neves de Jesus, Cláudia Carmo, Patrícia Pinto Source Type: research
Measuring the consequences of a bipolar or unipolar mood disorder and the immediate and ongoing impacts.
Mood disorders are known to lead to significant impairment and disability and impact on quality of life and life satisfaction (Calabrese et al., 2003; Greenberg et al., 2015). Many measures have been developed to capture and quantify those constructs, with the most widely used scales including the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) within DSM-IV, and the World Health Organisation Health and Work Performance Scale (Kessler et al., 2003). These have a secondary objective of allowing economic analyses to be undertaken. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Gabriela Tavella, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic Source Type: research
Serum levels of TNF-alpha in patients with chronic schizophrenia during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study)
First and second generation antipsychotic drugs still constitute the unquestioned first-choice therapy of schizophrenia, but this treatment has its limited efficacy against the broad spectrum of symptoms. Antipsychotics control positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, bizarre behavior) relatively well, but the primary negative, cognitive and affective dimensions remain rather resistant. Compounds with glutamatergic, cholinergic or serotonergic properties are currently under investigation as new treatment options, mostly for augmenting complementing and enhancing the effects of antipsychotics (Ellait...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dominik Strzelecki, Ma łgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk, Adam Wysokiński Source Type: research
rTMS ameliorated depressive-like behaviors by restoring HPA axis balance and prohibiting hippocampal neuron apoptosis in a rat model of depression
Depression is complex emotional disorde which often characterized by anhedonia, hopelessness, exacerbated guilt, painful physical symptoms, and memory deficits (Kelvin, 2016; Castaneda et al.,2008),and it is a major contributor to the overall global burden of disease. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising non-invasive brain stimulation treatment for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases(Devlin et al., 2007; George et al., 2007) that has been shown to improve emotional, cognitive, sensory, and motor functions(Rossi et al., 2009). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lin Zhao, Huicong Ren, Shina Gu, Xiaodan Li, Cuihong Jiang, Juan Li, Mengmeng Zhang, Junlin Mu, Wenqiang Li, Wensheng Wang, Zhaohui Zhang, Jinggui Song Source Type: research
Psychosis and synthetic cannabinoids
Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) products are “herbal” mixtures laced with various SCs and sold around the world under a variety of brand names such as Spice, K2, and Kush. Available in Europe since around 2004 (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2014), it wasn't until 2008 that the psychoactive SC, JWH-018, was first reported in th e “herbal” blend Spice in the United States (The White House, n.d.). These products are typically smoked or inhaled, producing a cannabis-like high; however, unlike cannabis, SCs are not detected by common drug screens (Piggee, 2009). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Huiqiong Deng, Christopher D. Verrico, Thomas R. Kosten, David A. Nielsen Tags: Review article Source Type: research
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: A Review of Safety and Efficacy
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that is able to modulate cortical excitability (Wagner et al., 2007; Hallett, 2007; Wassermann and Lisanby, 2001). It consists of focused electromagnetic pulses of high intensity administered through a coil. The fast passage of electric current in the coil induces a transient, high intensity magnetic pulse that unimpededly crosses the scalp and reaches the underlying cortex. In the targeted cortex, the magnetic pulse generates an electric current which can induce depolarization of superficial cortical neurons and interconnected areas benea...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fady Rachid Source Type: research
Metabolic syndrome, depression and anhedonia among young adults
Anhedonia is defined by DSM-V as the diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli and as a keystone symptom of various neuropsychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It is one of the main symptoms of depression and recent studies indicate that approximately 40% of individuals diagnosed with depression experience significant anhedonia (Pelizza and Ferrari, 2009; Romer Thomsen et al., 2015; Spijker et al., 2001). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Karen Jansen, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Tha íse Campos Mondin, Igor Soares Vieira, Pedro Vieira da Silva Magalhães, Flavio Kapczinski, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Jean Pierre Oses, Carolina David W Source Type: research
Dimensional Analysis of Emotion Trajectories Before and After Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Sample of Women with Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia nervosa (BN) is robustly associated with mood disturbances (e.g., Haedt-Matt and Keel, 2011; Smyth et al., 2007). According to the affect regulation model, binge eating and purging are maintained because both are negatively reinforced via temporary relief of emotional distress (Hawkins and Clement, 1984; Polivy and Herman, 1993). Research utilizing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology supports this hypothesis by demonstrating the trajectory of negative affect increases prior to and decreases following bulimic behaviors (e.g., Smyth et al., 2007; Berg et al., 2013). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kendra R. Becker, Sarah Fischer, Ross D. Crosby, Scott G. Engel, Stephen A. Wonderlich Source Type: research
Anger rumination and unjust world beliefs moderate the association between cyberbullying victimization and psychiatric symptoms
Recent advancements in modern technology have offered a wealth of new possibilities in terms of communication and knowledge acquisition. In addition to the wide range of new opportunities, particular attention has been paid to potential threats such as aggression in cyber-interactions. Cyberbullying, defined as a repeated, aggressive act performed through electronic devices (Tokunaga, 2010), has raised serious concerns due to its negative mental health consequences (Bauman and Bellmore, 2015). According to a recent meta-analysis, the prevalence rates of cyberbullying victimization ranged between 10% and 40%...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ágnes Zsila, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics Source Type: research
Stability and mutual prospective relationships of stereotyped beliefs about mental illness, hope and depressive symptoms among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
While the definition of recovery is still work in progress, its broad framework is already determined. Recovery processes comprise individually biomedical, psychological, social and political processes. (Bellack, 2006; Williams et al., 2015). Focussing on the psychological perspectives of recovery, hope is known to encourage recovery (Allot et al., 2002; Andresen et al., 2003) whereas depressive symptoms and internalized stigma are identified as barriers to recovery processes in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Corrigan et al., 2009; Munoz et al., 2011; Oexle et al., 2018; Wallcraft, 2012). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nina Lagger, Michaela Amering, Ingrid Sibitz, Andrea Gmeiner, Beate Schrank Source Type: research
Increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios in depressive adolescents is correlated with the severity of depression.
A growing body of evidence has emphasized the role of low-grade inflammation in the underlying pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) (Dowlati et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2014). Contrary to previous belief, it is well documented that the immune system and brain are in complex bidirectional interaction in health and disease (Bilbo and Schwarz, 2012; Yirmiya and Goshen, 2011). Studies suggest that immune mediators may affect neurotransmission, neural activity and neuroendocrine pathways leading to MDD (Capuron and Miller, 2011; Dantzer et al., 2011; Leonard and Maes, 2012; Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gonca Özyurt, Nagihan Cevher Binici Source Type: research
Antidepressants-Related Cardiovascular Adverse Events Using the Adverse Event Reporting System
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines depression as a common mental disorder, characterized by persistent sadness and a loss of interest in activities, disturbed sleep, low self-worth, and poor concentration (World Health Organization, 2017). The Global Burden of Diseases Study demonstrated that depressive disorders will be the second most common contributor to the global disease burden by 2030 (Mathers and Loncar, 2006). In the United States, antidepressants are one of the three most commonly used therapeutic drug classes (National Center for Health Statistics (US), 2016). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Yoon Kyong Lee, Jung Su Shin, Youngwon Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Yun-Kyoung Song, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim Source Type: research
Development and Preliminary Validation of a Brief Behavioral Measure of Psychotic Propensity
Psychosis assessment is a primary strength of the Rorschach inkblot task (e.g., Mihura et al., 2013; Wood et al., 2000). The task provides the only performance-based measure of psychotic propensity that has been extensively validated and normed. Its dimensional scores provide incremental validity over self-report, neuropsychological, and structured interview techniques (Cadenhead et al., 1996; Dao et al., 2008; Dawes, 1999; Kleiger, 2017; Meyer, 1996, 1997, 2000; Mihura et al., 2013; Moore et al., 2013; Perry and Braff, 1994; Perry et al., 1999; Su et al., 2015; Viglione et al...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joshua J. Eblin, Gregory J. Meyer, Joni L. Mihura, Donald J. Viglione, Emily T. O'Gorman Source Type: research
Maladaptive Personality Traits in Patients Identified at Lower-Risk and Higher-Risk for Psychosis
A psychosis-risk state is characterized as the putative prodromal phase preceding the onset of a first psychotic episode (McGlashan et al., 2001, 2010). Globally, increased emphasis upon early identification of schizophrenia has precipitated the classification of an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis, and can be identified using well-validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Cannon et al., 2008). Those identified as ‘at-risk’ typically present with attenuated psychotic symptoms and are thought to be vulnerable to a full fledged psychotic disorder. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lauren Drvaric, R. Michael Bagby, Michael Kiang, Romina Mizrahi Source Type: research
The relationship between night eating symptoms and disordered eating attitudes via insomnia and chronotype differences
In mammals, diurnal rhythms in behavioral and physiological are driven by a circadian clock which is managed by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as the main pacemaker in the hypothalamus and by peripheral oscillators from most body cells. The SCN is mainly regulated by light/dark cycles, as the executive of the circadian clock, plays a leading role in determining chronotypes (Mendoza, 2007; Zerbini and Merrow, 2017). Numerous studies over the years have revealed that these “chronotypes” differ from each other in the timing of physiological variables, such as body temperature, cortisol and melatonin secretion; a...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ali Kandeger, Umran Egilmez, Ayca A. Sayin, Yavuz Selvi Source Type: research
Longitudinal assessment of the effect of cannabis use on hospital readmission rates in early psychosis: a 6-year follow-up in an inpatient cohort
In recent years, more attention has been paid to the public health impact of cannabis use, especially by young adults (Hall and Lynskey, 2016) with evidence of a growing prevalence of regular cannabis use worldwide, with approximately 200 million users (National Academies of Sciences, 2017). Convergent and replicated findings indicate that cannabis use can induce psychotic symptoms (Henquet et al., 2005; Skinner et al., 2011; van Gastel et al., 2012) and increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder (Colizzi and Murray, 2018; Moore et al., 2007; Radhakrishnan et al., 2014; Sami et al., 2017), especially in young and...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marco Colizzi, Natoy Burnett, Rosalia Costa, Mattia De Agostini, James Griffin, Sagnik Bhattacharyya Source Type: research
Childhood Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Neglect are Associated with Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Young Adults with Depression
Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability worldwide (WHO, 2017), and is associated with significant impairment in interpersonal functioning (Barrett and Barber, 2007). The social cognitive foundation of successful interpersonal functioning is ‘theory of mind,’ or the ability to decode and reason about others’ internal mental states (Wellman, 1990). Two recent meta-analyses of studies comparing patient groups to healthy individuals have confirmed significantly poorer theory of mind performance in depression (Bora and Berk, 2016; Richman and Unoka, 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Katerina Rnic, Mark A. Sabbagh, Dustin Washburn, R. Michael Bagby, Arun Ravindran, James L. Kennedy, John Strauss, Kate L. Harkness Source Type: research
The relationship between serum cytokine levels and degree of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide (McGrath et al., 2008) The World Health Organization ranked it as one of the top ten illnesses contributing to the global burden of disease (2015; McGrath et al., 2008; Murray and Lopez, 1997). Schizophrenia is a complex multifaceted syndrome characterized by the presence of positive symptoms (e.g., real ity distortion, as well as disorganized thoughts and behavior), negative symptoms (e.g., a diminished expression symptom cluster), cognitive decline and mood alterations (Carpenter et al., 1974). (Sour...
Source: Psychiatry Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shani Dahan, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Ayala Yogev, Mayan Bar-Gad, Vivian Barak, Howard Amital, Daniela Amital Source Type: research
Exploring Anxiety in schizophrenia: new light on a hidden figure
Schizophrenia is a devastating disorder with strong impact on patient's functioning and quality of life (Olsson et al., 2016). Anxiety experienced by patients with schizophrenia is so far one of the least studied features of this invalidating illness and further investigation is needed (Buonocore et al., 2017). However, before addressing this topic in patients with schizophrenia, a definition of the anxiety construct is needed for clarity. Anxiety and stress are often conceptually overlapped and the debate in literature concerns their specific definition and relationship. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mariachiara Buonocore, Marta Bosia, Maria Alice Baraldi, Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro Source Type: research
Anxiety, Depression, and Anger in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Cross-sectional Observational Study
Functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) is a group of diseases characterized by symptoms such as dyspepsia and intestinal motility changes that cannot be explained by the presence of organic abnormalities. Individuals with FGID experience periods of exacerbation and relapse of symptoms (Drossman, 2006a). FGID is a heterogeneous group of diseases that includes dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and constipation (Drossman, 2007). The most common FGID are functional dyspepsia (FD) (14.6%) and IBS (31.7%) (Nakajima et al., 2010). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Berna bulut çakmak, Güler Özkula, Sedat IŞIKLI, İbrahim Özkan Göncüoğlu, Serkan Öcal, Ali Altınöz, Nilgun Taskintuna Source Type: research
Health Risk Behaviors and Psychological Problems among South Korean, North Korean, and Other Multicultural Family Adolescents (2011-2016)
According to the Multicultural Families Support Act in South Korea, the term ‘multicultural families’ is defined as a family comprised of an immigrant by marriage or a person who has acquired nationality of the Republic of Korea pursuant to the Nationality Act and the term ‘children and youth’ means persons aged 24 years or younger. It is estimated that in South Kore a there are 278,036 multicultural families and 82,476 children aged 9 to 24, which is increased by 24.0% compared to a 2012 survey (Chung et al., 2016). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Subin Park, Minji Lee, Se Jin Park, Min Geu Lee Source Type: research
Characteristics of a suicide attempt predict who makes another attempt after hospital discharge: A decision-tree investigation
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and second among individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 (Drapeau and McIntosh, 2016). One of the most high-risk periods for suicide attempts and subsequent death by suicide is in the year following psychiatric hospitalization (Chung et al., 2017), and individuals who are initially hospitalized for suicidal ideation or behaviors appear to be at greatest risk for subsequent death by suicide (Chung et al., 2017). Identifying risk factors associated with post-discharge suicidal behavior is therefore important to suicide prevention during this period of elevat...
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Joshua T. Jordan, Dale E. McNiel Source Type: research
Prolonged Grief and Attachment Security: A Latent Class Analysis
There is significant heterogeneity in the frequency, duration, and intensity of grief reactions. Whereas the majority of individuals may experience some temporary disruptions in mood, these individuals are typically able to adjust to their loss without extended impairment (Bonanno and Kaltman, 2004). In contrast, between 7-10% of bereaved individuals will experience Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD; or complicated grief or Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder; Lundorff et al., 2017; Nielsen et al., 2017; Prigerson et al., 2009). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fiona Maccallum, Richard A. Bryant Source Type: research
Differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between cannabis users and non-drug users: a retrospective study of patients with first hospitalization due to psychotic symptoms
It has been frequently demonstrated that cannabis use and, specifically, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active compound in cannabis, can induce a psychotic experience, usually of a transient nature (D'Souza et al., 2004; Gage et al., 2016). A substantial body of evidence has established an association between cannabis use and the development of a psychotic d isorder (reviewed by Casadio et al., 2011; Gage et al., 2016), and cannabis use is considered a risk factor for a later development of a psychotic disorder (Myles et al., 2015). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Livia Balan Moshe, Abraham Weizman, David H. Ben Dor, Shai Konas, Zvi Fischel, Dov Aizenberg, Doron Gothelf, Avi Valevski Source Type: research
Cognitive working memory training (CWMT) in adolescents suffering from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A controlled trial taking into account concomitant medication effects.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent disorder, affecting about 5% of children, with no evidence of an increase over the three last decades (Polanczyk et al., 2014). It is a persistent neurobiological disorder caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental risk factors affecting brain networks, leading to emotional and behavioral disturbances, functional impairments, as well as academic failures (e.g., Barkley et al., 2006; Biederman et al., 2017; Francx et al., 2016; van Lieshout et al., 2016). (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sandie Ackermann, Olivier Halfon, Eleonora Fornari, S ébastien Urben, Michel Bader Source Type: research
A pilot study of early onset Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: symptom dimensions and association analysis with polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a phenotypically diverse neuropsychiatric condition with multifactorial background. An early age of onset ( (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eszter Kenezloi, Krisztina Lakatos, Erzsebet Zsofia Horvath, Maria Sasvari-Szekely, Zsofia Nemoda Source Type: research
An Initial Investigation of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Male and Female Survivors of Military Sexual Trauma
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines non-suicidal self-directed violence (commonly referred to as nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI]) as a “behavior that is self-directed and deliberately results in injury or the potential for injury to oneself” (p. 21; Crosby et al., 2011). Additionally, there must be “no evidence, whether implicit or explicit, of suicidal intent” (p. 21). Similarly, the International Society for the Study o f Self-Injury (ISSS) defines NSSI as “the deliberate, self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and for purposes not socia...
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ryan Holliday, Noelle B. Smith, Lindsey L. Monteith Source Type: research
More intensive probing increases the detection of social anxiety disorders in schizophrenia
Social anxiety disorders (SAD) and social anxiety symptoms (SAS) are increasingly recognized as important features of psychotic disorders. For instance, our meta-analysis (Achim et al., 2011) revealed a mean prevalence of 14.9% across 16 studies that reported the prevalence of SAD in people with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders (SZSPD). Given that SAS can be present at the onset of the disorder and even before (Strakowski et al., 1995), these symptoms do not seem solely a consequence of having experienced a psychotic episode. (Source: Psychiatry Research)
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marc-Andr é Roy, Chantal Vallières, Catherine Lehoux, Louis-David Leclerc, Marie-France Demers, Amélie M. Achim Source Type: research
Motor function in an animal model with ouabain-induced bipolar disorder and comorbid anxiety behavior
Bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness. Patients with bipolar disorder may suffer from episodes of mania or depression. Up to 2.5% of the population in the United States is diagnosed with bipolar disorder each year (Logan and McClung, 2016). Although not all patients with bipolar disorder show symptoms of a comorbid anxiety disorder, many patients with bipolar disorder type I have been reported to show symptoms of comorbid anxiety disorders (McIntyre et al., 2006;Turner et al., 2016). Some research has found that comorbid anxiety disorders can be associated with bipolar disorder, and this coexistence often occurs in c...
Source: Psychiatry Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ying-Chou Wang, Ying Hao Yu, Meng-Li Tsai, Andrew Chih Wei Huang Source Type: research