Peptide therapies for ocular surface disturbances based on fibronectin–integrin interactions
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Teruo Nishida , Makoto Inui , Motoyoshi Nomizu The condition of the corneal epithelium is a critical determinant of corneal transparency and clear vision. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from external insults, with its smooth surface being essential for its optical properties. Disorders of the corneal epithelium include superficial punctate keratopathy, corneal erosion, and persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). The prompt resolution of these disorders is important for minimization of fur...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Vision from next generation sequencing: Multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Hyun-Jin Yang , Rinki Ratnapriya , Tiziana Cogliati , Jung-Woong Kim , Anand Swaroop Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cellular strategies for retinal repair by photoreceptor replacement
Publication date: Available online 7 February 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sujatha A. Jayakody , Anai Gonzalez-Cordero , Robin R. Ali , Rachael A. Pearson Loss of photoreceptors due to retinal degeneration is a major cause of blindness in the developed world. While no effective treatment is currently available, cell replacement therapy, using pluripotent stem cell-derived photoreceptor precursor cells, may be a feasible future treatment. Recent reports have demonstrated rescue of visual function following the transplantation of immature photoreceptors and we have seen major advances in our ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 8, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal microglia: Just bystander or target for therapy?
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Marcus Karlstetter , Rebecca Scholz , Matt Rutar , Wai T. Wong , Jan M. Provis , Thomas Langmann Resident microglial cells can be regarded as the immunological watchdogs of the brain and the retina. They are active sensors of their neuronal microenvironment and rapidly respond to various insults with a morphological and functional transformation into reactive phagocytes. There is strong evidence from animal models and in situ analyses of human tissue that microglial reactivity is a common hallmark of various retinal ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Dynamics and function of the tear film in relation to the blink cycle
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): R.J. Braun , P.E. King-Smith , C.G. Begley , Longfei Li , N.R. Gewecke Great strides have recently been made in quantitative measurements of tear film thickness and thinning, mathematical modeling thereof and linking these to sensory perception. This paper summarizes recent progress in these areas and reports on new results. The complete blink cycle is used as a framework that attempts to unify the results that are currently available. Understanding of tear film dynamics is aided by combining information from differe...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Complement activation and choriocapillaris loss in early AMD: Implications for pathophysiology and therapy
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): S. Scott Whitmore , Elliott H. Sohn , Kathleen R. Chirco , Arlene V. Drack , Edwin M. Stone , Budd A. Tucker , Robert F. Mullins Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The unfolded protein response in retinal vascular diseases: Implications and therapeutic potential beyond protein folding
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Sarah X. Zhang , Jacey H. Ma , Maulasri Bhatta , Steven J. Fliesler , Joshua J. Wang Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The immunopathogenesis of birdshot chorioretinopathy; a bird of many feathers
This article revisits the HLA-A29 peptidome using insights from recent studies and discusses why HLA-A29 can be considered a canonical antigen presenting molecule. The first genome-wide association study facilitated novel concepts into a disease mechanism beyond HLA-A29 that includes strong genetic predisposition for the ERAP2 gene that affects antigen processing for HLA class I. Furthermore, patients manifest with pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles and pathogenic T cell subsets that are associated with IL-17-linked inflammation. We are beginning to understand that the underlying biology of BSCR comprises various pathologi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

βA3/A1-crystallin: More than a lens protein
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 44 Author(s): J. Samuel Zigler Jr. , Debasish Sinha Crystallins, the highly abundant proteins of the ocular lens, are essential determinants of the transparency and refractivity required for lens function. Initially thought to be lens-specific and to have evolved as lens proteins, it is now clear that crystallins were recruited to the lens from proteins that existed before lenses evolved. Crystallins are expressed outside of the lens and most have been shown to have cellular functions distinct from their roles as structural elements in the...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Matching for Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) in corneal transplantation – To do or not to do
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): T.H. van Essen , D.L. Roelen , K.A. Williams , M.J. Jager The benefit of matching the donor and recipient of corneal allografts for Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) has often been debated. Currently, patients receiving their first corneal allograft are hardly ever matched for HLA antigens and even patients undergoing a regraft usually do not receive an HLA-matched graft. The great success of primary corneal transplantations is based on the ocular immune privilege. Although this indeed seems to render HLA-matching super...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Facts and Myths of Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure for the Physiology of the Eye
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Jost B. Jonas , Ning Li Wang , Diya Yang , Robert Ritch , Songhomitra Panda-Jonas The orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) represents the true counter-pressure against the intraocular pressure (IOP) across the lamina cribrosa and is, therefore, one of the two determinants of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLPD). From this anatomic point of view, an elevated TLPD could be due to elevated IOP or abnormally low orbital CSFP. Both experimental and clinical studies have suggested that a low CSFP cou...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 4, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Peptide therapies for ocular surface disturbances based on fibronectin-integrin interactions
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Teruo Nishida , Makoto Inui , Motoyoshi Nomizu The condition of the corneal epithelium is a critical determinant of corneal transparency and clear vision. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from external insults, with its smooth surface being essential for its optical properties. Disorders of the corneal epithelium include superficial punctate keratopathy, corneal erosion, and persistent epithelial defects (PEDs). The prompt resolution of these disorders is important for minimization of fur...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 2, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular chaperones and photoreceptor function
Publication date: July 2008 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 27, Issue 4 Author(s): Maria Kosmaoglou , Nele Schwarz , John S. Bett , Michael E. Cheetham Molecular chaperones facilitate and regulate protein conformational change within cells. This encompasses many fundamental cellular processes: including the correct folding of nascent chains; protein transport and translocation; signal transduction and protein quality control. Chaperones are, therefore, important in several forms of human disease, including neurodegeneration. Within the retina, the highly specialized photoreceptor cell presents a fasci...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial optic neuropathies – Disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies
Publication date: March 2011 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 30, Issue 2 Author(s): Patrick Yu-Wai-Man , Philip G. Griffiths , Patrick F. Chinnery Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies in the general population. Both disorders share striking pathological similarities, marked by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the early involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations; m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C account for ov...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in the human eye
Publication date: November 2011 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 30, Issue 6 Author(s): Michael Pircher , Christoph K. Hitzenberger , Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a well established imaging tool in ophthalmology. The unprecedented depth resolution that is provided by this technique yields valuable information on different ocular tissues ranging from the anterior to the posterior eye segment. Polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) extends the concept of OCT and utilizes the information that is carried by polarized light to obtain additional information on the tissue....
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Understanding glaucomatous damage: Anatomical and functional data from ocular hypertensive rodent retinas
Publication date: January 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 1 Author(s): Manuel Vidal-Sanz , Manuel Salinas-Navarro , Francisco M. Nadal-Nicolás , Luis Alarcón-Martínez , F. Javier Valiente-Soriano , Jaime Miralles de Imperial , Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros , Marta Agudo-Barriuso , Maria P. Villegas-Pérez Glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness, is characterized by a progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons, with a concomitant loss of the visual field. Although the exact pathogenesis of glaucoma is not completely understood, a...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

X-linked juvenile retinoschisis: Clinical diagnosis, genetic analysis, and molecular mechanisms
Publication date: May 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 3 Author(s): Robert S. Molday , Ulrich Kellner , Bernhard H.F. Weber X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS, MIM 312700) is a common early onset macular degeneration in males characterized by mild to severe loss in visual acuity, splitting of retinal layers, and a reduction in the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG). The RS1 gene (MIM 300839) associated with the disease encodes retinoschisin, a 224 amino acid protein containing a discoidin domain as the major structural unit, an N-terminal cleavable signal sequence, and regions resp...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Optical superresolution and visual hyperacuity
Publication date: September 2012 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 31, Issue 5 Author(s): Gerald Westheimer Classically, diffraction theory sets a boundary for the resolving capacity of optical instruments. Yet some visual thresholds have values much better than the traditional resolution limit. Recent developments in superresolution, an area of optical physics and engineering with claims of transcending the stated resolution limits of optical instruments, are reviewed and their possible relevance to visual spatial processing and to the exploration of the eye's structure are assessed. In optical or diff...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular telangiectasia type 2
Publication date: May 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 34 Author(s): Peter Charbel Issa , Mark C. Gillies , Emily Y. Chew , Alan C. Bird , Tjebo F.C. Heeren , Tunde Peto , Frank G. Holz , Hendrik P.N. Scholl Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venule...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Evolution of phototransduction, vertebrate photoreceptors and retina
Publication date: September 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 36 Author(s): Trevor D. Lamb Evidence is reviewed from a wide range of studies relevant to the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors and phototransduction, in order to permit the synthesis of a scenario for the major steps that occurred during the evolution of cones, rods and the vertebrate retina. The ancestral opsin originated more than 700 Mya (million years ago) and duplicated to form three branches before cnidarians diverged from our own lineage. During chordate evolution, ciliary opsins (C-opsins) underwent multiple stages of...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska , Hubert van den Bergh , Michel Sickenberg , Adrian H.C. Koh The first effective therapy for exudative macular degeneration (AMD) was Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Diagnosis of the disease was to a large extent by fluorescein angiography (FA). Distinguishing between the leaky choroidal neovessels (CNV) associated with exudative AMD, and the polypoidal structures associated with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV) is not always easy using FA alone. The switch to Indocyanine Green angiography helped ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Using human induced pluripotent stem cells to treat retinal disease
We describe the relevance and routes to establishing hiPSCs in selected models of human retinal disease. Additionally, we define pathways for applying hiPSC technology in treating currently incurable, progressive and blinding retinal disease. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal connectomics: Towards complete, accurate networks
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Robert E. Marc , Bryan W. Jones , Carl B. Watt , James R. Anderson , Crystal Sigulinsky , Scott Lauritzen Connectomics is a strategy for mapping complex neural networks based on high-speed automated electron optical imaging, computational assembly of neural data volumes, web-based navigational tools to explore 1012–1015 byte (terabyte to petabyte) image volumes, and annotation and markup tools to convert images into rich networks with cellular metadata. These collections of network data and associated metadata, analyze...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Yusuke Murakami , Shoji Notomi , Toshio Hisatomi , Toru Nakazawa , Tatsuro Ishibashi , Joan W. Miller , Demetrios G. Vavvas Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cuticular drusen: Stars in the sky
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Camiel J.F. Boon , Johannes P.H. van de Ven , Carel B. Hoyng , Anneke I. den Hollander , B. Jeroen Klevering Cuticular drusen is a specific clinical subtype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This subtype of AMD has an earlier age at onset, a stronger familial component, and genetic factors play a more prominent role in its development than in the general AMD population. In this review, we describe the clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis of cuticular drusen, as well as systemic associations including ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Aging is not a disease: Distinguishing age-related macular degeneration from aging
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Daniel Ardeljan , Chi-Chao Chan Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photorecepto...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The vast complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: Disease genes, risks, molecular mechanisms and pathobiology
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Sarah F. Janssen , Theo G.M.F. Gorgels , Wishal D. Ramdas , Caroline C.W. Klaver , Cornelia M. van Duijn , Nomdo M. Jansonius , Arthur A.B. Bergen Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex progressive optic nerve neuropathy triggered by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Several ocular tissues, including the ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head, and perhaps even brain tissues, are involved in a chain of pathological events leading to POAG. Genetic risk evidence for POAG came from family link...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

A molecular mechanism of optic nerve regeneration in fish: The retinoid signaling pathway
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Satoru Kato , Toru Matsukawa , Yoshiki Koriyama , Kayo Sugitani , Kazuhiro Ogai The fish optic nerve regeneration process takes more than 100 days after axotomy and comprises four stages: neurite sprouting (1–4 days), axonal elongation (5–30 days), synaptic refinement (35–80 days) and functional recovery (100–120 days). We screened genes specifically upregulated in each stage from axotomized fish retina. The mRNAs for heat shock protein 70 and insulin-like growth factor-1 rapidly increased in the reti...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Rho-associated kinase inhibitors: A novel glaucoma therapy
Publication date: November 2013 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 37 Author(s): Toshihiro Inoue , Hidenobu Tanihara The rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is activated via secreted bioactive molecules or via integrin activation after extracellular matrix binding. These lead to polymerization of actin stress fibers and formation of focal adhesions. Accumulating evidence suggests that actin cytoskeleton-modulating signals are involved in aqueous outflow regulation. Aqueous humor contains various biologically active factors, some of which are elevated in glaucomatous eyes. These factors affect ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Grouped retinae and tapetal cups in some Teleostian fish: Occurrence, structure, and function
This article presents a summary and critical review of what is known about the ‘grouped retina’, a peculiar type of retinal organization in fish in which groups of photoreceptor cell inner and outer segments are arranged in spatially separated bundles. In most but not all cases, these bundles are embedded in light-reflective cups that are formed by the retinal pigment epithelial cells. These cups constitute a specialized type of retinal tapetum (i.e., they are biological ‘mirrors’ that cause eye shine) and appear to be optimized for different purposes in different fishes. Generally, the large retina...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Progress on retinal image analysis for age related macular degeneration
Publication date: January 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 38 Author(s): Yogesan Kanagasingam , Alauddin Bhuiyan , Michael D. Abràmoff , R. Theodore Smith , Leonard Goldschmidt , Tien Y. Wong Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in those over the age of 50 years in the developed countries. The number is expected to increase by ∼1.5 fold over the next ten years due to an increase in aging population. One of the main measures of AMD severity is the analysis of drusen, pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Molecular complexes that direct rhodopsin transport to primary cilia
Publication date: January 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 38 Author(s): Jing Wang , Dusanka Deretic Rhodopsin is a key molecular constituent of photoreceptor cells, yet understanding of how it regulates photoreceptor membrane trafficking and biogenesis of light-sensing organelles, the rod outer segments (ROS) is only beginning to emerge. Recently identified sequence of well-orchestrated molecular interactions of rhodopsin with the functional networks of Arf and Rab GTPases at multiple stages of intracellular targeting fits well into the complex framework of the biogenesis and maintenance of prima...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The role of low intracranial pressure in the development of glaucoma in patients with Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 39 Author(s): Peter Wostyn , Veva De Groot , Debby Van Dam , Kurt Audenaert , Peter Paul De Deyn (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular toxoplasmosis past, present and new aspects of an old disease
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 39 Author(s): M. Maenz , D. Schlüter , O. Liesenfeld , G. Schares , U. Gross , U. Pleyer Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is considered the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis and is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting vision loss frequently incapacitates patients and places a considerable socio-economic burden on societies in particular in developing countries. Although, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is a world-wide phenomenon stark regional differences with regard to prevalence and presumably rout...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Circadian organization of the mammalian retina: From gene regulation to physiology and diseases
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 39 Author(s): Douglas G. McMahon , P. Michael Iuvone , Gianluca Tosini The retinal circadian system represents a unique structure. It contains a complete circadian system and thus the retina represents an ideal model to study fundamental questions of how neural circadian systems are organized and what signaling pathways are used to maintain synchrony of the different structures in the system. In addition, several studies have shown that multiple sites within the retina are capable of generating circadian oscillations. The strength of circadi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Macular dystrophies mimicking age-related macular degeneration
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 39 Author(s): Nicole T.M. Saksens , Monika Fleckenstein , Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg , Frank G. Holz , Anneke I. den Hollander , Jan E.E. Keunen , Camiel J.F. Boon , Carel B. Hoyng Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the elderly population in the Western world. AMD is a clinically heterogeneous disease presenting with drusen, pigmentary changes, geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. Due to its heterogeneous presentation, it can be challenging to distinguish AMD from seve...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The rod-driven a-wave of the dark-adapted mammalian electroretinogram
Publication date: March 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 39 Author(s): John G. Robson , Laura J. Frishman The a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) reflects the response of photoreceptors to light, but what determines the exact waveform of the recorded voltage is not entirely understood. We have now simulated the trans-retinal voltage generated by the photocurrent of dark-adapted mammalian rods, using an electrical model based on the in vitro measurements of Hagins et al. (1970) and Arden (1976) in rat retinas. Our simulations indicate that in addition to the voltage produced by extracel...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Müller glia: Stem cells for generation and regeneration of retinal neurons in teleost fish
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 40 Author(s): Jenny R. Lenkowski , Pamela A. Raymond Adult zebrafish generate new neurons in the brain and retina throughout life. Growth-related neurogenesis allows a vigorous regenerative response to damage, and fish can regenerate retinal neurons, including photoreceptors, and restore functional vision following photic, chemical, or mechanical destruction of the retina. Müller glial cells in fish function as radial-glial-like neural stem cells. During adult growth, Müller glial nuclei undergo sporadic, asymmetric, self-renewing mi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Functional and morphological characteristics of the retinal and choroidal vasculature
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 40 Author(s): Dao-Yi Yu , Paula K. Yu , Stephen J. Cringle , Min H. Kang , Er-Ning Su This review is about vascular endothelial phenotype heterogeneity in the retinal and choroidal circulations. It is becoming increasingly clear that the functional and structural heterogeneity is present in the retinal and choroidal circulations. Differential responses of the vessels to vasoactive substances have been shown with intraluminal and extraluminal delivery and in different regions of the same vascular bed. Vascular endothelial phenotype is highly he...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The CRB1 and adherens junction complex proteins in retinal development and maintenance
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 40 Author(s): Celso Henrique Alves , Lucie P. Pellissier , Jan Wijnholds The early developing retinal neuroepithelium is composed of multipotent retinal progenitor cells that differentiate in a time specific manner, giving rise to six major types of neuronal and one type of glial cells. These cells migrate and organize in three distinct nuclear layers divided by two plexiform layers. Apical and adherens junction complexes have a crucial role in this process by the establishment of polarity and adhesion. Changes in these complexes disturb the s...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Is neutralizing vitreal growth factors a viable strategy to prevent proliferative vitreoretinopathy?
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 40 Author(s): Steven Pennock , Luis J. Haddock , Dean Eliott , Shizuo Mukai , Andrius Kazlauskas Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disorder that occurs in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and in eyes that have recently undergone retinal detachment surgery. There are presently no treatment strategies to reduce the risk of developing PVR in eyes with retinal detachment, and surgical intervention is the only option for eyes with retinal detachment and established PVR. Given the poor visual outcome associated with the ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Nature and nurture- genes and environment- predict onset and progression of macular degeneration
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 40 Author(s): Lucia Sobrin , Johanna M. Seddon Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of irreversible visual loss and the disease burden is rising world-wide as the population ages. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of this disease. Among environmental factors, smoking, obesity and dietary factors including antioxidants and dietary fat intake influence onset and progression of AMD. There are also several lines of evidence that link cardiovascular, immune and inflammatory biomarkers to AMD. T...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Phenotypes and biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 41 Author(s): José Cunha-Vaz , Luisa Ribeiro , Conceição Lobo Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major cause of blindness as the prevalence of diabetes is expected to approximately double globally between 2000 and 2030. DR progresses over time at different rates in different individuals with only a limited number developing significant vision loss due to the two major vision-threatening complications, clinically significant macular edema and proliferative retinopathy. Good metabolic control is important to prevent and de...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Cholesterol in the retina: The best is yet to come
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 41 Author(s): Irina A. Pikuleva , Christine A. Curcio Historically understudied, cholesterol in the retina is receiving more attention now because of genetic studies showing that several cholesterol-related genes are risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and because of eye pathology studies showing high cholesterol content of drusen, aging Bruch's membrane, and newly found subretinal lesions. The challenge before us is determining how the cholesterol-AMD link is realized. Meeting this challenge will require an excellent unde...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Taurine: The comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 41 Author(s): Nicolas Froger , Larissa Moutsimilli , Lucia Cadetti , Firas Jammoul , Qing-Ping Wang , Yichao Fan , David Gaucher , Serge G. Rosolen , Nathalie Neveux , Luc Cynober , José-Alain Sahel , Serge Picaud Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the retina. In the 1970s, it was thought to be involved in retinal diseases with photoreceptor degeneration, because cats on a taurine-free diet presented photoreceptor loss. However, with the exception of its introduction into baby milk and parenteral nutrition, taurine has not yet ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 41 Author(s): Rainer A. Leitgeb , René M. Werkmeister , Cedric Blatter , Leopold Schmetterer Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already impleme...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Ocular vascular occlusive disorders: Natural history of visual outcome
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 41 Author(s): Sohan Singh Hayreh Ocular vascular occlusive disorders collectively constitute the most common cause of visual disability. Before a disease can be managed, it is essential to understand its natural history, so as to be able to assess the likely effectiveness of any intervention. I investigated natural history of visual outcome in prospective studies of 386 eyes with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION), 16 eyes with non-arteritic posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, 697 eyes with central retinal vein occlus...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Role of crystallins in ocular neuroprotection and axonal regeneration
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 42 Author(s): Solon Thanos , Michael R.R. Böhm , Melissa Meyer zu Hörste , Verena Prokosch-Willing , Maren Hennig , Dirk Bauer , Arndt Heiligenhaus Neuroprotection is an emerging challenge in ophthalmology due to the particularly exposed location of retinal neurons and to the steadily increasing rate of intraocular surgical and pharmacological treatments applied to various eye diseases. Within few decades neuroprotection has developed from strongly contested approaches to being recognized and introduced as a potentially clinica...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Stem cells as source for retinal pigment epithelium transplantation
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 42 Author(s): Evelina Bertolotti , Alberto Neri , Monica Camparini , Claudio Macaluso , Valeria Marigo Inherited maculopathies, age related macular degeneration and some forms of retinitis pigmentosa are associated with impaired function or loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Among potential treatments, transplantation approaches are particularly promising. The arrangement of RPE cells in a well-defined tissue layer makes the RPE amenable to cell or tissue sheet transplantation. Different cell sources have been suggested for RP...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The β-adrenergic system as a possible new target for pharmacologic treatment of neovascular retinal diseases
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 42 Author(s): Giovanni Casini , Massimo Dal Monte , Irene Fornaciari , Luca Filippi , Paola Bagnoli Retinal neovascular pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and age-related macular degeneration, may be treated with intravitreal injections of drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main inducer of neoangiogenesis; however further improvements and alternative strategies are needed. In the last few years, an intense research activity has focused on the β-adrenergic system. T...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research