Active avoidance learning differentially activates ERK phosphorylation in the primary auditory and visual cortices of Roman high- and low-avoidance rats
This study was aimed at assessing the relationship between the different performance of RHA and RLA rats in the 2WAA task and the number of phosphorylated ERK positive (pERK+) neurons in the primary auditory and visual cortices, in three sub-nuclei of the amygdala, as well as in the nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex. The results indicate that: (1) RHA rats, but not their RLA counterparts, learn very rapidly to avoid mild electric foot-shocks by crossing to the opposite compartment of the shuttle-box during the presentation of the conditioned stimulus and (2) the different behavior of the Roman lines during activ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 11, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Pilates vs. muscular training in older women: A randomized controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): María Carrasco-Poyatos, Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias, Ismael Ballesta-García, Domingo J. Ramos-CampoAbstractThe goal was to analyze two training programs on functionality, balance, and body composition in aged women and to determine the influence of cognitive function. Sixty older women were assigned to the Pilates (PEP), muscular (MEP), and control (CG) groups. PEP had a better general functional condition index than MEP (P = .042). Cognitive function interacted significantly (P ≤ .05) with two items of the GDLA...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

In-season training load quantification of one-, two- and three-game week schedules in a top European professional soccer team
This study provides the first report of daily external and internal TLs and weekly accumulated load (training sessions and match demands) during one, two, and three-game week schedules in a group of elite soccer players. Expected significant differences are found in daily and accumulated loads for within- and between-game schedules. A similar pattern is exhibited for one- and two-game week microcycles regarding the day before the match, which exhibits a decrease in all variables. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 7, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The sex differences of the behavior response to early Life immune stimulation: Microglia and astrocytes involvement
In this study, we have evaluated whether postnatal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250μg/kg, i.p. on postnatal day 14) induces depressive and less anxiety-like behaviors, glial cell activation, pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha) secretion and sexually dimorphic responses in adulthood. Postnatal day 14 (P14) male and female Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of LPS or PBS. Three months later, animals were tested in the Open Field (OF), the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST) to assess the level of anxiety and depression-like behavior. Hippocampal proinflammatory cytoki...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 7, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) impairs the extinction and reconsolidation of fear memory in rats
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Holly S. Hake, Jazmyne K.P. Davis, River R. Wood, Margaret Tanner, Esteban C. Loetz, Anais Sanchez, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Erik B. Oleson, Jim Grigsby, Rick Doblin, Benjamin N. GreenwoodAbstractClinical trials have demonstrated that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) paired with psychotherapy is more effective at reducing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy, alone or in combination. The processes through which MDMA acts to enhance psychotherapy are not well understood. Given th...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 5, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Paternal behavior in the Mongolian gerbil, and its regulation by social factors, T, ERα, and AR
This study included thirty-six sexually inexperienced males displaying aggressive behavior toward foreign pups. The selected animals were mated and organized into four groups. The paternal behavior tests were performed on the day of copulation (DCOPUL), during cohabitation with a pregnant female (CPREG), on the day of birth (DBIRTH), and on day 6 postpartum (DPP6). Eight sexually inexperienced males (CTL (male-male cohabitation) were used as control. After paternal behavior tests, blood samples were obtained to quantify T by radioimmunoassay; the brains were removed and analyzed for immunoreactivity (ir) of ERα and A...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 5, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of chronic cannabinoid exposure during adolescence on reward preference and mPFC activation in adulthood
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Kirk F. Manson, Jamie D. RoitmanAbstractCannabis is one of the most commonly used drugs among adolescents, with initial use beginning between the ages of 12 to 17. Although often perceived as a ‘soft drug’, both short- and long-term use have been associated with numerous adverse outcomes, including cognitive impairment, increased risk of substance abuse, and heightened risk of psychosis or schizophrenia in individuals with a predisposition. Further, the severity of these impairments is closely l...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 5, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Alternate day fasting decreases preference for a calorically dense diet by increasing chow intake and altering meal pattern parameters
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Michelle Frankot, Yada TreesukosolAbstractAlternate day fasting (ADF) is an effective dietary strategy for weight loss in both humans and rats. However, fasting can elicit hyperphagia in rats, particularly upon access to a calorically dense, high-energy (HE) diet. To examine the effects of ADF on HE diet preference, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either ad-libitum or alternate day access to both chow and HE food. Meal pattern analysis was conducted to provide a more detailed explanation of ch...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Daily energy expenditure of males following alternative reproductive tactics: Solitary roamers spend more energy than group-living males
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Rebecca Rimbach, Stéphane Blanc, Alexandre Zahariev, Neville Pillay, Carsten SchradinAbstractIn many species, males follow alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where one tactic (called bourgeois) has much higher reproductive success than alternative tactics followed by males with lower competitive ability. The extent to which ARTs differ in energetic costs is unknown, but it is important to understand the fitness payoffs of ARTs. We studied male African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) which follow one of three ARTs: he...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exercise as a reward: Self-paced exercise perception and delay discounting in comparison with food and money
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Tamam A. Albelwi, Robert D. Rogers, Hans-Peter KubisAbstractExercise is an important health behavior. Expressed reasons for participation are often delayed outcomes i.e. health threats and benefits, but also enjoyment. However, we do not know how people evaluate exercise as a reward. The value of rewards diminish the longer we have to wait for them and the discounting effect can undermine decision-making. Here, we investigated delay-discounting of exercise perception and its valuation with time delays; we conducted self-paced exer...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Distinct effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Samir Rana, Phyllis C. Pugh, J. Michael Wyss, Sarah M. Clinton, Ilan A. KermanAbstractWe previously demonstrated independent effects of early-life experience (ELE) and trait aggression (TA) on resting heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in rats. The present study examined the effects of TA and ELE on stress-evoked cardiovascular reactivity and recovery. Pups born to Wistar-Kyoto dams were exposed to daily 180-min periods of maternal separation (MS) during the first two weeks of life, and aggression was assessed in adu...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Violence and aggression in young women: The importance of psychopathy and neurobiological function
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicholas D. Thomson, Kent A. Kiehl, James M. BjorkAbstractPsychopathy is one of the most researched risk factors for violence. Yet, research in women is sparse. The present study aimed to test if the link between the four-facet structure of psychopathy and interpersonal violence and aggression was moderated by neurobiological function (indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Results showed the lifestyle and affective facets were associated with reactive aggression and these associations were moderated by low resting...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 4, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Animal models of fatigue in major depressive disorder
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Patrick V. Stutz, Lalit Kumar Golani, Jeffrey M. WitkinAbstractFatigue is common in a host of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression and often continues unabated even after primary symptoms of disease are treated. Its high estimated prevalence combined with the lack of effective medicines has engaged the preclinical research community to search for fatigue models. The present review briefly summarizes the most common animal models that have been brought forward along with some of the associated pharmacological...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 2, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Central neuroimmune activity and depressive-like behavior in response to repeated maternal separation and injection of LPS
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Michael B. Hennessy, Terrence Deak, Joshua D. Sensenbaugh, Darci M. Gallimore, Alexis M. Garybush, Jamie E. Mondello, Patricia A. SchimlAbstractDisruption of attachment relations in early life is linked to greater vulnerability to depressive illness at later ages. Evidence suggests this process involves stress-induced activation of central inflammatory factors, though the specific mediators and processes involved are not known. We used a guinea pig model in which effects of maternal separation appear more clearly due to absence o...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 1, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Electrocardiograms of mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary exercise: Effects of short-term exercise training and the mini-muscle phenotype
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jarren C. Kay, Gerald C. Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Thomas G. Hampton, Theodore GarlandAbstractChanges in cardiac function that occur with exercise training have been studied in detail, but those accompanying evolved increases in the duration or intensity of physical activity are poorly understood. To address this gap, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs) of mice from an artificial selection experiment in which four replicate lines are bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR) while four non-selected lines are maintained as controls...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 1, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Progressive circuit resistance training improves inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in obese men
This study explores the reducing effects of progressive CRT on inflammatory biomarkers and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese young men.MethodsThirty obese men (Body mass index (BMI): 30.67 ± 3.06; age: 23 ± 3.2 years) were divided into CRT and control groups. The CRT was performed for eight-weeks (3 times/week, 65–85% of 1 repetition maximum). Fasting blood samples were taken pre and post intervention for analyzing apelin, chemerin, serum amyloid A (SAA), C reactive protein concentrations (CRP), lipid profile, and insulin resistance index. The data were assessed by two-way repeated measure...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reduced professional efficacy is associated with a blunted salivary alpha-amylase awakening response
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Kathleen Landolt, Paul Maruff, Ben Horan, Michael Kingsley, Glynda Kinsella, Paul D. O'Halloran, Matthew W. Hale, Bradley J. WrightAbstractThe job demands-resources model (JD-R) has shown an ability to predict worker engagement and exhaustion, yet to our knowledge, research has not been conducted that assesses the JD-R model with physiological indicators of chronic stress and burnout. Using the JD-R model, we assessed if occupational stress and burnout were related to dysregulated cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase awakening res...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 30, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cannabinoid receptor type-1 partially mediates metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation and insulin resistance
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Zachary I. Grunewald, Sunhye Lee, Rebecca Kirkland, Matthew Ross, Claire B. de La SerreAbstractCirculating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or endotoxin are chronically elevated in obesity (metabolic endotoxemia), resulting in low-grade inflammation. Metabolic endotoxemia has been identified as a triggering factor for obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance. Furthermore, LPS has been shown to modulate endocannabinoid synthesis and notably to induce cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) ligand...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 29, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dimethyloxalylglycine preconditioning enhances protective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Aβ- induced Alzheimer disease
In this study, we hypothesized that preconditioning treatment with a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), will increase MSC efficacy and paracrine effects in an amyloid-β (Aβ)-injected Alzheimer rat model. MSCs were incubated in different concentrations of DMOG for 24 h. Cell viability, migration, and antioxidant capacity was assessed in DMOG-treated and non-treated MSCs before transplantation into Aβ-injected rats. In vitro analysis revealed that DMOG treatment increased cell viability, migration, and expression of CXCR4, CCR2, Nrf2, and HIF-1α in the MSCs. Our in vivo results...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 28, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Early impacts of modified food consistency on oromotor outcomes in mouse models of Down syndrome
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Tiffany J. Glass, Sara L. Twadell, Luke C. Valmadrid, Nadine P. ConnorAbstractDown syndrome (DS) in humans is associated with differences of the central nervous system and oromotor development. DS also increases risks for pediatric feeding challenges, which sometimes involve the use of altered food consistencies. Therefore, experimental food consistency paradigms are of interest to oromotor investigations in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). The present work reports impacts of an altered food consistency paradigm on the Ts65Dn ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 27, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The rate of weight loss does not affect resting energy expenditure and appetite sensations differently in women living with overweight and obesity
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Gary Goldfield, Ryan Seguin, Aleck Damphousse, Alexandre Riopel, Éric DoucetAbstractBackgroundEvidence of metabolic adaptations following weight loss is available in the literature. However, the impact of different degrees of caloric restriction on a comprehensive panel including energy expenditure (EE) and intake (EI), appetite, palatability and olfactory performance remains to be investigated. Accordingly, the purpose of the study was to investigate the changes in resting energy expenditure (REE), ap...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 27, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Psychological responses, muscle damage, inflammation, and delayed onset muscle soreness to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous exercise in overweight men
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Yuri Alberto Freire, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira-Dantas, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho, Sarah J. Hardcastle, Alexandre Hideki Okano, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki, Eduardo Caldas CostaAbstractWe compared in-task affect to HIIE and MICE, and its relationship with time spent at different metabolic domains, perceived exertion (RPE), self-efficacy, enjoyment, and future intention of exercise in overweight inactive men. Muscle damage and soren...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Continuous access to snacks from weaning onwards in female rats causes weight gain, insulin insensitivity, and sustained leptin resistance in adulthood
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Rebecca C. Clawson, Leslie N. dela Cruz, Steven Allen, Tierney Wolgemuth, Amanda Maner, Anna Dorsett, Helen I'AnsonAbstractA large part of the daily intake of children in the U.S. consists of snacks, with the average child consuming three snacks per day. Despite this, little research has been conducted to determine the metabolic and behavioral effects of snacking. Using a developing female rat model, our studies aimed to determine the effects of snacking during development before the protective effects of estrogen on weight gain ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Aggressive behavior and stress response after oxytocin administration in male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Rimma Gulevich, Rimma Kozhemyakina, Svetlana Shikhevich, Maria Konoshenko, Yuri HerbeckAbstractOxytocin (OXT) is known to influence on social behaviors, including intermale aggression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, there are no data on the effects of oxytocin on intermale aggression and HPA axis activity in rats selected for elimination and enhancement of aggressiveness towards humans. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of oxytocin in expression of aggressive behavior and stress respo...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The impact of a competitive learning environment on hormonal and emotional stress responses and skill acquisition and expression in a medical student domain
This study examined the impact of a competitive learning environment and associated hormonal and emotional responses on skill acquisition and expression in a medical domain. Using a cross-over design, sixteen male medical students participated in a competitive (in pairs facing each other) and non-competitive (alone) learning situation. In each treatment, an instructional video was followed by a timed straight-line suture evaluation with anxiety and competitiveness recorded. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assessed at rest, before and after evaluation to quantify changes in T (ΔT) and C (ΔC). The...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “The contribution of coping related variables and cardiac vagal activity on dark throwing task performance” [Physiology and Behavior, 179 (2017) 116–125]
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Emma Mosley, Sylvain Laborde, Emma Kavanagh (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exposure to high solar radiation reduces self-regulated exercise intensity in the heat outdoors
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Ronald J. MaughanAbstractHigh radiant heat load reduces endurance exercise performance in the heat indoors, but this remains unconfirmed in outdoor exercise. The current study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on self-regulated exercise intensity and thermoregulatory responses in the heat outdoors at a fixed rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten male participants completed 45-min cycling exercise in hot outdoor environments (about 31 °C) at ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 23, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Energy metabolism and personality in wild-caught fall field crickets
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Vincent Careau, Pierre Philippe Beauchamp, Sabine Bouchard, Julie Morand-FerronAbstractStandard metabolic rate (SMR) is known to be highly variable across levels of biological organisation (e.g., species, populations, among individuals, within individuals). Some of the variation in SMR can be attributed to factors such as diet, temperature, and body mass, yet much of the residual variation in SMR remains unexplained. Intuitively, we can expect SMR to co-vary with “personality”, but the rapidly accumulating empirical e...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A rat model to study maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum periods, its comorbidity with cardiovascular diseases and neurodevelopmental impact in the offspring
This study aimed to develop an animal model of human depression during pregnancy and lactation to examine the effect of maternal, perinatal depression on offspring development. Maternal depression during pregnancy affects up to 20% of women and is a risk factor for both the developmental and long-term health issues. It is often comorbid with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) that affects the uteroplacental circulation and impacts offspring development. More than half of the expecting mothers with depression use antidepressants that cross the placenta and may interfere with the neurodevelopmental programming. Thus, depressed...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Behavioral, hormonal, and neurochemical outcomes of neonatal repeated shaking brain injury in male adult rats
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Hiromi Tanaka, Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Kanji Yoshimoto, Kazutaka Shimoda, Shuich UedaAbstractIt is well known that an abusive environment in childhood is related to individual anxiety behavior in adulthood. Though an imbalance of adrenocorticosteroid receptors and a dysfunction of monoaminergic neuron systems have been proposed, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address these problems, we recently developed a new model of shaking brain injury (SBI) in neonatal rats. These model rats showed transient m...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Proposition for a shortened version of the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ)
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Keyne Charlot, Alexandra Malgoyre, Cyprien BourrilhonAbstractThe Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) assesses, among other components, food preference (FP) using a procedure that requires both time and concentration. Its use may therefore be difficult in a complex protocol. In this article, we assessed the suitability of two shorter versions: 1) the LFPQ-S2, using two instead of four foods per group, and 2) the food preference questionnaire (FPQ–S16), using the 16 same foods as the LFPQ, displayed simultaneously, tha...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Non-invasive measurement of glucocorticoids: Advances and problems
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Rupert PalmeAbstractGlucocorticoids (GCs; i.e. cortisol/corticosterone) are a central component of the stress response and thus their measurement is frequently used to evaluate the impact of stressful situations. Their metabolites from faeces of various animal species are more and more taken as a non-invasive aid to assess GC release and thus adrenocortical activity. The current literature review includes an extensive collection (1324 papers) and evaluation (see also Supplementary Tables) of the literature on faecal cortisol/cort...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 21, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Increase interval training intensity improves plasma volume variations and aerobic performances in response to intermittent exercise
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Fatma Rhibi, Jacques Prioux, Mossadok Ben Attia, Anthony C. Hackney, Hassane Zouhal, Abderraouf Ben AbderrahmanAbstractPurposeWe studied the effect of two interval training programs of varying intensities (100% vs. 110% of maximal aerobic velocity [MAV]) on hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma volume variations (PVV) in young men.MethodsThirty-nine male volunteered were assigned to two control groups (CG100, n = 9 and CG110, n = 10), and two training groups (one with 100% MAV [EG100, n = 10] and one with 110% ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exploring determinants of behavioral chronotype in a diurnal-rodent model of human physiology
This study was conducted with a rodent species, the antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus), that, like humans, is active during the daytime, exhibits a spread of chronotypes, and has a similar average free-running circadian period. We found chronotype to be a stable trait within individuals based on strong consistency of separate determinations made six months apart (correlation r = 0.91). We also found a moderate correlation of chronotype with the duration of the active phase (r = −0.51) and with free running period (r = 0.34), but weak correlation with rhythm robustness (r = 0.16), and...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Visceral-afferent signals from the cardiovascular system, but not urinary urge, affect startle eye blink
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): André Schulz, Thomas M. Schilling, Claus Vögele, Hartmut SchächingerAbstractThe aim of the current study was to investigate if startle methodology is suitable to reflect urinary urgency. Eighteen healthy men were tested on two separate days, each including an ingestion of fluid until 80% of the subjective urge to micturate was reached. EMG responses to acoustic startle stimuli were assessed before and after micturition, as well as in the early and late cardiac cycle phases (230 vs. 530 ms after a cardiac R-wave...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 16, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dried bonito dashi: Contributions of mineral salts and organic acids to the taste of dashi
Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Eugene R. Delay, Benjamin Weaver, Douglas R. Lane, Takashi KondohAbstractDried bonito dashi is often used in Japanese cuisine with a number of documented positive health effects. Its major taste is thought to be umami, elicited by inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) and L-amino acids. Previously we found that lactic acid, a major component of dried bonito dashi, enhanced the contribution of many of these amino acids to the taste of dried bonito dashi, and reduced the contribution of other amino acids. In addition to amino acids,...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 15, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Assessing the influence of fasted and postprandial states on day-to-day variability of appetite and food preferences
ConclusionsLarger subject numbers may be required for appetite studies with female participants due to greater appetite variability. The LFPQ as a tool for measuring implicit and explicit liking and wanting is sufficiently reproducible and improved by averaging multiple measures across a day. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 15, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Depression caused by long-term stress regulates premature aging and is possibly associated with disruption of circadian rhythms in mice
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Xiaoxian Xie, Qichen Shen, Lisha Cao, Yangyang Chen, Lingyan Ma, Qingfeng Xiao, Chunan Yu, Zhengwei FuAbstractDepression has been associated with circadian disruption and premature aging. Nevertheless, mechanisms underlying the link between long-term stress with premature aging and possible associations with circadian rhythms remain elusive. Here, mice were exposed to chronic mild stress for 16 weeks to induce depression-like symptoms, which were confirmed with the open field test, tail suspension test, and sucrose preference t...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 14, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Relationship between hedonic hunger and serum levels of insulin, leptin and BDNF in the Iranian population
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Fereshteh Aliasghari, Neda Lotfi Yaghin, Reza MahdaviAbstractBackgroundThe prevalence of obesity has led the scientific community to investigate the cause of this multifactorial metabolic disorder. Highly palatable foods can stimulate hedonic hunger and could be a cause of obesity. In the present study, for the first time, the relationships between insulin, leptin and BDNF levels and hedonic hunger were investigated. Ninety overweight and obese women were studied. The demographic characteristics and anthropometric indices were me...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 14, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Caffeine improves contrast sensitivity of freely moving rats
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Keisuke Tsunoda, Akinori Sato, Ryo Kurata, Ryo Mizuyama, Satoshi ShimegiAbstractCaffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) is a well-known central nervous system stimulant that affects various brain functions such as attention, memory and sensation. However, it remains unclear whether and how caffeine modulates visual ability such as contrast sensitivity (CS) and the CS-spatial frequency (SF) relationship. To investigate these points, we tested the effects of caffeine on the perceptual CS of rats under three SF conditions. CS was measu...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 14, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Emotional and electrophysiological measures correlate to flavour perception in the presence of music
In this study, the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) method was utilised to document the changes in taste and flavour of chocolate gelato while participants listened to music. After each TDS trial, the participants rated their emotions using intensity scales. Additionally, electrophysiological measures including heart rate, respiration rate, and skin conductance were obtained. As anticipated, listening to liked music evoked positive emotions (enjoyment, happiness, love, and satisfaction), while disliked music elicited negative emotions (disappointment, and disgust). No significant difference in terms of respiration pa...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 14, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 January 2019Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 198Author(s): (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 11, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The odour of human milk: Its chemical variability and detection by newborns
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Helene M. Loos, Daniela Reger, Benoist SchaalAbstractHuman milk odour has for long elicited research interest with regard to its function in breastfeeding initiation. The present review aims to provide an overview of the behavioural effects of human milk odour in the human neonate, considering different types of response measures in a feeding or non-feeding context. Further, an overview of the current knowledge of odorant composition and factors influencing milk odour is provided by summarizing results from analytical studies usin...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 9, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Can disbudding of calves (one versus four weeks of age) induce chronic pain?
ConclusionsThe sequelae of disbudding can extend beyond the acute post-procedural phase. Chronic trigeminal sensitization, independently from the age at disbudding can affect individual calves.Graphical abstract (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 9, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

How fitting is F.I.T.T.?: A perspective on a transition from the sole use of frequency, intensity, time, and type in exercise prescription
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Kathryn Burnet, Elizabeth Kelsch, Gabriel Zieff, Justin B. Moore, Lee StonerAbstractThe prevalence of physical inactivity continues to rise despite there being sufficient evidence to indicate the appropriate dosage of exercise to mitigate risk for many non-communicable diseases. This rise in physical inactivity is unlikely related to exercise prescription knowledge, but rather in the way exercise is prescribed. Current exercise prescription guidelines are characterized by the FITT Principle: Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type. I...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Structured, aerobic exercise reduces fat mass and is partially compensated through energy intake but not energy expenditure in women
ConclusionsTwelve-weeks of supervised aerobic exercise resulted in a significant reduction in FM and an increase in FFM. Exercise increased hunger and EI which only partially compensated for the increase in energy expenditure. There was no evidence for a compensatory reduction in NEPA or an increase in SB. Dietary intervention, as an adjunct to exercise, may offset the compensatory increase in EI and result in a greater reduction in BM.Trial registrationOur trial was retrospectively registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Registry (ISRCTN78021668, 27th September 2016) and can be found here: ht...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heart rate variability and emotion regulation among individuals with obesity and loss of control eating
This study examined the link between HRV and binge eating severity and analyzed changes in HRV as a marker of emotion regulation in individuals with binge eating. Participants (n = 28) with obesity and loss of control eating reported overeating and loss of control episodes and completed an HRV assessment at rest and during a mental stressor. At rest, lower time-domain HRV was linked to more severe loss of control (SDNN B = −0.18, p = 0.03). Frequency-domain HRV was associated with more severe overeating (LFn B = 14.92, p = 0.03; HFn B = −14.81, p = 0.04). Frequency-domain HRV differe...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Psychophysiological response of air mobile protection teams in an air accident manoeuvre
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Alberto J. Hormeño-Holgado, Miguel Angel Perez-Martinez, Vicente J. Clemente-SuárezAbstractDifferent extreme contexts elicit a stress response on human body, specifically on combat produces an increase of sympathetic nervous system and a direct effect on the organic response. This research aimed to study the psychophysiological response of an air security force in a simulated air accident in a hostile area and its subsequent subterfuge to a safe area. We analyzed 13 soldiers (32.4 ± 8.0 years) from an ai...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-term behavioural effects of maternal obesity in C57BL/6J mice
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jerzy Zieba, Golam M. Uddin, Neil A. Youngson, Tim Karl, Margaret J. MorrisAbstractDiet is increasingly being recognised as an important contributor to mental health. A diet high in sugar and polyunsaturated fatty acids can have negative consequences for disease symptoms and outcomes in schizophrenia patients. There is also evidence that particular diets can have beneficial, therapeutic-like properties for human brain disorders. Additionally, dietary choices of mothers have been found to affect cognitive domains and anxiety behavi...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 8, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Neuroticism is associated with reduced oxygenation levels in the lateral prefrontal cortex following exposure to unpleasant images
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Ferran Balada, Ignacio Lucas, Ángel Blanch, Eduardo Blanco, Anton AlujaAbstractThe aim of this study was to explore the prefrontal cortex response to emotional salient stimuli in subjects with high scores in Neuroticism (and low in Sensation Seeking) or high scores in Sensation Seeking (and low in Neuroticism) personality traits, -called now Neuroticism and Sensation Seeking groups-. For this purpose, we selected 24 females (mean age: 20; SD: 1.74 years) and assigned them to two different groups according to their extreme...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - November 6, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research