Meal Replacement in Isolated and Confined Mission Environments: Consumption, Acceptability, and Implications for Physical and Behavioral Health
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Takiyah A. Sirmons, Peter G. Roma, Alexandra M. Whitmire, Scott M. Smith, Sara R. Zwart, Millennia Young, Grace L. DouglasAbstractStrategies that reduce food system mass without negatively impacting food intake, acceptability, and resulting astronaut health and performance are essential for mission success in extreme operational environments such as space exploration. Here, we report the impact of substituting the spaceflight standard breakfast with energy equivalent, calorically-dense meal replacement bars (MRBs) on consumption,...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rhythm and Blues: Influence of CLOCK T3111C on peripheral electrophysiological indicators of negative affective processing
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Diana Armbruster, Burkhard Brocke, Clemens Kirschbaum, Stephanie H. Witt, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Alexander StrobelAbstractDysfunction in the circadian system has been linked to emotion regulation and mood disorders with genetic variation in clock genes as likely contributors. Here, we focused on endophenotypes of affective processing and investigated in two independent samples of healthy individuals (n1=99, n2=108) whether genotypes of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene encoding CLOCK (CLOCK T3111C, rs18012...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Constitutive Cyclophilin-D Ablation in Mice Increases Exercise and Cognitive-Behavioral Performance under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jeejabai Radhakrishnan, Alvin Baetiong, Raúl J. GazmuriABSTRACTWe recently reported that constitutive ablation of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D) in mice reduces oxygen consumption (VO2) while paradoxically increasing exercise endurance, thereby demonstrating increased O2 utilization efficiency. This response was associated with augmented glucose uptake and glucose utilization, in part mediated through adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase signaling. We now hypothesized that Cyp-D knock-out (KO) mice might also exhibit improved c...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Binge-like palatable food intake in rats reduces preproglucagon in the nucleus tractus solitarius
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Ashmita Mukherjee, Avery Hum, Tyler J. Gustafson, Elizabeth G. Mietlicki-BaaseAbstractBinge eating involves eating larger than normal quantities of food within a discrete period of time. The neurohormonal controls governing binge-like palatable food intake are not well understood. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a hormone produced peripherally in the intestine and centrally in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), reduces food intake. Given that the NTS plays a critical role in integrating peripheral and central signals relevant...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular stress reactions in recent- and long-retired rugby players when watching a game
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): S. Howard, G. Fitzgerald, S. GallagherAbstractWhile hospital admissions for cardiac causes on a population level appear to rise when the national team is playing in a sporting fixture, little research has examined cardiovascular reactions in spectators watching a sporting event. In a sample of 41 male supporters of a rugby team, all of whom had played the sport themselves, cardiovascular levels and psychological ratings of stress and anxiety were measured pre- and post-match. Counterfactual thinking was also assessed. Mixed facto...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Decreasing prevalence of specific anosmia to non-steroid odorants from childhood to adolescence
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Lai-Quan Zou, Olivia Vogt, Valentin A. Schriever, Ilona Croy, Benoist Schaal, Thomas HummelAbstractSpecific anosmia is defined as the inability to detect a particular odorant, despite a normal olfactory function. Previous studies reported sex-related difference in detection threshold to steroid odorants, like androstenone or androstadienone during adolescence, and boys showed an increased detection threshold with age. However, such investigations have not been performed for non-steroid odorants. Hence, the current study investiga...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cerebrolysin prevents sleep deprivation induced memory impairment and oxidative stress
In this study, the effect of CBL on sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment was investigated. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using the modified multiple platform model (8 h/day for 4 weeks). Concurrently, CBL was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. Animal's performance (spatial learning and memory) was assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Additionally, oxidative stress biomarkers including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized Glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were assessed in the hippocampus. Current results showed that sleep deprivation imp...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dietary restraint is associated with adiposity and repeated attempts of food avoidance since early adolescence
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Angelos Vlahoyiannis, Adjunct Professor Artemissia-Phoebe NifliAbstractBody composition and fat distribution are predictors of health and are largely affected by eating behavior. The current study aimed to explore the adoption of dietary restraint since early adolescence, its relationship with objective physical traits, and the association with energy intake, and targeted food groups or items. Eight-four healthy volunteers (males n = 46; females n = 38), 14-24 years old, were interviewed to assess segmental body compositio...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intermittent fasting: what questions should we be asking?
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Kai Liu, Bo Liu, Leonie K. HeilbronnAbstractObesity and overweight are contributing factors to chronic disease. Lifestyle management, which incorporates advice on moderate daily caloric restriction (CR) and physical activity to reduce body weight, is the cornerstone treatment in practice. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a popular alternative that cycles fasting with unrestricted eating periods. IF appears to be an equivalent approach to CR to induce weight loss, although as yet there is limited long-term evidence. Some controversy ex...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - February 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reduced acceptance of saccharin solutions by rats previously consuming more highly palatable solutions.
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Robert A. Boakes, Simone Rehn, Connie Badolato, Kieron B. RooneyAbstractRats first given 24-h access to 10% sucrose for 4 or 12 days (Stage 1) were then switched to a saccharin solution for a 12-day Stage 2. The initial result of this switch was that these Sucrose groups drank less saccharin than Water groups that had been given only water to drink in Stage 1. This difference was maintained throughout Stage 2 by the females that served in Experiments 1 and 4 and by the males that served in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 also found tha...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 29, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A longitudinal examination of the role of sensory exploratory behaviors in young children's acceptance of new foods
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Kameron J. Moding, Laura L. Bellows, Kevin J. Grimm, Susan L. JohnsonAbstractObjective: Prompted engagement with a new food's sensory properties (smell, texture) has been associated with young children's acceptance of new foods. However, little is known about the prevalence and stability of children's sensory exploratory behaviors exhibited spontaneously when trying new foods. The aim of this analysis was to examine developmental trajectories of sensory exploratory behaviors (i.e., smelling, licking, spitting) in response to new f...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Association Between Phase Angle And Isolated And Grouped Physical Fitness Indicators In Adolescents
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Priscila Custódio Martins, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima, Juliane Berria, Edio Luiz Petroski, Analiza Mónica Silva, Diego Augusto Santos SilvaAbstractObjective: Examine association between phase angle and isolated and grouped physical fitness indicators in adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 353 adolescents, aged 10-16 years. Phase angle was calculated based on crude resistance and reactance values ​​(50kHz frequency) obtained by tetrapole electrical bioimpedance (BIA). Fat mass and lean mass were esti...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 26, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Daily Changes in GFAP Expression in Radial Glia of the Olfactory Bulb in Rabbit Pups Entrained to Circadian Feeding
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Araceli Vázquez, Andrés Hernández-Oliveras, Juan Santiago-García, Mario Caba, Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, Diana Olivo, Aleph A. Corona-MoralesAbstractWhen food is restricted daily to a fixed time, animals show uncoupled molecular, physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms from those entrained by light and controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The loci of the food-entrainable oscillator and the mechanisms by which rhythms emerge are unclear. Using animals entrained to the light-dark cycle, recent ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 26, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Association between human olfactory performance and ability to detect single compounds in complex chemical mixtures.
In conclusion, our findings show that human perception of single compounds is conditioned by the threshold olfactory performance of the subject and that his/her ability to detect single molecular components, which smell as the mixture, affects the intensity and hedonism for the complex aroma. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 26, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

nCEREBROLYSIN PREVENTS SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND OXIDATIVE STRESS
In this study, the effect of CBL on sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment was investigated. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using the modified multiple platform model (8 hours/day for 4 weeks). Concurrently, CBL was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. Animal's performance (spatial learning and memory) was assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Additionally, oxidative stress biomarkers including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized Glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were assessed in the hippocampus. Current results showed that sleep deprivation impa...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 26, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 15 March 2020Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 216Author(s): (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Detection of the Technical and Tactical Motion of the Scorable Movements in Taekwondo
The objective of the study is to discover and analyze the patterns of the technical and tactical moves that score in combat in taekwondo. We analyzed 209 moves that could be scored (male category,
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 215Author(s): (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heart rate variability for determining autonomic nervous system effects of lifestyle behaviors in early life: A systematic review
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Kathryn E Speer, Stuart Semple, Nenad Naumovski, Andrew J McKune (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Behavioral abnormalities and phosphorylation deficits of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in rat offspring of the maternal immune activation model
In this study, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid was administered to rats intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg on embryonic day 9.5 to produce MIA. The effect of MIA on behavior and ERK phosphorylation within the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus of adolescent and adult offspring were explored. We also examined neurofilaments, a marker of neurogenesis, which have been reported to be modulated by ERK signaling. The results demonstrate an age- and region-specific profile of ERK expression and phosphorylation and suggest possible relationships among ERK, neurofilament expression, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. (...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Technical Analysis in Tsuri-goshi through Three Complementary Observational Analysis
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): I. Prieto-Lage, M. Rodríguez-Souto, M.A. Prieto, A. Gutiérrez-SantiagoAbstractThe aim of this article is to identify the factors involved in learning judo based on an observational study of technical errors and their relationships. The analysis was carried out using a combination of a self-generated observational instrument (OI-JUDO-TG) and a recording instrument (developed with the Lince software) using a sample of 78 novice students. In addition, descriptive statistics and sequential analysis with polar coordinates...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Phase angle is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in children aged between 9 and 11 years
Publication date: 1 March 2020Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 215Author(s): Raquel David Langer, Kell Grandjean da Costa, Henrique Bortolotti, Gleydciane Alexandre Fernandes, Raille Silva de Jesus, Ezequiel Moreira GonçalvesAbstractPhase angle (PhA) is a marker of health and cellular integrity and is used as a tool for predicting nutritional status in children with various health conditions. Even though physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness have been shown to provide several health benefits, few studies have evaluated the relationship between PhA and health parameters, i.e., cardiorespiratory fit...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Behavioral adaptations in a relapsing mouse model of colitis
This study sought to identify behavioral differences in digging, memory, and stress-coping strategies in mice exposed to one (acute) or three (chronic) cycles of gut inflammation, using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of colitis. Similar levels of gut pathology were observed between acute and chronically exposed mice, although mice in the chronic treatment had significantly shorter colons, suggesting more severe disease. Behavioral measures revealed an unexpected pattern in which chronic treatment evoked fewer deficits than acute treatment. Specifically, acutely-treated mice showed alterations in measures of object ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

End of Life Feeding: Ethical and Legal Considerations
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Blair Henry (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Physiological responses during acute stress recovery depend on stress coping style in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Sébastien Ferrari, Sonia Rey, Erik Høglund, Øyvind Øverli, Béatrice Chatain, Simon MacKenzie, Marie-Laure BégoutAbstractIndividual stress coping style (reactive, intermediate and proactive) was determined in 3 groups of 120 pit tagged European seabass using the hypoxia avoidance test. The same three groups (no change in social composition) were then reared according to the standards recommended for this species. Then, 127 days later, individuals initially characterized as reactive, interme...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) coping styles are consistent over time: behavioural and physiological responses during ontogenesis
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Z. Ibarra-Zatarain, S. Rey, A. Boglino, E. Fatsini, N. DuncanAbstractIndividuals differ in how they cope with stressful situations along a behavioural continuum, being proactive and reactive at the extremes of this continuum. Proactive individuals are usually bold, highly active and take risks, while reactive organisms are generally shy, exhibit low activity and avoid risky situations. Definitions of stress coping styles state that proactive and reactive traits are consistent over time and across contexts. The present study evalua...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Early postnatal decabromodiphenyl ether exposure reduces thyroid hormone and astrocyte density in the juvenile mouse dentate gyrus
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Caitlyn M. Edwards, Deena Small, Tyler Bell, Julian David-Drori, Christina Hansen, Keith Morris-Schaffer, Charlene Canale, John Ng, Vincent P. MarkowskiAbstractDecabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is a flame retardant that was widely-applied to many consumer products for decades. Consequently, decaBDE and other members of its class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants. Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure during critical periods of brain development produces long-term behavioral impa...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Early and later life environmental enrichment affect specific antibody responses and blood leukocyte subpopulations in pigs
In conclusion, both early life and later life enrichment, and, notably a switch in housing conditions influenced specific antibodies and leukocyte subpopulations in pigs. The current study implies that the early life history of animals and the (mis)match with their current environment could thus be of major importance for their immune system. Further research is needed to investigate potential consequences for the pigs’ health. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Role of the Estrogen Receptor-α Gene, Esr1, in Maternal-Like Behavior in Juvenile Female and Male Rats
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Caileen R Moran, Jill M Gallagher, Robert S BridgesAbstractThe estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) is an important ligand activated transcription factor that works to control gene transcription in many species. Previous studies have shown estrogen to be an important hormone in the regulation of maternal behavior. Like adult female rats, both male and female juvenile rats exhibit increased level of maternal-like behavior when exposed to pups. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER-α is critical for the expression o...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exercise modulates neuronal activation in the micturition circuit of chronically stressed rats: A multidisciplinary approach to the study of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (MAPP) research network study
Conclusion: Our results suggest that chronic voluntary exercise may decrease urinary frequency at two points of control in the micturition circuit. During the urine storage phase, it may diminish the influence of the reflex micturition circuit itself, and/or it may increase corticolimbic control of voiding. Exercise may be an effective adjunct therapeutic intervention for modifying the urinary symptoms in patients with UCPPS. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 214Author(s): (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 27, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Contrasting neurochemical and behavioral profiles reflects stress coping styles but not stress responsiveness in farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)
In this study, we investigated to what extent stress responsiveness reflects differences in stress coping, and the potential involvement of the 5-HT system in mediating such differences in farmed Gilthead seabream. Initially, fish were classified as proactive or reactive based on their behavioural response to net restraint. Following 1.5 months, fish classified as proactive still showed a higher number of escape attempts and spent longer time escaping than those classified as reactive. These differences were reflected in a generally higher brain stem 5-HT concentration and a lower telencephalic 5-HT activity, i.e. the rati...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 26, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A sleep intervention study comparing effects of sleep restriction and fragmentation on sleep and vigilance and the need for recovery
Conclusions: Short-term sleep restriction presented as a stronger sleep disturbance than short-term intermittent sleep fragmentation, including a stronger need for recovery. Already a one night sleep deprivation had an effect beyond two recovery days. The PVT was not sensitive enough to reveal significant changes. Next, autonomic parameters as possible biomarkers will be investigated. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Perinatal over- and underfeeding affect hypothalamic leptin and ghrelin neuroendocrine responses in adult rats
ConclusionsChanges in the nutritional supply at early stages of life modify leptin and ghrelin responsiveness in adulthood, programming metabolic and central mechanisms, which contribute to overweight and obesity in adulthood. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Chronobiological aspects of sleep restriction modulate subsequent spontaneous physical activity
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Britta Wilms, Marina Kuhr, Rodrigo Chamorro, Nelli Klinsmann, Denisa Spyra, Matthias Mölle, Hannes Kalscheuer, Bernd Schultes, Hendrik Lehnert, Sebastian M. SchmidAbstractPurpose: First evidence suggests that chronobiological aspects of sleep restriction affect metabolic conditions. Our aim was to investigate whether spontaneous free-living physical activity likewise is affected by chronobiological timing of short sleep.Methods: In an experimental randomized, balanced cross-over design, eleven healthy, normal-weight (BMI: 23...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 24, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cortisol rapidly increases baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate control, but does not affect cardiac modulation of startle
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): ANDRÉ SCHULZ, STEFFEN RICHTER, DIANA S.FERREIRA DE SÁ, CLAUS VÖGELE, HARTMUT SCHÄCHINGERAbstractCortisol, the final product of human HPA axis activation, rapidly modulates the cortical processing of afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. While peripheral effects have been excluded, it remains unclear whether this effect is mediated by cortical or subcortical (e.g. brainstem) CNS mechanisms. Cardiac modulation of startle (CMS) has been proposed as a method to reflect cardio-afferent si...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

T-patterns in the study of movement and behavioral disorders
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Stefania Aiello, Giuseppe Crescimanno, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Maurizio CasarrubeaAbstractAim of the present review is to offer an outline of the application of T-pattern analysis (TPA) in the study of neurological disorders characterized by anomalies of movement and, more in general, of behavior. TPA is a multivariate technique to detect real time patterns of behavior on the basis of statistically significant constraints among the events in sequence. TPA is particularly suitable to analyse the structure of behavior. The applicatio...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of early life mild adversity and chronic social defeat on rat brain microglia and cytokines
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Vasiliki Ferle, Anastasia Repouskou, George Aspiotis, Androniki Raftogianni, George Chrousos, Fotini Stylianopoulou, Antonios StamatakisAbstractExposure to early life stress affects the development and function of the brain and when followed by adversities in adulthood, the negative effects of stress are enhanced. Microglia has been proposed as a potential mediator of this phenomenon. In the present study, we investigated the long-term effects of mild early life stress, the consequences of a stressor in adulthood as well as their...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The effect of standard laboratory diets on estrogen signaling and spatial memory in male and female rats
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): C.A. Finney, N.W. Proschogo, A. Snepvangers, N.M. Holmes, R.F. Westbrook, K.J. ClemensAbstractPhytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that can modulate estrogen activity in the brain and periphery. Laboratory rodent diets are typically high in soy-based phytoestrogens and therefore may influence neurophysiological and behavioural measures that are sensitive to estrogen signaling. Here we assessed such measures in rats (males and females) fed Australian made diets that varied in their soy levels. We found that a low-soy diet pr...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Neuronal Plasticity in the Forebrain of the Male Red-Sided Garter Snake: Effect of Season, Low Temperature Dormancy, and Hormonal Status on Dendritic Spine Density
This study was designed to examine the role of seasons, sex steroid hormones, and LTD on neuronal and dendritic spine density within the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area (AHPOA), a region shown to be critical for the regulation of reproductive behaviors.  In the male RSGS, the density of dendritic spines on neurons in the AHPOA was significantly greater in spring, actively courting animals, than summer or fall, non-courting animals.  Animals maintained under conditions of LTD exhibited significantly increasing spine density as time maintained in LTD increased.  Animals receiving either testosterone or est...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The role of 5-HT4 serotonin receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region on memory acquisition impairment induced by total (TSD) and REM sleep deprivation (RSD)
In conclusion, CA1 hippocampal 5-HT4 receptors play an important role in TSD/RSD-induced cognitive alterations. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide improves spatial memory impairment via increases of BDNF expression and hippocampal neurogenesis following early postnatal alcohol exposure
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide on alcohol-induced memory impairment, hippocampus neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis in rat pups with postnatal ethanol exposure.Administration of ethanol to male rat pups was performed through intragastric intubation on postnatal days 2-10. The pups were administered 1 mg/kg of NaHS (H2S donor) on postnatal days 2-10. For examining the spatial memory, Morris water maze test was carried out 36 days after birth. Following the behavioral test, immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the expression levels of BrdU, BDNF and Apoptotic...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Drop-out ratio between moderate to high-intensity physical exercise treatment by patients with, or at risk of, type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionIt seems that high-intensity protocols did not decrease drop-out ratio. Thus, lower intensity interventions may enhance patients’ participation more than intense programs. Further research is needed to explore barriers and enablers to better understand patients’ participation. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Variations of season workload and well-being status among professional roller-hockey players: Full season analysis
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Lillian Gonçalves, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Bruno Silva, Bruno Mendes, Ricardo Lima, Pedro Bezerra, Miguel CamõesAbstractThe aims of this research were (i) to describe variations in the internal load and well-being between regular (one official match) and congested (two official matches) weeks in senior professional roller-hockey players and (ii) to analyse the variations of these determinants, within weeks, for an entire season. Ten professional roller-hockey players (29.3 ± 4.8 years; 178.3 ± 6.4 cm; ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Personality- and size-related metabolic performance in invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jane W. Behrens, Lisa W. von Friesen, Tomas Brodin, Philip Ericsson, Philipp Emanuel Hirsch, Anders Persson, Anna Sundelin, Mikael van Deurs, P. Anders NilssonAbstractDifferences between individuals in behavioral type (i.e. animal personality) are ecologically and evolutionarily important because they can have significant effects on fitness components such as growth and predation risk. In the present study we ere used the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) from an established population in controlled experiments to exam...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Differential effects of high-fat diet on glucose tolerance, food intake, and glucocorticoid regulation in male C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice
In this report, the effects of diet and timing of feeding on body weight, food intake, glucose tolerance, and stress-induced corticosterone and blood glucose responses were assessed in male C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice. Lower glucose tolerance was observed in low-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J than BALB/cJ mice at four times sampled across the circadian cycle. Ad libitum high-fat diet increased the amount of daytime eating behavior and led to impaired glucose regulation in C57BL/6J but not BALB/cJ mice. Restricting food availability to either daytime or nighttime did not prevent overall body weight gain, but restricting feeding to nig...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of mental and physical orofacial training on pressure pain sensitivity and tongue strength: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.
Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that movement representation training performed in isolation may have a positive effect on PPTs and tongue muscle strength. In addition, the combination with the actual execution of the exercises could be considered effective, but it is necessary to take into account the training dosage to avoid fatigue responses. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation leads to acute elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Samantha L. Hodges, Suzanne O. Nolan, Lindsay A. Tomac, Ilyasah D.A. Muhammad, Matthew S. Binder, Joseph H. Taube, Joaquin N. LugoAbstractFragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the Fmr1 gene, serving as the largest genetic cause of intellectual disability. Trinucleotide expansion mutations in Fmr1 results in silencing and hypermethylation of the gene, preventing synthesis of the RNA binding protein Fragile X mental retardation protein which functions as a translational rep...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Microinjection of Urotensin II into the Pedunculopontine Tegmentum Leads to an Increase in the Consumption of Sweet Tastants
Publication date: Available online 13 December 2019Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Robert Ettaro, Tamara Markovic, Derek Daniels, Duncan AA MacLaren, Stewart D ClarkAbstractThe pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) plays a role in processing multiple sensory inputs and innervates brain regions associated with reward-related behaviors. The urotensin II receptor, activated by the urotensin II peptide (UII), is selectively expressed by the cholinergic neurons of the PPTg. Although the exact function of cholinergic neurons of the PPTg is unknown, they are thought to contribute to the perception of reward magnitude or s...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Autonomic and perceptual thermoregulatory responses to voluntarily engaging in a common thermoregulatory behaviour
We examined whether partial clothing removal is an effective thermoregulatory behaviour to attenuate both thermoregulatory and perceptual strain in a moderate environment (23˚C, 65% RH) during and after exercise. Ten healthy males (age: 21.9 (0.9) years; height: 173.9 (6.2) cm; mass: 62.3 (8.2) kg; body surface area: 1.8 (0.1) m2; VO2max: 51.8 (13.3) mL.kg−1.min−1) wore a long sleeve polyester shirt and performed two randomized cycling trials for 40 minutes at 40% VO2max followed by 20 minutes recovery. In one trial, they were permitted to roll up their sleeves at any time they wanted (Roll) whereas in the oth...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research