Effects of gymnemic acids lozenge on reward region response to receipt and anticipated receipt of high-sugar food
Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Eric Stice, Sonja YokumAbstractA gymnemic acids lozenge that blocks sweet taste receptors reduced the decision to consume candy in humans even before the candy was tasted after the gymnemic acids dose, suggesting that blocking sweet taste receptors reduces valuation of sweet foods. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test whether the gymnemic acids lozenge reduces reward region response to both intake and anticipated intake of high-sugar food, as well as ad lib candy intake relative to a placebo loz...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 20, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute and chronic effects of exercise on the kynurenine pathway in humans – A brief review and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Alan J. Metcalfe, Christina Koliamitra, Florian Javelle, Wilhelm Bloch, Philipp ZimmerAbstractTryptophan (TRP) is an essential amino acid. Metabolites of TRP have been identified as important mediators in immune regulation and function of the central nervous system. Inflammation strongly stimulates to the breakdown of TRP into Kynurenine (KYN), representing the initial step of the KYN pathway. Recently, exercise interventions have been able to demonstrate a modification of the KYN pathway plausibly by altering inflammation. However, ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 20, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The many facets of dopamine: Toward an integrative theory of the role of dopamine in managing the body's energy resources
Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): V. Srinivasa Chakravarthy, Pragathi Priyadharsini Balasubramani, Alekhya Mandali, Marjan Jahanshahi, Ahmed A. MoustafaAbstractIn neuroscience literature, dopamine is often considered as a pleasure chemical of the brain. Dopaminergic neurons respond to rewarding stimuli which include primary rewards like opioids or food, or more abstract forms of reward like cash rewards or pictures of pretty faces. It is this reward-related aspect of dopamine, particularly its association with reward prediction error, that is highlighted by a large c...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 19, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Structural equation modeling of food craving across the menstrual cycle using behavioral, neuroendocrine, and metabolic factors
This report is a secondary analysis of a trial registered in clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01407692.MethodsSeventeen premenopausal women were studied during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Previously we had reported fasting plasma estradiol, progesterone, leptin associations with luteal phase cravings for carbohydrate, fat, sweet-rich foods, and eating behavior. Here, we measured fasting plasma endocannabinoids (ECs) endocannabinoid-like substances (ECLs), and postprandial metabolic responses to a mixed meal challenge. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between measured va...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 19, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Influence of sex and estrous cycle on blood glucose levels, body weight gain, and depressive-like behavior in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Daniela Rebolledo-Solleiro, Alonso Fernández-GuastiAbstractDepression is the most common psychiatric disorder in diabetic patients, showing higher rates in women than in men. This comorbidity has been studied in rodents using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (DM) model, consistently reporting a depressive-like profile in males. Few articles have examined these disturbances in females (ovariectomized or combined with male rats) yielding controversial results. This work was aimed to study whether there are sex differenc...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 18, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The motivation to behaviorally thermoregulate during passive heat exposure in humans is dependent on the magnitude of increases in skin temperature
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Nicole T. Vargas, Julia Slyer, Christopher L. Chapman, Blair D. Johnson, Jennifer L. Temple, Elizabeth G. Mietlicki-Baase, Zachary J. SchladerAbstractWe tested the hypothesis that the motivation to behaviorally thermoregulate in humans is dependent on the magnitude of changes in mean skin temperature. Ten healthy subjects (22 ± 3 y, 5 females) underwent 60 min of seated rest in a 32±1 °C or 42±1 °C environment (20% relative humidity). Trials were completed in a counterbalanced order. The motivat...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of an acute bout of physical exercise on reward functioning in healthy adults
In conclusion, acute exercise improved reward functioning only in individuals accustomed to that type of exercise. This suggests a possible conditioned effect of exercise on reward functioning. Previous experience with the exercise used should be examined as a possible moderator in exercise treatment trials. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 12, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reprint of “The relationship between culinary skills and eating behaviors: Challenges and opportunities for parents and families”
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica Jarick Metcalfe, Darin LeonardAbstractUnhealthy dietary intake among American children and adults is of great concern to public health practitioners, nutritional scientists, and child development experts. Cooking skills are related to healthier dietary intake among Americans of all ages, but remain a substantial barrier for many parents who want to serve healthy meals for their families at home. Culinary education interventions are effective solutions for many parents who do not know how to cook, but issues with participation ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 11, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Session 5 discussion: Snacking
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Stephanie Hunter, Ashima Kant, Richard Mattes, Joanne Slavin (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 11, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cognitive fatigue effects on physical performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Correspondence
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Loreen S. Magariño, Purnima Madhivanan (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Session 3 Discussion: The microstructure of eating
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Cordelia Running, Bryony James, James Hollis, Kelly HigginsAbstractThe Microstructure of Eating. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Session 6 discussion: Innovation in eating patterns
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Lauren O'Connor, Jessica Fanzo, Sara Smith-Simpson, Darin Leonard (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Session 4 discussion: The built environment
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Blake Jones, Jayne Fulkerson, Michael Widener, Steve DouglasAbstractThe following is a transcript from “The Built Environment” session during the Ingestive Behavior Research Conference at Purdue University. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The role of farming and rural development as central to our diets
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica FanzoAbstractFarming and rural development are central to the diversity of global food systems and diets, both significant factors in determining the nutrition and health outcomes of the world's population. Diets are not static and indeed are changing due to globalization, urbanization and demographic shifts. In addition, multiple burdens of malnutrition (both undernutrition and overweight and obesity) are not improving fast enough and in some cases, reversing for the worse. Unhealthy diets are major contributors to these burd...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hunter-gatherer diets and human behavioral evolution
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Amanda VeileAbstractHuman behavior and physiology evolved under conditions vastly different from those which most humans inhabit today. This paper summarizes long-term dietary studies conducted on contemporary hunter-gatherer populations (sometimes referred to as foragers). Selected studies for the most part that use evolutionary theoretical perspectives and data collection methods derived from the academic field of human behavioral ecology, which derives relatively recently from the fields of evolutionary biology, ethology, populatio...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

An introduction to an international conference on “The pace of life and feeding: Health implications”
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Richard D. Mattes (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Evolutionary compromises to metabolic toxins: Ammonia and urea tolerance in Drosophila suzukii and Drosophila melanogaster” [Physiol. Behav. 191, 1 July 2018, 146–154]
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Virginia Belloni, Alessia Galeazzi, Giulia Bernini, Mauro Mandrioli, Elisabetta Versace, Albrecht Haase (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Congruence and placement in sponsorship: An eye-tracking application
This study uses eye tracking to measure the effectiveness of sporting event posters and proposes considering the level of the viewer's attention as an indicator. This research involves a factorial experiment based on the following variables: congruence, the number of sponsors, and placement of the sponsor's advertisement in a sporting event poster. The results indicate that sponsors positioned in the poster's area of action receive more attention. However, we were unable to prove that congruent sponsors receive more attention, as claimed in the literature. This result could be due to a situation of blindness towards the sp...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sparking interest in restaurant dishes? Cognitive and affective processes underlying dish design and ecological origin. An fMRI study
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Diego Gómez-CarmonaAbstractThis papers aims to verify to what extent the presentation of a restaurant dish and the origin of its food provoke reactions in the consumer's brain during the visualization and the decision-making process, from an exploratory approach. The two independent variables singled out for study were whether the presentation was well or poorly presented and if the ingredients were ecological or non-ecological.The results applying the functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) me...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in adolescents with obesity: The hearty randomized controlled trial” Physiology & Behavior, Volume 191, 1 July 2018, Pages 138–145
Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Gary S. Goldfield, Glen P. Kenny, Denis Prud'homme, Martin Holcik, Angela S. Alberga, Margaret Fahnestock, Jameason D. Cameron, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Heather Tulloch, Mark S. Tremblay, Jeremy Walsh, Eva Guerin, Katie E. Gunnell, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ronald J. Sigal (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dopamine D2 receptor polymorphism (C957T) is associated with sugar consumption and triglyceride levels in West Mexicans
In conclusion, our results suggest a genetic background associated with sugar consumption among West Mexicans, which may contribute to increases in serum triglyceride levels. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The relationship between culinary skills and eating behaviors: Challenges and opportunities for parents and families
Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Jessica Jarick Metcalfe, Darin LeonardAbstractUnhealthy dietary intake among American children and adults is of great concern to public health practitioners, nutritional scientists, and child development experts. Cooking skills are related to healthier dietary intake among Americans of all ages, but remain a substantial barrier for many parents who want to serve healthy meals for their families at home. Culinary education interventions are effective solutions for many parents who do not know how to cook, but issues with participation ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Monitoring collegiate soccer players during a congested match schedule: Heart rate variability versus subjective wellness measures
This study suggests the use of subjective wellness indices, instead of heart rate variability measures, to monitor collegiate soccer players during congested match schedules. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Comparative tactile sensitivity of the fingertip and apical tongue using complex and pure tactile tasks
Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Brittany L. Miles, Karli Van Simaeys, Morgan Whitecotton, Christopher T. SimonsAbstractBoth the tongue and fingertip are highly tactile tissues relevant in texture perception, but work comparing relative sensitivity to elucidate potential differences in stimulus processing is limited. Presently, the acuity of the tongue and fingertip were compared using a series of tactile acuity tasks. We hypothesized the tongue would show superior acuity regardless of stimuli due to an absent epidermal barrier and its involvement in many high-sensit...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Monoamine system disruption induces functional somatic syndromes associated symptomatology in mice
In conclusion, the optimal protocol of reserpine treatment for inducing pain symptom without deterioration of general physical condition is 0.25 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 3 consecutive days in mice. This protocol causes not only pain but also FSS-associated symptomatology which are associated with disruption of the endogenous monoamine system. The reserpine-treated animal may be useful for the research of not only fibromyalgia syndrome but also FSS, especially for the research focusing on the hypothesis that FSS is associated with the disturbance of endogenous monoamine system. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Response to criticisms of “Cognitive Fatigue Effects on Physical Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”.
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Terry McMorris, Martin Barwood, Beverley J. Hale, Matt Dicks, Jo Corbett (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

“The vestibular system, body temperature and sense of body ownership: a potential link? Insights from a single case study”
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Gerardo Salvato, Martina Gandola, Laura Veronelli, Manuela Berlingeri, Massimo Corbo, Gabriella BottiniAbstractThe vestibular system plays a pivotal role in behavioural and physiological aspects of body representation. If on the one hand, the stimulation of the vestibular system in healthy subjects provokes body representation distortions, accompanied by a decrease of body temperature, on the other hand, in brain-damaged patients it transiently restores body representation disorders. So far, the physiological counterpart of such behav...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Restricted lesions of the ventrolateral or dorsal columns of the periaqueductal gray promotes distinct effects on tonic immobility and defensive analgesia in guinea pigs
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Physiology & BehaviorAuthor(s): Eveline Bis Vieira-Rasteli, Bruna Balbino de Paula, Yara Bezerra de Paiva, Norberto Cysne Coimbra, Christie Ramos Andrade Leite-PanissiAbstractTonic immobility (TI) is an innate defensive response exhibited by prey when physical contact with a predator is prolonged and inescapable. This defensive response is able to activate analgesia mechanisms; this activation has adaptive value because, during an attack by a predator, the manifestation of recuperative behaviors can affect the appropriate behavioral defense strategy. Some studies h...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

With a little help from her friends (and family) part I: the ecology and evolution of non-maternal care in mammals
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Stacy Rosenbaum, Lee T. GettlerAbstractIn the class Mammalia, most young are cared for exclusively by their mothers. In species where mothers receive help, however, non-maternal caregivers may play a crucial role in development and life history trajectories. In turn, recipients of such care may have important impacts on caregivers of all types. In Part I of this overview, we briefly review the evolutionary barriers to widespread non-maternal care in mammals, and explain why the exceptions are of particular theoretical importan...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

With a little help from her friends (and family) part II: Non-maternal caregiving behavior and physiology in mammals
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Stacy Rosenbaum, Lee T. GettlerAbstractThe diversity of competing frameworks for explaining the evolution of non-maternal care in mammals (Part I, this issue) reflects the vast range of behaviors and associated outcomes these theories attempt to subsume. Caretaking comprises a wide variety of behavioral domains, and is mediated by an equally large range of physiological systems. In Part II, we provide an overview of how non-maternal care in mammals is expressed, the ways in which it is regulated, and the many effects such care...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The neurobiology of human allomaternal care; implications for fathering, coparenting, and children's social development
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Eyal Abraham, Ruth FeldmanAbstractAllomothering, the caregiving to offspring by adults other than the biological mother including fathers and other group members, has characterized human societies throughout hominin evolution. Allomothering is common across the animal kingdom and carries long-term fitness benefits to offspring. Guided by our biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we present research from our lab and others addressing the behavioral, hormonal, and neural systems that underpin human allomaternal care by fathe...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The effects of fathering experience on paternal behaviors and levels of central expression of oxytocin and dopamine-2 type receptors in mandarin voles
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Bo Wang, Lu Wang, Kai Wang, Fadao TaiAbstractMothers' brains change dramatically in response to the release of hormones related to pregnancy and labor; however, fathers' brains are also sensitive to the experience of paternal care. Thus, fathers with differing fathering experience may exhibit different behavioral responses towards pups. Using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), effects of fathering experience on levels of paternal behavior as well as oxytocin (OT) and dopamine-2 type (D2) receptors in the...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Explaining individual variation in paternal brain responses to infant cries
In this study, we attempt to explain variation in the neural response to infant crying among human fathers, with the hope of identifying factors that are associated with a more or less sensitive response. We imaged brain function in 39 first-time fathers of newborn infants as they listened to both their own and a standardized unknown infant cry stimulus, as well as auditory control stimuli, and evaluated whether these neural responses were correlated with measured characteristics of fathers and infants that were hypothesized to modulate these responses. Fathers also provided subjective ratings of each cry stimulus on multi...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mammalian brain development and our grandmothering life history
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Kristen Hawkes, Barbara L. FinlayAbstractAmong mammals, including humans, adult brain size and the relative size of brain components depend precisely on the duration of a highly regular process of neural development. Much wider variation is seen in rates of body growth and the state of neural maturation at life history events like birth and weaning. Large brains result from slow maturation, which in humans is accompanied by weaning early with respect to both neural maturation and longevity. The grandmother hypothesis proposes ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A comparison of testosterone and cortisol levels between gay fathers and non-fathers: A preliminary investigation
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Erin E. Burke, Richard G. BribiescasAbstractHumans are unique among great apes and most other mammals, in that our wide range of offspring investment behaviors includes significant paternal care and provisioning of children. Moreover, hormones play an important role in modulating male paternal investment. Despite a growing body of research on the hormonal associations with paternal care in humans, fathers who self-identify as gay have not received the same level of research attention. We explore associations between hormones t...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exploring the links between early life and young adulthood social experiences and men's later life psychobiology as fathers
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Mallika S. Sarma, Patty X. Kuo, Sonny Agustin Bechayda, Christopher W. Kuzawa, Lee T. GettlerAbstractEarly life cues of environmental harshness and unpredictability have been hypothesized to influence within-species variation in the timing of life history transitions and the dynamics of reproductive strategies, such as investments in mating and parenting. It is also believed that adolesence is an influential developmental period for male reproductive strategies, with those who achieve greater social and sexual success during t...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Incidence and biomarkers of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal loss during an environmental stressor: Implications for female reproductive suppression in the cooperatively breeding meerkat
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Kristin A. Dimac-Stohl, Charli S. Davies, Nicholas M. Grebe, Alexandra C. Stonehill, Lydia K. Greene, Jessica Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock, Christine M. DreaAbstractMeerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently ‘suppressed’ via eviction or infanticid...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Parental hormones are associated with crop loss and family sickness following catastrophic flooding in lowland Bolivia
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Benjamin C. Trumble, Jonathan Stieglitz, Adrian V. Jaeggi, Bret Beheim, Matthew Schwartz, Edmond Seabright, Daniel Cummings, Hillard Kaplan, Michael GurvenAbstractThe physiology of fatherhood is a growing field of study, and variability in hormonal mediators of reproductive effort (e.g. testosterone, cortisol) can predict variability in paternal investment. Studies often find that lower testosterone levels are associated with increased paternal investment, though most studies are conducted under relatively stable ecological co...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Why help? Relationship quality, not strategic grooming predicts infant-care in group-living marmosets
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Christa Finkenwirth, Judith M. BurkartAbstractCooperatively breeding common marmosets raise their infants with the help of other adult group members, but individual care-taking contribution can vary considerably. We tested four hypotheses that may explain this variation within marmoset family groups. The pay-for-help hypothesis argues that allogrooming is used strategically by parents to pay helpers for helping. The pay-for-infant-access hypothesis claims that helpers use allogrooming as payment for infant-access. The intrinsi...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Infant allocare in traditional societies
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Karen L. Kramer, Amanda VeileAbstractAcross human societies infants receive care from both their mothers and others. Reproductive cooperation raises two important questions: how does allocare benefit mothers and infants, and why do caretakers help mothers when they could spend their time in other, perhaps more valuable ways? We use behavioral and biological data from three small-scale societies to evaluate 1) how allocare affects a nursing mother's time, 2) whether a mother's birth interval length, surviving fertility and infa...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The neoteny-helper hypothesis: When to expect and when not to expect endocrine mechanisms to regulate allo-parental care?
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Carsten Schradin, Pauline Vuarin, Rebecca RimbachAbstractFamily groups with helpers occur in several species of fish, birds and mammals. In such cooperatively breeding species all group members help with raising the offspring, i.e. parents and offspring from previous litters. While the ecological reasons and ultimate consequences of allo-parental care have been studied in detail, we know little about its physiological regulation. We propose three alternative hypotheses for the endocrine regulation of allo-parental care. 1. The...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Profiling caregivers: Hormonal variation underlying allomaternal care in wild red-bellied lemurs, Eulemur rubriventer
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Stacey R. Tecot, Andrea L. BadenAbstractNeuroendocrine evidence suggests that paternal care is mediated by hormonal mechanisms, where hormonal changes in expectant and new fathers facilitate infant care. In species with obligate and extensive paternal care such as humans, androgen levels decline once males are paired and have offspring, and in direct response to offspring care. Facultative infant care is widespread in the Order Primates, but the underlying hormonal mechanisms are largely unknown. We found that wild, red-bellie...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Allo-parental care in Damaraland mole-rats is female biased and age dependent, though independent of testosterone levels
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Markus Zöttl, Philippe Vullioud, Katy Goddard, Miquel Torrents-Ticó, David Gaynor, Nigel C. Bennett, Tim Clutton-BrockAbstractIn Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis), non-breeding subordinates contribute to the care of offspring born to the breeding pair in their group by carrying and retrieving young to the nest. In social mole-rats and some cooperative breeders, dominant females show unusually high testosterone levels and it has been suggested that high testosterone levels may increase reproductive and aggre...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Infant handling in bonobos (Pan paniscus): Exploring functional hypotheses and the relationship to oxytocin
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Klaree Boose, Frances White, Colin Brand, Audra Meinelt, Josh SnodgrassAbstractInfant handling describes interactions between infants and non-maternal group members and is widespread across mammalian taxa. The expression of infant handling behaviors, defined as any affiliative or agonistic interaction between a group member and an infant, varies considerably among primate species. Several functional hypotheses may explain the adaptive value of infant handling including the Kin Selection hypothesis, which describes handling as ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Physiological mechanisms mediating patterns of reproductive suppression and alloparental care in cooperatively breeding carnivores
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Tracy M. Montgomery, Erika L. Pendleton, Jennifer E. SmithAbstractAlthough cooperation represents a long-standing evolutionary puzzle, field studies on social carnivores have contributed greatly to our understanding of the selective forces favoring cooperative breeding. Despite these insights, our grasp of the proximate mechanisms facilitating cooperation in carnivores remains surprisingly limited. Here we provide an overview of our current knowledge of the endocrine mechanisms mediating cooperative breeding in terrestrial spe...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Nonmaternal care: a half-century of research
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 193, Part AAuthor(s): Melvin KonnerAbstractThis paper aims to serve three purposes, providing: 1. a half-century retrospective on research in on nonmaternal care of the young, with an emphasis on key advances; 2. a commentary on the research papers in this special issue on nonmaternal care; and 3. a summary of nonmaternal care among hunting-and-gathering cultures—representing the human Environments of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEAs)—in the broader context of human evolution. While the research being done now is excellent and uses approp...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory priming potentiates painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy
Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 194Author(s): Yves Boucher, Nathan Moreau, Annie Mauborgne, Wisam DiebAbstractWe explored the molecular and behavioral effects of a perineural Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory priming on the development and maintenance of painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) following infra-orbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN) in rats. Rats were pretreated with repetitive perineural injections in the vicinity of the IoN of either LPS or vehicle (Vhcl) before being submitted to CCI-IoN. Orofacial pain-like behaviors (respon...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Development of the jaw sensorimotor control and chewing - a systematic review
Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 194Author(s): N. Almotairy, A. Kumar, M. Trulsson, A. GrigoriadisAbstractMastication is a complex sensorimotor interaction between the central nervous system and the peripheral masticatory apparatus. To understand the effect of oro-facial abnormalities on mastication, it is important to first understand the normal development of jaw sensorimotor control and chewing in healthy children. Original studies which investigated four main objective parameters of chewing, i.e. maximum occlusal bite force, electromyography (EMG), jaw kinematics and chewing eff...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise
Publication date: 1 October 2018Source: Physiology & Behavior, Volume 194Author(s): Layla Hiramatsu, Theodore GarlandAbstractPhysical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise ...
Source: Physiology and Behavior - July 10, 2018 Category: Physiology Source Type: research