Prediction of future climate in Ngerengere river catchment, Tanzania
In this study, one of the protocols for downscaling climate variables from coarse Global Circulation Models (GCM), the Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) was applied in the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. LARS-WG is a stochastic weather generator which can be used for generation of weather data at single site under both current and future climate condition.The LARS-WG model was calibrated and validated using the observed daily rainfall data for the period 1971-2000 (30 years) in Ngerengere catchment. LARS-WG calibration results indicate a good fit between observed and generated average daily rainfal...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An Automatic Traffic Density Estimation Using Single Shot Detection (SSD) and MobileNet-SSD
In this study, we show a key application area for the SSD and MobileNet-SSD framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the SSD and MobileNet-SSD framework were analyzed using fifty-nine individual traffic cameras. In addition, we compared the two algorithms with manually estimated density. The SSD framework shows significant potential in the field of traffic density estimation. SSD achieved 92.97% average detection accuracy in our experiment. On the other hand, the MobileNet-SSD achieved 79.30% average detection accuracy. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 19, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Advancements in satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring of Alien Invasive Plant species (AIPs)
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Lwando Royimani, Onisimo Mutanga, John Odindi, Timothy Dube, Trylee Nyasha MatongeraAbstractDetecting and mapping the occurrence, spatial distribution and abundance of Alien Invasive Plants (AIPs) have recently gained substantial attention, globally. This work, therefore, provides an overview of advancements in satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring of AIPs and associated challenges and opportunities. Satellite remote sensing techniques have been successful in detecting and mapping the spatial a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 19, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluation of the adsorptive properties of locally available alumino-silicate clay in As(III) and As(V) remediation from groundwater
This study evaluates the adsorptive properties of locally available alumino-silicate clay in removal of As(III) and As(V) from groundwater. Physicochemical properties of the clay were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the alumino-silicate clay in the removal of As(III) and As(V) under various conditions of contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial adsorbate concentration and initial pH. The results showed that adsorp...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 4, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Detection of soil moisture anomalies based on Sentinel-1
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Felix Greifeneder, Erick Khamala, Degelo Sendabo, Wolfgang Wagner, Marc Zebisch, Hussein Farah, Claudia NotarnicolaAbstractActive and passive microwave remote sensing has evolved into a well-accepted and widely used method for the spatially continuous, coarse to medium resolution mapping of the surface soil moisture content (SMC). Presently, the exploitation of high-resolution data is less mature. Sentinel-1 is a high-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (∼5 by 20 m), which acts as the basis for mapping o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial-temporal evolution of urban heat Island in Xi'an from 2006 to 2016
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Suhua Liu, Zhenfeng Zang, Wenchuan Wang, Yueru WuAbstractDuring the rapid development of urbanization, the urban heat island (UHI), becomes one of the major urbanization progress problems that affects the environmental, social and ecology profoundly. Analyzing the UHI can help understanding the UHI status and the physical characteristics of cities, and is significant to provide ecosystem management plans and mitigation strategies for the UHI. By utilizing the MODIS LST products, Landsat series data and the e...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 108Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 30, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 107Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 23, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The relationship between soil emissivity and soil reflectance under the effects of soil water content
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Jing Tian, Shangkun Song, Honglin HeAbstractSignificant changes of surface emissivity have taken place in cities with the rapid urbanization. Surface emissivity influences the radiation budget and the surface energy balance, thereby influences city climate. It is an important parameter in retrieving surface temperature and has close relationship with city heat island effect. This paper attempts to explore the possibility of using soil moisture index (SMI) to estimate soil emissivity (SE). The advantage of us...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial-temporal Evolution of Urban Heat Island in Xi’an from 2006 to 2016
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Suhua Liu, Zhenfeng Zang, Wenchuan Wang, Yueru WuAbstractDuring the rapid development of urbanization, the urban heat island (UHI), becomes one of the major urbanization progress problems that affects the environmental, social and ecology profoundly. Analyzing the UHI can help understanding the UHI status and the physical characteristics of cities, and is significant to provide ecosystem management plans and mitigation strategies for the UHI. By utilizing the MODIS LST products, Landsat series data and the e...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Human activities and urban air pollution in Chinese mega city: An insight of ozone weekend effect in Beijing
This study explores the different characteristics of ozone and ozone weekend effect (OWE) in different seasons in places (e.g. urban center, inner urban areas, suburban areas and natural background areas) with different degree of urbanization and intensity of human activities and the effect of urbanization on ozone at different scales in Beijing. The annual daily average ozone concentration in Beijing was 56μg/ m3, with the maximum of 98.0μg/m3 occurred in summer and the minimum of 27μg/m3 in winter. Spatially, annual daily average ozone concentration increased along the urban-rural gradient. The annual ozone conc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Large-Eddy and Wall-Modelled Simulations of Turbulent Flow over Two-Dimensional River Dunes
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mojtaba Mellati Nokhandan, Ugo Piomelli, Mohammad OmidyeganehAbstractTurbulence models based on the Spalart-Allmaras Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES) approach are used to compute the turbulent flow over a two-dimensional dune geometry. DES was developed for massively separated flows, but has been applied as a wall model to attached flows as well. In attached shear layers, however, the lack of resolved eddies in the region where the model switches from a turbulence model to a Subfilter-Scale (SFS) one, results ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 17, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Difficult roads leading to beautiful destinations? Articulating land Reform's contribution to rural livelihoods in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
This study deployed qualitative research methodologies to gather both secondary and empirical data that enabled analysis of the extent to which the land reform program has contributed to the livelihoods of small-scale emerging farmers in the surroundings of Bela-Bela Municipal Area, Limpopo Province. The study found out that financial resources are a big challenge, with most of the farmers being unable to raise the capital needed to invest in the farming enterprise. In addition, most of the ‘emerging farmers’ do not have the know-how and experience needed to run a commercial farm. Overall, the study enabled us ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 16, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing the functional and operational relationships between the water control infrastructure and water governance: A case of Tugela Ferry Irrigation Scheme and Mooi River Irrigation Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
This study uses a fuzzy model to establish a link between water control infrastructure, i.e., its characteristics, operational requirements, on one hand, and the existing water governance frameworks in the respective irrigation schemes, on the other. The approach was based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS). The FAHP techniques was used to determine the fuzzy weight of the water control infrastructure aspects and the FTOPSIS was used to rank the water governance aspects, i.e., institutions, processes, procedures, rules and regul...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 14, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Difficult Roads Leading to Beautiful Destinations? Articulating Land Reform’s Contribution to Rural Livelihoods in the Limpopo Province, South Africa
This study deployed qualitative research methodologies to gather both secondary and empirical data that enabled analysis of the extent to which the land reform program has contributed to the livelihoods of small-scale emerging farmers in the surroundings of Bela-Bela Municipal Area, Limpopo Province. The study found out that financial resources are a big challenge, with most of the farmers being unable to raise the capital needed to invest in the farming enterprise. In addition, most of the ‘emerging farmers’ do not have the know-how and experience needed to run a commercial farm. Overall, the study enabled us ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal variation of heat fluxes in Beijing with land use change from 1997 to 2017
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Menghui Guo, Shaohui Chen, Weimin Wang, Hong Liang, Guibin Hao, Kai LiuAbstractIt is meaningful to explore the influence of land use change on urban thermal environment for urban sustainable development and city livability improvement etc. Based on one pixel component arranging comparing algorithm (PCACA), this study estimates three instantaneous heat fluxes of Beijing city from meteorological data and the NDVI, land surface temperature (LST), and albedo products retrieved from Landsat data on September 21, 1...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of 1D–2D Coupled Modeling in Water Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Ca Mau Peninsula, Vietnam
This study calibrates and validates 1D and 2D models during the dry and flood seasons for 2014 and 2015, as well as assesses water quality in coastal estuaries during the dry and flood season of 2016 by using a 2D model. The calibration and validation results of the hydrodynamic 1D and 2D models show that there is a high degree of conformity regarding the phase and amplitude of water level at observing stations with mean absolute error (MAE) ranges from 0.05 m to 0.37 m. The RMSE–observation standard deviation ratio (RSR) vary from 0.12 to 0.64, and the percent bias (PBIAS) is from –8.9% to 3.2%. Calibration an...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 31, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recent advances in the numerical simulation of rough-wall boundary layers
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Ugo PiomelliAbstractTurbulent flows over rough surfaces are ubiquitous in nature and in man-made devices. They present many unique aspects, as roughness alters the turbulence structure and the momentum and energy transfer mechanisms. Numerical simulations that resolve the roughness sublayer are computationally demanding: for an accurate calculation of a flow in realistic conditions, such as the flow in a hydraulic turbine, or over terrain, the roughness should be much smaller than the boundary layer height, a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 30, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Horizontal landfill gas wells: Geometry, physics of flow and connection with the atmosphere
This study addresses gas flow induced by perforated horizontal wells commonly used for landfill gas collection. Planar flow through a porous medium of varying properties is solved numerically, yielding a twofold insight: quantitative deviations establish the validity and limitations of theoretical models, whilst qualitative comparison illustrates the impact of various flow parameters. It is found that an accurate modelling of geometry and medium resistance is essential in determination of a correct pressure distribution that can then be used to optimise gas collection. Gravity, an often overlooked effect, is shown to be no...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 29, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Establishing the link between urban land cover change and the proliferation of aquatic hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Harare Metropolitan, Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Timothy Dube, Mbulisi Sibanda, Victor Bangamwabo, Cletah ShokoAbstractUrban growth is a key process affecting the functioning of natural ecosystems, and consequently the global land-surface process. This work aimed at establishing the link between land cover changes around Harare Metropolitan city and the proliferation of aquatic hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in Lake Chivero. Remotely sensed Landsat series acquired in the year 1973, 1981, 1994, 1998, 2008, 2009 and 2014 was used. Image classification was im...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 23, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

A comparative assessment of water use by Acacia longifolia invasions occurring on hillslopes and riparian zones in the Cape Agulhas region of South Africa.
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Y.P. Mkunyana, D. Mazvimavi, S. Dzikiti, Z. NtshidiAbstractThe detrimental impacts of invasive alien plants on ecosystems and water resources have raised concerns in arid and semi-arid countries like South Africa where the average precipitation is approximately 500 mm/yr, which is below the world average of around 860 mm/yr. Several studies have examined the effects of invasive alien plants such as the Australian Acacias on the water resources. However, few studies have quantified the differences in water use...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 106Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 17, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Mapping urban land cover changes and the proliferation of aquatic hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) over time
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Dube Timothy, Sibanda Mbulisi, Victor Bangamwabo, Cletah ShokoAbstractThis work aimed at mapping land cover changes around Harare and the proliferation of aquatic hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in the Lake Chivero over time. Remotely sensed Landsat series acquired in the year1973, 1981, 1994, 1998, 2008, 2009 and 2014 was used. Image classification was implemented to map the associated changes over time suing discriminant analysis algorithm. The derived thematic maps showed that agricultural land increased f...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 17, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Treatment efficiency of fish processing wastewater in different types of biological reactors
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Agata Nowak, Robert Mazur, Ewa Panek, Ewa Dacewicz, Krzysztof ChmielowskiAbstractFish processing technologies generate a significant amount of organic waste, both solid and liquid. Fish wastewater (FWW), if untreated or ineffectively treated, poses a threat to the aquatic environment.We investigated efficiency of different types of bioreactors with fixed and moving beds in the treatment of wastewater from fish processing. Pollution levels in raw effluents reached 260-660 mg O2 · dm-3 for BOD5, 450-950 m...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 6, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Determination of Nitrate Retention Capacity of Kalahari Sands Using a Permeameter: Case Study of Mashare Farm Soil in the Okavango River Basin
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Andrea Vushe, Mbadhi HertaAbstractNamibian irrigators in Okavango River basin use high application rates of N fertilizers on Kalahari sandy soils which may leach nitrates and pollute water resources. The capacity of the sandy soils to retain the nitrates against leaching conditions of prolonged water saturation is not well understood. Therefore, in this study the sandy soil was tested for nitrate leaching rate and retention capacity using a constant head permeability meter in laboratory experiments. Eight samp...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial and temporal analysis of carbon sources and sinks through land use/cover changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration region
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Xiaolin Cui, Xiaoqing Wei, Wei Liu, Fan Zhang, Zhihui LiAbstractGlobal warming caused by carbon emissions have been recognized as a threat to social health and ecological security. Through matching the relationship between land use types and carbon emissions, based on land use and socio-economic data, this paper uses the emission factor method proposed by IPCC to investigate carbon sources and sinks, as well as validation through land use and land cover change analysis in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) urban ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Gullies mitigation and control measures: a case study of the Seirós gullies (North of Portugal)
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Bruno Martins, Ana C. Meira Castro, Carmen Ferreira, Luciano Lourenço, Adélia NunesAbstractIt is known that the erosion process triggered by gullies contributes to significant soil loss and land degradation, and this can limit the options for the occupation and development of a territory in terms of the suitability and quality of the farmland area. The variety of physical factors associated with gully formation hinders straightforward interpretations and requires well-grounded analysis based on l...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Drought dynamics and interannual rainfall variability on the Ghaap plateau, South Africa, 1918–2014
This study was based on long-term rainfall data for three meteorological stations (Postmasburg, Douglas and Groblershoop) from 1918 to 2014, sourced from the South African Weather Services (SAWS). Calculation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) showed that more droughts occurred since the 1990s; these droughts were all moderately dry with SPI values ranging between −1.03 and −1.46, except for the 1992 drought at Groblershoop which was severe. The longest drought duration on record in the study area was 2 years. Fitting of the long-term rainfall data to a non-parametric spline smoother revealed that th...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Arsenic, iron and chloride in drinking water at primary school, Satkhira, Bangladesh
In this study, potable water supplies for primary school children were examined at Satkhira district, Bangladesh to ensure arsenic-free drinking water. In 240 randomly selected tube wells water of the primary schools were monitored from the seven Upazilas in Satkhira district, Bangladesh. The metal content, especially arsenic and iron in the tube wells water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that arsenic content was exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value maximum contaminated level (10 μg/L) in 49% of the tube wells water and reached up to 167.9 μg/L. The level...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of land cover changes in a protected nature reserve and possible implications on water resources, South Africa.
In this study, we characterise land cover and land use changes in Kwelera Nature Reserve, located along the coastal regions of the Eastern Cape in order to determine possible impacts on water resources in the area. To achieve this objective, moderate resolution satellite data (30-m Landsat series imagery) acquired in the year 1995 and 2016 were used. Image classification was done using maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The results show that significant Land Cover/Use changes have occurred at Kwelera Nature Reserve. For example, in the year 1995, it was observed that bare surfaces had an area coverage of 92.47ha ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of the value of an African landscape. The case of the Mara Basin, Kenya
Publication date: Available online 27 September 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Jeremiah K. Kiptala, Tim Hessels, Barbara Laa, Pieter van der ZaagAbstractEcosystems provide social, ecological and economic benefits and are linked through the landscape. Landscape degradation and loss of biodiversity undermine ecosystem functioning especially in vital ecosystems such as the Mara Basin in Africa. Holistically monitored and assessed landscape provide values to support conservation strategy which could enhance sustainable resource utilisation. The study relied on high resolution 10-m Sentine...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 5, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Evaluating the effectiveness of fusing remote sensing images with significantly different spatial resolutions for thematic map production
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Shaohui Chen, Weimin Wang, Hong LiangAbstractIt is very challenging to fuse remote sensing images with significant spatial resolution difference. In this paper, such kind of images are fusing with one posteriori probability model for the purpose of creating thematic maps. The outlined solution consists of parsing the low spatial resolution multispectral images into intensity-hue- saturation triples with spatial and spectral properties separated; the contribution of the old intensity and the panchromatic ima...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Variation in ecosystem services with rapid urbanization: A study of carbon sequestration in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, China
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Chao Wang, Jinyan Zhan, Xi Chu, Wei Liu, Fan ZhangAbstractLand use and land cover change (LUCC) has had a profound effect on terrestrial carbon stocks, though its impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle remains uncertain. LUCC and rapid urbanization have occurred in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH) region over the past decades, which have greatly influenced regional carbon stocks. Based on the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, this paper estimated the tempora...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 15, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The effects of hydraulic performance and operation interventions on water quality: The case of Phakalane water distribution system in Botswana
This study demonstrates the application of water distribution system (WDS) simulations to investigate the effect of hydraulic performance, network configurations and alternative operational interventions (AOI) on water quality in a WDS. The study explores the viability of introducing AOI to the current (existing) and plausible (possible) network configurations to improve water age and chlorine residuals in the Phakalane WDS. The criteria used to determine the performances of the WDS are (1) the percentage of nodes and (2) the percentage of volume of water demand with water age or chlorine residuals, which are within the ac...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Decision Support System for Urban Major Hazard Installations Management Based on 3DGIS
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Wenjiang Chen, Hongbo Su, Yan Yong, Zhaoji HuAbstractThe management of urban major hazard installations (UMHI) is important for the public safety and the surrounding ecological environment. The safety managers will have great challenges due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, we developed a 3DGIS-based tool for decision support of UMHI management. The methods of UMHI management are respectively established for real-time risk early warning and consequence assessment. These methods ar...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Green synthesis of Ag/MgO nanoparticle modified nanohydroxyapatite and its potential for defluoridation and pathogen removal in groundwater
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): W.B. Ayinde, W.M. Gitari, M. Munkombwe, Samie AmidouAbstractThe paper presents a facile green method of synthesizing a multi-functional 3-layered Ag-MgO/nanohydroxyapatite (Ag-MgOnHaP) composite via a combined microwave and ultrasonically modified methods with emphasis on simultaneous pathogens and fluoride removal in groundwater. The reduction of Ag and MgO ions by aqueous Citrus paradisi peel extracts was utilized for the impregnation Ag-MgO nanoparticles on the adsorbent surface. Ag-MgOnHaP composite morpho...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Removal of dissolved organic matter from raw water using zero valent iron -carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer nanocomposites
In this study, a magnetic zero valent iron-carbonaceous conjugated microporous polymer nanocomposite (ZVI-CCMP) was synthesized from ZVI and waste polystyrene via the liquid phase reduction method, and used in a batch system for the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water from a water treatment plant (WTP) in Pretoria, South Africa. The results were compared to the DOC removal efficiency of the WTP. The surface morphology of the nanocomposites as characterized using scanning electron microscopy showed heterogeneous ZVI nanastructures dispersed on the CCMP surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The viability of artificial surface treatments as a mechanism for domestic rain water harvesting
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): V. Kisakye, B. Van der BruggenAbstractThe main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using paraffin wax as an alternative surface treatment for rainwater harvesting in the high rainfall zone of Kabarole district, Western Uganda. Specifically, the paper assesses the efficiency of paraffin wax in terms of quantity and quality of runoff. A complete randomized block experimental design was setup in three replications based on a slope of 1%, 3% and 5%. The treatments included: wax on bare soil (W...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 28, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of silica and germanium dioxide nanoparticles/ polyethersulfone blend membranes for removal of emerging micropollutants from water
This study fabricated silicon dioxide (silica) (SiO2) and germanium dioxide (GeO2) embedded polyethersulfone (PES) blend membranes using phase inversion method for the removal of EMPs from water samples collected from North West Province, South Africa. The EMPs were extracted and enriched by auto-trace solid-phase extraction and analyzed using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). The fabricated membranes' permeation properties were determined by computing the pure water flux and EMPs' rejection. The water flux was observed to increase with increase in t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 24, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Study on microclimate observation network for urban unit: a case study in a campus of Shenzhen, China
In this study, we develop a technology on microclimate observation for urban units, which is experimentally applied in a campus in Shenzhen, China. We have arrived at the following conclusions: (1) The application of precision integration technology and small sensors greatly reduces the physical size of the microclimate observation instrument. With the help of advanced algorithms for data quality control, the cost of detection and measuring instruments can be greatly reduced even when accuracy is maintained so that the instruments can be densely deployed in urban units. (2) The urban unit microclimate observation network, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 18, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Moringa stenopetala bark: A novel green adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from industrial effluents
Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Temesgen Girma Kebede, Simiso Dube, Alemayehu Abebaw Mengistie, Thabo TI. Nkambule, Mathew Muzi NindiAbstractThis work demonstrates the potential of Moringa stenopetala bark powder as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The bark powder was characterised using FTIR, XRD, zeta potential, TGA, SEM and BET techniques. Several processing parameters such as; contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration, pH, agitation speed and temperature were optimised. Using the optimum conditions the maxim...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 8, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Mechanistic aspects for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous media through adsorption over N-doped graphene oxide nanoadsorbents prepared from graphite flakes and powders
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Kholiswa Yokwana, Alex T. Kuvarega, Sabelo D. Mhlanga, Edward N. NxumaloAbstractThis work reports the mechanistic models responsible for the adsorptive removal of Congo red (CR) dyes by nitrogen-doped graphene oxide nanosheets (NGO) prepared via a one-pot modified Hummer's method using either graphite powder (to form NGOp) or graphite flakes (to form NGOf) as starting materials. The microstructural properties, surface chemistry and thermal stability of the produced NGO adsorbents were ascertained using a range ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 4, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Principal component analysis and characterization of methane community in a full-scale bioenergy producing UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater
This study investigated the efficiency of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) reactor in treating brewery wastewater and generation of biogas as one of the sources of renewable energy. Physico-chemical parameters, dynamics and abundance of methane-producing Archaea were studied using standard methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization respectively. Raw wastewater from brewery plant had high organic matter and solids content that needs pre-treatment before its discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The average removal efficiency recorded for biological and chemical oxygen demand were 60...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 1, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The Effect of Hydraulic Performance and Operation Interventions on Water Quality: The case of Phakalane Water Distribution System in Botswana
This study demonstrates the application of water distribution system (WDS) simulations to investigate the effect of hydraulic performance, network configurations and alternative operational interventions (AOI) on water quality in a WDS. The study explores the viability of introducing AOI to the current (existing) and plausible (possible) network configurations to improve water age and chlorine residual in the Phakalane WDS. The criteria used to determine the performances of the WDS are (1) the percentage of nodes and (2) the percentage of volume of water demand with water age or chlorine residual, which are within the acce...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Development and testing of a rainfall-runoff model for flood simulation in dry mountain catchments: A case study for the Dez River Basin
In this study, the Watershed Modelling System (WMS) software was applied for rainfall-runoff modelling on Dez catchment located in Khuzestan province, IRAN since it faces serious flooding caused by heavy rainfall. The use of WMS software which interconnects the terrain models and the Geographic Information System (GIS) with commercial standard hydrological model including HEC-1 results in higher accuracy and saving time through modelling process. In this study, two historical storms (7 days in March 1993 and November–December 2001) used by applying two different modelling methods to determine the hyetographs which ar...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 27, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

The delineation of alluvial aquifers towards a better understanding of channel transmission losses in the Limpopo River Basin
Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): V. Mvandaba, D. Hughes, E. Kapangaziwiri, J. Mwenge Kahinda, P. Hobbs, S. Madonsela, N. OosthuizenAbstractUnderstanding the impact of key hydrological processes on the availability of water resources is an integral component of equitable and sustainable integrated water resource management. Previous hydrological studies conducted in the Limpopo River Basin have revealed a gap in the understanding of surface water-groundwater interactions, particularly channel transmission loss processes. These studies, focused l...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 22, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Potential to use municipal waste bio char in wastewater treatment for nutrients recovery
In this study, municipal wastewater was treated with bio char at the bio filtration stage and the changes in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphates (TP) and pH were measured before and after treatment with biochar using standard methods. Bio char with surface area of 1000 m2/g and loading of 1g/L was steam activated was used. The wastewater COD, TSS, TKN and TP showed a 90%, 89%, 64% and 78% reduction respectively after being passed through the bio char bio filter. In addition the wastewater pH changed from alkaline to neutral. Bio char can be effecti...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 20, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Drought monitoring and analysis: Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI)
This study compares two different drought indices in the Kafue Basin located in northern Zambia, where most of the socioeconomic livelihoods are dependent on water. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) depends on precipitation as the single input variable while the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) is derived from precipitation and temperature in the form of a simple water balance. By comparing time series plots (1960–2015) of the two indices, both indices were able to pick up temporal variation of droughts. SPI and SPEI agreed (R > 0.5) on the direction of change but the effect ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 13, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Trace element geochemistry and mineralogy of coal from Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB), Eastern India
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Debasree Saha, Debashis Chatterjee, Sanchita Chakravarty, Madhurina MazumderAbstractCoal samples of Samaleswari open cast coal block (S-OCB) are high ash (Aad, mean value 35.43%) and low sulphur content (St, on dry basis, mean value 0.91% 
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial feature analysis of a cosmic-ray sensor for measuring the soil water content: Comparison of four weighting methods
Publication date: April 2018Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 104Author(s): Jingya Cai, Zhiguo Pang, Jun'e FuAbstractTo quantitatively analyze the spatial features of a cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) (i.e., the measurement support volume of the CRS and the weight of the in situ point-scale soil water content (SWC) in terms of the regionally averaged SWC derived from the CRS) in measuring the SWC, cooperative observations based on CRS, oven drying and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) methods are performed at the point and regional scales in a desert steppe area of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Reg...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 11, 2018 Category: Science Source Type: research